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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777721/pentraxins-crp-i-and-crp-ii-are-post-translationally-deiminated-and-differ-in-tissue-specificity-in-cod-gadus-morhua-l-ontogeny
#1
Bergljót Magnadóttir, Polly Hayes, Berglind Gísladóttir, Birkir Þór Bragason, Mariya Hristova, Anthony P Nicholas, Sigríður Guðmundsdóttir, Sigrun Lange
Pentraxins are fluid phase pattern recognition molecules that form an important part of the innate immune defence and are conserved between fish and human. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), two pentraxin-like proteins have been described, CRP-I and CRP-II. Here we show for the first time that these two CRP forms are post-translationally deiminated (an irreversible conversion of arginine to citrulline) and differ with respect to tissue specific localisation in cod ontogeny from 3 to 84 days post hatching. While both forms are expressed in liver, albeit at temporally differing levels, CRP-I shows a strong association with nervous tissue while CRP-II is strongly associated to mucosal tissues of gut and skin...
May 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777657/mcv-mir-m1-targets-the-host-cell-immune-response-resulting-in-the-attenuation-of-neutrophil-chemotaxis
#2
P Akhbari, D Tobin, K Poterlowicz, W Roberts, J R Boyne
Virus-encoded miRNAs are emerging as key regulators of persistent infection and host-cell immune evasion. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), the predominant aetiological agent of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), encodes a single miRNA, MCV-miR-M1, which targets the oncogenic MCPyV large T antigen (LT). MCV-miR-M1 has previously been shown to play an important role in establishment of long-term infection, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A key unanswered question is whether, in addition to auto-regulating LT, MCV-miR-M1 also targets cellular transcripts to orchestrate an environment conducive for persistent infection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777458/increased-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-expression-and-rs11568820-and-rs4516035-promoter-polymorphisms-in-autistic-disorder
#3
Burhan Balta, Hakan Gumus, Ruslan Bayramov, Keziban Korkmaz Bayramov, Murat Erdogan, Didem Behice Oztop, Muhammet Ensar Dogan, Serpil Taheri, Munis Dundar
Although there are a large number of sequence variants of different genes and copy number variations at various loci identified in autistic disorder (AD) patients, the pathogenesis of AD has not been elucidated completely. Recently, in AD patients, a large number of expression array and transcriptome studies have shown an increase in the expression of genes especially related to innate immune response. Antimicrobial effects of vitamin D and VDR are exerted through Toll-Like-Receptors (TLR) which have an important role in the innate immune response, are expressed by antigen presenting cells and recognize foreign microorganisms...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777028/microrna-302-cluster-downregulates-enterovirus-71-induced-innate-immune-response-by-targeting-kpna2
#4
Nanfang Peng, Xuecheng Yang, Chengliang Zhu, Li Zhou, Haisheng Yu, Mengqi Li, Yong Lin, Xueyu Wang, Qian Li, Yinglong She, Jun Wang, Qian Zhao, Mengji Lu, Ying Zhu, Shi Liu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) induces significantly elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines, leading to local or systemic inflammation and severe complications. As shown in our previous study, microRNA (miR) 302c regulates influenza A virus-induced IFN expression by targeting NF-κB-inducing kinase. However, little is known about the role of the miR-302 cluster in EV71-mediated proinflammatory responses. In this study, we found that the miR-302 cluster controls EV71-induced cytokine expression. Further studies demonstrated that karyopherin α2 (KPNA2) is a direct target of the miR-302 cluster...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777026/endosomal-tlr3-tlr7-and-tlr8-control-neuronal-morphology-through-different-transcriptional-programs
#5
Yun-Fen Hung, Chiung-Ya Chen, Yi-Chun Shih, Hsin-Yu Liu, Chiao-Ming Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh
Neuroinflammation is associated with diverse neurological disorders. Endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) including TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 cell-autonomously regulate neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which these three TLRs affect neuronal morphology are unclear. In this study, we compare these TLRs in mouse neurons. By combining in vitro neuronal cultures, in utero electroporation, and transcriptomic profiling, we show that TLR8, TLR7, and TLR3 promote dendritic pruning via MYD88 signaling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776615/a-new-and-efficient-culture-method-for-porcine-bone-marrow-derived-m1-and-m2-polarized-macrophages
#6
Jiye Gao, Maaike R Scheenstra, Albert van Dijk, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play an important role in the innate immune system as part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). They have a pro-inflammatory signature (M1-polarized macrophages) or anti-inflammatory signature (M2-polarized macrophages) based on expression of surface receptors and secretion of cytokines. However, very little is known about the culture of macrophages from pigs and more specific about the M1 and M2 polarization in vitro. METHODS: Porcine monocytes or mononuclear bone marrow cells were used to culture M1- and M2-polarized macrophages in the presence of GM-CSF and M-CSF, respectively...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776451/myeloid-specific-tak1-deletion-results-in-reduced-brain-monocyte-infiltration-and-improved-outcomes-after-stroke
#7
Anjali Chauhan, Jacob Hudobenko, Abdullah Al Mamun, Edward C Koellhoffer, Anthony Patrizz, Rodney M Ritzel, Bhanu P Ganesh, Louise D McCullough
BACKGROUND: Activation of transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) occurs after stroke and leads to an exacerbation of brain injury. TAK1 is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but it has divergent inflammatory effects that are dependent on the cell type in which it is activated. There is a robust infiltration of myeloid cells after stroke; however, the contribution of myeloid TAK1 to cerebral ischemia is currently unknown. We hypothesized that myeloid-specific deletion of TAK1 would protect against ischemic brain injury...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776289/in-situ-heart-valve-tissue-engineering-using-the-innate-immune-response-to-do-the-hard-work
#8
EDITORIAL
Farhan Zafar, David L S Morales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775878/repositioning-of-diabetes-treatments-for-depressive-symptoms-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#9
REVIEW
Calum D Moulton, Christopher W P Hopkins, Khalida Ismail, Daniel Stahl
Depression is a common comorbidity in diabetes but conventional antidepressant treatments do not consistently improve outcomes. We tested whether established diabetes treatments can also improve depressive symptoms and examined biological correlates of response. We performed a multi-database systematic search of all clinical trials, which measured the effect of licensed diabetes treatments on depressive symptoms using a validated questionnaire. Results of randomised controlled trials (RCT's) were pooled for meta-analysis...
May 7, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775825/binding-capacity-of-mannose-binding-lectin-mbl-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-chronic-chagas-cardiomyopathy
#10
Elisa de A N Azevedo, Silvana Barreto, Raul Emídio de Lima, Romero Henrique Teixeira, George Diniz, Wilson Oliveira, Maria da Glória A M Cavalcanti, Yara M Gomes, Patrícia M M de F Moura, Clarice N L Morais
Chagas disease (CD) is a global problem. Currently, it affects approximately 15 million individuals in Latin America. It is well know that the human immune response is related to different clinical manifestations. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity, and it mediates the phagocytosis and complement-mediated destruction of pathogens. The binding capacity is enhanced by the oligomerization of MBL. In this study, we evaluated the serum concentration and the binding capacity of MBL in patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy...
May 15, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775738/humoral-and-mucosal-immune-responses-in-meagre-argyrosomus-regius-juveniles-fed-diets-with-varying-inclusion-levels-of-carob-seed-germ-meal
#11
Francisco Antonio Guardiola, Carolina Barroso, Paula Enes, Ana Couto, Patricia Díaz-Rosales, António Afonso, Erika Kanashiro, Helena Peres, Elisabete Matos, Aires Oliva-Teles, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Benjamín Costas
Many studies have assessed the effects of incorporation of plant feedstuffs in fish diets on growth performance, whereas few studies have addressed the effects of fish meal replacement by plant protein sources on fish immune parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on immune response of different inclusion levels of carob seed germ meal (CSGM) as partial replacement for fish meal in diets for meagre (Argyrosomus regius) juveniles. Fish were fed four experimental diets with increased CSGM inclusion levels [0% (control), 7...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775465/a-nocturnal-rail-with-a-simple-territorial-call-eavesdrops-on-interactions-between-rivals
#12
Lucyna Ewa Wojas, Paweł Wojciech Podkowa, Tomasz Stanisław Osiejuk
The behaviour of most animals has evolved in a communication network environment, in which signals produced by senders are perceived by many intended and unintended receivers. In this study, we tested whether the corncrake (Crex crex), a nocturnal rail species with innate (non-learned) calls, is able to eavesdrop on the interactions of conspecific males and how this eavesdropping affects subsequent responses by the eavesdropper to territorial intrusion. In the first step, simulated aggressive or neutral interactions between male dyads were presented to a focal male...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775225/cytokines-and-chemokines-differentially-regulate-innate-immune-cell-trafficking-during-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#13
Ashish K Singh, Vidya N R Das, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Vijaya Mahantesh, Shubhankar K Singh, Shyam Naryan, Krishna Pandey, Pradeep Das, Neena Verma, Sanjiva Bimal
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is often considered to be the anthroponotic reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. A better understanding of the host immune-response in dermal lesions of PKDL patients is therefore of utmost significance to minimize such patients and to restrict VL transmission. Although the innate immune response is known to play an important role in parasite clearance from dermal lesions, the actual contribution of innate cells to the pathogenicity of PKDL is poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774640/regulatory-roles-of-flavonoids-on-inflammasome-activation-during-inflammatory-responses
#14
REVIEW
Young-Su Yi
Inflammation is an innate immune response to noxious stimuli to protect the body from pathogens and dangers. Inflammatory responses consist of two main steps: priming and triggering. In priming, inflammatory cells increase expressions of inflammatory molecules, while in triggering, inflammasomes are activated, resulting in cell death and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Inflammasomes are protein complexes comprising intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (e.g. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and caspases-4/5/11) and pro-caspase-1 with or without a bipartite adaptor molecule ASC...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774159/toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-modulate-intestinal-il-10-differently-in-ileum-and-colon
#15
Eva Latorre, Elena Layunta, Laura Grasa, Julián Pardo, Santiago García, Ana I Alcalde, José E Mesonero
Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases are consequence of an intestinal homeostasis breakdown in which innate immune dysregulation is implicated. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are immune recognition receptors expressed in the intestinal epithelium, the first physical-physiological barrier for microorganisms, to inform the host of the presence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to maintenance of intestinal homeostasis...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774026/critical-role-of-alternative-m2-skewing-in-mir-155-deletion-mediated-protection-of-colitis
#16
Jintao Li, Ji Zhang, Hongxia Guo, Shimin Yang, Weiping Fan, Nan Ye, Zhiqiang Tian, Tiantian Yu, Guoping Ai, Zigang Shen, Haiyang He, Ping Yan, Hui Lin, Xue Luo, Hongli Li, Yuzhang Wu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune response in the intestine. MicroRNA (miR)-155 is frequently expressed and functions in many immune cell types. Besides its function in adaptive immunity, miR-155 is a key regulator of the innate immune response in macrophages, dendritic cells, and even in epithelia cells. Although the roles of miR-155 within T and B lymphocytes in colitis have been reported, its function in innate immune cells has not been thoroughly examined...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773345/t-cells-and-their-immunometabolism-a-novel-way-to-understanding-sepsis-immunopathogenesis-and-future-therapeutics
#17
REVIEW
V Kumar
Sepsis has always been considered as a big challenge for pharmaceutical companies in terms of discovering and designing new therapeutics. The pathogenesis of sepsis involves aberrant activation of innate immune cells (i.e. macrophages, neutrophils etc.) at early stages. However, a stage of immunosuppression is also observed during sepsis even in the patients who have recovered from it. This stage of immunosuppression is observed due to the loss of conventional (i.e. CD4+ , CD8+ ) T cells, Th17 cells and an upregulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773170/iron-and-innate-antimicrobial-immunity-depriving-the-pathogen-defending-the-host
#18
REVIEW
Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as 'nutritional immunity'. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772374/evolution-expression-and-characterisation-of-liver-expressed-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-in-ancient-chondrostean-sturgeons
#19
Shuhuan Zhang, Qiaoqing Xu, Hao Du, Zhitao Qi, Youshen Li, Jun Huang, Jun Di, Qiwei Wei
Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) is an evolutionarily ancient molecule that acts as the key component in vertebrate innate immunity against invading pathogens. Leap-2 has been identified and characterised in several teleosts, but not yet in chondrosteans. Herein, the complete coding sequences of leap-2b and leap-2c were identified from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) and Chinese sturgeon (A. sinensis), designated as adleap-2b, adleap-2c, asleap-2b, and asleap-2c, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772263/comparative-analysis-of-microrna-expression-in-dog-lungs-infected-with-the-h3n2-and-h5n1-canine-influenza-viruses
#20
Yun Zheng, Xinliang Fu, Lifang Wang, Wenyan Zhang, Pei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Jidang Chen, Zongxi Cao, Kun Jia, Shoujun Li
MicroRNAs, a class of noncoding RNAs 18 to 23 nucleotides (nt) in length, play critical roles in a wide variety of biological processes. The objective of this study was to examine differences in microRNA expression profiles derived from the lungs of beagle dogs infected with the avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) or the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus (canine-origin isolation strain). After dogs were infected with H3N2 or H5N1, microRNA expression in the lungs was assessed using a deep-sequencing approach...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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