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Hepatitis E virus

Nara Rubia de Freitas, Edna Braz Rocha de Santana, Ágabo Macedo da Costa E Silva, Sueli Meira da Silva, Sheila Araújo Teles, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Regina Maria Bringel Martins
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has a worldwide distribution and represents an important cause of acute hepatitis. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of HEV infection and factors associated with this infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil. From April 2012 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 379 patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in the City of Goiania, Central Brazil. Serum samples of all patients were tested for serological markers of HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and IgG) by ELISA...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Ahmed E Arafa, Amel A Mohamed, Manal M Anwar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood-borne pathogens (BBP) [hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV] pose a considerable infectious risk for nurses, resulting in unwanted health outcomes and psychological stress. AIM OF THE WORK: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of nurses and define administrative roles regarding in BBP and infection control (IC) measures in selected Beni-Suef Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2014 to January 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ebba Elisabeth Mannheimer, Lene Holm Harritshøj, Terese Lea Katzenstein
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe consequences for pregnant women with HEV. Although the increased mortality among pregnant women predominantly is seen in developing countries where genotype 1 is endemic, there are also large differences in mortality among pregnant women within these countries...
October 10, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Sammy Saab, Ping-Yu Chen, Clara E Saab, Myron J Tong
Liver transplant (LT) is now an established indication for patients with chronic hepatitis B, mainly because of the development and use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and oral antivirals for prophylaxis. The combination of low-dose HBIG and antivirals has been considered the standard prophylaxis regimen to prevent post-LT recurrence of hepatitis B. The important remaining issues are related to the long-term cost of HBIG and the risk of escape hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants. Strategies for prevention of HBV after LT are constantly improving...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Zobair M Younossi, Haesuk Park, Douglas Dieterich, Sammy Saab, Aijaz Ahmed, Stuart C Gordon
BACKGROUND: New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has dramatically increased cure rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but has also substantially raised treatment costs. AIM: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit and net costs (i.e. efficiency frontier) and the quality-adjusted cost of care associated with the evolution of treatment regimens for patients with HCV genotype 1 in the United States. DESIGN: A decision-analytic Markov model...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wei Hui, Linlin Wei, Zhuo Li, Xinhui Guo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are the most common cause of acute hepatitis, but they can also take a chronic course. There is no specific therapy for acute hepatitis, and current treatment is supportive. Choosing ribavirin as the first-line therapy for chronic HEV is advisable, especially in solid organ transplant patients. Pegylated interferon-α has been used successfully for treatment of hepatitis E but is associated with major side effects. Cholestasis is one of the most common, but devastating, manifestations in hepatitis E...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Chenyan Zhao, Youchun Wang
Serological and nucleic acid tests for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been developed for both epidemiologic and diagnostic purposes. The laboratory diagnosis of HEV infection depends on the detection of HEV antigen, HEV RNA, and serum antibodies against HEV (immunoglobulin [Ig]A, IgM, and IgG). Anti-HEV IgM antibodies can be detected during the acute phase of the illness and can last approximately 4 or 5 months, representing recent exposure, whereas anti-HEV IgG antibodies can last more than 10 years, representing remote exposure...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shaojie Xin, Long Xiao
The clinical manifestations of hepatitis E are similar to those of other types of viral hepatitis. While acute hepatitis E is usually self-limited, pregnant women and chronic liver disease patients suffering from acute hepatitis E usually present with severe clinical manifestations that may develop into fulminant hepatic failure. Chronic HEV infection is typically only seen in organ transplant patients; most HEV cases are asymptomatic and rarely display jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, or ascites...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lin Wang, Ling Wang
Animal models are one of the most important tools in the study of human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. They are particularly important in light of the major limitations of the cell culture system for HEV. Besides nonhuman primates, which are extremely valuable because of their susceptibility to HEV genotypes 1-4, animals like swine, rabbit, and chicken are also potential models for studies of pathogenesis, cross-species infection, and the molecular biology of HEV. Identification of the most useful animal model for human HEV infection studies is crucial to further investigations into this ubiquitous yet poorly understood virus...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yihua Zhou
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute self-limiting hepatitis in most cases and chronic infection in rare circumstances. It is believed to be noncytopathic, so immunologically mediated events should play important roles in its pathogenesis and infection outcomes. The anti-HEV antibody response was clarified when the major antigenic determinants on the ORF2 polypeptide were determined, which are located in its C-terminal portion. This subregion also forms the conformational neutralization epitopes. Robust anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG responses usually develop 3-4 weeks after infection in experimentally infected nonhuman primates...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yansheng Geng, Youchun Wang
Transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route. Large epidemics of hepatitis E in the developing countries of Asia and Africa are waterborne and spread through contaminated drinking water. The reservoir of HEV in developed countries is believed to be in animals with zoonotic transmission to humans, possibly through direct contact or the consumption of undercooked contaminated meat. HEV transmission through blood and vertical transmission have also been reported.
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yulin Zhang, Wanyun Gong, Hang Zeng, Ling Wang
Comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of multiple hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates has revealed extensive genomic diversity among them. Recently, a variety of genetically distinct HEV variants have also been isolated and identified from large numbers of animal species, including birds, rabbits, rats, ferrets, bats, cutthroat trout, and camels, among others. Furthermore, it has been reported that recombination in HEV genomes takes place in animals and in human patients. Also, chronic HEV infection in immunocompromised individuals has revealed the presence of viral strains carrying insertions from human genes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Frederik Widén
Hepatitis E (HE) virus infection is not limited to spread from human to human but also occurs between animals and more importantly as zoonotic spread from animals to humans. Genotyping of strains from hepatitis E virus-infected patients has revealed that these infections are not all caused by genotypes 1 or 2 but often by genotypes 3 or 4. Therefore, it is important to understand the striking difference between the spread of genotypes 1 and 2 in countries with poor sanitary standards and the spread of genotypes 3 and 4 in countries with good sanitary standards...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yansheng Geng, Youchun Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is globally prevalent with relatively high percentages of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G-positive individuals in the populations of developing and developed countries. There are two distinct epidemiologic patterns of hepatitis E. In areas with high disease endemicity, primarily developing countries in Asia and Africa, this disease is caused mainly by genotype 1 or 2 HEV, both of which transmit predominantly through contaminated water and occur as either outbreaks or as sporadic cases of acute hepatitis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yan Zhou, Chenyan Zhao, Yabin Tian, Nan Xu, Youchun Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of 7.2 kb, which consists of a 5' noncoding region, three open reading frames (ORFs), and a 3' noncoding region. ORF1 is diverse between genotypes and encodes the nonstructural proteins, which include the enzymes needed for virus replication. In addition to its role in virus replication, the function of ORF1 is relevant to viral adaption in cultured cells and may also relate to virus infection and HEV pathogenicity...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Youchun Wang, Chenyan Zhao, Ying Qi, Yansheng Geng
Since the sequence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) was determined from a patient with enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis in 1989, similar sequences have been isolated from many different animals, including pigs, wild boars, deer, rabbits, bats, rats, chicken, and trout. All of these sequences have the same genomic organization, which contains open reading frames (ORFs) 1, 2, and 3, although their genomic sequences are variable. Some have proposed that they be classified as new family, Hepeviridae, which would be further divided into different genera and species according to their sequence variability...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Irene Zolotukhin, David M Markusic, Brett Palaschak, Brad E Hoffman, Meera A Srikanthan, Roland W Herzog
Hemophilia A and B are coagulation disorders resulting from the loss of functional coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX proteins, respectively. Gene therapy for hemophilia with adeno-associated virus vectors has shown efficacy in hemophilia B patients. Although hemophilia A patients are more prevalent, the development of therapeutic adeno-associated virus vectors has been impeded by the size of the F8 cDNA and impaired secretion of FVIII protein. Further, it has been reported that over-expression of the FVIII protein induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and activates the unfolded protein response pathway both in vitro and in hepatocytes in vivo, presumably due to retention of misfolded FVIII protein within the endoplasmic reticulum...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Kaan Demiören, Hüseyin Güdücüoğlu
AIM: Hepatitis E virus is an etiological agent of hepatitis which is transmitted enterically and may lead to water-born outbreaks. Although it is mainly transmitted by the fecal-oral route, it is estimated that many cases are associated with zoonotic transmission in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the childhood age group in the province of Van and to demonstrate the relationship between seroprevalence and demographic properties, residential house/region, water supply used at home, dealing with livestock and history of surgery...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Bahaa Abu-Raya, Tobias R Kollmann, Arnaud Marchant, Duncan M MacGillivray
Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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