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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166668/interleukin-36%C3%AE-and-il-36-receptor-signaling-mediate-impaired-host-immunity-and-lung-injury-in-cytotoxic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pulmonary-infection-role-of-prostaglandin-e2
#1
Tetsuji Aoyagi, Michael W Newstead, Xianying Zeng, Yuta Nanjo, Marc Peters-Golden, Mitsuo Kaku, Theodore J Standiford
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen that can lead to severe infection associated with lung injury and high mortality. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines (IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ) are newly described IL-1 like family cytokines that promote inflammatory response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Here we investigated the functional role of IL-36 cytokines in the modulating of innate immune response against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection. The intratracheal administration of flagellated cytotoxic P...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166596/the-gcn2-atf4-signaling-pathway-induces-4e-bp-to-bias-translation-and-boost-antimicrobial-peptide-synthesis-in-response-to-bacterial-infection
#2
Deepika Vasudevan, Nicholas K Clark, Jessica Sam, Victoria C Cotham, Beatrix Ueberheide, Michael T Marr, Hyung Don Ryoo
Bacterial infection often leads to suppression of mRNA translation, but hosts are nonetheless able to express immune response genes through as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we use a Drosophila model to demonstrate that antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production during infection is paradoxically stimulated by the inhibitor of cap-dependent translation, 4E-BP (eIF4E-binding protein; encoded by the Thor gene). We found that 4E-BP is induced upon infection with pathogenic bacteria by the stress-response transcription factor ATF4 and its upstream kinase, GCN2...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166591/a-cd103-conventional-dendritic-cell-surveillance-system-prevents-development-of-overt-heart-failure-during-subclinical-viral-myocarditis
#3
Xavier Clemente-Casares, Siyavash Hosseinzadeh, Iulia Barbu, Sarah A Dick, Jillian A Macklin, Yiming Wang, Abdul Momen, Crystal Kantores, Laura Aronoff, Maylis Farno, Tiffany M Lucas, Joan Avery, Dorrin Zarrin-Khat, Heidi J Elsaesser, Babak Razani, Kory J Lavine, Mansoor Husain, David G Brooks, Clinton S Robbins, Myron Cybulsky, Slava Epelman
Innate and adaptive immune cells modulate heart failure pathogenesis during viral myocarditis, yet their identities and functions remain poorly defined. We utilized a combination of genetic fate mapping, parabiotic, transcriptional, and functional analyses and demonstrated that the heart contained two major conventional dendritic cell (cDC) subsets, CD103(+) and CD11b(+), which differentially relied on local proliferation and precursor recruitment to maintain their tissue residency. Following viral infection of the myocardium, cDCs accumulated in the heart coincident with monocyte infiltration and loss of resident reparative embryonic-derived cardiac macrophages...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165740/platelets-as-modulators-of-inflammation
#4
Seok-Joo Kim, Rachelle P Davis, Craig N Jenne
Platelets have classically been considered crucial effector cells in hemostasis, but now are increasingly recognized as players during inflammatory responses in innate and adaptive immunity. Platelets can recognize and kill invading pathogens, and, upon stimulation, also release a wide array of mediators that modify immune and endothelial cell responses. Increased platelet activity can protect the host against infectious insults; however, the excessive activity can lead to inflammation-mediated tissue damage...
November 17, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164671/characterization-of-two-groups-of-spodoptera-exigua-h%C3%A3-bner-lepidoptera-noctuidae-c-type-lectins-and-insights-into-their-role-in-defense-against-the-densovirus-jcdv
#5
Laila Gasmi, Agata K Jakubowska, Juan Ferré, Mylène Ogliastro, Salvador Herrero
Insect innate immunity relies on numerous soluble and membrane-bound receptors, named pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), which enable the insect to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C-type lectins are among the best-studied PRPs and constitute the most diverse family of animal lectins. Here we have characterized two groups of Spodoptera exigua C-type lectins that differ in their phylogeny, domain architecture, and expression pattern. One group includes C-type lectins with similar characteristics to other lepidopteran lectins, and a second group includes bracoviral-related lectins (bracovirus-like lectins, Se-BLLs) recently acquired by horizontal gene transfer...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164395/primary-biliary-cholangitis-a-comprehensive-overview
#6
REVIEW
Ana Lleo, Simona Marzorati, Juan-Manuel Anaya, M Eric Gershwin
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by biliary destruction, progressive cholestasis, and potentially liver cirrhosis. Patients develop a well-orchestrated immune reaction, both innate and adaptive, against mitochondrial antigens that specifically targets intrahepatic biliary cells. A puzzling feature of PBC is that the immune attack is predominantly organ specific, although the mitochondrial autoantigens are found in all nucleated cells. The disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors; however, the exact pathogenesis remains unclear...
November 21, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163786/axl-inhibition-induces-the-antitumor-immune-response-which-can-be-further-potentiated-by-pd-1-blockade-in-the-mouse-cancer-models
#7
Zhiqiang Guo, Yan Li, Dandan Zhang, Jiaying Ma
Immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) have emerged as a promising new class of antitumor agents which significantly change the treatment landscape in a range of tumors; however, cancer patients benefited from ICB-based immunotherapy remains limited, scoring the need to explore the combination treatments with synergistic mechanisms of action. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase critically involves in the carcinogenesis of multiple cancers due to its dual roles in both promoting cancer invasion and metastasis and suppressing myeloid cell activation and function...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163541/nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-2-contributes-to-limiting-growth-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-in-the-lung-of-mice-by-regulating-cytokines-and-nitric-oxide-production
#8
Jun-Young Lee, Moo-Seung Lee, Dong-Jae Kim, Soo-Jin Yang, Sang-Jin Lee, Eui-Jeong Noh, Sung Jae Shin, Jong-Hwan Park
Mycobacterium abscessus is a prominent cause of pulmonary infection in immunosuppressed patients and those with cystic fibrosis. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 2 is a cytosolic receptor which senses a bacterial peptidoglycan component, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Although nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) contributes to protect host against various microbial infections, it is still unclear whether NOD2 is essential to regulate host immune responses against M. abscessus infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163518/mixed-signals-co-stimulation-in-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-mediated-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Susannah C Shissler, Michael S Lee, Tonya J Webb
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an integral component of the immune system and play an important role in antitumor immunity. Upon activation, iNKT cells can directly kill malignant cells as well as rapidly produce cytokines that stimulate other immune cells, making them a front line defense against tumorigenesis. Unfortunately, iNKT cell number and activity are reduced in multiple cancer types. This anergy is often associated with upregulation of co-inhibitory markers such as programmed death-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163510/the-equivocal-role-of-th17-cells-and-neutrophils-on-immunopathogenesis-of-leishmaniasis
#10
REVIEW
Suênia da C Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Rômulo Pessoa-E-Silva, Lays A M Trajano-Silva, Tayná Correia de Goes, Rayana C S de Morais, Cíntia N da C Oliveira, Virgínia M B de Lorena, Milena de Paiva-Cavalcanti
Advances in the understanding of leishmaniasis progression indicate that cellular interactions more complex than the Th1/Th2 paradigm define the course of infection. Th17 cells are a crucial modulator of adaptive immunity against Leishmania parasites acting mainly on neutrophil recruitment and playing a dual role at the site of infection. This review describes the roles of both these cell types in linking innate defense responses to the establishment of specific immunity. We focus on the Th17-neutrophil interaction as a crucial component of anti-Leishmania immunity, and the clinical evolution of cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163507/impact-of-chronic-viral-infection-on-t-cell-dependent-humoral-immune-response
#11
REVIEW
Stéphane Rodriguez, Mikaël Roussel, Karin Tarte, Patricia Amé-Thomas
During the last decades, considerable efforts have been done to decipher mechanisms supported by microorganisms or viruses involved in the development, differentiation, and function of immune cells. Pathogens and their associated secretome as well as the continuous inflammation observed in chronic infection are shaping both innate and adaptive immunity. Secondary lymphoid organs are functional structures ensuring the mounting of adaptive immune response against microorganisms and viruses. Inside these organs, germinal centers (GCs) are the specialized sites where mature B-cell differentiation occurs leading to the release of high-affinity immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163497/interactions-between-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-cells-of-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system
#12
REVIEW
Cornelia Symowski, David Voehringer
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a major source of cytokines, which are also produced by Th2 cells and several cell types of the innate immune system. Work over the past few years indicates that ILC2s play a central role in regulating type 2 immune responses against allergens and helminths. ILC2s can interact with a variety of cells types of the innate and adaptive immune system by cell-cell contacts or by communication via soluble factors. In this review, we provide an overview about recent advances in our understanding how ILC2s orchestrate type 2 immune responses with focus on direct interactions between ILC2s and other cells of the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163493/alpha-galactosylceramide-cd1d-antibody-fusion-proteins-redirect-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-immunity-to-solid-tumors-and-promote-prolonged-therapeutic-responses
#13
REVIEW
Lianjun Zhang, Alena Donda
Major progress in cancer immunotherapies have been obtained by the use of tumor targeting strategies, in particular with the development of bi-functional fusion proteins such as ImmTacs or BiTes, which engage effector T cells for targeted elimination of tumor cells. Given the significance of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in bridging innate and adaptive immunity, we have developed a bi-functional protein composed of the extracellular part of CD1d molecule that was genetically fused to an scFv fragment from high affinity antibodies against HER2 or CEA...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163471/innate-b-1-b-cells-are-not-enriched-in-red-blood-cell-autoimmune-mice-importance-of-b-cell-receptor-transgenic-selection
#14
Amanda L Richards, Heather L Howie, Linda M Kapp, Jeanne E Hendrickson, James C Zimring, Krystalyn E Hudson
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) results from breakdown of humoral tolerance to RBC antigens. Past analyses of B-cell receptor transgenic (BCR-Tg) mice that recognize RBC autoantigens led to a paradigm in which autoreactive conventional B-2 B cells are deleted whereas extramedullary B-1 B cells escape deletion due to lack of exposure to RBCs. However, BCR-Tg mice utilized to shape the current paradigm were unable to undergo receptor editing or class-switching. Given the importance of receptor editing as mechanism to tolerize autoreactive B cells during central tolerance, we hypothesized that expansion of autoreactive B-1 B cells is a consequence of the inability of the autoreactive BCR to receptor edit...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163470/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-tolerance-where-are-we-now
#15
REVIEW
Andrew L Mellor, Henrique Lemos, Lei Huang
Cells expressing IDO suppress innate and adaptive immunity to promote tolerance by catabolizing the amino acid tryptophan (Trp) and other indole compounds. Interferon type I (IFN-I) and type II (IFN-II) produced at sites of inflammation or by activated immune cells are potent IDO inducers because mammalian IDO genes contain IFN response elements. Elevated IDO expression by dendritic cells (DCs) is of particular significance because IDO activity converts mature DCs into tolerogenic APCs that suppress effector T cells (Teff) and promote regulatory T cells (Tregs), thereby promoting tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163354/diabetes-and-sepsis-risk-recurrence-and-ruination
#16
REVIEW
Lynn M Frydrych, Fatemeh Fattahi, Katherine He, Peter A Ward, Matthew J Delano
Sepsis develops when an infection surpasses local tissue containment. A series of dysregulated physiological responses are generated, leading to organ dysfunction and a 10% mortality risk. When patients with sepsis demonstrate elevated serum lactates and require vasopressor therapy to maintain adequate blood pressure in the absence of hypovolemia, they are in septic shock with an in-hospital mortality rate >40%. With improvements in intensive care treatment strategies, overall sepsis mortality has diminished to ~20% at 30 days; however, mortality continues to steadily climb after recovery from the acute event...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163240/interleukin-6-in-schizophrenia-is-there-a-therapeutic-relevance
#17
REVIEW
Milica Milovan Borovcanin, Ivan Jovanovic, Gordana Radosavljevic, Jelena Pantic, Slavica Minic Janicijevic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic
Renewing interest in immune aspects of schizophrenia and new findings about the brain-fat axis encourage us to discuss the possible role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in schizophrenia. Previously, it was suggested that a primary alteration of the innate immune system may be relevant in schizophrenia. Functional dichotomy of IL-6 suggests that this chemical messenger may be responsible for regulating the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, with tissue-specific properties at the periphery and in the central nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162938/rna-metabolism-is-the-primary-target-of-formamide-in-vivo
#18
Rafael Hoyos-Manchado, Félix Reyes-Martín, Charalampos Rallis, Enrique Gamero-Estévez, Pablo Rodríguez-Gómez, Juan Quintero-Blanco, Jürg Bähler, Juan Jiménez, Víctor A Tallada
The synthesis, processing and function of coding and non-coding RNA molecules and their interacting proteins has been the focus of a great deal of research that has boosted our understanding of key molecular pathways that underlie higher order events such as cell cycle control, development, innate immune response and the occurrence of genetic diseases. In this study, we have found that formamide preferentially weakens RNA related processes in vivo. Using a non-essential Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene deletion collection, we identify deleted loci that make cells sensitive to formamide...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161701/yin-yang-1-dynamically-regulates-antiviral-innate-immune-responses-during-viral-infection
#19
Jie Zan, Hao Zhang, Ai-Ping Gu, Kai-Lun Zhong, Min-Yi Lu, Xiao-Xin Bai, Jin-Yang Zhang, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type I interferon (IFN-1) production and IFN-1 signaling play critical roles in the host antiviral innate immune responses. Although transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has been reported to have a dual activator/repressor role during the regulation of interferon beta (IFN-β) promoter activity, the roles of YY1 in the regulation of upstream signaling pathways leading to IFN-1 induction and IFN-1 signaling during viral infection remain to be elucidated. METHODS: The roles of YY1 in IFN-1 production and IFN-1 signaling were investigated using immunoblotting, real-time PCR, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated YY1 knockdown, YY1 overexpression by transient transfection, and co-immunoprecipitation, using mouse cells...
November 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161093/b-cells-producing-type-i-interferon-modulate-macrophage-polarization-in-tuberculosis
#20
Alan Bénard, Imme Sakwa, Pablo Schierloh, André Colom, Ingrid Mercier, Ludovic Tailleux, Luc Jouneau, Pierre Boudinot, Talal Al-Saati, Roland Lang, Jan Rehwinkel, Andre G Loxton, Stefan He Kaufmann, Véronique Anton-Leberre, Anne O'Garra, Maria Del Carmen Sasiain, Brigitte Gicquel, Simon Fillatreau, Olivier Neyrolles, Denis Hudrisier
RATIONALE: In addition to their well-known function as antibody-producing cells, B lymphocytes can markedly influence the course of infectious or non-infectious diseases via antibody-independent mechanisms. In tuberculosis, B cells accumulate in lungs, yet their functional contribution to the host response remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To document the role of B cells in tuberculosis in an unbiased manner. METHODS: We generated the transcriptome of B cells isolated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected mice, and validated the identified key pathways using in vitro and in vivo assays...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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