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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822765/local-radiotherapy-reduces-circulating-tumor-cells-and-metastatic-progression-role-of-circulating-cell-detection-in-response-to-vascular-damaging-therapies
#1
Nathan A Koonce, Mazen A Juratli, Chengzhong Cai, Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Yulian A Menyaev, Judy Dent, Charles M Quick, Ruud P M Dings, Dmitry Nedosekin, Vladimir Zharov, Robert J Griffin
Noninvasive biological readouts of tumor metastatic risk and therapeutic efficacy are needed as healthcare costs rise. Conventional imaging modalities are expensive; require significant periods of time to see appreciable change and repetitive use increases risk of hazardous side effects. Utilizing circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a minimally invasive biological readout of tumor progression or therapeutic response is increasingly being studied. While focus has primarily been on the predictive value of naturally occurring CTCs, a more recent effort has emerged regarding the potential consequence of therapy induced CTCs...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821924/-89-zr-labeled-nivolumab-for-imaging-of-t-cell-infiltration-in-a-humanized-murine-model-of-lung-cancer
#2
Christopher G England, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Brian T Rekoske, Paul A Ellison, Reinier Hernandez, Todd E Barnhart, Douglas G McNeel, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
PURPOSE: Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody specific for programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), a negative regulator of T-cell activation and response. Acting as an immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab binds to PD-1 expressed on the surface of many immune cells and prevents ligation by its natural ligands. Nivolumab is only effective in a subset of patients, and there is limited evidence supporting its use for diagnostic, monitoring, or stratification purposes. METHODS: (89)Zr-Df-nivolumab was synthesized to map the biodistribution of PD-1-expressing tumor infiltrating T-cells in vivo using a humanized murine model of lung cancer...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820308/resection-of-pituitary-macroadenomas-via-the-pseudocapsule-along-the-posterior-tumor-margin-a-cohort-study-and-technical-note
#3
Davis G Taylor, John A Jane, Edward H Oldfield
OBJECTIVE Extracapsular resection of pituitary microadenomas improves remission rates, but the application of pseudocapsular techniques for macroadenomas has not been well described. In larger tumors, the extremely thin, compressed normal gland or its complete absence along the tumor's anterior surface limits the application of the traditional pseudocapsular technique that can be used for microadenomas. However, in the authors' experience, the interface between the pseudocapsule at the posterior margin of the adenoma and the compressed normal gland behind it is universally present, providing a surgical dissection plane...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819841/microscale-laminar-vortices-for-high-purity-extraction-and-release-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#4
Soojung Claire Hur, James Che, Dino Di Carlo
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are disseminated tumor cells that reflect the tumors of origin and can provide a liquid biopsy that would potentially enable noninvasive tumor profiling, treatment monitoring, and identification of targeted treatments. Accurate and rapid purification of CTCs holds great potential to improve cancer care but the task remains technically challenging. Microfluidic isolation of CTCs within microscale vortices enables high-throughput and size-based purification of rare CTCs from bodily fluids...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818259/imaging-of-the-high-risk-carotid-plaque-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
William S Kerwin, Zach Miller, Chun Yuan
The emergence of the concept of high-risk atherosclerotic plaque has led to considerable interest in noninvasive imaging techniques to identify high-risk features before clinical sequelae. For plaques in the carotid arteries, magnetic resonance imaging has undergone considerable histologic validation to link imaging features to indicators of plaque instability, including plaque burden, intraplaque hemorrhage, fibrous cap disruption, lipid rich necrotic core, and calcification. Recently introduced imaging technologies, especially those focused on three-dimensional imaging sequences, are now poised for integration into the clinical workup of patients with suspected carotid atherosclerosis...
March 2017: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817492/should-renal-color-doppler-ultrasonography-be-a-routine-test-in-newly-diagnosed-hypertensive-patient
#6
Costas Tsioufis, Ioannis Andrikou, Menno Pruijm, Belén Ponte, Pantelis Sarafidis, Andreas Koureas, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Giuseppe Mancia, Michel Burnier
: European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate and evaluation of urinary albumin excretion rate as routine tests in the initial evaluation and during the follow-up of all hypertensive patients. However, from a clinical point of view, renal ultrasound - a noninvasive, readily available and cheap imaging modality - could contribute to the better evaluation of a hypertensive patient by identifying common causes of secondary hypertension (HTN) originating from the kidney and more recently by detecting renal injury in severe or long-standing essential HTN by measuring renal resistive indexes...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816741/reflectance-confocal-microscopy-criteria-of-pigmented-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-situ
#7
Neda Shahriari, Jane M Grant-Kels, Harold S Rabinovitz, Margaret Oliviero, Alon Scope
Pigmented squamous cell carcinoma in situ (pSCCis) is difficult to diagnose based on clinical and dermoscopic examination. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows noninvasive differentiation between malignant and benign pigmented skin lesions. We determined the frequency of key RCM features of pSCCis and correlated the RCM criteria with the corresponding dermoscopic and histopathologic criteria. The study included 28 lesions with biopsy-proven diagnosis of pSCCis derived from 28 patients. Clinical, dermoscopic, and RCM images of these lesions were retrospectively analyzed by 3 independent observers...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816197/cytological-changes-in-normal-oral-mucosa-of-individuals-with-tobacco-habits-a-cytomorphometric-study
#8
Pavan Palakurthy, Pavan G Kulkarni, Rateesh K Nandan, T Madhusudan Rao, D Shyam P Reddy, Keerthi Muddana
INTRODUCTION: Oral cancer is one of the six most common cancers in the world, and globally more than 50% of head and neck cancers occur in Asia, remarkably in India. Overall, 200,000 cases of head and neck cancers occur each year in India, among which 80,000 are oral cancers. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a causative role of tobacco use in the evolution of oral potentially malignant and malignant disorders. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to evaluate independently and compare the cytological effects of smoking, tobacco chewing, and smoking in conjunction with tobacco chewing on oral mucosa by cytomorphometric analysis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814848/pathophysiological-mechanism-of-long-term-noninvasive-ventilation-in-stable-hypercapnic-patients-with-copd-using-functional-respiratory-imaging
#9
Bita Hajian, Jan De Backer, Claire Sneyers, Francisca Ferreira, Katherine C Barboza, Glenn Leemans, Wim Vos, Wilfried De Backer
INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe COPD often develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Their prognosis worsens and they are more likely to develop exacerbations. This has major influence on the health-related quality of life. Currently, there is no information about the success of long-term noninvasive ventilation (NIV) among patients who receive NIV in acute settings. Also, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanism of NIV. METHODS: Ten Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease stage III and IV COPD patients with respiratory failure who were hospitalized following acute exacerbation were treated with NIV using a Synchrony BiPAP device for 6 months...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814675/retinal-amyloid-pathology-and-proof-of-concept-imaging-trial-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Yosef Koronyo, David Biggs, Ernesto Barron, David S Boyer, Joel A Pearlman, William J Au, Shawn J Kile, Austin Blanco, Dieu-Trang Fuchs, Adeel Ashfaq, Sally Frautschy, Gregory M Cole, Carol A Miller, David R Hinton, Steven R Verdooner, Keith L Black, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with high specificity and sensitivity can greatly facilitate identification of at-risk populations for earlier, more effective intervention. AD patients exhibit a myriad of retinal pathologies, including hallmark amyloid β-protein (Aβ) deposits. METHODS: Burden, distribution, cellular layer, and structure of retinal Aβ plaques were analyzed in flat mounts and cross sections of definite AD patients and controls (n = 37)...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813561/comparison-of-coronary-ct-angiography-spect-pet-and-hybrid-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-ischemic-heart-disease-determined-by-fractional-flow-reserve
#11
Ibrahim Danad, Pieter G Raijmakers, Roel S Driessen, Jonathon Leipsic, Rekha Raju, Chris Naoum, Juhani Knuuti, Maija Mäki, Richard S Underwood, James K Min, Kimberly Elmore, Wynand J Stuijfzand, Niels van Royen, Igor I Tulevski, Aernout G Somsen, Marc C Huisman, Arthur A van Lingen, Martijn W Heymans, Peter M van de Ven, Cornelis van Kuijk, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert C van Rossum, Paul Knaapen
Importance: At present, the choice of noninvasive testing for a diagnosis of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) is ambiguous, but nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is predominantly used for this purpose. However, to date, prospective head-to-head studies are lacking regarding the diagnostic accuracy of these imaging modalities. Furthermore, the combination of anatomical and functional assessments configuring a hybrid approach may yield improved accuracy...
August 16, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813234/cardiac-mr-strain-a-noninvasive-biomarker-of-fibrofatty-remodeling-of-the-left-atrial-myocardium
#12
Adrian T Huber, Jérôme Lamy, Amer Rahhal, Morgane Evin, Fabrice Atassi, Carine Defrance, Guillaume Lebreton, Karine Clément, Myriam Berthet, Richard Isnard, Pascal Leprince, Philippe Cluzel, Stéphane N Hatem, Nadjia Kachenoura, Alban Redheuil
Purpose To determine whether left atrial (LA) strain quantification with cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging feature tracking is associated with the severity of LA fibrofatty myocardial remodeling at histologic analysis. Materials and Methods This prospective case-control study was approved by the institutional review board. LA strain was evaluated with cardiac MR feature tracking between January 2014 and March 2015 in 13 consecutive patients (mean age, 61 years ± 19; nine male) with mitral regurgitation in the 24 hours before mitral valve surgery and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects...
August 16, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811886/comparison-of-photo-matching-algorithms-commonly-used-for-photographic-capture-recapture-studies
#13
Maximilian Matthé, Marco Sannolo, Kristopher Winiarski, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Daniel Goedbloed, Sebastian Steinfartz, Ulrich Stachow
Photographic capture-recapture is a valuable tool for obtaining demographic information on wildlife populations due to its noninvasive nature and cost-effectiveness. Recently, several computer-aided photo-matching algorithms have been developed to more efficiently match images of unique individuals in databases with thousands of images. However, the identification accuracy of these algorithms can severely bias estimates of vital rates and population size. Therefore, it is important to understand the performance and limitations of state-of-the-art photo-matching algorithms prior to implementation in capture-recapture studies involving possibly thousands of images...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810044/swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-west-nile-virus-chorioretinitis-and-associated-occlusive-retinal-vasculitis
#14
Moncef Khairallah, Rim Kahloun, Salma Gargouri, Bechir Jelliti, Dorra Sellami, Salim Ben Yahia, Jamel Feki
A 65-year-old man with diabetes and a history of fever of unknown origin 2 weeks earlier complained of sudden decreased vision in the left eye. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral West Nile virus (WNV) chorioretinitis associated with occlusive retinal vasculitis in the left eye. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) of the left eye showed extensive, well-delineated, hypointense non-perfusion areas and perifoveal capillary arcade disruption in the superficial capillary plexus, as well as larger non-perfusion areas, capillary rarefaction, and diffuse capillary network attenuation and disorganization in the deep capillary plexus...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810002/retinal-oximetry-discovers-novel-biomarkers-in-retinal-and-brain-diseases
#15
Einar Stefánsson, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Thorunn Scheving Eliasdottir, Thor Eysteinsson, Wouter Vehmeijer, Evelien Vandewalle, Toke Bek, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson
Purpose: Biomarkers for several eye and brain diseases are reviewed, where retinal oximetry may help confirm diagnosis or measure severity of disease. These include diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Retinal oximetry is based on spectrophotometric fundus imaging and measures oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in a noninvasive, quick, safe manner. Retinal oximetry detects changes in oxygen metabolism, including those that result from ischemia or atrophy...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809896/multifrequency-excitation-and-detection-scheme-in-apertureless-scattering-near-field-scanning-optical-microscopy
#16
H Greener, M Mrejen, U Arieli, H Suchowski
Near-field scanning optical microscopy has revolutionized the study of fundamental physics, as it is one of very few label-free optical noninvasive nanoscale-resolved imaging techniques. However, its resolution remains strongly limited by the poor discrimination of weak near-field optical signals from a far-field background. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a multifrequency excitation and detection scheme in apertureless near-field optical microscopy that exceeds current state-of-the-art sensitivity and background suppression...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809883/noninvasive-measurement-of-tissue-blood-oxygenation-with-cerenkov-imaging-during-therapeutic-radiation-delivery
#17
Xiaofeng Zhang, Sai Kit Lam, Gregory Palmer, Shiva Das, Mark Oldham, Mark Dewhirst
Tumor tissue oxygenation significantly affects the outcome of radiotherapy. Real-time monitoring of tumor hypoxia is highly desirable for effective radiotherapy, and is the basis for improved treatment because hypoxic tumor cells are more resistant to radiation damage than fully oxygenated cells. We propose to use Cerenkov imaging to monitor tumor hypoxia by means of tissue blood oxygenation without the need for any exogenous contrast agent. Using a rodent hypoxia model, we demonstrate that Cerenkov imaging can be used as a noninvasive and noncontact method to measure tissue blood oxygenation level during radiation delivery...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803240/impact-of-body-site-age-and-gender-on-the-collagen-elastin-index-by-noninvasive-in-vivo-vertical-two-photon-microscopy
#18
Carolin Czekalla, Karl-Heinz Schönborn, Nadine Döge, Sora Jung, Maxim E Darvin, Jürgen Lademann, Martina C Meinke
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Extrinsic and intrinsic skin aging is subject to constant remodeling and degradation processes, primarily in components of the extracellular matrix. While collagen fibers thin out during the aging process, the amorphous elastin fibers accumulate. These are essential formative components of the dermis. So far, these processes have been detected in vertical histological sections of invasive biopsies and recently in noninvasive horizontal scans. METHODS: In this pilot study, a modified noninvasive 2-photon microscope was applied to measure the collagen/elastin index of skin in vivo...
August 12, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802926/nonmotor-symptoms-and-natural-history-of-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-cognitive-dysfunction-and-role-of-noninvasive-interventions
#19
Roberta Biundo, Eleonora Fiorenzato, Angelo Antonini
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS). Several subsequent studies substantiate the great functional burden related to NMS, their progression, and negative effect on quality of life in PD. Additional evidence indicates interesting relationships between striatal dopaminergic function and NMS. The basal ganglia are implicated in the modulation and integration of sensory information and pain, bladder function is under control of both inhibitory (D1) and facilitatory (D2) dopaminergic inputs, finally reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways is involved in the development of several NMS including mood, motivational, and cognitive alterations...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802742/the-challenges-of-measuring-in-vivo-knee-collateral-ligament-strains-using-ultrasound
#20
Laura C Slane, Josh A Slane, Jan D'hooge, Lennart Scheys
Ultrasound-based methods have shown promise in their ability to characterize non-uniform deformations in large energy-storing tendons such as the Achilles and patellar tendons, yet applications to other areas of the body have been largely unexplored. The noninvasive quantification of collateral ligament strain could provide an important clinical metric of knee frontal plane stability, which is relevant in ligament injury and for measuring outcomes following total knee arthroplasty. In this pilot cadaveric experiment, we investigated the possibility of measuring collateral ligament strain with our previously validated speckle-tracking approach, but encountered a number of challenges during both data acquisition and processing...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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