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Mubiana Inambao, William Kilembe, Lauren A Canary, Nancy L Czaicki, Matilda Kakungu-Simpungwe, Roy Chavuma, Kristin M Wall, Amanda Tichacek, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Elwyn Chomba, Susan A Allen
INTRODUCTION: Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC) and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described. METHODS: Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas...
2017: PloS One
Apostolos Davillas, Stephen Pudney
We use self-reported health measures, nurse-administered measurements and blood-based biomarkers to examine the concordance between health states of partners in marital/cohabiting relationships in the UK. A model of cumulative health exposures is used to interpret the empirical pattern of between-partner health correlation in relation to elapsed relationship duration, allowing us to distinguish non-causal correlation due to assortative mating from potentially causal effects of shared lifestyle and environmental factors...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
Sally I-Chun Kuo, Lorey A Wheeler, Kimberly A Updegraff, Susan M McHale, Adriana J Umaña-Taylor, Norma J Perez-Brena
This study investigated youth's modeling of and de-identification from parents in romantic relationships, using two phases of data from adolescent siblings, mothers, and fathers in 246 Mexican-origin families. Each parent reported his/her marital satisfaction and conflict, and youth reported on parent-adolescent warmth and conflict at Time 1. Youth's reports of modeling of and de-identification from their mothers and fathers and three romantic relationship outcomes were assessed at Time 2. Findings revealed that higher parental marital satisfaction, lower marital conflict, and higher warmth and lower conflict in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with more modeling and less de-identification from parents...
October 2017: Journal of Marriage and the Family
A R Burns, V Watral, S Sichel, S Spagnoli, A V Banse, E Mittge, T J Sharpton, K Guillemin, M L Kent
Intestinal neoplasms are common in zebrafish (Danio rerio) research facilities. These tumours are most often seen in older fish and are classified as small cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. Affected fish populations always contain subpopulations with preneoplastic lesions, characterized by epithelial hyperplasia or inflammation. Previous observations indicated that these tumours are unlikely caused by diet, water quality or genetic background, suggesting an infectious aetiology. We performed five transmission experiments by exposure of naïve fish to affected donor fish by cohabitation or exposure to tank effluent water...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Jillian M Mansfield, Paul Herrmann, Amy M Jesionowski, M Margaret Vickerman
Streptococcus gordonii produces a pheromone heptapeptide, s.g.cAM373, which induces a conjugative mating response in Enterococcus faecalis cells carrying the responsive plasmid, pAM373. We investigated the extent of this intergeneric signaling on DNA acquisition by streptococcal species likely to cohabit oral biofilms. E. faecalis/pAM373/pAMS470 cells were incubated with synthetic s.g.cAM373, reverse peptide s.g.cAM373-R, or peptide-free medium and examined for their abilities to transfer plasmid DNA to streptococcal species in the presence of DNase...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yuchen Mao, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Qun Zhao, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen
Both stigma and social support have been identified to be associated with HIV status disclosure among people living with HIV. This study aimed to examine cross-sectional associations of perceived social support and multiple types of stigma with both disclosure to various target groups and timing of disclosure among parents living with HIV (PLHIV) in Guangxi, China. Cross-sectional data from 1254 PLHIV in Guangxi, China were analyzed. Measures included demographics, disclosure to specific groups (steady partner/spouse, children, family and others) and timing of disclosure, perceived social support, and three types of HIV-related stigma (perceived, internalized, and enacted stigma)...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Care
Silke F Metzelthin, Ellen Verbakel, Marja Y Veenstra, Job van Exel, Antonius W Ambergen, Gertrudis I J M Kempen
BACKGROUND: Our ageing society is putting tremendous strain on public health and welfare programs to meet the needs of ageing individuals. Promoting informal caregiving is one way for policymakers to reduce this burden. However, caregiving may be experienced as stressful and is associated with adverse health consequences. While quite a lot of research focuses on caregiving for community-dwelling older adults, little is known about informal care in institutionalised long-term care (ILTC)...
October 10, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
Arto Heikkilä, Antti Kaipia, Maarit Venermo, Hannu Kautiainen, Päivi Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual disorder that affects all age groups and has a close association with essential hypertension. AIM: To characterize the relation of blood pressure and ED in detail. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study of 45- to 70-year-old men without previously diagnosed hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, renal disease, or diabetes was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in southwestern Finland...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Violeta J Rodriguez, Gladys Matseke, Ryan Cook, Seanna Bellinger, Stephen M Weiss, Maria L Alcaide, Karl Peltzer, Doyle Patton, Maria Lopez, Deborah L Jones
HIV-exposed infants born to depressed women may be at risk for adverse developmental outcomes. Half of HIV-infected women in rural South Africa (SA) may suffer from pregnancy-related depression. This pilot study examined the impact of depression in HIV-infected women in rural SA on infant development. Mother-infant dyads (N = 69) were recruited in rural SA. Demographics, HIV disclosure, depression, male involvement, and alcohol use at baseline (18.35 ± 5.47 weeks gestation) were assessed. Male involvement, depression, infant HIV serostatus and development were assessed 12 months postnatally...
October 6, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
James A Coan, Lane Beckes, Marlen Z Gonzalez, Erin L Maresh, Casey L Brown, Karen Hasselmo
Strong social ties correspond with better health and well being, but the neural mechanisms linking social contact to health remain speculative. This study extends work on the social regulation of brain activity by supportive handholding in 110 participants (51 female) of diverse racial and socioeconomic origins. In addition to main effects of social regulation by handholding, we assessed the moderating effects of both perceived social support and relationship status (married, cohabiting, dating or platonic friends)...
July 20, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Karen Benjamin Guzzo
Shifts in union formation and childbearing have undoubtedly altered the prevalence and structure of higher-order unions and stepfamilies, but no study has examined trends over time. Comparing the 1988 and 2011-2013 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), I produce estimates of repartnering and stepfamily formation among currently partnered women aged 15-44. The percentage of intact unions that are remarriages stayed stable (around 27-28%), but a growing proportion of currently married and cohabiting women had another cohabiting partner in the past...
August 2017: Journal of Family Issues
Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot, Gedion Asnake Azeze, Carmen C Robles, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent among pregnant women in Africa. Among the incidence of HIV infection in children, 90% of the infection is attributable to their mothers. Ethiopia is one of the countries with an increasing risky sexual behavior and the most affected by the HIV epidemic. If prevention of mother to child transmission focuses on increasing contraception, it will prevent more than 29% of HIV infection at birth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess utilization of dual contraceptive  method and associated factors among reproductive age women on antiretroviral therapy in selected public hospitals of Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia...
October 5, 2017: Reproductive Health
Karen M Hampanda, Christine Tagliaferri Rael
HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women's status disclosure to male sexual partners is associated with improved HIV and maternal and child health outcomes. Yet, status disclosure remains a challenge for many women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly those who are fearful of violence. The objective of the present study is to advance the current understanding of the relationship between intimate partner violence against women and their HIV status disclosure behaviors. We specifically evaluate how the severity, frequency, and type of violence against postpartum HIV-positive women affect status disclosure within married/cohabiting couples...
October 3, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Nicole L Hack, Vikram K Iyengar
Animal aggregations can occur for a variety of abiotic factors, such as resource limitation, or biotic factors, including group foraging and protection from predators. In our study, we examined whether time, sex, body size or shelter availability affected aggregation behavior of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Order Dermaptera), an insect found globally at high densities under driftwood. Specifically, we monitored the distribution of two individuals in arenas with either two shelters (no habitat limitation) or one shelter (habitat limitation) to determine their propensity for cohabitation at times of peak activity and times of quiescence...
2017: PloS One
Younjung Kim, Hyungjoon Kim, Dirk Pfeiffer, Dave Brodbelt
Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for the diagnosis of feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) in cats living in a primarily indoor environment. Methods A case-control study focusing on a cohort of cats attending a first-opinion veterinary practice in Seoul, South Korea, from 2012-2016, was undertaken. Data were collected from cats' owners by questionnaire and analysed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Fifty-eight cases of FIC and 281 randomly selected controls were surveyed...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Oluwaseun E Oseni, Ifeoma P Okafor, Adekemi O Sekoni
BACKGROUND: Disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity by infected women is crucial in HIV control. To determine the rates, patterns, effects, and determinants of disclosure of status among HIV-positive women in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Simple random sampling method was used to select 364 HIV-positive women accessing care in HIV treatment centers in Lagos Island. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed with Epi Info (version 3...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Deborah A Gust, Yi Pan, Fred Otieno, Tameka Hayes, Tereza Omoro, Penelope A Phillips-Howard, Fred Odongo, George O Otieno
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner physical violence increases women's risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self-reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011-2012 (Round 1) and 2013-2014 (Round 2)...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
Alfgeir L Kristjansson, Ingibjorg E Thorisdottir, Thora Steingrimsdottir, John P Allegrante, Christa L Lilly, Inga D Sigfusdottir
Background: Research on the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on scholastic achievement in the offspring has shown conflicting findings. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of MSDP on scholastic achievement in a birth cohort of children in 4th, 7th and 10th grades. Methods: We analysed data from the LIFECOURSE study, a cohort study of risk and protective factors in all children born in Reykjavik, Iceland, in the year 2000 (N = 1151, girls = 49...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Michelle Gryczkowski, Sara Sytsma Jordan, Sterett H Mercer
Using multilevel modeling, we separately examined the relations between mothers' and fathers' parenting practices and children's prosocial behavior, as well as the moderating roles of child sex, age, and ethnicity. Participants included a diverse community sample of 129 cohabiting couples with a child aged 6-17. Results indicated that paternal positivity and corporal punishment were significantly related to girls', but not boys', prosocial behavior, and paternal involvement was related to prosocial behavior in school-aged children but not adolescents...
September 26, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Tharangani K Herath, Angela J Ashby, Nilantha S Jayasuriya, James E Bron, John F Taylor, Alexandra Adams, Randolph H Richards, Manfred Weidmann, Hugh W Ferguson, John B Taggart, Herve Migaud, Mark J Fordyce, Kim D Thompson
With increasing interest in the use of triploid salmon in commercial aquaculture, gaining an understanding of how economically important pathogens affect triploid stocks is important. To compare the susceptibility of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to viral pathogens, fry were experimentally infected with Salmonid alphavirus sub-type 1 (SAV1), the aetiological agent of pancreas disease (PD) affecting Atlantic salmon aquaculture in Europe. Three groups of fry were exposed to the virus via different routes of infection: intraperitoneal injection (IP), bath immersion, or cohabitation (co-hab) and untreated fry were used as a control group...
2017: PloS One
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