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innate response

Vania Regina Assis, Stefanny Christie Monteiro Titon, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Cristina de Oliveira Massoco, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Previous studies in a variety of vertebrates show stressed animals to exhibit acute increases in glucocorticoid levels, with consequences for immune modulation. Chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels are mostly associated with immunosuppression. However, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the amphibian physiological reaction to short- and long-term stress conditions, including glucocorticoid effects on the immune response. In order to better clarify the relationship between glucocorticoids and immune response, newly captured Brazilian toads (Rhinella icterica) (1 week in captivity) were subjected to a daily transdermal application (TA), of corticosterone or vehicle, for 30 consecutive days...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Leah J E Pryor, Joseph M Casto
Developmental stress can alter resource allocation in early life, and in altricial birds with rapid developmental trajectories and high resource demands, nestlings may adjust early resource partitioning to cope with challenging environments. We experimentally manipulated ectoparasite levels in nests and assessed whether ectoparasites affected somatic and physiological development in European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) nestlings. We hypothesized that mites act as developmental stressors in nestlings and predicted that nestlings from infested nests would exhibit either reduced somatic growth, or reduced physiological development, including impaired innate immunity, and would have elevated corticosterone concentrations...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Tosha R Kelly, Heather L MacGillivray, Keith A Hobson, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A MacDougall-Shackleton
A central tenet of ecoimmunology is that an organism's environment shapes its optimal investment in immunity. For example, the benefits of acquired (relatively pathogen specific) versus innate (nonspecific) immune defenses are thought to vary with the risk of encountering familiar versus unfamiliar pathogens. Because pathogen communities vary geographically, individuals that travel farther during seasonal migration or natal dispersal are predicted to have higher exposure to novel pathogens, and lower exposure to familiar pathogens, potentially favoring investment in innate immunity...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Katie Stromsland, Laura M Zimmerman
Reptilian immune systems are believed to rely more heavily on the innate response than the adaptive response. Past research on reptilian immune systems has indicated that natural antibodies (NAbs) play an important role in fighting antigens as the first responder and initiating the innate immune response. However, there is a gap in research on NAbs in reptiles as there is little data on how they may influence parasite prevalence in reptiles. Furthermore, no studies have examined NAbs at mucosal sites, which represent an important point of entry for parasites...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Maria G Palacios, Anne M Bronikowski
Growing evidence suggests the existence of trade-offs between immune function and reproduction in diverse taxa. Among vertebrates, however, there is still a taxonomic bias toward studies in endotherms, particularly birds. We tested the hypothesis that reproduction entails immune-related costs in the viviparous garter snake, Thamnophis elegans, from populations that exhibit two life-history strategies, termed ecotypes, with contrasting paces of life. Between the two ecotypes, we predicted lower immune function in gravid than non-gravid females of both strategies, but with relatively larger immunity costs in the ecotype that generally invests more in current reproduction...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Stefanny Christie Monteiro Titon, Vania Regina Assis, Braz Titon Junior, Bruna de Oliveira Cassettari, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno Fernandes, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Stressors can increase plasma glucocorticoid (GC) levels and decrease plasma androgen levels in different species of vertebrates. GCs can have immune-enhancing or immunosuppressive effects, which are dependent upon stress duration and intensity. The worldwide decline in amphibian populations is strongly linked to an array of different stressors. The impacts of stress on GCs, androgens, and the immune response are important to clarify and should lead to the better development of conservation strategies. The present study in adult male toads of Rhinella schneideri investigated the effects of captivity (7, 30, and 60 days) on plasma corticosterone (CORT) and plasma testosterone (T), as well as innate immune responses, specifically humoral and cell mediated responses, as indicated by bacterial killing ability (BKA) and phagocytosis by peritoneal cells, respectively...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Yunfei Dang, Yubang Shen, Xiaoyan Xu, Shentong Wang, Xinzhan Meng, Meng Zhang, Liqun Lv, Rongquan Wang, Jiale Li
The complement system is a significant component of innate immunity. Here, we identified a Bf/C2 homolog (gcBf/C2b) in grass carp. gcBf/C2b shares a high similarity with Bf/C2b counterparts in other teleosts. gcBf/C2b transcription was widely distributed in different tissues, induced by Aeromonas hydrophila in vivo and in vitro, and affected by lipopolysaccharide and flagellin stimulation in vitro. In cells over-expressing gcBf/C2b, transcript levels of all components except gcC5 were significantly enhanced, and gcBf/C2b, gcIL1β, gcTNF-α, gcIFN, gcCD59, gcC5aR1, and gcITGβ-2 were significantly upregulated after A...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xin Zhang, Shaoqing Zang, Chen Li, Jingguang Wei, Qiwei Qin
Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) is the key adaptor protein that transmits apoptotic signals mediated by the main death receptors. Besides being an essential instrument in cell death, FADD is also implicated in proliferation, cell cycle progression, tumor development, inflammation, innate immunity, and autophagy. In the present study, a FADD homologue (EcFADD) from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcFADD contains 808 base pairs (bp), including a 573 bp open reading frame that encodes a 190 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 21...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Junxin Lin, Wenyan Zhou, Shan Han, Varitsara Bunpetch, Kun Zhao, Chaozhong Liu, Yin Zi, Hongwei Ouyang
The interplay between cells and materials is a fundamental topic in biomaterial-based tissue regeneration. One of the principles for biomaterial development in tendon regeneration is to stimulate tenogenic differentiation of stem cells. To this end, efforts have been made to optimize the physicochemical and bio-mechanical properties of biomaterials for tendon tissue engineering. However, recent progress indicated that innate immune cells, especially macrophages, can also respond to the material cues and undergo phenotypical changes, which will either facilitate or hinder tissue regeneration...
January 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Puneet Tyagi, J Anand Subramony
Nanotechnology ushered the field of medicine in to a new era. Miniaturization, increased surface area, and the unique physicochemical properties in the nano dimension were explored for new applications. Pharmaceutical industry picked up the technology and early success came fast for oral drug delivery through improvement in dissolution properties of the active molecules. Many products were launched using the nanocrystal technology on the oral side. Further development of polymeric nanoparticles led to wide spread research of nanocarriers for parenteral delivery...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Shuang Qu, Sibao Wang
Entomopathogenic fungi can invade wide range of insect hosts in the natural world and have been used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides for pest control. Studies of host-pathogen interactions provide valuable insights into the coevolutionay arms race between fungal pathogens and their hosts. Entomopathogenic fungi have evolved a series of sophisticated strategies to counter insect immune defenses. In response to fungal infection, insect hosts rely on behavior avoidance and innate defenses in the fight against invading pathogens, including the use of physical barriers and innate immune responses...
January 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Julia Sidorova
During the hours that human cells spend in the DNA synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle, they may encounter adversities such as DNA damage or shortage of nucleotides. Under these stresses, replication forks in DNA may experience slowing, stalling, and breakage. Fork remodeling mechanisms, which stabilize slow or stalled replication forks and ensure their ability to continue or resume replication, protect cells from genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Fork remodeling includes DNA strand exchanges that result in annealing of newly synthesized strands (fork reversal), controlled DNA resection, and cleavage of DNA strands...
December 2017: Cell Stress
Mi Eun Kim, Ju Yong Na, Jun Sik Lee
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is a primary response of the innate immune system against various infections. Macrophages are a type of immune cell that have a critical role in the inflammation. Recent studies reported that various natural compounds could regulate immune responses such as inflammation. Trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) is a natural compound from cinnamon, especially abundant in cinnamon bark. Previous studies reported that TCA has anti-biofilm, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities...
January 22, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Augustus M Kilgore, Seth Welsh, Elizabeth E Cheney, Alisha Chitrakar, Trevor J Blain, Benjamin J Kedl, Chris A Hunter, Nathan D Pennock, Ross M Kedl
It is well accepted that the innate response is a necessary prerequisite to the formation of the adaptive response. This is true for T cell responses against infections or adjuvanted subunit vaccination. However, specific innate parameters with predictive value for the magnitude of an adjuvant-elicited T cell response have yet to be identified. We previously reported how T cell responses induced by subunit vaccination were dependent on the cytokine IL-27. These findings were unexpected, given that T cell responses to an infection typically increase in the absence of IL-27...
January 1, 2018: ImmunoHorizons
Alaa Alhazmi
INTRODUCTION: Molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the common opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis individuals, and host induce a number of marked inflammatory responses and associate with complex therapeutic problems due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics in chronic stage of infection. METHODS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized by number of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs); NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a class of PRRs, which can recognize a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands, thereby playing a critical role in innate immunity...
January 20, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
L J Moore, J Jarungsriapisit, T O Nilsen, S Stefansson, G L Taranger, C J Secombes, H C Morton, S Patel
Pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the most serious viral disease in Norwegian aquaculture. Study of the immune response to SAV will aid preventative measures including vaccine development. The innate immune response was studied in Atlantic salmon infected by either bath immersion (BI) or by intra-muscular (i.m.) injection (IM) with SAV subtype 3, two and nine weeks after seawater transfer (Phases A and B respectively). Phase A results have been previously published (Moore et al., 2017) and Phase B results are presented here together with a comparison of results achieved in Phase A...
January 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Paulina Marin-Luevano, Valentin Trujillo, Adrian Rodriguez-Carlos, Irma González-Curiel, Jose A Enciso-Moreno, Robert E W Hancock, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Synthetic innate defence regulator (IDR) peptides such as IDR-1018 modulate immunity to promote key protective functions including chemotaxis, wound healing, and anti-infective activity, while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses to non-pathological levels. Here we demonstrated that IDR-1018 induced, by up to 75-fold, pro-angiogenic VEGF-165 in keratinocytes but suppressed this isoform in endothelial cells. It also induced early angiogenin and prolonged anti-inflammatory TGFβ expression on endothelial cells, while suppressing early pro-inflammatory IL-1β expression levels...
January 15, 2018: Peptides
Isabelle Catelas, Eric A Lehoux, Zhibin Ning, Daniel Figeys, Stephen J Baskey, Paul E Beaulé
Adverse tissue reactions to metal implants, including pseudotumors, can compromise implant functionality and survivorship. The identification of specific proteins in the synovial fluid (SF) of hip arthroplasty patients with a pseudotumor may lead to a better understanding of the underlying pathomechanisms. The objective of the present study was to compare the protein content of SF from patients with a short-term metal-on-metal hip implant associated with a pseudotumor and patients with a long-term metal-on-polyethylene hip implant associated with periprosthetic osteolysis...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Simone Nüssing, Sneha Sant, Marios Koutsakos, Kanta Subbarao, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Influenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized...
January 20, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Chandran Ramakrishna, Edouard M Cantin
Emergency hematopoiesis facilitates the rapid expansion of inflammatory immune cells in response to infections by pathogens, a process that must be carefully regulated to prevent potentially life threatening inflammatory responses. Here, we describe a novel regulatory role for the cytokine IFNγ that is critical for preventing fatal encephalitis after viral infection. HSV1 encephalitis (HSE) is triggered by the invasion of the brainstem by inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In mice lacking IFNγ (GKO), we observed unrestrained increases in G-CSF levels but not in GM-CSF or IL-17...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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