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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883543/pre-treatment-microbial-prevotella-to-bacteroides-ratio-determines-body-fat-loss-success-during-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-diet-intervention
#1
M F Hjorth, H M Roager, T M Larsen, S K Poulsen, T R Licht, M I Bahl, Y Zohar, A Astrup
Based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera, the human gut microbiota can be divided into two relatively stable groups that might play a role in personalized nutrition. We studied these simplified enterotypes as prognostic markers for successful body fat loss on two different diets. A total of 62 participants with increased waist circumference were randomly assigned to receive an ad libitum New Nordic Diet (NND) high in fiber/wholegrain or an Average Danish Diet (ADD) for 26 weeks. Participants were grouped into two discrete enterotypes by their relative abundance of Prevotella spp...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882708/fermentation-properties-of-isomaltooligosaccharides-are-affected-by-human-fecal-enterotypes
#2
Qinqin Wu, Xiong'e Pi, Wei Liu, Huahai Chen, Yeshi Yin, Hongwei D Yu, Xin Wang, Liying Zhu
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are enzymatically synthesized oligosaccharides that have potential prebiotic effects. Five IMO substrates with 2-16° of polymerization (DP) were studied for their fermentation capacities using human microbiomes in an in vitro batch fermentation model. Eleven fecal slurries belonging to three enterotypes, including the Bacteroides-, Prevotella- and Mixed-type, exhibited different degradation rates for long chain IMOs (DP 7 to 16). In contrast, the degradation rates for short chain IMOs (DP 2 to 6) were not affected by enterotypes...
September 4, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864748/novel-interactions-between-gut-microbiome-and-host-drug-processing-genes-modify-the-hepatic-metabolism-of-the-environmental-chemicals-pbdes
#3
Cindy Yanfei Li, Soowan Lee, Sara Cade, Li-Jung Kuo, Irvin R Schultz, Deepak K Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Theo K Bammler, Julia Yue Cui
The gut microbiome is a novel frontier in xenobiotic metabolism. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially BDE-47 and BDE-99, are among the most abundant and persistent environmental contaminants that produce a variety of toxicities. Little is known about how the gut microbiome affects the hepatic metabolism of PBDEs and the PBDE-mediated regulation of drug-processing genes (DPGs) in vivo. The goal of this study was to determine the role of gut microbiome in modulating the hepatic biotransformation of PBDEs...
September 1, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861066/unraveling-the-fecal-microbiota-and-metagenomic-functional-capacity-associated-with-feed-efficiency-in-pigs
#4
Hui Yang, Xiaochang Huang, Shaoming Fang, Maozhang He, Yuanzhang Zhao, Zhenfang Wu, Ming Yang, Zhiyan Zhang, Congying Chen, Lusheng Huang
Gut microbiota plays fundamental roles in energy harvest, nutrient digestion, and intestinal health, especially in processing indigestible components of polysaccharides in diet. Unraveling the microbial taxa and functional capacity of gut microbiome associated with feed efficiency can provide important knowledge to improve pig feed efficiency in swine industry. In the current research, we studied the association of fecal microbiota with feed efficiency in 280 commercial Duroc pigs. All experimental pigs could be clustered into two enterotype-like groups...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801639/investigation-into-the-stability-and-culturability-of-chinese-enterotypes
#5
Yeshi Yin, Bin Fan, Wei Liu, Rongrong Ren, Huahai Chen, Shaofeng Bai, Liying Zhu, Gang Sun, Yunsheng Yang, Xin Wang
Although many gut microbial enterotypes have been reported in Europe, Africa and the U.S., their effects on human health are still not yet clear. Culturing gut microbial enterotypes in vitro will be helpful to study their effects and applications. Here, fecal samples from 13 healthy Chinese volunteers were collected and subjected to next-generation sequencing. The results showed that seven of these samples belong to the Bacteroides enterotype and another six to the Prevotella enterotype. Stability of these Chinese gut microbial enterotypes was also evaluated...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674641/quantifying-the-human-vaginal-community-state-types-csts-with-the-species-specificity-index
#6
Zhanshan Sam Ma, Lianwei Li
The five community state types (CSTs) first identified by Ravel et al. (2011) offered a powerful scheme to classify the states of human vaginal microbial communities (HVMC). The classification is a significant advance because it devised an effective handle to deal with the enormous inter-subject heterogeneity and/or intra-subject temporal variability, the quantification of which is extremely difficult but of critical importance such as the understanding of BV (bacterial vaginosis) etiology. Indeed, arguably the most plausible ecological hypothesis for interpreting the BV etiology heavily depends on the CST classification (Gajer et al...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588309/alteration-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-chinese-population-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Shuanghong Jiang, Shan Xie, Dan Lv, Pu Wang, Hanchang He, Ting Zhang, Youlian Zhou, Qianyun Lin, Hongwei Zhou, Jianping Jiang, Jing Nie, Fanfan Hou, Ye Chen
We evaluated differences in the compositions of faecal microbiota between 52 end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and 60 healthy controls in southern China using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing (16S ribosomal RNA V4-6 region) methods. The absolute quantification of total bacteria was significantly reduced in ESRD patients (p < 0.01). In three enterotypes, Prevotella was enriched in the healthy group whereas Bacteroides were prevalent in the ESRD group (LDA score > 4...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572676/fiber-utilizing-capacity-varies-in-prevotella-versus-bacteroides-dominated-gut-microbiota
#8
Tingting Chen, Wenmin Long, Chenhong Zhang, Shuang Liu, Liping Zhao, Bruce R Hamaker
The gut microbiota of individuals are dominated by different fiber-utilizing bacteria, which ferment dietary fiber into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) known to be important for human health. Here, we show that the dominance of Prevotella versus Bacteroides in fecal innocula, identified into two different enterotypes, differentially impacts in vitro fermentation profiles of SCFAs from fibers with different chemical structures. In a microbiome of the Prevotella enterotype, fructooligosaccharides, and sorghum and corn arabinoxylans significantly promoted one single Prevotella OTU with equally high production of total SCFAs with propionate as the major product...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330508/proteobacteria-explain-significant-functional-variability-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#9
Patrick H Bradley, Katherine S Pollard
BACKGROUND: While human gut microbiomes vary significantly in taxonomic composition, biological pathway abundance is surprisingly invariable across hosts. We hypothesized that healthy microbiomes appear functionally redundant due to factors that obscure differences in gene abundance between individuals. RESULTS: To account for these biases, we developed a powerful test of gene variability called CCoDA, which is applicable to shotgun metagenomes from any environment and can integrate data from multiple studies...
March 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280715/enterotype-may-drive-the-dietary-associated-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#10
Ana C F de Moraes, Gabriel R Fernandes, Isis T da Silva, Bianca Almeida-Pititto, Everton P Gomes, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Sandra R G Ferreira
Analyses of typical bacterial clusters in humans named enterotypes may facilitate understanding the host differences in the cardiometabolic profile. It stills unknown whether the three previously described enterotypes were present in populations living below the equator. We examined how the identification of enterotypes could be useful to explain the dietary associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilian subjects. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 268 adults (54.2% women) reported their dietary habits and had clinical and biological samples collected...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272110/the-association-between-temperament-and-microbiota-in-healthy-individuals-a-pilot-study
#11
Hojun Kim, Young-Jae Park
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether enterotypes in the gut microbiome could be determined by clustering validity indexes and whether these enterotypes were associated with individual differences in temperament traits. METHODS: Sixty healthy Korean participants (21 men; 27.5 ± 8.1 years, 39 women; 34.5 ± 14.3 years) were asked to answer 60 temperament questions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) from the Korean version of the temperament and character inventory-125 (K-TCI-125)...
March 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261164/impact-of-westernized-diet-on-gut-microbiota-in-children-on-leyte-island
#12
Jiro Nakayama, Azusa Yamamoto, Ladie A Palermo-Conde, Kanako Higashi, Kenji Sonomoto, Julie Tan, Yuan-Kun Lee
Urbanization has changed life styles of the children in some towns and cities on Leyte island in the Philippines. To evaluate the impact of modernization in dietary habits on gut microbiota, we compared fecal microbiota of 7 to 9-year-old children from rural Baybay city (n = 24) and urban Ormoc city (n = 19), and assessed the correlation between bacterial composition and diet. A dietary survey indicated that Ormoc children consumed fast food frequently and more meat and confectionary than Baybay children, suggesting modernization/westernization of dietary habits...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198673/diversity-and-enterotype-in-gut-bacterial-community-of-adults-in-taiwan
#13
Chao Liang, Han-Chi Tseng, Hui-Mei Chen, Wei-Chi Wang, Chih-Min Chiu, Jen-Yun Chang, Kuan-Yi Lu, Shun-Long Weng, Tzu-Hao Chang, Chao-Hsiang Chang, Chen-Tsung Weng, Hwei-Ming Wang, Hsien-Da Huang
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal microbiota, particularly gut microbiota, is associated with human health. The biodiversity of gut microbiota is affected by ethnicities and environmental factors such as dietary habits or medicine intake, and three enterotypes of the human gut microbiome were announced in 2011. These enterotypes are not significantly correlated with gender, age, or body weight but are influenced by long-term dietary habits. However, to date, only two enterotypes (predominantly consisting of Bacteroides and Prevotella) have shown these characteristics in previous research; the third enterotype remains ambiguous...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191503/differences-in-gut-metabolites-and-microbial-composition-and-functions-between-egyptian-and-u-s-children-are-consistent-with-their-diets
#14
V Shankar, M Gouda, J Moncivaiz, A Gordon, N V Reo, L Hussein, O Paliy
Previous studies indicated that populations consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in fiber, vegetables, and fruits have a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than populations of industrialized societies consuming diets enriched in processed carbohydrates, animal proteins, and fats. To explore the potential contributions of gut microbiota to the observed diet-related metabolic effects, we conducted an integrative analysis of distal gut microbiota composition and functions and intestinal metabolites in Egyptian and U...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143587/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-contributes-to-the-development-of-hypertension
#15
Jing Li, Fangqing Zhao, Yidan Wang, Junru Chen, Jie Tao, Gang Tian, Shouling Wu, Wenbin Liu, Qinghua Cui, Bin Geng, Weili Zhang, Ryan Weldon, Kelda Auguste, Lei Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Li Chen, Xinchun Yang, Baoli Zhu, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome in metabolic diseases has been revealed, especially in cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participates in the development of hypertension remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we carried out comprehensive metagenomic and metabolomic analyses in a cohort of 41 healthy controls, 56 subjects with pre-hypertension, 99 individuals with primary hypertension, and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from patients to germ-free mice...
February 1, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018861/tissue-associated-bacterial-alterations-in-rectal-carcinoma-patients-revealed-by-16s-rrna-community-profiling
#16
Andrew M Thomas, Eliane C Jesus, Ademar Lopes, Samuel Aguiar, Maria D Begnami, Rafael M Rocha, Paola Avelar Carpinetti, Anamaria A Camargo, Christian Hoffmann, Helano C Freitas, Israel T Silva, Diana N Nunes, João C Setubal, Emmanuel Dias-Neto
Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC) account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas, colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#17
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894251/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-fecal-microbiota-of-healthy-japanese-adults-reveals-a-new-bacterial-lineage-associated-with-a-phenotype-characterized-by-a-high-frequency-of-bowel-movements-and-a-lean-body-type
#18
Kaihei Oki, Mutsumi Toyama, Taihei Banno, Osamu Chonan, Yoshimi Benno, Koichi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: In Japan, a variety of traditional dietary habits and daily routines have developed in many regions. The effects of these behaviors, and the regional differences in the composition of the gut microbiota, are yet to be sufficiently studied. To characterize the Japanese gut microbiota and identify the factors shaping its composition, we conducted 16S metagenomics analysis of fecal samples collected from healthy Japanese adults residing in various regions of Japan. Each participant also completed a 94-question lifestyle questionnaire...
November 28, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827448/composition-of-gut-microbiota-in-infants-in-china-and-global-comparison
#19
Ya-Shu Kuang, Sheng-Hui Li, Yong Guo, Jin-Hua Lu, Jian-Rong He, Bei-Jun Luo, Feng-Ju Jiang, Hui Shen, Christopher J Papasian, Herbert Pang, Hui-Min Xia, Hong-Wen Deng, Xiu Qiu
Symbiotic gut microbiota is essential for human health, and its compositional changes have been associated with various complex disorders. However, systematic investigation of the acquisition and development of gut microbial communities during early infancy are relatively rare, particularly for infants from non-Western countries. In this study, we characterize the colonization and development of infant microbiota in healthy Chinese infants and compare the pattern with those from other countries. The fecal microbiota of 2-month-old infants was considerably more diverse than that of neonates, as indicated by higher relative abundances of Veillonella, Clostridium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Collinsella and Prevotella, and reduction of Escherichia and Enterococcus...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733402/protein-and-zinc-deficient-diets-modulate-the-murine-microbiome-and-metabolic-phenotype
#20
Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, David T Bolick, Joy Leng, Greg L Medlock, Glynis L Kolling, Jason A Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy, which is linked to undernutrition and chronic infections, affects the physical and mental growth of children in developing areas worldwide. Key to understanding how these factors combine to shape developmental outcomes is to first understand the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the mammalian system including the effect on the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: We dissected the nutritional components of environmental enteropathy by analyzing the specific metabolic and gut-microbiota changes that occur in weaned-mouse models of zinc or protein deficiency compared with well-nourished controls...
November 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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