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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331899/the-speed-of-memory-errors-shows-the-influence-of-misleading-information-testing-the-diffusion-model-and-discrete-state-models
#1
Jeffrey J Starns, Chad Dubé, Matthew E Frelinger
In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Thus, forced-choice trials always had one word with a previous correct response and one with a previous error...
January 11, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331692/memory-performance-predicts-response-to-psychotherapy-for-depression-in-bipolar-disorder-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-exploratory-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Thilo Deckersbach, Amy T Peters, Conor Shea, Aishwarya Gosai, Jonathan P Stange, Andrew D Peckham, Kristen K Ellard, Michael W Otto, Scott L Rauch, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial compared Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Psychotherapy (SP) for the treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder. We also examined whether exploratory verbal memory, executive functioning, and neural correlates of verbal memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicted change in depression severity. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (ages 18-65) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder meeting current criteria for a major depressive episode were randomized to 18 weeks of CBT or SP...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324915/self-report-instruments-of-cognitive-failures-as-screening-tools-for-subjective-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#3
Vasileios Papaliagkas, G Papantoniou, Magda Tsolaki, Despina Moraitou
BACKGROUND: The term "Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI)" is the most widely accepted term for cognitive complaints of otherwise apparently healthy older adults. It is presently clear that SCI might be a risk factor for the development of Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia. As regards SCI measurement and potential diagnosis, several studies showed that SCI is a condition in which people score in the normal range on common tests but believe they experience cognitive decline. Hence, to assess the characteristic of the SCI subtle cognitive decline, self-report measures were developed to estimate "self-experience" of minimal decline in cognition seem the most appropriate tools...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321703/executive-functions-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-panic-disorder-patients-in-comparison-to-healty-controls
#4
Emel Kurt, Erol Yildirim, Volkan Topçuoğlu
Introduction: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired cognitive functions, including attention, verbal and visual memory, and visual-spatial abilities as well as executive function But some studies did not show any disturbance in executive function of patients with OCD. To date, only few studies have been conducted on neuropsychological functioning of patients with panic disorder (PD). There are limited studies to reach a definite conclusion on executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319601/the-moca-memory-index-score-an-efficient-alternative-to-paragraph-recall-for-the-detection-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Antarpreet Kaur, Steven D Edland, Guerry M Peavy
OBJECTIVE: To compare ability of 2 measures of delayed memory (word list, story paragraph) to discriminate Normal Control (NC) subjects from those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: Demographic, neuropsychological, and diagnostic data contributed by 34 Alzheimer's Disease Centers to the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center characterized 2717 individuals with a diagnosis of either NC (n=2205) or aMCI (n=512). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) assessed delayed word recall, and the Craft Story 21, delayed story recall...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319009/cognitive-function-predicts-listening-effort-performance-during-complex-tasks-in-normally-aging-adults
#6
Jennine Harvey, Deborah von Hapsburg, Scott Seeman
PURPOSE: This study examines whether cognitive function, as measured by the subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WCJ-III) assessment, predicts listening-effort performance during dual tasks across the adults of varying ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 listeners (number of females = 11) who were 41-61 years old [mean = 53.18; standard deviation (SD) = 5.97]. Group 2 consisted of 15 listeners (number of females = 9) who were 63-81 years old (mean = 72...
November 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317609/apolipoprotein-e-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-and-cognitive-decline-over-the-adult-life-course
#7
Mark James Rawle, Daniel Davis, Rebecca Bendayan, Andrew Wong, Diana Kuh, Marcus Richards
We tested the association between APOE-ε4 and processing speed and memory between ages 43 and 69 in a population-based birth cohort. Analyses of processing speed (using a timed letter search task) and episodic memory (a 15-item word learning test) were conducted at ages 43, 53, 60-64 and 69 years using linear and multivariable regression, adjusting for gender and childhood cognition. Linear mixed models, with random intercepts and slopes, were conducted to test the association between APOE and the rate of decline in these cognitive scores from age 43 to 69...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316819/hearing-aid-noise-suppression-and-working-memory-function
#8
Tobias Neher, Kirsten C Wagener, Rosa-Linde Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading span. DESIGN: Using a computer simulation of bilaterally fitted HAs, four settings were tested: (1) unprocessed, (2) directional microphones, (3) single-channel noise reduction, and (4) binaural coherence-based noise reduction...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307083/in-thai-nationals-the-apoe4-allele-affects-multiple-domains-of-neuropsychological-biobehavioral-and-social-functioning-thereby-contributing-to-alzheimer-s-disorder-while-the-apoe3-allele-protects-against-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-psychosocial-deficits
#9
Sookjaroen Tangwongchai, Thitiporn Supasitthumrong, Solaphat Hemrunroj, Chavit Tunvirachaisakul, Phenphichcha Chuchuen, Natnicha Houngngam, Thiti Snabboon, Ittipol Tawankanjanachot, Yuthachai Likitchareon, Kamman Phanthumchindad, Michael Maes
The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (ApoE4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disorder (AD) and is associated with semantic and episodic memory deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between ApoE alleles (E2, E3, E4) and genotypes and neuropsychological tests, behavioral functions, and dementia symptoms as assessed using Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). This study included 60 patients with Alzheimer's disorder (AD), 60 with mild cognitive disorder (MCI), and 62 normal volunteers...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303425/existing-knowledge-of-linguistic-structure-mitigates-associative-memory-deficits-in-older-adults
#10
Andrea C Smyth, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
Background/Study Context: Older adults show lower memory performance than younger adults when a task requires them to create associations (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1170-1187). In this study, associative memory was examined in order to assess whether age differences in performance were mitigated when the word pairs to be learned utilized a familiar pattern seen in everyday language (adjective-noun), which we propose as a type of schematic support that capitalizes upon linguistic structure...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295652/long-lasting-neuropsychological-effects-of-a-computerized-cognitive-training-in-patients-affected-by-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease-are-they-stable-over-time
#11
Marco Cavallo, Chiara Angilletta
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the stability of effects of a computerized cognitive training previously administered to a large group of early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, as compared with a control group. METHOD: Eighty AD patients were randomized in two groups and underwent a computerized cognitive training, or a control intervention. RESULTS: A Repeated Measures General Linear Model (RM-GLM) showed a significant interaction effect for the following neuropsychological tests: the digit span forward and backward, and the two-syllable words test, as measures of short-term memory and working memory; the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) story immediate and the RBMT story delayed, as measures of ecologically oriented memory; the Token test, as measure of language comprehension; and the Brixton test, as an executive functions measure...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290363/flavanol-rich-cocoa-consumption-enhances-exercise-induced-executive-function-improvements-in-humans
#12
Hayato Tsukamoto, Tadashi Suga, Aya Ishibashi, Saki Takenaka, Daichi Tanaka, Yoshitaka Hirano, Takafumi Hamaoka, Kazushige Goto, Kumiko Ebi, Tadao Isaka, Takeshi Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE: Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288507/effectiveness-of-executive-function-training-on-mental-set-shifting-working-memory-and-inhibition-in-healthy-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Huei-Ling Chiu, Pi-Tuan Chan, Ching-Chiu Kao, Hsin Chu, Pi-Chen Chang, Shu-Tai Sheen Hsiao, Doresses Liu, Wen-Chi Chang, Kuei-Ru Chou
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of executive function training on mental set shifting, working memory and inhibition for healthy older adults. BACKGROUND: Executive functions control and guide individuals' behaviors through a top-down cognitive model and have been regarded as the exhibition and integration of various high-level cognitive functions. However, prior studies have rarely focused on the subcomponent indicators of executive function, such as mental set shifting, working memory and inhibition in healthy older adults...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287674/-effects-of-cerebral-oxygen-changes-during-coronary-bypass-surgery-on-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-patients-a-pilot-study
#14
Cenk Şahan, Zerrin Sungur, Emre Çamcı, Nükhet Sivrikoz, Ömer Sayin, Hakan Gurvit, Mert Şentürk
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is common after cardiac surgery. Adequate cerebral perfusion is essential and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can measure cerebral oxygenation. Aim of this study is to compare incidence of early and late postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients treated with conventional or near infrared spectroscopy monitoring. METHODS: Patients undergoing coronary surgery above 60 years, were included and randomized to 2 groups; control and NIRS groups...
December 26, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286444/generalized-psychophysiological-interaction-ppi-analysis-of-memory-related-connectivity-in-individuals-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Theresa M Harrison, Donald G McLaren, Teena D Moody, Jamie D Feusner, Susan Y Bookheimer
In neuroimaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal in the brain. The degree of correlation of the BOLD signal in spatially independent regions of the brain defines the functional connectivity of those regions. During a cognitive fMRI task, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis can be used to examine changes in the functional connectivity during specific contexts defined by the cognitive task. An example of such a task is one that engages the memory system, asking participants to learn pairs of unrelated words (encoding) and recall the second word in a pair when presented with the first word (retrieval)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282409/longitudinal-changes-in-performance-on-cognitive-screening-tests-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease
#16
Fangzhou Li, Hajime Takechi, Atsuko Kokuryu, Ryosuke Takahashi
Background: Neuropsychological tests that can track changes in cognitive functions after diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), including episodic memory, should be further developed. Methods: The participants of our study consisted of 22 mild AD patients and 11 MCI patients. They were followed up for 2 years. Brief cognitive screening tests were administered to the participants. Longitudinal changes in test performance were evaluated and analyzed...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280957/emotional-encoding-context-leads-to-memory-bias-in-individuals-with-high-anxiety
#17
Christopher Lee, Myra A Fernandes
We investigated whether anxious individuals, who adopt an inherently negative mindset, demonstrate a particularly salient memory bias for words tainted by negative contexts. To this end, sequentially presented target words, overlayed onto negative or neutral pictures, were studied in separate blocks (within-subjects) using a deep or shallow encoding instruction (between-subjects). Following study, in Test 1, participants completed separate recognition test blocks for the words overlayed onto the negative and the neutral contexts...
December 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276496/the-interplay-between-topic-shift-and-focus-in-the-dynamic-construction-of-discourse-representations
#18
Xiaohong Yang, Xiuping Zhang, Cheng Wang, Ruohan Chang, Weijun Li
Previous studies have suggested that focusing an element can enhance the activation of the focused element and bring about a number of processing benefits. However, whether and how this local prominence of information interacts with global discourse organization remains unclear. In the present study, we addressed this issue in two experiments. Readers were presented with four-sentence discourses. The first sentence of each discourse contained a critical word that was either focused or unfocused in relation to a wh-question preceding the discourse...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276495/verbal-learning-and-memory-in-cannabis-and-alcohol-users-an-event-related-potential-investigation
#19
Janette L Smith, Frances M De Blasio, Jaimi M Iredale, Allison J Matthews, Raimondo Bruno, Michelle Dwyer, Tessa Batt, Allison M Fox, Nadia Solowij, Richard P Mattick
Aims: Long-term heavy use of cannabis and alcohol are known to be associated with memory impairments. In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine verbal learning and memory processing in a commonly used behavioral task. Method: We conducted two studies: first, a small pilot study of adolescent males, comprising 13 Drug-Naive Controls (DNC), 12 heavy drinkers (HD) and 8 cannabis users (CU). Second, a larger study of young adults, comprising 45 DNC (20 female), 39 HD (16 female), and 20 CU (9 female)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275948/item-method-directed-forgetting-effects-at-retrieval
#20
Tracy L Taylor, Laura Cutmore, Lotta Pries
In an item-method directed forgetting paradigm, words are presented one at a time, each followed by an instruction to Remember or Forget; a directed forgetting effect is measured as better subsequent memory for Remember words than Forget words. The dominant view is that the directed forgetting effect arises during encoding due to selective rehearsal of Remember over Forget items. In three experiments we attempted to falsify a strong view that directed forgetting effects in recognition are due only to encoding mechanisms when an item method is used...
December 22, 2017: Acta Psychologica
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