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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713788/acute-drug-effects-on-habitual-and-non-habitual-responding-in-crossed-high-alcohol-preferring-mice
#1
Christa A Houck, Nicholas J Grahame
RATIONALE: Drug reward plays a central role in acquiring drug-seeking behavior. However, subjects may continue using drugs despite negative consequences because self-administration becomes habitual, and divorced from outcome values. Although a history of drug and alcohol use expedite habit acquisition, and in spite of the fact that self-administration leads to intoxication, the acute effects of drugs on habitual responding are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to observe how acute ethanol and amphetamine affect the balance between habitual and goal-directed behavior, as measured by a fluid-reinforced operant conditioning task...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693716/parental-divorce-and-family-history-of-alcohol-disorder-associations-with-young-adults-alcohol-problems-marijuana-use-and-interpersonal-relations
#2
Michael Windle, Rebecca C Windle
BACKGROUND: This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. METHODS: Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI)...
April 25, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657335/parental-education-and-family-dissolution-a-cross-national-and-cohort-comparison
#3
M D Anne Brons, Juho Härkönen
This is the first study to systematically analyze whether the association between parental education and family dissolution varies cross-nationally and over time. The authors use meta-analytic tools to study cross-national variation between 17 countries with data from the Generations and Gender Study and Harmonized Histories. The association shows considerable cross-national variation, but is positive in most countries. The association between parental education and family dissolution has become less positive or even negative in six countries...
April 2018: Journal of Marriage and the Family
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534066/progression-of-diabetes-heart-disease-and-stroke-multimorbidity-in-middle-aged-women-a-20-year-cohort-study
#4
Xiaolin Xu, Gita D Mishra, Annette J Dobson, Mark Jones
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke multimorbidity (co-occurrence of two or three of these conditions) has increased rapidly. Little is known about how the three conditions progress from one to another sequentially through the life course. We aimed to delineate this progression in middle-aged women and to determine the roles of common risk factors in the accumulation of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke multimorbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from 13,714 women aged 45-50 years without a history of any of the three conditions...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507821/gender-associated-factors-for-frailty-and-their-impact-on-hospitalization-and-mortality-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#5
Qin Zhang, Huanyu Guo, Haifeng Gu, Xiaohong Zhao
Background: Frailty associated with aging increases the risk of falls, disability, and death. We investigated gender-associated factors for frailty. Methods: Data of 3,079 geriatric subjects were retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 database. After excluding 1,126 subjects with missing data on frailty, medical history and survival, data of 1,953 patients were analyzed. Main endpoints were frailty prevalence, mortality rates and causes of death...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454821/mortality-in-single-fathers-compared-with-single-mothers-and-partnered-parents-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Maria Chiu, Farah Rahman, Simone Vigod, Cindy Lau, John Cairney, Paul Kurdyak
BACKGROUND: Single parent families, including families headed by single fathers, are becoming increasingly common around the world. Previous evidence suggests that single parenthood is associated with adverse health outcomes and increased mortality; however, most studies have focused on single mothers, with little known about the health of single fathers. This study aimed to examine mortality in a large population-based sample of Canadian single fathers compared with single mothers and partnered fathers and mothers...
March 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437240/comparison-of-characteristics-of-female-drivers-with-single-and-multiple-dui-convictions
#7
Annah K Bender, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, Vivia V McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Women are increasingly involved in drunk driving and fatal crashes, yet except for the screening performed in criminal justice settings, little is known about their life context, psychiatric histories, and family backgrounds. This study describes a sample of women with histories of arrest for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) who were interviewed outside a criminal justice setting and contrasts women with single versus multiple DUI convictions. METHODS: Women with recent documented histories of DUI participated in a study of women's health behaviors...
March 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427911/comparing-characteristics-of-suicide-attempters-with-suicidal-ideation-and-those-without-suicidal-ideation-treated-in-the-emergency-departments-of-general-hospitals-in-china
#8
Shengnan Wei, Haiyan Li, Jinglin Hou, Wei Chen, Shanyong Tan, Xu Chen, Xiaoxia Qin
Suicide attempts are more frequent than suicides, and suicidal ideation has been identified as an important precursor of both attempted and completed suicide. In this study, we compare the characteristics of suicide attempters with suicidal ideation and suicide attempters without suicidal ideation who were treated in the emergency departments of general hospitals in China. We identified 166 people as having suicidal ideation and 73 people who did not have suicidal ideation. The suicide attempters with suicidal ideation were more likely to be more depressed, older, have a lower score on life quality, female, divorced and unemployed, report having religious beliefs, have a suicide attempt history and a psychiatric diagnosis, and intend to reduce pain as motives...
April 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378631/socio-demographic-and-sexual-practices-associated-with-hiv-infection-in-kenyan-injection-and-non-injection-drug-users
#9
Valentine Budambula, Charles Matoka, James Ouma, Aabid A Ahmed, Michael F Otieno, Tom Were
BACKGROUND: Substance use is increasingly becoming prevalent on the African continent, fueling the spread of HIV infection. Although socio-demographic factors influence substance consumption and risk of HIV infection, the association of these factors with HIV infection is poorly understood among substance users on the African continent. The objective of the study was to assess socio-demographic and sexual practices that are associated with HIV infection among injection drug users (IDUs), non-IDUs, and non-drug users (DUs) at an urban setting of coastal Kenya...
January 30, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373551/depression-in-intimate-partner-violence-victims-in-slovenia-a-crippling-pattern-of-factors-identified-in-family-practice-attendees
#10
Nena Kopčavar Guček, Polona Selič
This multi-centre cross-sectional study explored associations between prevalence of depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) at any time in patients' adult life in 471 participants of a previous IPV study. In 2016, 174 interviews were performed, using the Short Form Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire, the Zung Scale and questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to IPV. Family doctors reviewed patients' medical charts for period from 2012 to 2016, using the Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List, for conditions which persisted for at least three years...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346036/genetics-the-rearing-environment-and-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-divorce-a-swedish-national-adoption-study
#11
Jessica E Salvatore, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
We used classical and extended adoption designs in Swedish registries to disentangle genetic and rearing-environment influences on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In classical adoption analyses, adoptees ( n = 19,715) resembled their biological parents, rather than their adoptive parents, in their history of divorce. In extended adoption analyses, offspring ( n = 82,698) resembled their not-lived-with fathers and their lived-with mothers. There was stronger resemblance to lived-with mothers, providing indirect evidence of rearing-environment influences on the intergenerational transmission of divorce...
March 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335657/changing-gender-norms-and-marriage-dynamics-in-the-united-states
#12
Léa Pessin
Using a regional measure of gender norms from the General Social Surveys together with marital histories from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study explored how gender norms were associated with women's marriage dynamics between 1968 and 2012. Results suggested that a higher prevalence of egalitarian gender norms predicted a decline in marriage formation. This decline was, however, only true for women without a college degree. For college-educated women, the association between gender norms and marriage formation became positive when gender egalitarianism prevailed...
February 2018: Journal of Marriage and the Family
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322403/divorce-separation-and-housing-changes-a-multiprocess-analysis-of-longitudinal-data-from-england-and-wales
#13
Júlia Mikolai, Hill Kulu
This study investigates the effect of marital and nonmarital separation on individuals' residential and housing trajectories. Using rich data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and applying multilevel competing-risks event history models, we analyze the risk of a move of single, married, cohabiting, and separated men and women to different housing types. We distinguish moves due to separation from moves of separated people and account for unobserved codeterminants of moving and separation risks...
February 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307705/validation-of-the-hamilton-depression-rating-scale-hdrs-and-sociodemographic-factors-associated-with-lebanese-depressed-patients
#14
S Obeid, C Abi Elias Hallit, C Haddad, Z Hany, S Hallit
OBJECTIVES: The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is the most commonly used scale for the evaluation of patients' treatments for depression. Since the HDRS has never been validated in Lebanon to our knowledge, our primary objective, therefore, is to investigate the correlation, sensitivity, specificity, as well as the reliability and the validity of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) among Lebanese depressed patients. The secondary objective is to identify sociodemographic factors that would be correlated to depression among our sample...
January 4, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294964/rape-crisis-counseling-trauma-contagion-and-supervision
#15
Niveen Rizkalla, Maya Zeevi-Barkay, Steven P Segal
This study of rape crisis counselors considers whether increased exposure to victims' trauma is associated with increased supervision-believed necessary to combat trauma contagion-and whether such supervision will reduce the negative impact of such exposure. One hundred six women counselors in seven of nine rape crisis centers in Israel completed anonymous questionnaires documenting their work and trauma exposure. Trauma exposure was defined by counselors' number of victim-contact hours per week and their assessment of the trauma severity they experienced...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226791/counting-the-cost-of-afrophobia-post-migration-adaptation-and-mental-health-challenges-of-african-refugees-in-south-africa
#16
Lindokuhle Thela, Andrew Tomita, Varsha Maharaj, Mpho Mhlongo, Jonathan K Burns
There are few studies on the role of migration within sub-Saharan Africa and its relation to the development of mental illness. We investigated post-resettlement adaptation and mental health challenges of African refugees/migrants in Durban, South Africa. We interviewed 335 African help-seeking refugees/migrants for anxiety, depression (25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (30-item Harvard Trauma Questionnaire). Socio-demographic and migration history, focusing on post-migration circumstances and experiences of discrimination in the host country, were obtained...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181456/a-review-of-excessive-sugar-metabolism-on-oral-and-general-health
#17
REVIEW
Kai Foo Chow
Stomatologists and dental practitioners, as they are called in different parts of the world according to tradition and history, are basically physicians who specialise in the study and treatment of diseases of the mouth and surrounding structures. They have always been outstanding in advocating the reduction of sugar consumption, mainly due to its direct connection to the pathogenesis of dental caries. Increasingly, it has come to the attention of researchers, epidemiologists and many healthcare workers and professionals that excessive consumption of sugar is also closely tied to the increase in tandem of our current major health issues like obesity, diabetes, heart, liver and kidney disease, and a host of other associated ailments...
2017: Chinese Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179658/short-and-long-term-effects-of-divorce-and-separation-on-housing-tenure-in-england-and-wales
#18
Júlia Mikolai, Hill Kulu
This paper investigates the effects of marital and non-marital separation on individuals' housing tenure in England and Wales. We apply competing risks event history models to data from the British Household Panel Survey and the UK Household Longitudinal Study to analyse the risk of a residential move to different tenure types, for single, married, cohabiting, and separated men and women. Separated individuals are more likely to move and experience a tenure change than those who are single or in a relationship...
March 2018: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126458/epidemiology-of-hypertension-in-fulani-indigenous-populations-age-gender-and-drivers
#19
Clement Kufe Nyuyki, George Ngufor, George Mbeh, Jean Claude Mbanya
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a public health problem and the main contributor to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Little is known about hypertension among the minority, diverse and socially disadvantaged 23-24 million Fulani/Peul populations dispersed in West, Central and East Africa, undergoing a transition from traditional to transitional and modern lifestyle. This study describes age and gender variations in blood pressure and drivers of hypertension among rural Fulani population of Cameroon...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124972/perinatal-and-familial-risk-factors-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-a-swedish-national-cohort
#20
Rasmus Waehrens, Xinjun Li, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Bengt Zöller
OBJECTIVE: Studies of the importance of perinatal factors for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are sparse. We conducted a large national cohort study to examine perinatal and familial risk factors for IBS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A national cohort of 1,963,685 persons who were born in Sweden in 1973-1992 (identified from the Swedish Birth Registry) were followed up for adult (18 years and older) IBS incidence in the Swedish Patient Register through 2010 (maximum age 38 years)...
November 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
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