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Hepatitis E virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458021/increased-mortality-from-influenza-infection-in-long-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-knockout-mice
#1
Apurva Shinde, Jiadi Luo, Sivakama S Bharathi, Huifang Shi, Megan E Beck, Kevin J McHugh, John F Alcorn, Jieru Wang, Eric S Goetzman
We previously showed that the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is expressed in alveolar type II pneumocytes and that LCAD-/- mice have altered breathing mechanics and surfactant defects. Here, we hypothesized that LCAD-/- mice would be susceptible to influenza infection. Indeed, LCAD-/- mice demonstrated increased mortality following infection with 2009 pandemic influenza (A/CA/07/09). However, the mortality was not due to increased lung injury, as inflammatory cell counts, viral titers, and histology scores all showed non-significant trends toward milder injury in LCAD-/- mice...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457639/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-large-cohort-study-in-yunnan-province-china
#2
Shiyi Zhou, Li Ren, Xueshan Xia, Zhijiang Miao, Fen Huang, Yunlong Li, Mei Zhu, Zhenrong Xie, Yu Xu, Yuan Qian, Qiuwei Pan, Kunhua Wang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in immunocompromised patients often results in distinct outcome, compared to the infection in general population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, potential risk factors and clinical features of HEV infection among HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Yunnan province, China. METHODS: A total of 770 HIV-infected patients between May 2015 and February 2016 were enrolled in Yunnan, China...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456803/potent-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-c-virus-ns3-protease-employment-of-a-difluoromethyl-group-as-a-hydrogen-bond-donor
#3
Barbara Zheng, Stanley V D'Andrea, Li-Qiang Sun, Alan Xiangdong Wang, Yan Chen, Peter Hrnciar, Jacques Friborg, Paul Falk, Dennis Hernandez, Fei Yu, Amy K Sheaffer, Jay O Knipe, Kathy Mosure, Ramkumar Rajamani, Andrew C Good, Kevin Kish, Jeffrey Tredup, Herbert E Klei, Manjula Paruchuri, Alicia Ng, Qi Gao, Richard A Rampulla, Arvind Mathur, Nicholas A Meanwell, Fiona McPhee, Paul M Scola
The design and synthesis of potent, tripeptidic acylsulfonamide inhibitors of HCV NS3 protease that contain a difluoromethyl cyclopropyl amino acid at P1 are described. A cocrystal structure of 18 with a NS3/4A protease complex suggests the presence of a H-bond between the polarized C-H of the CHF2 moiety and the backbone carbonyl of Leu135 of the enzyme. Structure-activity relationship studies indicate that this H-bond enhances enzyme inhibitory potency by 13- and 17-fold compared to the CH3 and CF3 analogues, respectively, providing insight into the deployment of this unique amino acid...
February 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456411/clinical-utility-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-kinetics-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-during-long-term-entecavir-therapy
#4
Tien-Ching Lin, Yen-Cheng Chiu, Hung-Chih Chiu, Wen-Chun Liu, Pin-Nan Cheng, Chiung-Yu Chen, Ting-Tsung Chang, I-Chin Wu
AIM: To investigate the utility of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) kinetics in chronic hepatitis B patients during long-term entecavir treatment. METHODS: This retrospective study included treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients who received at least 2 years of consecutive entecavir treatment. Patients were followed up at three to six month intervals with liver biochemistry, hepatitis B virus DNA, and abdominal sonography. In hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients, HBeAg levels were assessed every three to six month until results became negative...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456407/analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-pres1-variability-and-prevalence-of-the-rs2296651-polymorphism-in-a-spanish-population
#5
Rosario Casillas, David Tabernero, Josep Gregori, Irene Belmonte, Maria Francesca Cortese, Carolina González, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Rosa Maria López, Josep Quer, Rafael Esteban, Maria Buti, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías
AIM: To determine the variability/conservation of the domain of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS1 region that interacts with sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (hereafter, NTCP-interacting domain) and the prevalence of the rs2296651 polymorphism (S267F, NTCP variant) in a Spanish population. METHODS: Serum samples from 246 individuals were included and divided into 3 groups: patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) ( n = 41, 73% Caucasians), patients with resolved HBV infection ( n = 100, 100% Caucasians) and an HBV-uninfected control group ( n = 105, 100% Caucasians)...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456079/phase-iv-randomized-clinical-study-peginterferon-alfa-2a-with-adefovir-or-entecavir-pre-therapy-for-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b
#6
Chao-Wei Hsu, Wei-Wen Su, Chuan-Mo Lee, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Wan-Long Chuang, Jia-Horng Kao, Heng-Cheng Chu, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Rong-Nan Chien, Yun-Fan Liaw
BACKGROUND: Efficacy of sequential therapy with nucleos(t)ide analogues and interferons versus monotherapy in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains unexplored. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of sequential therapy with adefovir (ADV) or entecavir (ETV) followed by peginterferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2a in Taiwanese patients with HBeAg-positive. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted at nine sites in Taiwan from April 2010 to October 2013...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453199/simultaneous-assessment-of-clearance-metabolism-induction-and-drug-drug-interaction-potential-using-a-long-term-in-vitro-liver-model-for-a-novel-hepatitis-b-virus-inhibitor
#7
Nicole A Kratochwil, Miriam Triyatni, Martina B Mueller, Florian Klammers, Brian Leonard, Dan Turley, Josephine Schmaler, Aynur Ekiciler, Birgit Molitor, Isabelle Walter, Pierre-Alexis Gonsard, Charles A Tournillac, Alexandre Durrwell, Michaela Marschmann, Russell Jones, Mohammed Ullah, Franziska Boess, Giorgio Ottaviani, Yuyan Yin, Neil J Parrott, Stephen Fowler
Long-term in vitro liver models are now widely explored for human hepatic metabolic clearance prediction, enzyme phenotyping, cross species metabolism, comparison of low clearance drugs as well as induction studies. Here, we present studies using a long-term liver model which show how metabolism and active transport, drug-drug interactions and enzyme induction in healthy and diseased states, e.g. hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, may be assessed in a single test system to enable effective data integration for PBPK modeling...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453099/impact-of-integrated-viral-dna-on-the-goal-to-clear-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-with-different-therapeutic-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Magnus Lindh, Gustaf E Rydell, Simon B Larsson
A hallmark of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the serum of patients. Sustained loss of HBV DNA and HBsAg from the blood are main goals for treatment, and considered as functional cure. It is rarely achieved with long-term nucleoside analogue treatment though, both because cccDNA, the template for viral replication, is not completely cleared, and probably also because hepatocytes with HBV DNA integrated into their chromosomes persist and continue to produce large amounts of HBsAg...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452164/proposal-for-a-new-subtype-of-the-zoonotic-genotype-3-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-3l
#9
Luca De Sabato, Philippe Lemey, Bram Vrancken, Lebana Bonfanti, Letizia Ceglie, Gabriele Vaccari, Ilaria Di Bartolo
The near-complete genomic sequences of two hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains, detected from feces of infected pigs, were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis and p-distance comparisons of the complete coding regions showed a close relationship to the French swine strain FR-SHEV3c-like detected in 2006 (p-distance value 0.101), belonging to HEV-3 but not assigned to any known subtype. The three HEV sequences showed, relatively high nucleotide distances (p-distance >0.129) compared to the other defined HEV subtype references and unclassified strains...
February 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451519/-hepatitis-c-virus-infections-is-it-only-e-liver-disease
#10
Salvatore Petta
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widely diffused in general population, and the likelihood that an infected individual is affected by other disesases is high. A lot of epidemiological and explicative studies, even if with different levels of evidence, reported a potential effect of HCV infection -by direct and indirect mechanisms- on the pathogenesis of extrahepatic comorbidities related to dysregulation of the immune system, or cardiometabolic comorbidities like diabetes, neuropsychiatric disorders, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular alterations, etc...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450199/transfusion-transmitted-hepatitis-e-nat-screening-of-blood-donations-and-infectious-dose
#11
Jens Dreier, Cornelius Knabbe, Tanja Vollmer
The risk and importance of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus (TT-HEV) infections by contaminated blood products is currently a controversial discussed topic in transfusion medicine. The infectious dose, in particular, remains an unknown quantity. In the present study, we illuminate and review this aspect seen from the viewpoint of a blood donation service with more than 2 years of experience in routine HEV blood donor screening. We systematically review the actual status of presently known cases of TT-HEV infections and available routine NAT-screening assays...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447232/hepatitis-b-virus-genotypes-a1-a2-and-e-in-cape-verde-unequal-distribution-through-the-islands-and-association-with-human-flows
#12
Isabel Inês M de Pina-Araujo, Natalia Spitz, Caroline C Soares, Christian Niel, Barbara V Lago, Selma A Gomes
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) diversity has not been previously studied in Cape Verde. The archipelago was discovered in 1460 by Portuguese explorers, who brought African slaves to colonise the islands. In this study, we investigated the HBV characteristics from 183 HBsAg-positive Cape Verdean individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of the pre-S/S region and the full-length genomes revealed 54 isolates with HBV/A1 (57%), 21 with HBV/A2 (22%), 19 with HBV/E (20%), and one with HBV/D (1%). HBV genotypes and subgenotypes were unequally distributed through the islands...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447061/models-to-predict-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-patients-with-cancer-undergoing-systemic-anticancer-therapy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Jessica P Hwang, Anna S Lok, Michael J Fisch, Scott B Cantor, Andrea Barbo, Heather Y Lin, Jessica T Foreman, John M Vierling, Harrys A Torres, Bruno P Granwehr, Ethan Miller, Cathy Eng, George R Simon, Sairah Ahmed, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Jorge Romaguera, Maria E Suarez-Almazor
Purpose Most patients with cancer are not screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before undergoing anticancer therapy, and optimal screening strategies are unknown. We sought to develop selective HBV screening strategies for patients who require systemic anticancer therapy. Methods This prospective cohort study included adults age ≥ 18 years with solid or hematologic malignancies who received systemic anticancer therapy at a comprehensive cancer center during 2013 and 2014. Patients underwent hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody testing, and completed a 19-question modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HBV survey...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446470/hev-and-hav-seroprevalence-in-men-that-have-sex-with-men-msm-an-update-from-milan-italy
#14
Letizia Greco, Sara Colonia Uceda Renteria, Davide Guarneri, Anna Orlandi, Antonella Zoccoli, Susanna Benardon, Marco Cusini, Giovanna Lunghi
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a feco-orally transmitted pathogen and one of the most common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Recent studies in developed countries suggested that a direct human-to-human contact such as for sexually transmitted diseases may play a significant role in the HEV spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HEV and HAV in a group of MSM, including subjects HIV and Treponema infected, in Milan, Italy. The overall anti HEV IgG seroprevalence in MSM was 10.2% (65/636), instead in the control group the detection rate was 5...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445209/3d-microfluidic-liver-cultures-as-a-physiological-preclinical-tool-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#15
A M Ortega-Prieto, J K Skelton, S N Wai, E Large, M Lussignol, G Vizcay-Barrena, D Hughes, R A Fleck, M Thursz, M T Catanese, M Dorner
With more than 240 million people infected, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health concern. The inability to mimic the complexity of the liver using cell lines and regular primary human hepatocyte (PHH) cultures pose significant limitations for studying host/pathogen interactions. Here, we describe a 3D microfluidic PHH system permissive to HBV infection, which can be maintained for at least 40 days. This system enables the recapitulation of all steps of the HBV life cycle, including the replication of patient-derived HBV and the maintenance of HBV cccDNA...
February 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442296/first-report-of-the-presence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-scottish-harvested-shellfish-purchased-at-retail-level
#16
Zoe O'Hara, Claire Crossan, John Craft, Linda Scobie
Shellfish samples (n = 310) purchased from local supermarkets were analysed for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) by nested RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR. Overall, 2.9% of samples tested positive for the presence of HEV. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV sequences revealed all as being genotype 3 HEV. This is the first report of the detection of HEV in commercially sold shellfish in Scotland. These findings may encourage further research that will help address the gaps in the knowledge in respect to foodborne transmission of HEV in Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom...
February 13, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441690/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-of-slaughtered-healthy-pigs-in-brazil
#17
A R Amorim, G S Mendes, G P A Pena, N Santos
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that can be transmitted through contaminated raw or undercooked meat derived from domestic pigs. HEV infections have been documented among pig herds, pig products and environmental samples raising concern about the spread of the virus. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are considered zoonotic and have been linked to human cases. HEV was detected in 51 of 335 bile samples (15.2%) from healthy pigs in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences from ORF1 and ORF2 regions yielded discordant results, assigning isolates to subtypes 3c and 3i, respectively, suggesting intragenotypic HEV recombination...
February 13, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439266/effect-of-the-opioid-crisis-on-the-donor-pool-for-kidney-transplantation-an-analysis-of-national-kidney-deceased-donor-trends-from-2010-2016
#18
Donald F Chute, Meghan E Sise
BACKGROUND: The opioid crisis has led to a dramatic increase in the number of drug overdose deaths in the United States. Little is known about the effect of the opioid crisis on the kidney transplant donor pool, particularly on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected donors. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the data from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network from 2010 to 2016. We determined the changes in characteristics of kidney transplant donors and evaluated which changes may be directly related to the opioid crisis...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438402/haiku-new-paradigm-for-the-reverse-genetics-of-emerging-rna-viruses
#19
Thérèse Atieh, Miriam Diala El Ayoubi, Fabien Aubry, Stéphane Priet, Xavier de Lamballerie, Antoine Nougairède
Reverse genetics is key technology for producing wild-type and genetically modified viruses. The ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) method is a recent versatile and user-friendly reverse genetics method to rescue RNA viruses. The main constraint of its canonic protocol was the requirement to produce (e.g., by DNA synthesis or fusion PCR) 5' and 3' modified genomic fragments encompassing the human cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV) and the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme/simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (HDR/SV40pA), respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435907/sustained-virological-response-in-special-populations-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-using-interferon-free-treatments-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-cohort-studies
#20
REVIEW
Vinicius Lins Ferreira, Letícia Paula Leonart, Fernanda Stumpf Tonin, Helena Hiemisch Lobo Borba, Roberto Pontarolo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis C treatment has changed considerably in recent years, and many interferon (IFN)-free therapies are now available. Considering the high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) presented by clinical trials for these treatments, high rates of effectiveness are also expected in real-world clinical practice. Hence, this study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of IFN-free therapies for hepatitis C...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
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