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Diana Pacheco Barzallo
BACKGROUND: Care and support of people dealing with long-term disabilities involves the entire family. OBJECTIVE: This paper evaluates the effect of living with a relative dealing with a long-term disability on the health status of all family members in the household. METHODS: Using information from the Swiss household panel from the year 1999 to 2003 (n = 18,030), a linear regression is implemented to compare the health status of family members cohabiting with individuals dealing with a long-term disability with the health status of individuals of similar characteristics in the general population...
April 12, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Gerald Eric Daniels, Venoo Kakar, Anoshua Chaudhuri
Unlike prior studies that have explained racial differences in the transitions to marriage among unmarried women, our study used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine racial differences in the transitions to marriage among unmarried women following a non-marital birth. We found that Black mothers were 60-65% more likely to delay marriage after a non-marital birth compared to White mothers and these racial gaps were only partially explained by economic, demographic and attitudinal factors...
September 2017: Journal of Family and Economic Issues
Malin Bergström, Emma Fransson, Michael B Wells, Lennart Köhler, Anders Hjern
AIM: Joint physical custody, children spending equal time in each parents' respective home after a parental divorce, is particularly common in Nordic compared with other Western countries. Older children have been shown to fare well in this practice but for young children there are few existing studies. The aim of this paper is to study psychological problems in 2- to 9-year-old Nordic children in different family forms. METHODS: Total symptom score according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as well as scores showing externalizing problems were compared among 152 children in joint physical custody, 303 in single care and 3207 in nuclear families through multiple linear regression analyses...
April 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Loren Henderson, Assata Zerai, Rebecca L Morrow
This study examines the connection between intimate partner violence (IPV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus status among married and cohabitating women in Zimbabwe using an African feminist framework. Stata 13.0 was used to analyze data from the 2010-2011 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, which used a national probability sample of households in the country of Zimbabwe. This study used logistic regression to analyze the 2,830 ever-married or cohabitating women who also answered the violence and spousal traits questionnaire as well as provided blood samples...
December 2017: African Journal of Reproductive Health
Dvora Joseph Davey, Remco P H Peters, Noah Kojima, Maanda Mudau, Lindsey De Vos, Dawie Olivier, James A McIntyre, Jeffrey D Klausner, Andrew Medina-Marino
BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviors in HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa are not well understood. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited into a prospective cohort at first antenatal care visit. Sociodemographic information and self-collected vulvovaginal swab samples were collected from participants. Vulvovaginal swab samples were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using GeneXpert®. We investigated sexual behaviors, alcohol use and factors associated with condomless sex during pregnancy and prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) among our cohort...
April 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Andreina Bruno, Giuseppina Dell'Aversana, Gloria Guidetti
Interpersonal relationship require sophisticated competences of cohabitation. However, the availability of training tools to develop conflict management skills is limited and problematic. The prisoner's dilemma game (PDG), the most widely known example of game theory, a nonzero-sum game, has been used, in higher education, to provide students with an opportunity of active learning and for understanding counterintuitive concepts. It creates a condition of emotive, moral and decisional conflict in and between agents...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Umar Z Ikram, Marieke B Snijder, Eske M Derks, Ron J G Peters, Anton E Kunst, Karien Stronks
Introduction: To understand smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups, studies have largely focused on societal factors, with little attention to family influences. Yet studies among majority groups have identified parental smoking as an important risk factor. It is unknown whether this applies to ethnic minority groups. We investigated the association between parental smoking and adult offspring's smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups with an immigrant background. Methods: We used data from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study from Amsterdam (the Netherlands) from January 2011 to December 2015...
June 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Chris R Kenyon
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence varies from 1.7% to 14.8% between ethnic groups in Uganda. Understanding the factors responsible for this heterogeneity in HIV spread may guide prevention efforts. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by ethnic group and a range of risk factors as well as the prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), syphilis and symptomatic STIs in the 2004/2005 Uganda HIV/AIDS Sero-Behavioural Survey-a two stage, nationally representative, population based survey of 15-59-year-olds...
2018: PloS One
Victoria Iyun, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Stanzi le Roux, James A McIntyre, Allison Zerbe, Greg Petro, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVES: Prevention of unplanned pregnancy is a crucial aspect of preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. There are few data investigating how HIV status and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence pregnancy planning in high HIV burden settings. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Cape Town, South Africa. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTINGS: Single primary-level antenatal care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa...
April 3, 2018: BMJ Open
P L Li, D M Li, L Ge, X Yue, L Liang, W Guo, Y Cui
Objective: To understand the prevalence of HIV infection and syphilis in clients in Ya'an of Sichuan province. Methods: A survey was conducted in clients recruited through snowball method in Ya'an of Sichuan from April 2014 to December 2015. The information of the clients, including basic demography characteristics, AIDS knowledge awareness, high-risk behaviors and others, were collected through face-to-face interviews. Blood sample (5 ml) was taken from each client to test antibodies against HIV and syphilis...
March 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Emma Mi, Ella Mi, Gail Ewing, Patrick White, Ravi Mahadeva, A Carole Gardener, Morag Farquhar
Objective: Accurate informal carer assessment of patient symptoms is likely to be valuable for decision making in managing the high symptom burden of COPD in the home setting. Few studies have investigated agreement between patients and carers in COPD. We aimed to assess agreement between patients and carers on symptoms, and factors associated with disagreement in a population-based sample of patients with advanced COPD. Patients and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional analysis of data from 119 advanced COPD patients and their carers...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Imma Cortès-Franch, Vicenta Escribà-Agüir, Joan Benach, Lucía Artazcoz
BACKGROUND: The growing demand for labour flexibility has resulted in decreasing employment stability that could be associated with poor mental health status. Few studies have analysed the whole of the work force in considering this association since research on flexible forms of employment traditionally analyses employed and unemployed people separately. The gender division of work, and family characteristics related to employment situation, could modify its association with mental wellbeing...
April 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lauren Rumble, Amber Peterman, Nadira Irdiana, Margaret Triyana, Emilie Minnick
BACKGROUND: Child marriage, defined as marriage before age 18, is associated with adverse human capital outcomes. The child marriage burden remains high among female adolescents in Indonesia, despite increasing socioeconomic development. Research on child marriage in Southeast Asia is scarce. No nationally representative studies thus far have examined determinants of child marriage in Indonesia through multivariate regression modeling. METHODS: We used data from the nationally representative 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey and the Adolescent Reproductive Health Survey to estimate determinants of child marriage and marital preferences...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
L Storm, A Schnegelsberg, J Mackenhauer, L W Andersen, M K Jessen, H Kirkegaard
BACKGROUND: A recent study showed higher risk of bacteremia among individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES). We hypothesized that patients with a low SES have a higher risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission with sepsis compared to patients with higher SES. METHODS: This was a case-control study on patients with sepsis admitted to the ICU at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (2008-2010). Three hundred eighty-three sepsis patients were matched on sex, age, and zip code with controls retrieved from the background population...
March 22, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Carmen W E Embregts, Roni Tadmor-Levi, Tomáš Veselý, Dagmar Pokorová, Lior David, Geert F Wiegertjes, Maria Forlenza
Koi Herpes Virus (KHV or Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3, CyHV-3) is among the most threatening pathogens affecting common carp production as well as the highly valuable ornamental koi carp. To date, no effective commercial vaccine is available for worldwide use. A previous study reported that three intramuscular injections with an ORF25-based DNA vaccine, led to the generation of neutralizing antibodies and conferred significant protection against an intraperitoneal challenge with KHV. In the present study, we set out to optimize an ORF25-based DNA vaccination protocol that required fewer injections and would confer protection upon a challenge that better resembled the natural route of infection...
March 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Kim Josefsson, Marko Elovainio, Sari Stenholm, Ichiro Kawachi, Maarit Kauppi, Ville Aalto, Mika Kivimäki, Jussi Vahtera
RATIONALE: Extensive scientific evidence shows an association between involvement in social relationships and healthy lifestyle. Prospective studies with many participants and long follow-ups are needed to study the dynamics and change in social factors within individuals over time. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether a change in relationship status (single, married, divorced, widow, cohabiting) is followed by a change in health behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index)...
March 19, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Hisayoshi Morioka, Osamu Itani, Maki Jike, Sachi Nakagome, Yuichiro Otsuka, Takashi Ohida
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors at birth that are predictive of subsequent injury among preschool children. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of population-based birth cohort data from the "Longitudinal Survey of Babies Born in the 21st Century" was performed from 2001 through 2007 in Japan (n = 47,015). The cumulative incidence and the total number of hospitalizations or examinations conducted at medical facilities for injury among children from birth up to the age of 5 years were calculated...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
P Reis, J Lourenço, F P Carvalho, J Oliveira, M Malta, S Mendo, R Pereira
The induction of RIBE (Radiation Induced Bystander Effect) is a non-target effect of low radiation doses that has already been verified at an inter-organismic level in fish and small mammals. Although the theoretical impact in the field of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is possible, there is a gap of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in invertebrate groups and following environmentally relevant exposures. To understand if RIBE should be considered for ERA of radionuclide-rich wastewaters, we exposed Daphnia magna (<24 h and 5d old) to a 2% diluted uranium mine effluent for 48 h, and to a matching dose of waterborne uranium (55...
March 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Aditya Kanesa-Thasan, Amani A Fawzi, Manjot K Gill
PURPOSE: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a disease in which serous detachment of the neurosensory retina occurs over an area of leakage from the choriocapillaris through the retinal pigment epithelium. Associations have been drawn between high-stress personality types and steroid exposure. This article aims to describe a unique case series of two husband and wife couples with CSC. METHODS: All methods were approved by the authors' institution's institutional review board...
April 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Zhen Li, Chang Fu, Fan Yang, Zongfu Mao
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension in middle-aged people is increasing. However, few studies have examined the risk factors of hypertension among the middle-aged population. The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors for the middle-aged population in China. METHODS: The data were from the third-wave national survey (2015) of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A total of 7,178 respondents aged 45-59 years were included in this study...
March 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
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