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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087945/innate-immune-responses-to-tuberculosis
#1
Jeffrey S Schorey, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely adapted to humans and is a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the primary conduit of infection and disease. However, M. tuberculosis bacilli interact with and are affected by several soluble and cellular components of the innate immune system which dictate the outcome of primary infection, most commonly a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response within the confines of tissue granuloma, the host histopathologic hallmark...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087941/interplay-between-myeloid-cells-and-humoral-innate-immunity
#2
Sébastien Jaillon, Eduardo Bonavita, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani
The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against pathogens and comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs), which include collectins, ficolins, and pentraxins, are key components of the humoral arm of innate immunity and are expressed by a variety of cells, including myeloid, epithelial, and endothelial cells, mainly in response to infectious and inflammatory conditions. Soluble PRMs share basic multifunctional properties including activation and regulation of the complement cascade, opsonization of pathogens and apoptotic cells, regulation of leukocyte extravasation, and fine-tuning of inflammation...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087938/the-role-and-function-of-fc%C3%AE-receptors-on-myeloid-cells
#3
Stylianos Bournazos, Taia T Wang, Jeffrey V Ravetch
A key determinant for the survival of organisms is their capacity to recognize and respond efficiently to foreign antigens. This is largely accomplished by the orchestrated activity of the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. Antibodies are specifically generated in response to foreign antigens, facilitating thereby the specific recognition of antigens of almost infinite diversity. Receptors specific for the Fc domain of antibodies, Fc receptors, are expressed on the surface of the various myeloid leukocyte populations and mediate the binding and recognition of antibodies by innate leukocytes...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087937/myeloid-cell-phenotypes-in-susceptibility-and-resistance-to-helminth-parasite-infections
#4
Rick M Maizels, James P Hewitson
Many major tropical diseases are caused by long-lived helminth parasites that are able to survive by modulation of the host immune system, including the innate compartment of myeloid cells. In particular, dendritic cells and macrophages show markedly altered phenotypes during parasite infections. In addition, many specialized subsets such as eosinophils and basophils expand dramatically in response to these pathogens. The changes in phenotype and function, and their effects on both immunity to infection and reactivity to bystander antigens such as allergens, are discussed...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087918/-research-progress-on-the-role-of-tank-binding-kinase-1-in-anti-virus-innate-immune-response
#5
Xue Wang, Yuchuan Zhang, Wei Chen
The innate immune response against viral infection is mainly relies on type I interferon, the production of which is mediated by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). It is revealed that the downstream TBK1 is activated by viral nucleic acid sensors RIG-I, cGAS and TLR3. The activity of TBK1 is complexly and precisely regulated by different type of protein modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and Sumolylation. This article focuses on the role of TBK1 in anti-viral innate immunity and the regulatory mechanism for the TBK1 activation...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087669/the-role-of-the-p38-mnk-eif4e-signaling-axis-in-tnf-production-downstream-of-the-nod1-receptor
#6
Mikhail V Pashenkov, Lyudmila S Balyasova, Yulia A Dagil, Boris V Pinegin
Activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2 by muropeptides triggers a complex transcriptional program in innate immune cells. However, little is known about posttranscriptional regulation of NOD1- and NOD2-dependent responses. When stimulated with a prototypic NOD1 agonist, N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (GM-triDAP), human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) produced an order of magnitude more TNF, IL-6, and pro-IL-1β than did monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), despite similar NOD1 expression, similar cytokine mRNA kinetics, and comparable responses to LPS...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087593/norovirus-mediated-modification-of-the-translational-landscape-via-virus-and-host-induced-cleavage-of-translation-initiation-factors
#7
Edward Emmott, Frederic Sorgeloos, Sarah L Caddy, Surender Vashist, Stanislav Sosnovtsev, Richard Lloyd, Kate Heesom, Nicolas Locker, Ian Goodfellow
Noroviruses produce viral RNAs lacking a 5' cap structure and instead use a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to viral RNA to interact with translation initiation factors and drive viral protein synthesis. Norovirus infection results in the induction of the innate response leading to interferon stimulated gene (ISG) transcription. However the translation of the induced ISG mRNAs is suppressed. A SILAC-based mass spectrometry approach was employed to analyse changes to protein abundance in both whole cell and m7GTP-enriched samples to demonstrate that diminished host mRNA translation correlates with changes to the composition of the eukaryotic initiation factor complex...
January 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087330/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-a-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-kr%C3%A3-yer-1838-heme-peroxidase-with-a-potential-role-in-extracellular-matrixes
#8
Aina-Cathrine Øvergård, Christiane Eichner, Frank Nilsen, Sussie Dalvin
Heme peroxidases are the most abundant type of peroxidase catalyzing a H2O2-dependent oxidation of a wide variety of substrates. They are involved in numerous processes like the innate immune response, hormone and prostaglandin synthesis and crosslinking of proteins within extracellular matrixes (ECM) as well as molecules within the cuticle and chorion of arthropods and nematodes. In the present study, a Lepeophtheirus salmonis heme peroxidase (LsHPX) 1 was characterized. Amino acids in the active site of heme peroxidases were conserved, and the predicted protein sequence showed the highest similarity to genes annotated as chorion peroxidases and genes suggested to be involved in cuticle hardening or adhesion...
January 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086922/transcriptional-profiles-in-bursal-b-lymphoid-dt40-cells-infected-with-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#9
Rong Quan, Shanshan Zhu, Li Wei, Jing Wang, Xu Yan, Zixuan Li, Jue Liu
BACKGROUND: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus mainly infects immature B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Chicken B cell line DT40, an avian leukosis virus-induced B cell line, supports very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) infection in vitro and thereby serves as a good model for investigating the infection and pathogenesis of this virus. However, a transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between vvIBDV and B cells has not yet been achieved...
January 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086885/harnessing-the-early-post-injury-inflammatory-responses-for-cardiac-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Bill Cheng, H C Chen, I W Chou, Tony W H Tang, Patrick C H Hsieh
Cardiac inflammation is considered by many as the main driving force in prolonging the pathological condition in the heart after myocardial infarction. Immediately after cardiac ischemic injury, neutrophils are the first innate immune cells recruited to the ischemic myocardium within the first 24 h. Once they have infiltrated the injured myocardium, neutrophils would then secret proteases that promote cardiac remodeling and chemokines that enhance the recruitment of monocytes from the spleen, in which the recruitment peaks at 72 h after myocardial infarction...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086873/cecal-micrornaome-response-to-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-infection-in-white-leghorn-layer
#11
Guixian Wu, Yukai Qi, Xiaoyi Liu, Ning Yang, Guiyun Xu, Liying Liu, Xianyao Li
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a food-borne pathogen and of great threat to human health through consuming the contaminated poultry products. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in different biological activities and have been shown to regulate the innate immunity in the bacterial infection. The objective of this study is to identify miRNAs associated with SE infection in laying chicken cecum. RESULTS: Average number of reads of three libraries constructed from infected and non-infected chickens was 12,476,156 and 10,866,976, respectively...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081443/the-bacterial-t6ss-effector-evpp-prevents-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-inhibiting-the-ca-2-dependent-mapk-jnk-pathway
#12
Hao Chen, Dahai Yang, Fajun Han, Jinchao Tan, Lingzhi Zhang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang, Qin Liu
Inflammasome activation is an important innate immune defense mechanism against bacterial infection, and in return, bacteria express virulence determinants that counteract inflammasome activation. Many such effectors are secreted into host cells via specialized bacterial secretion systems. Here, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Edwardsiella tarda was demonstrated to activate NLRC4 and NLRP3 inflammasomes via a type III secretion system (T3SS), and to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome via a type VI secretion system (T6SS), indicating the antagonistic roles of these systems in inflammasome signaling...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081290/membrane-microdomains-and-the-cytoskeleton-constrain-athir1-dynamics-and-facilitate-the-formation-of-an-athir1-associated-immune-complex
#13
Xueqin Lv, Yanping Jing, Jianwei Xiao, Yongdeng Zhang, Yingfang Zhu, Russell Julian, Jinxing Lin
Arabidopsis hypersensitive induced reaction (AtHIR) proteins function in plant innate immunity. However, the underlying mechanisms by which AtHIRs participate in plant immunity remain elusive. Here, using VA-TIRFM and FLIM-FRET, we revealed that AtHIR1 is present in membrane microdomains and co-localizes with the membrane microdomain marker REM1.3. Single-particle tracking analysis revealed that membrane microdomains and the cytoskeleton, especially microtubules, restrict the lateral mobility of AtHIR1 at the plasma membrane and facilitate its oligomerization...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081235/comprehensive-rna-seq-profiling-to-evaluate-the-sheep-mammary-gland-transcriptome-in-response-to-experimental-mycoplasma-agalactiae-infection
#14
Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly, Melanie Korb, René Brunthaler, Reinhard Ertl
Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081233/differences-in-inflammatory-response-induced-by-two-representatives-of-clades-of-the-pandemic-st258-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clonal-lineage-producing-kpc-type-carbapenemases
#15
Giuseppe Castronovo, Ann Maria Clemente, Alberto Antonelli, Marco Maria D'Andrea, Michele Tanturli, Eloisa Perissi, Sara Paccosi, Astrid Parenti, Federico Cozzolino, Gian Maria Rossolini, Maria Gabriella Torcia
ST258-K. pneumoniae (ST258-KP) strains, the most widespread multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired pathogens, belong to at least two clades differing in a 215 Kb genomic region that includes the cluster of capsule genes. To investigate the effects of the different capsular phenotype on host-pathogen interactions, we studied representatives of ST258-KP clades, KKBO-1 and KK207-1, for their ability to activate monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells from human immune competent hosts. The two ST258-KP strains strongly induced the production of inflammatory cytokines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079188/proteome-response-of-chicken-embryo-fibroblast-cells-to-recombinant-h5n1-avian-influenza-viruses-with-different-neuraminidase-stalk-lengths
#16
Yongtao Li, Fan Ming, Huimin Huang, Kelei Guo, Huanchun Chen, Meilin Jin, Hongbo Zhou
The variation on neuraminidase (NA) stalk region of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus results in virulence change in animals. In our previous studies, the special NA stalk-motif of H5N1 viruses has been demonstrated to play a significant role in the high virulence and pathogenicity in chickens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of viruses with different NA stalk remain poorly understood. This study presents a comprehensive characterization of the proteome response of chicken cells to recombinant H5N1 virus with stalk-short NA (rNA-wt) and the stalkless NA mutant virus (rSD20)...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079153/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-is-critical-for-bacterial-lipoprotein-tolerance-enhanced-bactericidal-activity-in-macrophages-during-microbial-infection
#17
Jinghua Liu, Jing Xiang, Xue Li, Siobhan Blankson, Shuqi Zhao, Junwei Cai, Yong Jiang, H Paul Redmond, Jiang Huai Wang
Tolerance to bacterial components represents an essential regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP)-induced tolerance confers protection against microbial sepsis by attenuating inflammatory responses and augmenting antimicrobial activity in innate phagocytes. It has been well-documented that BLP tolerance-attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production is associated with suppressed TLR2 signalling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism(s) involved in BLP tolerance-enhanced antimicrobial activity is unclear...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078853/oxidative-stress-in-asthma-a-distinct-clinical-and-pathologic-feature
#18
Y Li, G P Li
Asthma is a type of chronic airway inflammation. Corticosteroids are inadequate for asthma therapy. However, it remains unclear whether oxidative stress is a distinct clinical and pathologic feature in asthma. We reviewed the articles on asthma-associated oxidative stress. The exposures to airborne allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM) and birch pollen, may not only trigger innate and adaptive immune responses but also cause oxidative stress damage in the airways. Allergen-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in p38 MAPK, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) kinase pathway signaling...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078840/mast-cell-and-cancer-with-special-emphasis-on-il-37-an-anti-inflammatory-and-inhibitor-of-innate-immunity-new-frontiers
#19
F Carinci, G Lessiani, E Spinas, S K Kritas, G Ronconi, Al Caraffa, P Conti
Mast cells (MCs) are mediators of allergy and inflammation and participate in the growth of cancer cells. MCs can promote both neoangiogenesis and tumor growth. They increase in the stroma of certain tumors where they can be recruited by tumor-derived chemoattractants, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES and stem cell factor (SCF) to selectively secrete inflammatory molecules including chemical mediators and cytokines (TNF, IL-6 and IL-1). However, MC differentiation pathways and heterogeneity in cancer are still poorly understood...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078341/the-role-of-uv-radiation-and-vitamin-d-in-the-seasonality-and-outcomes-of-infectious-disease
#20
Abhimanyu, Anna K Coussens
The seasonality of infectious disease outbreaks suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on disease risk. One of the major environmental factors that can affect this is solar radiation, primarily acting through ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and its subsequent control of vitamin D production. Here we show how UVR and vitamin D, which are modified by latitude and season, can affect host and pathogen fitness and relate them to the outcomes of bacterial, viral and vector-borne infections...
January 12, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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