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Hepatitis E virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529936/living-with-hepatitis-c-virus-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis-of-qualitative-literature
#1
REVIEW
Laura E Dowsett, Stephanie Coward, Diane L Lorenzetti, Gail MacKean, Fiona Clement
Background and Aims. The lived experience of HCV has not been well documented in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to understand the experiences of living with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Methods. Five databases were searched from inception until January 19, 2015. Studies were included if they focused on adults diagnosed with HCV; reported experience living with HCV; and described original research. Results. 46 studies were included. Studies found that participants had reduced quality of life due to physical symptoms...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529542/frequency-and-geographic-distribution-of-tert-promoter-mutations-in-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
REVIEW
Francesca Pezzuto, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco M Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello
Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mainly develops in subjects chronically infected with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses through a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic alterations in the human genome. Nucleotide changes in coding regions (i.e. TP53, CTNNB1, ARID1A and ARID2) as well as in non-coding regions (i.e. TERT promoter) are considered cancer drivers for HCC development with variable frequencies in different geographic regions depending on the etiology and environmental factors...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529271/evidence-of-infection-with-leptospira-interrogans-and-spotted-fever-group-rickettsiae-among-rodents-in-an-urban-area-of-osaka-city-japan
#3
Kenta Shimizu, Rie Isozumi, Kazutoshi Takami, Isao Kimata, Kanae Shiokawa, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Sanae Nishio, Jiro Arikawa
We examined 33 rodents captured in an urban area of Osaka City, Japan for IgG antibodies against Seoul virus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, hepatitis E virus, Leptospira interrogans, Yersinia pestis, spotted fever, typhus and scrub typhus group rickettsiae. We found that 3 (9.1%) and 1 (3.0%) of the 33 rodents had antibodies against L. interrogans and spotted fever group rickettsiae, respectively. DNAs of leptospires were detected from 2 of the 3 seropositive rodents, but DNA of rickettsia was not detected...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528763/evaluation-of-recombinant-chinese-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-cahev-orf2-and-orf3-proteins-for-protection-of-chickens-against-cahev-infection
#4
Shahid Faraz Syed, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Baoyuan Liu, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiologic agent of big liver and spleen disease in chickens. In 2010, the Chinese avian HEV (CaHEV) strain was isolated from chickens and demonstrated to cause the decreased egg production in layer hens. No avian HEV commercial vaccine has yet been developed to prevent virus infection in China. In this study, recombinant CaHEV truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were evaluated separately for immunoprotection of chickens against CaHEV infection. First, truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527244/-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-circulating-in-colombia
#5
Óscar Santos, Alberto Gómez, Viviana Vizcaíno, María Consuelo Casas, María Del Pilar Ramírez, Patricia Olaya
INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a worldwide public health problem; it has been estimated that over 180 million people are infected with this virus worldwide. Its precise incidence and prevalence (i.e., epidemiology) and the most frequent circulating genotypes in Colombia are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes in infected Colombian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recovered the data on 1,538 HCV isolates from 1,527 patients in two Colombian reference laboratories typed by PAGE or qPCR...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526938/reducing-liver-cancer-risk-in-african-born-immigrants-through-culturally-targeted-hepatitis-b-group-education-programs
#6
Kemi Bolutayo, Alexandre Ly van Manh, Noah Cohen, Daouda Ndiaye, Lina Jandorf, Ponni V Perumalswami
Of 900 West African-born immigrants living in New York City who were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV), over 9% were found to have the infection (Shankar H et al. Clin Infectious Dis 62(S4):S289-s297, 2016). Community targeted group education programs (EP) have been shown to improve immigrant population's health (Bailey E et al. J Natl Med Assoc 92(3):136-42, 2000). Our aim is to enhance HBV screening in at-risk West African immigrants through the development of a group EP as a first critical step to reducing liver cancer risk...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525625/characteristics-of-us-born-versus-foreign-born-americans-of-african-descent-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#7
Mohamed A Hassan, W Ray Kim, Ruosha Li, Coleman I Smith, Michael W Fried, Richard K Sterling, Marc G Ghany, Abdus S Wahed, Lilia M Ganova-Raeva, Lewis R Roberts, Anna S F Lok
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is more common in African Americans than in white Americans. We compared the epidemiologic, clinical, and virological characteristics of US-born African Americans (USAAs) to those of foreign-born African Americans (FBAAs) with chronic hepatitis B. The adult cohort study of the Hepatitis B Research Network enrolls patients with HBV infection from 21 clinical sites in the United States and Canada. A total of 237 (15%) of the adult participants with chronic HBV infection that were enrolled from January 20, 2011, to October 2, 2013, were of African descent, including 57 USAAs and 180 FBAAs (76%)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524366/contrasting-hcv-and-hiv-seroepidemiology-in-11-years-of-blood-donors-screening-in-brazil
#8
J E Levi, S M Lira, C B Bub, M B Polite, C C Terzian, J M Kutner
BACKGROUND: Blood donors are, in principle, healthy individuals who may be revealed as infectious for blood-borne agents by the laboratory screening process, depicting the asymptomatic burden of the disease. Therefore, monitoring hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected donor and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donor and associating to their demographical and behavioural characteristics may shed light on the dynamics and contemporary changes in these viruses' epidemiology. METHODS: Donors presenting repeatedly reactive HCV or HIV serology/nucleic acid testing (NAT) screening results were submitted to confirmatory testing...
May 19, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523926/quantitative-evaluation-of-insulin-resistance-markers-in-pakistani-patients-suffering-from-hcv-associated-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
S N Sabir, S Manzoor, F Parvaiz, M Saalim, E Ghani
The current study was designed to determine the role of the host genes involved in the development of chronic hepatitis C-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was carried out in patients in four different stages of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including treatment-naïve HCV patients, HCV-positive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), non-responders and responders. The mRNA expression level of host genes, such as glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and different adipokines including adiponectin, leptin and resistin, was quantified and compared to healthy controls...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523520/hepatitis-e-virus-serology-and-pcr-does-the-methodology-matter
#10
Lien Cattoir, Frederik Van Hoecke, Tom Van Maerken, Eveline Nys, Inge Ryckaert, Matthias De Boulle, Anja Geerts, Xavier Verhelst, Isabelle Colle, Veronik Hutse, Vanessa Suin, Magali Wautier, Steven Van Gucht, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Elizaveta Padalko
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is an emerging pathogen in the developed world. As the clinical manifestations and routine laboratory parameters are often nonspecific, accurate diagnostic tests are crucial. In the current study, the performance of six serological assays and three PCR assays for the detection of HEV was evaluated. In the setting of the Ghent University Hospital, patients with clinically suspected HEV infection were tested for the presence of HEV IgM and IgG as well as HEV RNA. Serology was performed using six commercial HEV ELISA assays: Biorex, Wantai and Mikrogen IgM and IgG...
May 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522709/identification-of-a-novel-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-strain-isolated-from-a-chronic-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient-in-switzerland
#11
Bo Wang, Dominik Harms, Jörg Hofmann, Diana Ciardo, Agnes Kneubühl, C-Thomas Bock
Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) is the causal pathogen of chronic hepatitis E. We report here the full-length genome sequence of an HEV-3 strain, isolated from a kidney transplant recipient in Switzerland (SW/16-0282). This HEV-3 strain showed less than 88% homology compared to known strains, suggesting a new HEV-3 strain.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520759/first-evidence-of-the-hepatitis-e-virus-in-environmental-waters-in-colombia
#12
Paula A Baez, Maria Camila Lopez, Alejandra Duque-Jaramillo, Dioselina Pelaez, Francisco Molina, Maria-Cristina Navas
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of acute viral hepatitis of enteric transmission. HEV has been detected in environmental samples in several countries from Europe and Asia, constituting a risk factor for waterborne infection. In Colombia, HEV has been identified in samples obtained from patients as well as from swine, but no environmental studies have been carried out. To determine if HEV is present in environmental waters, samples from the main source of drinking water plant and of wastewater system of eight municipalities and two villages of Antioquia state (North West Colombia), were collected between December 2012 and April 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520708/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-screening-among-pregnant-women-and-care-of-infants-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positive-mothers-guam-2014
#13
Winston E Abara, Susan Cha, Tasneem Malik, Mia S DeSimone, Bernadette Schumann, Esther Mallada, Michael Klemme, Vince Aguon, Anne Marie Santos, Melissa Collier, Mary Kamb
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic among adults in the U.S. territory of Guam (1,2). Perinatal HBV transmission, which occurs at birth from an infected mother to her newborn infant, is a major mode of HBV transmission and maintains HBV endemicity (3). Approximately 90% of HBV-infected infants will develop chronic HBV infection, and approximately 25% of those will die prematurely from liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (4,5). Since 1988, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that all pregnant women be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), an indicator of HBV infection, and that infants of women who screen positive (HBsAg-positive women) receive postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) (hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin [HBIG])...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518219/impact-of-the-timing-of-hepatitis-b-virus-identification-and-anti-hepatitis-b-virus-therapy-initiation-on-the-risk-of-adverse-liver-outcomes-for-patients-receiving-cancer-therapy
#14
Jessica P Hwang, Maria E Suarez-Almazor, Scott B Cantor, Andrea Barbo, Heather Y Lin, Sairah Ahmed, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Christian Donato-Santana, Cathy Eng, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Michael J Fisch, Peter McLaughlin, George R Simon, Gabriela Rondon, Elizabeth J Shpall, Anna S Lok
BACKGROUND: Data on the incidence of adverse liver outcomes are limited for cancer patients with chronic (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-positive/hepatitis B core antibody [anti-HBc]-positive) or past (HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive) hepatitis B virus (HBV) after chemotherapy. This study was aimed at determining the impact of test timing and anti-HBV therapy on adverse liver outcomes in these patients. METHODS: Patients with solid or hematologic malignancies who received chemotherapy between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively studied...
May 18, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516201/budget-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-analyses-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hong-kong
#15
X Li, N S Chan, A W Tam, I F N Hung, E W Chan
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the budget impact and cost-effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Hong Kong. A decision analytic model was developed to compare short-term costs and health outcomes of patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection in Hong Kong who were treated with an interferon (INF)-based treatment (dual therapy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin) or DAA-based treatments (sofosbuvir or ledipasvir/sofosbuvir or ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus dasabuvir)...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515509/anti-nuclear-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis-a-probable-adverse-effect-of-sofosbuvir-treatment-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients
#16
Youssef K Ahmad, Salwa Tawfeek, Mohamed Sharaf-Eldin, Hassan E Elbatea, Abdelrahman Kobtan, Ferial El-Kalla, Rehab Badawi, Sherief Abd-Elsalam
Background: Egypt has the largest hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic worldwide. Sofosbuvir is an antiviral drug acting by inhibition of the HCV NS5B polymerase. It has shown high efficacy in combination with several other drugs and has a low reported rate of side effects. Objective: The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess the safety of sofosbuvir-based treatment regimens used to treat chronic hepatitis C infections and to detect any side effects of sofosbuvir not previously reported. Methods: We studied treatment side effects in 3,000 patients with chronic HCV infection treated with sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 24 weeks or treated by pegylated interferon, sofosbuvir, and ribavirin triple therapy for 12 weeks...
April 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513813/hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-after-effective-sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin-treatment-in-a-patient-with-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#17
Silvia Odolini, Paola Lanza, Angiola Angiola, Serena Zaltron, Lucia Urbinati, Andrea Vavassori, Paola Nasta, Elena Festa, Franco Gargiulo, Anna Rodella, Arnaldo Caruso, Salvatore Casari, Francesco Castelli, Mauro Viganò
Reactivation of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported in patients with occult infection (OBI), i.e. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) negative, HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) positive ± antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and detectable HBV DNA in serum or liver, receiving immunosuppressive or cytotoxic therapies. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the risk of HBV reactivation in OBI patients treated with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Here we describe a case of HBV reactivation in a 72-year-old woman with OBI as a possible consequence of effective treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF) and ribavirin (Rbv) for genotype 2a/2c CHC...
May 17, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513591/zinc-is-a-potent-and-specific-inhibitor-of-ifn-%C3%AE-3-signalling
#18
Scott A Read, Kate S O'Connor, Vijay Suppiah, Chantelle L E Ahlenstiel, Stephanie Obeid, Kristina M Cook, Anthony Cunningham, Mark W Douglas, Philip J Hogg, David Booth, Jacob George, Golo Ahlenstiel
Lambda interferons (IFNL, IFN-λ) are pro-inflammatory cytokines important in acute and chronic viral infection. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917 within the IFNL gene locus predict hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance, as well as inflammation and fibrosis progression in viral and non-viral liver disease. The underlying mechanism, however, is not defined. Here we show that the rs12979860 CC genotype correlates with increased hepatic metallothionein expression through increased systemic zinc levels...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512353/favorable-response-to-long-term-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-in-hbeag-positive-patients-with-high-serum-fucosyl-agalactosyl-igg
#19
Cheng-Hsun Ho, Hung-Wen Tsai, Chen-Yeh Lee, Li-Juan Huang, Rong-Nan Chien, I-Chin Wu, Yen-Cheng Chiu, Wen-Chun Liu, Pin-Nan Cheng, Ting-Tsung Chang, Shu-Hui Chen
Aberrant IgG glycosylation is a feature of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but its effect on a long-term efficacy of antiviral therapy has never been addressed. After a screening of 1,085 patients, 132 eligible HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 101 HBeAg-negative patients with anti-HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue monotherapy were enrolled with on-treatment follow-ups for at least one year. IgG1 N-glycome was profiled using mass spectrometry and evaluated for its relevance in treatment responses. The results indicated that a high level of serum fucosyl-agalactosyl IgG1 (IgG1-G0F) at baseline was associated with the severity of liver inflammation and damage but advanced treatment responses, including HBV DNA loss, HBeAg seroconversion, a reduced drug resistance rate, and a liver histological improvement at year 1, thereby improving the long-term treatment efficacy and the probability of treatment discontinuation in HBeAg-positive patients...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506371/hepatitis-e-virus-and-the-liver-clinical-settings-and-liver-pathology
#20
REVIEW
Daniela Lenggenhager, Achim Weber
Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, now increasingly recognized also in nonendemic regions. Clinical manifestation of hepatitis E includes mostly asymptomatic/subclinical presentations or acute, self-limiting hepatitis, but also potentially fatal liver failure or chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised individuals. Accordingly, hepatitis E histolpathologic patterns range from an unremarkable histology over acute (cholestatic) hepatitis with variable degree of necrosis to chronic hepatitis with fibrosis...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
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