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Hepatitis E virus

Yasmin Abo-Zeid, Richard A Urbanowicz, Brian J Thomson, William L Irving, Alexander W Tarr, Martin C Garnett
Virus infections cause diseases of different severity ranged from mild infection e.g. common cold into life threating diseases e.g. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B. Virus infections represent 44% of newly emerging infections. Although there are many efficient antiviral agents, they still have drawbacks due to accumulation at off target organs and developing of virus resistance due to virus mutation. Therefore, developing a delivery system that can selectively target drug into affected organs and avoid off target accumulation would be a highly advantageous strategy to improve antiviral therapy...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
J E Yap, P Jaiswal, L Ton, R Szynkarek, B M Attar, S Gandhi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Elbasvir/grazoprevir is an all-oral regimen approved for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4, and in renal insufficiency. However, to date, no data exist on the efficacy of this regimen when it is crushed and administered through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. Here, we illustrate the case of a 63-year-old man who is the only known patient with HCV infection in the English literature to have successfully achieved a sustained viral response (SVR) when elbasvir/grazoprevir oral combination was administered through a PEG tube...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Yanjing Wang, Yuanyuan Li
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with the development of a wide spectrum of liver diseases. The involvement of miRNAs in HBV replication is being gradually identified. Among these miRNAs, miR-146a expression was found to be positively correlated with HBV replication levels. However, the regulatory relationship between miR-146a and HBV replication is still unclear. In the present study, miR-146a was upregulated in HBV-expressing HepG2.2.15 cells compared with HepG2 cells. Overexpression of miR-146a or knockdown of Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) promoted HBV replication and expression, while downregulation of miR-146a or overexpression of ZEB2 suppressed HBV replication and expression...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Heng Chi, Zhandong Li, Bettina E Hansen, Tao Yu, Xiaoyong Zhang, Jian Sun, Jinlin Hou, Harry L A Janssen, Jie Peng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Levels of antibodies against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (anti-HBc) have been associated with response to nucleos(t)ide analogue and (peg)interferon therapy in patients with chronic HBV infection. We performed a prospective study to determine whether the total serum level of anti-HBc level (immunoglobulins M and G) is associated with clinical relapse after discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogue-based therapy. METHODS: We collected data from patients with chronic HBV infection who discontinued nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy according to pre-specified stopping criteria, recruited from November 2012 through July 2016 at an academic hospital in Guangzhou, China...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Hwi Young Kim, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Sohee Oh, Su Jong Yu, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Won Kim, Yong Jin Jung, Bo Hyun Kim, Chang-Min Kim, Joong-Won Park, Jeong-Hoon Lee
Prophylactic antiviral therapy is recommended for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with malignancies who are undergoing systemic chemotherapy. In the present study, we aimed to develop a risk scoring system to guide the selection of prophylactic antiviral agents. In this retrospective analysis, we included consecutive chronic hepatitis B patients who received antiviral prophylaxis for chemotherapy of solid or hematologic malignancies at 3 large-volume hospitals in Korea. The primary endpoint was HBV reactivation...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Nidhi Kaushik, Saumya Anang, Krishna Priya Ganti, Milan Surjit
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. Owing to its feco oral transmission route, sporadic as well as epidemic outbreaks recurrently occur. No specific antiviral therapy is available against the disease caused by HEV. Broad spectrum antivirals such as ribavirin and interferon alfa are prescribed in severe and chronic HEV cases. However, the side effects, cost, and limitations of usage render the available treatment unsuitable for several categories of patients. We recently reported the ability of zinc to inhibit viral replication in mammalian cell culture models of HEV infection...
June 13, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Ingrid Hm Friesema, Gerard Jb Sonder, Mariska Wf Petrignani, Annemarie E Meiberg, Gini Gc van Rijckevorsel, Wilhelmina Lm Ruijs, Harry Vennema
Since 2015, outbreaks of hepatitis A among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported worldwide. To examine the impact of these MSM outbreaks in the Netherlands, we combined notification and epidemiological data with sequence analysis. Our results show the hazards of outbreaks within risk-groups spilling over into the largely susceptible general population. One third of the outbreak-related hepatitis A virus genotypes were detected in non-MSM cases.
June 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
J-H Zhou, Y-N Wang, X-R Li, Y-S Liu, Q Pan, X Lan
The prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in domestic swine threats the public health, due to the risk of zoonotic transmission. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic features of HEV in swine, in Gansu, which is geographically an important province in China. 377 fecal samples were collected from pig farms in Gansu province of China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-PCR. The prevalence rate is about 23% in pig farms of Gansu province. By RT-nPCR, 5' and 3' RACE methods, a whole genome with 7,284 nt in length, termed as swCH189, was obtained and investigated by nucleotide, codon and amino acid usage analyses...
2018: Acta Virologica
J Zheng, H Xue, H Zhang, L Wang, L Zheng, X Wang, X Lin, S Jin, J Wu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem and immune tolerance is responsible for persistent HBV infection. HBV therapeutic vaccines targeting HBV e antigen (HBeAg) may have an excellent effect in overcoming HBV immune tolerance. Thus, there is urgency for designing therapeutic vaccine candidates that target HBeAg. In this research, we fused the C (472-507) gene sequence of HBV with the extracellular domain of human CD40 ligand sequence and ligated this fused sequence into the pEGFP-N1 vector to construct the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-C (472-507)-ecdCD40L...
2018: Acta Virologica
Mauricio Realpe-Quintero, Oliver Viera-Segura, Nora A Fierro
Based on high seroprevalence, null surveillance, and lack of diagnostics, Mexico is a high-risk region for hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection. However, few local news on infection are available. Clinicians and general population are in need of increasing awareness, and preventive measures should be emphasized.
July 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Aysha Aslam, Ammu Susheela, Sentia Iriana, Suzanne S Chan, Daryl Lau
Reactivation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are many different causes of hepatitis B reactivation. This case describes an Asian woman with stable CHB presenting with significant hepatitis flare with markedly elevated serum aminotransferases and hepatitis B virus DNA level. The clinical symptoms were subtle with fatigue and vague right upper quadrant tenderness. We ruled out drug-associated hepatotoxicity and screened for common causes of acute hepatitis...
June 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Morgane Salines, Mathieu Andraud, Florence Terrade, Nicolas Rose
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen mainly transmitted via food in developed countries, and for which domestic pigs are recognised as the main reservoir. To implement an efficient HEV surveillance and control plan in the pig production sector, it is first necessary to assess the level of knowledge of pig-farming main actors about this pathogen. To this aim, an online survey was conducted between September and October 2017 to evaluate pig farmers' and veterinarians' knowledge about HEV epidemiology and its zoonotic potential...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Abdul-Quddus Mohammed, Ranshaka Auckle, Hai-Ling Li, Si-Ling Xu, Lu Liu, Dong-Dong Zhao, Wen-Liang Che
BACKGROUND: Pegylated interferon (pegIFN) in combination with ribavirin (RBV) has successfully improved the rate of sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals, which reduces the progression of the chronic liver disease. However, the influence of combination therapy (pegIFN/RBV) on cardiac function has yielded ambiguous results. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of combination therapy with pegIFN/RBV on cardiac function of HCV-infected individuals with SVR...
June 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Silvia E Tritz, Vilaysone Khounvisith, Sisavath Pommasichan, Khampasong Ninnasopha, Amphone Keosengthong, Vannaphone Phoutana, Margot Camoin, Judith M Hübschen, Antony P Black, Claude P Muller, Chantal J Snoeck, Maude Pauly
Although pigs are the main reservoir, ruminants have also been shown to be susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV). We investigated zoonotic transmission of HEV in rural settings of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) where humans are in close contacts with ruminants and where pigs are rare. Villagers with (n = 171, risk group) and without (n = 155, control group) cattle were recruited in seven villages in Vientiane Capital. Owners of pigs were excluded. Blood, as well as information on socio-demographics, animal contact, dietary habits and awareness of zoonoses were collected to assess risk factors...
June 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Jolanta Parada-Turska, Monika Turska
Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis which predominantly affects medium-sized arteries. It is a rare disease nowadays. Both the nomenclature and the classification of polyarteritis nodosa was amended several times in the past. Currently, there is a distinction between the primary form described as classical polyarteritis nodosa and other forms that are associated with their probable cause e.g. with viral hepatitis B, C or HIV infection. Moreover, polyarteritis-like necrotizing vasculitis can appear in the course of genetic diseases caused by mutations in single genes...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Susan E Morarie-Kane, Natalia P Smirnova, Thomas R Hansen, Jessica Mediger, Lyle Braun, Christopher Chase
Non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncp BVDV) can cause persistent infection (PI) in animals infected in utero during early gestation. PI animals shed the virus for life and are the major source of the virus in herds. The mechanism responsible for BVDV immune tolerance in the PI fetus is unknown. We assessed the impact of BVDV infection on the fetal liver. Dams were inoculated with ncp BVDV at gestational day 75. Fetal liver samples were collected at necropsy, 7 and 14 days post-maternal-BVDV inoculation...
June 6, 2018: Pathogens
M A Wahab, A Shehta, M Elshoubary, A M Yassen, M Elmorshedi, T Salah, A M Sultan, O Fathy, W R Elsarraf, U Shiha, K Zalata, A N Elghawalby, M Eldesoky, A Monier, R Said, A M Elsabagh, M Ali, A Kandeel, U Abdalla, M Aboelella, M Elsadany, E E Abdel-Khalek, A Marwan, F M ElMorsi, R Adly
BACKGROUND: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is considered a safe alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). In Egypt, DDLT program is still awaited, making LDLT the only hope for patients with end-stage liver disease, mainly due to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The current study is conducted to evaluate our experience of LDLT and discuss the lessons learned from 500 consecutive cases in HCV area. METHODS: We reviewed the data of patients who underwent LDLT at Gastrointestinal Surgery Center, Mansoura University during the period between May 2004 and March 2017...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Roberto Bruni, Umbertina Villano, Michele Equestre, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna, Dilyana Trandeva-Bankova, Maria Peleva-Pishmisheva, Tencho Tenev, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Giulio Pisani, Elitsa Golkocheva-Markova, Anna Rita Ciccaglione
BACKGROUND: In industrialized areas of the world, including Europe, Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is considered an emerging pathogen. In fact, autochthonous cases caused by HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) are increasingly reported. Several studies described the human HEV-3 subtypes and strains circulating in West Europe countries; in contrast, very little is known about the HEV strains responsible for acute hepatitis E in countries of East Europe/Balkans, such as Bulgaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Anti-HEV IgM positive serum samples (n = 103) from acute hepatitis cases (2013-2015) from all over Bulgaria were analysed for HEV RNA by Real-Time PCR...
2018: PloS One
Leila Ghahremani, Eghbal Zarei, Hosein Moltafet, Abdolrahim Asadollahi
Presented data was gathered from a local rehabilitation & caring center in Ahwaz city, southwest Iran end-2017. Data was classified in the six sections upon two predictors i.e. years of imprisonments and Injecting Drug Users ( IDUs ) to predict three blood infectious diseases i.e. HIV-Aids, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), & Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Each section jointly includes the following: tables of raw data, input data concerning false & true positive fractions (18 tables), scatter graph concerning false positive fractions (FPF) & true positive fractions (TPF) (6 graphs), and six ROC curves...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Timothy C Granade, Maja Kodani, Susan K Wells, A S Youngpairoj, Silvina Masciotra, Kelly M Curtis, Saleem Kamili, S Michele Owen
Real-time PCR assays for nucleic acid testing (NAT) of hepatitis viruses A-E and for HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been developed; however, a multiplex assay that can simultaneously detect all of these agents is not yet available. Standardized TaqMan assays for detection of hepatitis viruses A-E have been described and applied to TaqMan Array Cards (TAC) which are capable of multiple pathogen detection using a single set of optimized PCR conditions. Assays for three gene regions of HIV-1 (long-terminal repeat (LTR), gag, and polymerase) and HIV-2 (overlap of LTR and gag, protease and integrase) were designed using the hepatitis assay conditions...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
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