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Hepatitis E virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036810/naturalizing-activity-and-safety-of-human-monoclonal-antibodies-against-of-hepatitis-c-virus
#1
Tawfeek H Abelhafez, Ashraf A Tabll, Mostafa K El-Awady, Mohammad M Mashaly, Reem El Shenawy, Yasmine S El-Abd, Maysa H Shaker, Camelia A Abdel Malak
AIM: Assessment of neutralizing activity of the human monoclonal antibodies against HCV and also study its safety in experimental small animals (Swiss mice). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Assessment of neutralizing activity of the human monoclonal antibodies against HCV envelope regions (E1, E2) by two methods (by HCV cc infectious system and by using positive HCV positive serum as source of HCV particles (neutralizing assay 2). Dot ELISA were used to study the activity of the generated antibodies...
September 29, 2017: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035130/patterns-of-serologic-markers-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-the-risk-of-transmission-among-pregnant-women-in-southwestern-nigeria
#2
I M Ifeorah, A S Bakarey, M O Adewumi, F O C Faleye, A Akere, C E Omoruyi, A O Ogunwale, C C Uttah, M A Oketade, J A Adeniji
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern in developing countries that has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Vertical transmission of HBV from mother to child has been identified as a major factor leading to chronicity with attendant liver conditions, especially in poor socioeconomic settings. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of serological HBV markers among pregnant women in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria and to determine the implications for perinatal HBV transmission. This study revealed the presence of varied HBV serological patterns of infection or immunity among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria, and thus the risk of mother to child transmission...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035002/short-term-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-hepatitis-c-virus-eradication-following-direct-acting-anti-viral-treatment
#3
E Ogawa, N Furusyo, H Nomura, K Dohmen, N Higashi, K Takahashi, A Kawano, K Azuma, T Satoh, M Nakamuta, T Koyanagi, M Kato, S Shimoda, E Kajiwara, J Hayashi
BACKGROUND: With the development of direct-acting anti-virals (DAAs), almost all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can achieve sustained viral response (SVR). AIM: To evaluate the short-term risk of HCC among patients with SVR by DAAs, including those with cirrhosis or previous HCC. METHODS: This large-scale, multicentre cohort study included 1,675 consecutive patients who achieved SVR by treatment with interferon-free sofosbuvir-based regimens, divided into groups with (n = 152) or without previous HCC (n = 1,523)...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034998/the-albumin-bilirubin-grade-uncovers-the-prognostic-relationship-between-hepatic-reserve-and-immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
D J Pinato, R Sharma, C Citti, H Platt, M Ventura-Cots, E Allara, T-Y Chen, A Dalla Pria, M Jain, B Mínguez, L Kikuchi, E Kaufman West, M Merli, D E Kaplan, H Hasson, K Marks, M Nelson, M Núñez, A Aytaman, M Bower, N Bräu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related mortality in people living with HIV, where co-infection with hepatotropic viruses accelerates the course of chronic liver disease. AIM: To evaluate whether the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, a more accurate marker of liver dysfunction in HCC, might identify patients with progressive liver dysfunction in the context of HIV/hepatitis co-infection. METHODS: Using uni- and multi-variable analyses, we studied the albumin-bilirubin grade as a predictor of overall survival (OS) in a large, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV-associated HCC recruited from 44 centres in 9 countries within the Liver Cancer in HIV study group...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033615/clinical-economic-and-humanistic-burden-of-needlestick-injuries-in-healthcare-workers
#5
REVIEW
Catherine E Cooke, Jennifer M Stephens
INTRODUCTION: Needlestick injuries (NSIs) from a contaminated needle put healthcare workers (HCWs) at risk of becoming infected with a blood-borne virus and suffering serious short- and long-term medical consequences. Hypodermic injections using disposable syringes and needles are the most frequent cause of NSIs. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic literature review on NSI and active safety-engineered devices for hypodermic injection. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched for studies that evaluated the clinical, economic, or humanistic outcomes of NSI or active safety-engineered devices...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032478/total-knee-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-a-history-of-illicit-intravenous-drug-abuse
#6
David E Bauer, Andreas Hingsammer, Lukas Ernstbrunner, Alexander Aichmair, Andrea B Rosskopf, Franziska Eckers, Karl Wieser, Sandro F Fucentese
PURPOSE: Injection drug users are at high risk for both infection with blood-borne pathogens, namely, human immune deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis-B, -C virus, various bacterial infections, as well as early primary and secondary joint degeneration. When total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is anticipated the risk of septic complications is a major concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiographic outcome of patients with a history of intravenous drug use after total knee arthroplasty...
October 14, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029951/intrahepatic-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-from-hcv-infected-patients-show-an-exhausted-phenotype-but-can-inhibit-hcv-replication
#7
E Cimini, V Bordoni, A Sacchi, U Visco-Comandini, M Montalbano, C Taibi, R Casetti, E Lalle, G D'Offizi, M R Capobianchi, C Agrati
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence results from inefficiencies of both innate and adaptive immune responses to eradicate the infection. A functional impairment of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was described but few data are available on Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in the liver that, however, represents the battlefield in the HCV/host interaction. Aim of this work was to compare circulating and intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in chronic HCV-infected patients (HCV(pos)) and in HCV-negative (HCV(neg)) subjects. Phenotypic and functional analysis was performed by flow cytometry...
October 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027370/molecular-detection-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-boar-population-in-eastern-romania
#8
D Porea, A Anita, A Demange, C Raileanu, L Oslobanu Ludu, D Anita, G Savuta, N Pavio
In industrialized countries, Hepatitis E is a recognized zoonosis, with wild boar and swine representing the main reservoirs for zoonotic genotype HEV-3 in Europe. Data related to HEV infection in wild boar population in Romania are restricted to serological surveys. Therefore, our main goal was to determine the HEV prevalence in wild boar population and to characterize HEV strains circulating in Romania. Using TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay, we analyzed the presence of RNA HEV in 45 liver samples and five spleen samples collected from 50 wild boars...
October 12, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023813/dual-catenin-loss-in-murine-liver-causes-tight-junctional-deregulation-and-progressive-intrahepatic-cholestasis
#9
Tirthadipa Pradhan-Sundd, Lili Zhou, Ravi Vats, An Jiang, Laura Molina, Sucha Singh, Minakshi Poddar, Jacquelyn M Russell, Donna B Stolz, Michael Oertel, Udayan Apte, Simon Watkins, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Kari N Nejak-Bowen, Prithu Sundd, Satdarshan Pal Monga
β-Catenin, the downstream effector of the Wnt signaling, plays important roles in hepatic development, regeneration and tumorigenesis. However, its role at hepatocyte adherens junctions (AJ) is relatively poorly understood, chiefly due to spontaneous compensation by γ-catenin. Here, we simultaneously ablate β- and γ-catenin expression in mouse liver by interbreeding β-catenin-γ-catenin double-floxed mice and albumin-cre transgenic mice. Double knockout mice (DKO) show failure to thrive, impaired hepatocyte differentiation, cholemia, ductular reaction, progressive cholestasis, inflammation, fibrosis and tumorigenesis, which was associated with deregulation of tight junctions (TJ) and bile acid transporters, leading to early morbidity and mortality, a phenotype reminiscent of Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (PFIC)...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022866/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-hepeviridae
#10
Michael A Purdy, Tim J Harrison, S Jameel, X-J Meng, H Okamoto, W H M Van der Poel, Donald B Smith, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans and several mammalian species; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. Extrahepatic manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis and pancreatitis have been described in humans...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022122/association-of-interferon-lambda-polymorphisms-with-elevated-baseline-viral-loads-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-6-infection
#11
Linh Thuy Nguyen, Dzung Van Nguyen, Michael J Carr, William W Hall, Lan Anh Nguyen
Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. For clinical decision making, genetic variation in the interferon-λ (IFNL) cluster has been utilised as a baseline predictor of natural and interferon-based treatment-induced viral clearance. In Vietnam, where HCV genotypes 1 (g1) and g6 predominate, no prior studies have been conducted investigating associations of IFNL3/4 polymorphisms with spontaneous clearance (SC) or HCV viral load (VL) in chronic infection...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020629/differential-regulation-of-lipoprotein-and-hepatitis-c-virus-secretion-by-rab1b
#12
Constantin N Takacs, Ursula Andreo, Viet Loan Dao Thi, Xianfang Wu, Caroline E Gleason, Michelle S Itano, Gabriella S Spitz-Becker, Rachel L Belote, Brenna R Hedin, Margaret A Scull, Charles M Rice, Sanford M Simon
Secretory cells produce diverse cargoes, yet how they regulate concomitant secretory traffic remains insufficiently explored. Rab GTPases control intracellular vesicular transport. To map secretion pathways, we generated a library of lentivirus-expressed dominant-negative Rab mutants and used it in a large-scale screen to identify regulators of hepatic lipoprotein secretion. We identified several candidate pathways, including those mediated by Rab11 and Rab8. Surprisingly, inhibition of Rab1b, the major regulator of transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, differently affected the secretion of the very-low-density lipoprotein components ApoE and ApoB100, despite their final association on mature secreted lipoprotein particles...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017236/host-innate-immunity-against-hepatitis-e-virus-and-viral-evasion-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Sangmin Kang, Jinjong Myoung
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections cause epidemic or sporadic acute hepatitis, which are mostly self-limiting. However, viral infection in immunocompromised patients and pregnant women may result in serious consequences such as chronic hepatitis and liver damages, mortality of the latter of which reaches up to 20~30%. Type I Interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral immunity is known to be the first line defense against virus infection. Upon HEV infection in the cell, the virus genome is recognized by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to rapid activation of intracellular signaling cascades...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994560/epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-fulminant-viral-hepatitis-in-pregnant-women-a-review
#14
Grazia Tosone, Davide Simeone, Anna M Spera, Giulio Viceconte, Vincenzo Bianco, Raffaele Orlando
The pregnancy-associated immunological and hormonal changes may alter the immune response to infectious agents, including hepatitis viruses. Therefore, this phenomenon may affect the clinical course and the outcome of acute viral hepatitis in pregnant women. For this reason, we have focused on epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the fulminant liver failure caused by acute viral hepatitis reviewing PubMED in April of 2017. Although all the viruses might cause a fulminant AVH in a pregnant woman, the large majority of fulminant failure reported in the literature had been related to Hepatits E Virus mainly and had been concentrated in Indian subcontinent and some African areas, whereas the problem seems to be very low or absent in the remaining geographical areas...
October 9, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994445/diagnostic-performance-of-hepatitis-e-virus-antigen-assay-in-hepatitis-e-virus-acute-infection
#15
Daniele Lapa, Carla Brega, Alessia Mammone, Mauro Zaccarelli, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Anna Rosa Garbuglia
The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of hepatitis E virus antigen (HEV-Ag) to determine acute E hepatitis. Ninety-four serum samples resulting anti-HEV IgM by DIA.PRO assay were analyzed with Wantai assay to check for HEV-Ag. Thirty samples were anti-HEV IgM positive and HEV-RNA positive, 19 samples harbored genotype 3, whereas 11 samples were genotype 1. Overall, 16% of anti-HEV IgM samples resulted HEV-Ag positive and 33.3% of HEV-RNA positive were also HEV-Ag positive. Among 64 HEV-RNA negative samples, 5 (7...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993774/the-clinical-application-of-micrornas-in-infectious-disease
#16
REVIEW
Ruth E Drury, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences that posttranscriptionally regulate up to 60% of protein encoding genes. Evidence is emerging that miRNAs are key mediators of the host response to infection, predominantly by regulating proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune pathways. miRNAs can govern the cellular tropism of some viruses, are implicated in the resistance of some individuals to infections like HIV, and are associated with impaired vaccine response in older people...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992071/prenatal-screening-for-and-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-pregnant-women-and-prevention-of-transmission-to-infants-born-to-infected-mothers-guam-2014
#17
Winston E Abara, Susan Cha, Tasneem Malik, Mia S DeSimone, Sarah Schillie, Melissa Collier, Bernadette Schumann, Michael Klemme, Mary Kamb
Background: Perinatal transmission is the major mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and drives HBV endemicity in the US territory of Guam. We assessed correlates of prenatal hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening and HBsAg positivity among pregnant women and evaluated the care of infants of HBsAg-positive women. Methods: Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the maternal medical records of 966 randomly selected live infants born in 2014...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988797/altered-expression-of-interferon-stimulated-genes-is-strongly-associated-with-therapeutic-outcomes-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#18
Meifang Han, Yong Li, Wenyu Wu, Yuanya Zhang, Weiming Yan, Xiaoping Luo, Qin Ning
Our previous OSST study shows that switching to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN)-α2a results in higher rates of response hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss at the end of treatment, compared with nucleot(s)ide analogues (NAs) monotherapy in long term NA-treated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. In order to characterize the correlation between Peg-IFN-α antiviral effect and IFN-inducing signaling in CHB patients who switched to Peg-IFN from long time entecavir (ETV) treatment, we investigated the dynamic expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including STAT1, MX, and a negative regulatory factor, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3), which negatively regulate IFN JAK-STAT signaling pathway by interacting with STAT1 and STAT2, in peripheral blood and paired liver samples, obtained from 54 CHB patients enrolled in a clinical trial, OSST study...
October 6, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987806/full-length-genomic-sequences-of-new-subtype-1g-hepatitis-e-virus-strains-obtained-from-four-patients-with-imported-or-autochthonous-acute-hepatitis-e-in-japan
#19
Tsutomu Nishizawa, Putu Prathiwi Primadharsini, Masashi Namikawa, Yuichi Yamazaki, Satoko Uraki, Hiroshi Okano, Shinichiro Horiike, Tatsunori Nakano, Shintaro Takaki, Manri Kawakami, Shigeo Nagashima, Masaharu Takahashi, Hiroaki Okamoto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute or chronic hepatitis in humans worldwide and can be transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Four HEV strains (HE-JA14-2173, HE-JA15-1335, HE-JA15-1920 and HE-JA16-0610) obtained from patients with imported (from Pakistan or India) or autochthonous acute hepatitis E in Japan were most closely related to the Nepalese and Mongolian genotype 1 HEV strains of unassigned subtype within the partial ORF2 sequence. To investigate whether a putative novel subtype (1g) of genotype 1 can be assigned, full-length genomic sequences were determined for the four HEV strains...
October 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984015/genotype-4-hepatitis-e-virus-is-a-cause-of-chronic-hepatitis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-in-hong-kong
#20
Siddharth Sridhar, Jasper F W Chan, Desmond Y H Yap, Jade L L Teng, Chuan Huang, Cyril C Y Yip, Ivan F N Hung, Sydney C W Tang, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo, Kwok-Yung Yuen
There are two genotypes of swine hepatitis E causing foodborne zoonotic infections in humans - genotype 3 (HEV-3), which is prevalent in Europe and Japan, and genotype 4 (HEV-4) prevalent in China. HEV-3 has been established as a cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. However, the outcomes of HEV-4 infection, the most common cause of viral hepatitis in China, in immunocompromised patients is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish whether HEV-4 infection progresses to chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised transplant recipients...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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