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Hepatitis E virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245104/who-goes-first-understanding-hepatitis-c-risk-among-injecting-networks-in-the-prison-setting
#1
Lise Lafferty, Jake Rance, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) is a blood-borne virus that is most commonly transmitted through shared injecting equipment. Due to the criminalisation of injecting drug use, HCV is highly prevalent among those incarcerated. Using a risk environment framework, this qualitative study sought to understand the role of HCV risk within injecting networks in the prison setting. METHODS: Thirty-two adult prisoners (n=24 men; n=8 women) with a history of injecting drug use participated in this qualitative sub-study...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244001/transmissibility-of-intra-host-hepatitis-c-virus-variants
#2
David S Campo, June Zhang, Sumathi Ramachandran, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Intra-host hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations are genetically heterogeneous and organized in subpopulations. With the exception of blood transfusions, transmission of HCV occurs via a small number of genetic variants, the effect of which is frequently described as a bottleneck. Stochasticity of transmission associated with the bottleneck is usually used to explain genetic differences among HCV populations identified in the source and recipient cases, which may be further exacerbated by intra-host HCV evolution and differential biological capacity of HCV variants to successfully establish a population in a new host...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243584/prediction-and-analysis-of-three-dimensional-structure-of-the-p7-transactivated-protein1-of-hepatitis-c-virus
#3
Mahmoud M Elhefnawi, Mohamed E Hasan, Amal Mahmoud, Yehia A Khidr, El-Sayed A El-Absawy, Alaa A Hemeida
BACKGROUND: The p7-transactivated protein of Hepatitis C virus is a small integral membrane protein of 127 amino acids, which is crucial for assembly and release of infectious virions. Ab initio and comparative modelling, is an essential tool to solve the problem of protein structure prediction and to comprehend the physicochemical fundemental of how proteins fold in nature. RESULTS: Only one domain (1-127) of p7 had been predicted using the systematic in silico approach, ThreaDom...
December 15, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243216/lipid-a-adjuvanted-chylomicron-mimicking-solid-fat-nanoemulsions-for-immunization-against-hepatitis-b
#4
Sunita Minz, Ravi Shankar Pandey
Traditional parenteral recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines have effectively reduced the disease burden despite being able to induce seroprotective antibody titers in 5-10% vaccinated individuals (non-responders). Moreover, an estimated 340 million chronic HBV cases are in need of treatment. Development of safe, stable, and more effective hepatitis B vaccine formulation would address these challenges. Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) entrapped solid fat nanoemulsions (SFNs) containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) that was prepared and optimized by quality by design (QbD) using response surface methodology (RSM), i...
December 14, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239080/hcv-positive-lymphoma-after-sustained-virological-response-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-the-game-is-not-over-after-hcv-eradication
#5
E Rodríguez de Santiago, K Velázquez Kennedy, M García González, F Gea Rodríguez, L Téllez Villajos, E Tavío Hernández, A Albillos Martínez
We read with interest the study published by Schiavinato A. et al. entitled: " Polyclonal and monoclonal B lymphocytes response in HCV-infected patients treated with direct-acting antiviral agents"[1]. There is extensive data supporting the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-cell NHL), especially with marginal zone and diffuse large B-cell NHL subtypes. Antiviral treatment with Interferon-based regimens has been shown to improve prognosis and can be curative in some cases of indolent lymphoma...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239006/does-the-mosquito-culex-pipiens-represent-a-potential-vector-of-hepatitis-c-virus
#6
S E El-Kholy, I M El-Husseiny, W S Meshrif, A Abou El-Azm, M L Salem
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a public health burden in several countries. Although transmission through blood is the most likely potential route of HCV infection, other sources warrant exploration. This study was designed to examine the possibility that the mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) might serve as a vector of HCV. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in female Cx. pipiens that were fed on blood taken from HCV patients and tested for the presence of HCV RNAs using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique...
December 14, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238229/coinfections-with-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-and-syphilis-among-hiv-infected-clients-in-southern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Techalew Shimelis, Yayheyirad Tassachew, Agete Tadewos, Mesfin Worku Hordofa, Anteneh Amsalu, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Endale Tadesse
Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are hepatotropic viruses of public health significance worldwide. Despite their severe clinical impact in HIV-infected patients, there is inadequate information regarding the epidemiology of hepatitis/HIV coinfections in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected patients at a tertiary hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: Stored sera, which were originally collected for the investigation of syphilis among HIV-infected clients, were analyzed in this study...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237007/a-nationwide-serosurvey-of-hepatitis-e-virus-antibodies-in-the-general-population-of-portugal
#8
Maria S J Nascimento, Sara S Pereira, Joana Teixeira, Joana Abreu-Silva, Ricardo M S Oliveira, Mette Myrmel, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Joakim Øverbø, Guilherme Gonçalves, João R Mesquita
Background: Evidence has shown that Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is autochthonous in industrialized countries due to zoonotic transmission through direct contact or consumption of raw or undercooked meat from domestic swine or wild boar. As there is lack of data on seroprevalence of HEV in the general Portuguese population, a wide survey was conducted as part of the HEPeCONTROL project (60DT2), under EEA grants funding. Methods: Sera from a representative sample of the Portuguese population (n = 1656) at different geographic locations (30 territorial units), and age (0-99 years) were collected between July 2015 and February 2016...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230242/families-living-with-blood-borne-viruses-the-case-for-extending-the-concept-of-serodiscordance
#9
REVIEW
Asha Persson, Christy E Newman, Myra Hamilton, Joanne Bryant, Jack Wallace, Kylie Valentine
The concept of "serodiscordance" (mixed infection status) is primarily associated with epidemiological concerns about HIV transmission risk in couples. We make the case for extending this concept to include families with mixed HIV and viral hepatitis status. Social research on couples with mixed HIV and hepatitis C status has laid an important foundation for illuminating how experiences of serodiscordance within intimate partnerships are much broader than concerns about risk. This body of work attests to serodiscordance holding promise as a valuable concept for understanding viral infections as socially situated and intensely relational phenomena...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229898/a-multicenter-phase-iii-study-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-hepabulin-a-new-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-in-liver-transplantation-recipients-with-hepatitis-b
#10
Ho Joong Choi, Dong Goo Kim, Soon Il Kim, Hee Jung Wang, Jae Won Joh, Kyung Suk Suh, Seong Hoon Kim
BACKGROUND This study was performed to evaluate the effects and stability of the new hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG), Hepabulin, in patients undergoing liver transplantation for hepatitis B. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 87 patients undergoing liver transplantation for hepatitis B-related liver disease were enrolled in this multicenter, phase III, open-label, single-arm study. Seventy (80.5%) of the 87 enrolled patients completed the study during the 52-week study period. Hepabulin (10,000 units) was intravenously injected intraoperatively, daily for 1 week, weekly for 1 month, and then once per month...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228392/hepatic-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-with-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-plus-dasabuvir-treatment-and-variable-ribavirin-dosage
#11
Andrew H Talal, Emily O Dumas, Barbara Bauer, Richard M Rejman, Andrew Ocque, Gene D Morse, Danijela Lucic, Gavin A Cloherty, Jennifer King, Jiuhong Zha, Hongtao Zhang, Daniel E Cohen, Nancy Shulman, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, Christophe Hézode
Background: It is unknown whether ribavirin (RBV) co-administration modifies the early rate of decline of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in the liver versus plasma compartments, specifically. Methods: This partially randomized, open-label, phase 2 study enrolled treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic patients with HCV genotype (GT) 1a. Patients were randomized 1:1 into Arms A and B, and then enrolled in Arm C. Patients received ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + dasabuvir for 12 weeks with either: no RBV for the first 2 weeks followed by weight-based dosing thereafter (Arm A), weight-based RBV for all 12 weeks (Arm B), or low-dose RBV (600 mg) once daily for all 12 weeks...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227001/antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-during-second-pregnancies
#12
Yasuhiro Wakano, Tokio Sugiura, Takeshi Endo, Koichi Ito, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Hitoshi Tajiri, Yasuhito Tanaka, Shinji Saitoh
Mother-to-child transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major concern for infected mothers, especially after their first child has become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis. Eight mothers whose first child had become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis were referred for antiviral therapy during the subsequent pregnancy. All pregnant women were seropositive for both the hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen. In the treatment group (three receiving lamivudine and two receiving tenofovir), mother-to-child transmission of the HBV was successfully prevented in all infants (5/5)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226766/a-case-report-of-living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-fulminant-hepatitis-related-to-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#13
Keita Shimata, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Hidekazu Yamamoto, Hiroaki Okamoto, Koushi Uchida, Seiichi Kawabata, Kaori Isono, Shintaro Hayashida, Yukihiro Inomata
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection which may become fulminant, especially in elderly people is more common than previously recognized in develop countries. Here we report successful living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in a case of acute liver failure due to HEV. A 63-year-old Japanese man with no previous history of liver disease was admitted for severe acute hepatitis. Detection of anti-HEV immunoglobulin A established a diagnosis of this virus-related liver failure. The patient suffered from hepatic encephalopathy 10 days after symptom onset and underwent LDLT...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226104/hepatitis-e-a-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Juliana Ayres de Alencar Arrais Guerra, Katia Cristina Kampa, Daphne Gonçalves Benatti Morsoletto, Alcindo Pissaia Junior, Cláudia Alexandra Pontes Ivantes
Hepatitis E is the fifth known form of human viral hepatitis. Although not very common in our clinical practice, the incidence in Western countries is increasing. Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) may be related to acute illness, liver failure, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. HEV itself is an RNA virus, with eight described genotypes (HEV 1-8), four of which more commonly affect humans and have, thus, been better studied. Besides liver manifestations, genotype 3 is also related to extra-hepatic manifestations, such as neurological, renal and rheumatological...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225131/role-of-tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-in-the-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-hiv-and-hbv-infections
#15
REVIEW
Erik De Clercq
Tenofovir (TFV) is the cornerstone in the treatment and prophylaxis of HIV infections. It has been routinely used in its prodrug form TDF (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) combined with emtricitabine ((-)FTC) and other antiretroviral agents. TDF has now been replaced by TAF (tenofovir alafenamide) which allows better uptake by the lymphoid tissue. In combination with elvitegravir (E), cobicistat (C), emtricitabine (F), TAF can be advocated as an STR (single tablet regimen, Genvoya®) for the treatment of HIV infections...
December 7, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224133/epidemiology-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-in-ireland-using-routinely-collected-surveillance-and-administrative-data-2004-2014
#16
Caroline E van Gemert, Niamh Murphy, Tara A Mitchell, Margaret E Hellard, Thornton Thornton
BACKGROUND: Ireland has a low prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection; however, there are limited recently published epidemiological data. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of chronic HBV in Ireland between 2004 and 2014 using routine surveillance data and identify and interrogate additional data sources in Ireland to complement the interpretation of HBV surveillance data. METHODS: Routinely collected passive surveillance data of notified cases of HBV infection were collated for 2004-2014...
December 9, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222916/transplanting-hcv-positive-livers-into-hcv-negative-patients-with-preemptive-antiviral-treatment-a-modeling-study
#17
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Sumeyye Samur, Emily D Bethea, Turgay Ayer, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Mark S Roberts, Norah Terrault, Raymond T Chung
Under current guidelines hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive livers are not transplanted into HCV-negative recipients because of adverse post-transplant outcomes associated with allograft HCV infection. However, HCV can now be cured post liver transplant (LT) using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with >90% success; therefore, HCV-negative patients on the liver transplant (LT) waiting list may benefit from accepting HCV-positive organs with preemptive treatment. Our objective was to evaluate if and in which HCV-negative patients the potential benefit of accepting an HCV-positive (i...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217468/availability-of-hepatitis-c-diagnostics-and-therapeutics-in-european-and-eurasia-countries
#18
Hakan Leblebicioglu, Joop E Arends, Resat Ozaras, Giampaolo Corti, Lurdes Santos, Christoph Boesecke, Andrew Ustianowski, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Simona Ruta, Nermin N Salkic, Petr Husa, Ivana Lazarevic, Juan A Pineda, Natalia Yurievna Pshenichnaya, Tengiz Tsertswadze, Mojca Matičič, Edmond Puca, Gulzhan Abuova, Judit Gervain, Ramin Bayramli, Salih Ahmeti, Mairi Koulentaki, Badreddine Kilani, Adriana Vince, Francesco Negro, Mustafa Sunbul, Dominique Salmon
BACKGROUND: Treatment with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has provided sustained virological response rates in >95% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However treatment is costly and market access, reimbursement and governmental restrictions differ among countries. We aimed to analyze these differences among European and Eurasian countries. METHODS: A survey including 20-item questionnaire was sent to experts in viral hepatitis...
December 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216213/a-multi-scale-spatial-model-of-hepatitis-b-viral-dynamics
#19
Quentin Cangelosi, Shawn A Means, Harvey Ho
Chronic hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) afflicts around 250 million individuals globally and few options for treatment exist. Once infected, the virus entrenches itself in the liver with a notoriously resilient colonisation of viral DNA (covalently-closed circular DNA, cccDNA). The majority of infections are cleared, yet we do not understand why 5% of adult immune responses fail leading to the chronic state with its collateral morbid effects such as cirrhosis and eventual hepatic carcinoma. The liver environment exhibits particularly complex spatial structures for metabolic processing and corresponding distributions of nutrients and transporters that may influence successful HBV entrenchment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214737/efficacy-safety-and-patient-reported-outcomes-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-ns3-4a-protease-inhibitor-experienced-individuals-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-and-hiv-coinfection-with-and-without-cirrhosis-anrs-hc31-softrih-study
#20
E Rosenthal, C Fougerou-Leurent, A Renault, M P Carrieri, F Marcellin, R Garraffo, E Teicher, H Aumaitre, K Lacombe, F Bailly, E Billaud, S Chevaliez, S Dominguez, M A Valantin, J Reynes, A Naqvi, L Cotte, S Metivier, V Leroy, M Dupon, T Allegre, P De Truchis, V Jeantils, J Chas, D Salmon-Ceron, P Morlat, D Neau, P Perré, L Piroth, S Pol, M Bourlière, G P Pageaux, L Alric, D Zucman, P M Girard, I Poizot-Martin, Y Yazdanpanah, F Raffi, E Le Pabic, C Tual, A Pailhé, I Amri, E Bellissant, J M Molina
OBJECTIVES: Studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of the fixed-dose combination ledipasvir (LDV)/sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have mainly included treatment-naïve patients without cirrhosis. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this combination in treatment-experienced patients with and without cirrhosis. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, open-label, double-arm, nonrandomized study in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HCV genotype 1 with and without cirrhosis, who had good viral suppression on their antiretroviral regimens...
December 7, 2017: HIV Medicine
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