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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432850/a-detailed-experimental-study-of-a-dna-computer-with-two-endonucleases
#1
Sebastian Sakowski, Tadeusz Krasiński, Joanna Sarnik, Janusz Blasiak, Jacek Waldmajer, Tomasz Poplawski
Great advances in biotechnology have allowed the construction of a computer from DNA. One of the proposed solutions is a biomolecular finite automaton, a simple two-state DNA computer without memory, which was presented by Ehud Shapiro's group at the Weizmann Institute of Science. The main problem with this computer, in which biomolecules carry out logical operations, is its complexity - increasing the number of states of biomolecular automata. In this study, we constructed (in laboratory conditions) a six-state DNA computer that uses two endonucleases (e...
April 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430849/performance-and-symptom-validity-testing-as-a-function-of-medical-board-evaluation-in-u-s-military-service-members-with-a-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Wesley R Cole, Robert L Stegman
Objective: The study was designed to replicate and extend pervious findings demonstrating the high rates of invalid neuropsychological testing in military service members (SMs) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessed in the context of a medical evaluation board (MEB). Method: Two hundred thirty-one active duty SMs (61 of which were undergoing an MEB) underwent neuropsychological assessment. Performance validity (Word Memory Test) and symptom validity (MMPI-2-RF) test data were compared across those evaluated within disability (MEB) and clinical contexts...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425814/verbal-short-term-memory-and-language-impairments-in-cantonese-speakers-after-stroke
#3
Diana Wai-Lam Ho, Anthony Pak-Hin Kong, Nim-Ting Koon
PURPOSE: The study examined the relationship between verbal short-term memory (STM) and language impairment in Cantonese speakers after stroke. It is hypothesised that Cantonese speakers with left-hemisphere (LH) stroke would perform worse than those with right hemisphere (RH) stroke and normal controls. Specific linguistic factors of Cantonese might affect results in the tasks. METHOD: Fifteen participants with LH stroke, 10 with RH stroke and 25 healthy controls were tested with auditory-verbal immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks and auditory linguistic tasks...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419188/interactive-book-reading-to-accelerate-word-learning-by-kindergarten-children-with-specific-language-impairment-identifying-adequate-progress-and-successful-learning-patterns
#4
Holly L Storkel, Rouzana Komesidou, Kandace K Fleming, Rebecca Swinburne Romine
Purpose: The goal of this study was to provide guidance to clinicians on early benchmarks of successful word learning in an interactive book reading treatment and to examine how encoding and memory evolution during treatment contribute to word learning outcomes by kindergarten children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Twenty-seven kindergarten children with SLI participated in a preliminary clinical trial using interactive book reading to teach 30 new words...
April 20, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418327/auditory-and-cognitive-factors-associated-with-speech-in-noise-complaints-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Eric C Hoover, Pamela E Souza, Frederick J Gallun
BACKGROUND: Auditory complaints following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are common, but few studies have addressed the role of auditory temporal processing in speech recognition complaints. PURPOSE: In this study, deficits understanding speech in a background of speech noise following MTBI were evaluated with the goal of comparing the relative contributions of auditory and nonauditory factors. RESEARCH DESIGN: A matched-groups design was used in which a group of listeners with a history of MTBI were compared to a group matched in age and pure-tone thresholds, as well as a control group of young listeners with normal hearing (YNH)...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417534/cardiac-function-and-cognition-in-older-community-dwelling-cardiac-patients
#6
Laura H P Eggermont, Mohamed F A Aly, Pieter J Vuijk, Karin de Boer, Otto Kamp, Albert C van Rossum, Erik J A Scherder
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits have been reported in older cardiac patients. An underlying mechanism for these findings may be reduced cardiac function. The relationship between cardiac function as represented by different echocardiographic measures and different cognitive function domains in older cardiac patients remains unknown. METHODS: An older (≥70 years) heterogeneous group of 117 community-dwelling cardiac patients under medical supervision by a cardiologist underwent thorough echocardiographic assessment including left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular diastolic function, and valvular calcification...
April 17, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415909/detecting-coached-neuropsychological-dysfunction-a-simulation-experiment-regarding-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Lily Lau, Michael R Basso, Eduardo Estevis, Ashley Miller, Douglas M Whiteside, Dennis Combs, Timothy J Arentsen
OBJECTIVE: Performance validity tests (PVTs) and symptom validity tests (SVTs) are often administered during neuropsychological evaluations. Examinees may be coached to avoid detection by measures of response validity. Relatively little research has evaluated whether graduated levels of coaching has differential effects upon PVT and SVT performance. Accordingly, the present experiment evaluated the effect of graduated levels of coaching upon the classification accuracy of commonly used PVTs and SVTs and the currently accepted criterion of failing two or more PVTs or SVTs...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414092/numbers-and-functional-lateralization-a-visual-half-field-and-dichotic-listening-study-in-proficient-bilinguals
#8
Michal Klichowski, Gregory Króliczak
Potential links between language and numbers and the laterality of symbolic number representations in the brain are still debated. Furthermore, reports on bilingual individuals indicate that the language-number interrelationships might be quite complex. Therefore, we carried out a visual half-field (VHF) and dichotic listening (DL) study with action words and different forms of symbolic numbers used as stimuli to test the laterality of word and number processing in single-, dual-language and mixed -task and language- contexts...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413715/brain-serotonin-4-receptor-binding-is-inversely-associated-with%C3%A2-verbal-memory-recall
#9
Dea S Stenbæk, Patrick M Fisher, Brice Ozenne, Emil Andersen, Liv V Hjordt, Brenda McMahon, Steen G Hasselbalch, Vibe G Frokjaer, Gitte M Knudsen
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining the association between cerebral 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory recall. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4R radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411094/association-of-social-frailty-with-both-cognitive-and-physical-deficits-among-older-people
#10
Kota Tsutsumimoto, Takehiko Doi, Hyuma Makizako, Ryo Hotta, Sho Nakakubo, Keitaro Makino, Takao Suzuki, Hiroyuki Shimada
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate the association between social frailty and cognitive and physical function among older adults. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: We examined community-dwelling adults in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Participants comprised 4425 older Japanese people from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Study of Geriatric Syndromes. MEASUREMENTS: Social frailty was defined by using responses to 5 questions (going out less frequently, rarely visiting friends, feeling unhelpful to friends or family, living alone, and not talking with someone every day)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407509/infant-word-segmentation-recruits-the-cerebral-network-of-phonological-short-term-memory
#11
Yasuyo Minagawa, Yoko Hakuno, Ai Kobayashi, Nozomi Naoi, Shozo Kojima
Segmenting word units from running speech is a fundamental skill infants must develop in order to acquire language. Despite ample behavioral evidence of this skill, its neurocognitive basis remains unclear. Using behavioral testing and functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to uncover the neurocognitive substrates of word segmentation and its development. Of three age-groups of Japanese infants (5-6, 7-8, and 9-10months of age), the two older age-groups showed significantly larger temporo-parietal (particularly supramarginal gyrus) responses to target words repeatedly presented for training, than to control words...
April 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406393/is-medical-environment-detrimental-to-memory-a-test-of-a-white-coat-effect-on-older-people-s-memory-performance
#12
Morgane Schlemmer, Olivier Desrichard
OBJECTIVES: Test if older people's memory assessment may be impacted by a medical environment and if memory self-efficacy (MSE) will moderate this effect. METHODS: We evaluated memory performance and MSE in 27 older adults in two different settings: a (control) university research environment, or a (proxy-medical) neuropsychological examination environment. RESULTS: The results showed a MSE × environment interaction effect on story-recall performance, with older people with low MSE performing less well in the proxy-medical situation than in the control situation and with elders with high MSE performing better in the proxy-medical situation than in the control situation...
March 27, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398120/usage-of-semantic-representations-in-recognition-memory
#13
Ryoji Nishiyama, Tetsuji Hirano, Jun Ukita
Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this...
April 11, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397306/a-review-of-cognitive-impairments-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities-implications-for-cognitive-behaviour-therapy
#14
Anastasia Hronis, Lynette Roberts, Ian I Kneebone
OBJECTIVE: Nearly half of children with intellectual disability (ID) have comorbid affective disorders. These problems are chronic if left untreated and can significantly impact upon future vocational, educational, and social opportunities. Despite this, there is a paucity of research into effective treatments for this population. Notably, one of the most supported of psychological therapies, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), remains largely uninvestigated in children with ID. The current review considers the neuropsychological profile of children and adolescents with mild to moderate ID, with a view to informing how CBT might best be adapted for children and adolescents with ID...
April 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394160/free-recall-test-experience-potentiates-strategy-driven-effects-of-value-on-memory
#15
Michael S Cohen, Jesse Rissman, Mariam Hovhannisyan, Alan D Castel, Barbara J Knowlton
People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in memory via dopaminergic projections from midbrain to hippocampus (Shohamy & Adcock, 2010). We hypothesized that the latter mechanism would primarily enhance recollection-based memory, while the former mechanism would strengthen both recollection and familiarity...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391135/the-residual-protective-effects-of-enactment
#16
Jeffrey D Wammes, Myra A Fernandes
Research has demonstrated the importance of the quality of initial retrieval events (Test 1) for performance on later memory tests (Test 2). We explored whether enacting words at encoding, relative to simply reading them, provided protection against the detrimental effects of a degraded retrieval experience, through the addition of motor processing to the extant memory representation. Participants encoded a mixed list of enacted and read words, then completed Test 1, and a later Test 2. Encoding and Test 2 were always completed under full attention (FA)...
April 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391035/selective-verbal-recognition-memory-impairments-are-associated-with-atrophy-of-the-language-network-in-non-semantic-variants-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#17
Aneesha S Nilakantan, Joel L Voss, Sandra Weintraub, M-Marsel Mesulam, Emily J Rogalski
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is clinically defined by an initial loss of language function and preservation of other cognitive abilities, including episodic memory. While PPA primarily affects the left-lateralized perisylvian language network, some clinical neuropsychological tests suggest concurrent initial memory loss. The goal of this study was to test recognition memory of objects and words in the visual and auditory modality to separate language-processing impairments from retentive memory in PPA...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387587/multiple-object-tracking-as-a-tool-for-parametrically-modulating-memory-reactivation
#18
Jordan Poppenk, Ken A Norman
Converging evidence supports the "nonmonotonic plasticity" hypothesis that, although complete retrieval may strengthen memories, partial retrieval weakens them. Yet, the classic experimental paradigms used to study effects of partial retrieval are not ideally suited to doing so, because they lack the parametric control needed to ensure that the memory is activated to the appropriate degree (i.e., that there is some retrieval but not enough to cause memory strengthening). Here, we present a novel procedure designed to accommodate this need...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387586/separating-erp-effects-for-conceptual-fluency-and-episodic-familiarity
#19
Regine Bader, Axel Mecklinger
ERP old/new effects have been associated with different subprocesses of episodic recognition memory. The notion that recollection is reflected in the left parietal old/new effect seems to be uncontested. However, an association between episodic familiarity and the mid-frontal old/new effect is not uncontroversial. It has been argued that the mid-frontal old/new effect is functionally equivalent to the N400 and hence merely reflects differences in conceptual fluency between old and new items. Therefore, it is related to episodic familiarity only in situations in which conceptual fluency covaries with familiarity...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384805/speech-recognition-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants-the-effects-of-working-memory-phonological-sensitivity-and-aging
#20
Aaron C Moberly, Michael S Harris, Lauren Boyce, Susan Nittrouer
Purpose: Models of speech recognition suggest that "top-down" linguistic and cognitive functions, such as use of phonotactic constraints and working memory, facilitate recognition under conditions of degradation, such as in noise. The question addressed in this study was what happens to these functions when a listener who has experienced years of hearing loss obtains a cochlear implant. Method: Thirty adults with cochlear implants and 30 age-matched controls with age-normal hearing underwent testing of verbal working memory using digit span and serial recall of words...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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