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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226397/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-asthma-cannabinoids-on-the-balance
#1
EDITORIAL
Kayluz Frias Boligan, Stephan von Gunten
The network of cells and soluble mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic disorders is complex. Deciphering details of the crosstalk between its components is essential for the identification of novel drug targets and for advances in patient management and precision medicine (1, 2). There is increasing evidence that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to allergic responses (3). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226239/structural-basis-for-the-hijacking-of-endosomal-sorting-nexin-proteins-by-chlamydia-trachomatis
#2
Blessy Paul, Hyun Sung Kim, Markus C Kerr, Wilhelmina M Huston, Rohan D Teasdale, Brett M Collins
During infection chlamydial pathogens form an intracellular membrane-bound replicative niche termed the inclusion, which is enriched with bacterial transmembrane proteins called Incs. Incs bind and manipulate host cell proteins to promote inclusion expansion and provide camouflage against innate immune responses. Sorting nexin (SNX) proteins that normally function in endosomal membrane trafficking are a major class of inclusion-associated host proteins, and are recruited by IncE/CT116. Crystal structures of the SNX5 phox-homology (PX) domain in complex with IncE define the precise molecular basis for these interactions...
February 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226206/exploration-of-the-innate-immune-system-of-styela-clava-zn-2-binding-enhances-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-tunicate-peptide-clavanin-a
#3
Samuel A Juliano, Scott Pierce, James A DeMayo, Marcy J Balunas, Alfredo M Angeles-Boza
Tunicates have been used as primitive models for understanding cell mediated and humoral immunity. Clavanin A (ClavA) is a potent antimicrobial peptide produced by the solitary tunicate Styela clava. In this work, we demonstrate that ClavA utilizes Zn(2+) ions to potentiate its antimicrobial activity. A reduced concentration at which the peptide inhibits the growth of bacteria and an increase in the rate of killing is observed in the presence of Zn(2+). Membrane depolarization, β-galactosidase leakage and potassium leakage assays indicate that ClavA is membrane active, forms small pores, but induces cell death by targeting an intracellular component...
February 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225764/cynomolgus-macaques-naturally-infected-with-trypanosoma-cruzi-i-exhibit-an-overall-mixed-pro-inflammatory-modulated-cytokine-signature-characteristic-of-human-chagas-disease
#4
Danielle Marquete Vitelli-Avelar, Renato Sathler-Avelar, Armanda Moreira Mattoso-Barbosa, Nicolas Gouin, Marcelo Perdigão-de-Oliveira, Leydiane Valério-Dos-Reis, Ronaldo Peres Costa, Silvana Maria Elói-Santos, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Edward J Dick, Gene B Hubbard, Jane F VandeBerg, John L VandeBerg
BACKGROUND: Non-human primates have been shown to be useful models for Chagas disease. We previously reported that natural T. cruzi infection of cynomolgus macaques triggers clinical features and immunophenotypic changes of peripheral blood leukocytes resembling those observed in human Chagas disease. In the present study, we further characterize the cytokine-mediated microenvironment to provide supportive evidence of the utility of cynomolgus macaques as a model for drug development for human Chagas disease...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225753/complement-drives-glucosylceramide-accumulation-and-tissue-inflammation-in-gaucher-disease
#5
Manoj K Pandey, Thomas A Burrow, Reena Rani, Lisa J Martin, David Witte, Kenneth D Setchell, Mary A Mckay, Albert F Magnusen, Wujuan Zhang, Benjamin Liou, Jörg Köhl, Gregory A Grabowski
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in GBA1, which encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 mutations drive extensive accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC) in multiple innate and adaptive immune cells in the spleen, liver, lung and bone marrow, often leading to chronic inflammation. The mechanisms that connect excess GC to tissue inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that activation of complement C5a and C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) controls GC accumulation and the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical Gaucher disease...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225519/a-cytokine-pattern-that-differentiates-preseroconversion-from-postseroconversion-phases-of-primary-hiv-infection
#6
Lucia Pastor, Erica Parker, Jorge Carrillo, Victor Urrea, Laura Fuente-Soro, Durval Respeito, Chenjerai Jairoce, Inacio Mandomando, Julià Blanco, Denise Naniche
BACKGROUND: During acute HIV infection, HIV actively replicates but seroconversion has not yet occurred. Primary HIV infection (PHI) is characterized by a transient nonspecific febrile illness, a massive inflammatory response, and the progressive appearance of anti-HIV-specific antibodies. In this study, we have identified patterns of inflammatory biomarkers associated with the innate immunological reaction before completion of a full humoral response. METHODS: A symptom-based screening was used to identify acute HIV infection in the Manhiça District Hospital in Mozambique...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225045/membrane-targeting-of-tirap-is-negatively-regulated-by-phosphorylation-in-its-phosphoinositide-binding-motif
#7
Xiaolin Zhao, Wen Xiong, Shuyan Xiao, Tuo-Xian Tang, Jeffrey F Ellena, Geoffrey S Armstrong, Carla V Finkielstein, Daniel G S Capelluto
Pathogen-activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs), such as TLR2 and TLR4, dimerize and move laterally across the plasma membrane to phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate-enriched domains. At these sites, TLRs interact with the TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), triggering a signaling cascade that leads to innate immune responses. Membrane recruitment of TIRAP is mediated by its phosphoinositide (PI)-binding motif (PBM). We show that TIRAP PBM transitions from a disordered to a helical conformation in the presence of either zwitterionic micelles or monodispersed PIs...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224996/intelectin-contributes-to-allergen-induced-il-25-il-33-and-tslp-expression-and-type-2-response-in-asthma-and-atopic-dermatitis
#8
L Yi, D Cheng, K Zhang, X Huo, Y Mo, H Shi, H Di, Y Zou, H Zhang, J Zhao, Y Xu, D J Erle, G Zhen
The epithelial and epidermal innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have pivotal roles in the initiation of allergic inflammation in asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the mechanism by which the expression of these innate cytokines is regulated remains unclear. Intelectin (ITLN) is expressed in airway epithelial cells and promotes allergic airway inflammation. We hypothesized that ITLN is required for allergen-induced IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP expression. In two asthma models, Itln knockdown reduced allergen-induced increases in Il-25, Il-33, and Tslp and development of type 2 response, eosinophilic inflammation, mucus overproduction, and airway hyperresponsiveness...
February 22, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224902/a-quartz-crystal-microbalance-sensor-for-endotoxin-assay-by-monitoring-limulus-amebocyte-lysate-protease-reaction
#9
Tao Liu, Wei Zhang, Lianqun Zhou, Zhen Guo, Yuguo Tang, Peng Miao
Endotoxin is able to trigger strong innate immune responses by interacting with specific receptors on immune cells. Therefore, accurate and rapid detection of endotoxin is of primary importance. In this study, endotoxin induced viscosity variation of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) reagent is monitored by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor with enhanced signal. Based on the analysis of the relationship between endotoxin concentration and QCM frequency shift with time, an effective sensing strategy is developed for endotoxin assay, which shows excellent sensitivity and specificity in the linear detection range from 0...
April 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224232/effects-of-traumeel-tr14-on-recovery-and-inflammatory-immune-response-after-repeated-bouts-of-exercise-a-double-blind-rct
#10
Kerstin Muders, Christian Pilat, Vanessa Deuster, Torsten Frech, Karsten Krüger, Jörn Pons-Kühnemann, Frank-Christoph Mooren
PURPOSE: The purpose of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to investigate the effects of the natural combination medicine Traumeel (Tr14) consisting of 14 diluted biological and mineral components on the inflammatory immune response and recovery up to 72 h after repetitive bouts of bicycle tests. METHODS: Antigen-stimulated IL-1ra and IL-6 were defined as primary outcome measures. Moreover, various immunological and serum muscle damage markers were investigated...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223985/arginine-metabolism-in-myeloid-cells-shapes-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Paulo C Rodriguez, Augusto C Ochoa, Amir A Al-Khami
Arginine metabolism has been a key catabolic and anabolic process throughout the evolution of the immune response. Accruing evidence indicates that arginine-catabolizing enzymes, mainly nitric oxide synthases and arginases, are closely integrated with the control of immune response under physiological and pathological conditions. Myeloid cells are major players that exploit the regulators of arginine metabolism to mediate diverse, although often opposing, immunological and functional consequences. In this article, we focus on the importance of arginine catabolism by myeloid cells in regulating innate and adaptive immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223733/impact-of-humic-acids-on-the-colonic-microbiome-in-healthy-volunteers
#12
Alexander Swidsinski, Yvonne Dörffel, Vera Loening-Baucke, Christoph Gille, Anne Reißhauer, Onder Göktas, Monika Krüger, Jürgen Neuhaus, Wieland Schrödl
AIM: To test the effects of humic acids on innate microbial communities of the colon. METHODS: We followed the effects of oral supplementation with humic acids (Activomin(®)) on concentrations and composition of colonic microbiome in 14 healthy volunteers for 45 d. 3 × 800 mg Activomin(®) were taken orally for 10 d followed by 3 × 400 mg for 35 d. Colonic microbiota were investigated using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Carnoy fixated and paraffin embedded stool cylinders...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223460/mechanism-of-h2s-oxidation-by-the-dissimilatory-perchlorate-reducing-microorganism-azospira-suillum-ps
#13
Misha G Mehta-Kolte, Dana Loutey, Ouwei Wang, Matthew D Youngblut, Christopher G Hubbard, Kelly M Wetmore, Mark E Conrad, John D Coates
The genetic and biochemical basis of perchlorate-dependent H2S oxidation (PSOX) was investigated in the dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing microorganism (DPRM) Azospira suillum PS (PS). Previously, it was shown that all known DPRMs innately oxidize H2S, producing elemental sulfur (S(o)). Although the process involving PSOX is thermodynamically favorable (ΔG°' = -206 kJ ⋅ mol(-1) H2S), the underlying biochemical and genetic mechanisms are currently unknown. Interestingly, H2S is preferentially utilized over physiological electron donors such as lactate or acetate although no growth benefit is obtained from the metabolism...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223394/primary-adrenal-insufficiency-is-associated-with-impaired-natural-killer-cell-function-a-potential-link-to-increased-mortality
#14
Irina Bancos, Jon Hazeldine, Vasileios Chortis, Peter Hampson, Angela E Taylor, Janet M Lord, Wiebke Arlt
OBJECTIVE: Mortality in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is significantly increased, with respiratory infections as a major cause of death. Moreover, patients with PAI report an increased rate of non-fatal infections. Neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that provide frontline protection against invading pathogens. Thus, we compared the function and phenotype of NK cells and neutrophils isolated from PAI patients and healthy controls to ascertain whether altered innate immune responses could be a contributory factor for the increased susceptibility of PAI patients to infection...
April 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223350/mapping-atheroprotective-functions-and-related-proteins-lipoproteins-in-size-fractionated-human-plasma
#15
Debi K Swertfeger, Hailong Li, Sandra Rebholz, Xiaoting Zhu, Amy S Shah, W Sean Davidson, L Jason Lu
HDL has been shown to possess a variety of cardio-protective functions, including removal of excess cholesterol from the periphery, and inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation. It has been proposed that various HDL subparticles exist, each with distinct protein and lipid compositions, which may be responsible for HDL's many functions. We hypothesized that HDL functions will co-migrate with the operational lipoprotein subspecies when separated by gel filtration chromatography. Plasma from 10 healthy male donors was fractionated and the protein composition of the phospholipid containing fractions was analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS)...
February 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223346/chlamydia-trachomatis-cellular-exit-alters-interactions-with-host-dendritic-cells
#16
Ashley M Sherrid, Kevin Hybiske
The strategies utilized by pathogens to exit host cells are an area of pathogenesis which has received surprisingly little attention, considering the necessity of this step for infections to propagate. Even less is known about how exit through these pathways affects downstream host-pathogen interactions and the generation of an immune response. Chlamydia exits host epithelial cells through two equally-active mechanisms: lysis and extrusion. Studies have characterized the outcome of interactions between host innate immune cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages and free, extracellular Chlamydia such as those resulting from lysis...
February 21, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223334/corneal-surface-glycosylation-is-modulated-by-il-1r-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-challenge-but-is-insufficient-for-inhibiting-bacterial-binding
#17
Amber L Jolly, Paresh Agarwal, Matteo M E Metruccio, David R Spiciarich, David J Evans, Carolyn R Bertozzi, Suzanne M J Fleiszig
Cell surface glycosylation is thought to be involved in barrier function against microbes at mucosal surfaces. Previously we showed that the epithelium of healthy mouse corneas becomes vulnerable to P. aeruginosa adhesion if it lacks the innate defense protein MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), or after superficial injury by blotting with tissue paper. Here we explored their effect on corneal surface glycosylation using a metabolic label, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetylgalactosamine (Ac4GalNAz)...
February 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223111/expression-analysis-of-nine-toll-like-receptors-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-responding-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-challenge
#18
Xiao-Ting Zhang, Gui-Rong Zhang, Ze-Chao Shi, Yu-Jie Yuan, Huan Zheng, Li Lin, Kai-Jian Wei, Wei Ji
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which play significant roles in innate immunity to defense against pathogen invasion. Many TLRs have been found in teleosts, but there are no reports about cloning and expression of TLR genes in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). In this study, we analyzed the sequence characters and the relative mRNA expression levels of nine TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4-1, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8-2, TLR9 and TLR22) in different tissues of yellow catfish...
February 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223110/h2a-and-ca-l-hipposin-gene-characteristic-analysis-and-expression-responses-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection-in-carassius-aurutus
#19
Xianghui Kong, Xiangmin Wu, Chao Pei, Jie Zhang, Xianliang Zhao, Li Li, Guoxing Nie, Xuejun Li
Antimicrobial peptide is an important component of the host innate immune system and thus serves a crucial function in host defense against microbial invasion. In this study, H2A and derived antimicrobial peptide Ca-L-hipposin were cloned and characterized in Carassius aurutus. The gene H2A full-length cDNA is 908 bp and includes a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 55 bp and a 3'-terminal UTR of 466 bp with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAA, as well as an open reading frame (ORF) of 387 bp encoding a polypeptide of 128 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 13...
February 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222998/dynamics-of-apc-recruitment-at-the-site-of-injection-following-injection-of-vaccine-adjuvants
#20
Susan van Aalst, Irene Stephanie Ludwig, Peter Johannes Sylvester van Kooten, Ruurd van der Zee, Willem van Eden, Femke Broere
Vaccines often contain adjuvants to strengthen the response to the vaccine antigen. However, their modes of action at the site of injection (SOI) are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the local effects of adjuvant on the innate immune system in mice. We investigated the safe, widely used adjuvants MF59 and aluminum hydroxide (alum), as well as trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB), Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) and the Toll-Like-Receptor-ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4). We assessed muscle immune cell infiltration after adjuvant injection and observed 16h post immunization (hpi) an increased influx with CFA, MF59 and TDB, but not with alum, LPS or Pam3CSK4...
February 17, 2017: Vaccine
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