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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099757/quality-of-memories-in-women-abused-by-their-intimate-partner-analysis-of-traumatic-and-nontraumatic-narratives
#1
Violeta Fernández-Lansac, María Crespo
Traditional models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) claim that the high emotional intensity of traumatic events leads to deficits in the voluntary access of traumatic memories. This may result in disorganized narratives, with a high sense of emotional and sensory reliving. Alternatively, the basic mechanisms view suggests that high arousal leads to more available involuntary and voluntary memories. Traumatic narratives would not be impaired; indeed, they would be immersive and rich in detail. To test this perspective, this study compared the trauma narratives of 50 battered women (trauma-exposed group) with narratives about positive experiences and narratives of 50 nonexposed women (controls), and analyzed the relationship between trauma narrative aspects and the severity of PTSD...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095744/the-effects-of-age-on-the-learning-and-forgetting-of-primacy-middle-and-recency-components-of-a-multi-trial-word-list
#2
Jason W Griffin, Samantha E John, Jason W Adams, Cara A Bussell, Jessica L Saurman, Brandon E Gavett
The serial position effect reveals that recall of a supraspan list of words follows a predictable pattern, whereby words at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of a list are recalled more easily than words in the middle. This effect has typically been studied using single list-learning trials, but in neuropsychology, multi-trial list-learning tests are more commonly used. The current study examined trends in learning for primacy, middle, and recency effects across multiple trials in younger and older age cohorts...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095010/test-expectancy-and-memory-for-important-information
#3
Catherine D Middlebrooks, Kou Murayama, Alan D Castel
Prior research suggests that learners study and remember information differently depending upon the type of test they expect to later receive. The current experiments investigate how testing expectations impact the study of and memory for valuable information. Participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1 to 10 points with the goal being to maximize their score on a later memory test. Half of the participants were told to expect a recognition test after each list, whereas the other half were told to expect a recall test...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088063/verbal-and-musical-short-term-memory-variety-of-auditory-disorders-after-stroke
#4
Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080105/cross-cultural-feigning-assessment-a-systematic-review-of-feigning-instruments-used-with-linguistically-ethnically-and-culturally-diverse-samples
#5
Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Barry Rosenfeld
The cross-cultural validity of feigning instruments and cut-scores is a critical concern for forensic mental health clinicians. This systematic review evaluated feigning classification accuracy and effect sizes across instruments and languages by summarizing 45 published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished doctoral dissertations conducted in Europe, Asia, and North America using linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples. The most common psychiatric symptom measures used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples included the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology, the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080086/attentional-capture-by-taboo-words-a-functional-view-of-auditory-distraction
#6
Jan P Röer, Ulrike Körner, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
It is well established that task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored speech adversely affects serial short-term memory (STM) for visually presented items compared with a quiet control condition. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether the semantic content of the speech has the capacity to capture attention and to disrupt memory performance. In the present article, we tested whether taboo words are more difficult to ignore than neutral words. Taboo words or neutral words were presented as (a) steady state sequences in which the same distractor word was repeated, (b) changing state sequences in which different distractor words were presented, and (c) auditory deviant sequences in which a single distractor word deviated from a sequence of repeated words...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077328/dissociation-between-working-memory-performance-and-proactive-interference-control-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Diane Swick, Julien Cayton, Victoria Ashley, And U Turken
Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074268/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-a-chronic-vestibular-failure
#8
Pauline Popp, Melanie Wulff, Kathrin Finke, Maxine Rühl, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Behavioral studies in rodents and humans have demonstrated deficits of spatial memory and orientation in bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). Our aim was to explore the functional consequences of chronic vestibular failure on different cognitive domains including spatial as well as non-spatial cognitive abilities. Sixteen patients with a unilateral vestibular failure (UVF), 18 patients with a BVF, and 17 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. To assess the cognitive domains of short-term memory, executive function, processing speed and visuospatial abilities the following tests were used: Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), TAP Alertness and Visual Scanning, the Stroop Color-Word, and the Corsi Block Tapping Test...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072803/neural-correlates-of-maladaptive-pain-behavior-in-chronic-neck-pain-a-single-case-control-fmri-study
#9
Konstantin Beinert, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michael Mouthon, Jean-Marie Annoni, Wolfgang Taube
Chronic neck pain patients display functional impairments like decreased range of motion, decreased strength, and reduced sensorimotor function. In patients without structural damage, the reason for the persistence of pain is not well understood. Therefore, it is assumed that in chronic pain states, memory processes play an important role. We have now detected and tested a patient that might help us to better understand the neural correlates of maladaptive pain expectation/memory. This patient displays chronic neck pain and restricted unilateral motion of the cervical spine to the left...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071300/-going-episodic-collaborative-inhibition-and-facilitation-when-long-married-couples-remember-together
#10
Celia B Harris, Amanda J Barnier, John Sutton, Paul G Keil, Roger A Dixon
Two complementary approaches to the study of collaborative remembering have produced contrasting results. In the experimental "collaborative recall" approach within cognitive psychology, collaborative remembering typically results in "collaborative inhibition": laboratory groups recall fewer items than their estimated potential. In the cognitive ageing approach, collaborative remembering with a partner or spouse may provide cueing and support to benefit older adults' performance on everyday memory tasks. To combine the value of experimental and cognitive ageing approaches, we tested the effects of collaborative remembering in older, long-married couples who recalled a non-personal word list and a personal semantic list of shared trips...
January 10, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054825/the-relationship-between-premorbid-iq-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorders
#11
James J Mahoney, Ari D Kalechstein, Anthony P De Marco, Thomas F Newton, Richard De La Garza
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether premorbid IQ mediates performance on neurocognitive tests in individuals diagnosed with cocaine use disorder (CUD). METHOD: Recently abstinent cocaine users (N = 113) completed measures sensitive to the effects of cocaine on cognition: Conners' Continuous Performance Task-II (CPT-II), n-back working memory test, and Hopkins Verbal Learning Task-Revised (HVLT-R). Premorbid IQ was calculated using the Oklahoma Premorbid Intelligence Estimate, which integrates scores from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and demographic variables...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053032/a-spiking-working-memory-model-based-on-hebbian-short-term-potentiation
#12
Florian Fiebig, Anders Lansner
: A dominant theory of working memory (WM), referred to as the persistent activity hypothesis, holds that recurrently connected neural networks, presumably located in the prefrontal cortex, encode and maintain WM memory items through sustained elevated activity. Reexamination of experimental data has shown that prefrontal cortex activity in single units during delay periods is much more variable than predicted by such a theory and associated computational models. Alternative models of WM maintenance based on synaptic plasticity, such as short-term nonassociative (non-Hebbian) synaptic facilitation, have been suggested but cannot account for encoding of novel associations...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050213/auditory-alterations-in-children-infected-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-verified-through-auditory-processing-test
#13
Ana Carla Leite Romero, Lívia Marangoni Alfaya, Alina Sanches Gonçales, Ana Claudia Figueiredo Frizzo, Myriam de Lima Isaac
Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW)...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045787/some-neurocognitive-correlates-of-noise-vocoded-speech-perception-in-children-with-normal-hearing-a-replication-and-extension-of-eisenberg-et-al-2002
#14
Adrienne S Roman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Kathleen F Faulkner
OBJECTIVES: Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032373/meaningful-memory-in-acute-anorexia-nervosa-patients-comparing-recall-learning-and-recognition-of-semantically-related-and-semantically-unrelated-word-stimuli
#15
Valentin Terhoeven, Ursula Kallen, Katrin Ingenerf, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Matthias Weisbrod, Wolfgang Herzog, Timo Brockmeyer, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Christoph Nikendei
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether observed memory impairment in anorexia nervosa (AN) depends on the semantic structure (categorized words) of material to be encoded. We aimed to investigate the processing of semantically related information in AN. METHOD: Memory performance was assessed in a recall, learning, and recognition test in 27 adult women with AN (19 restricting, 8 binge-eating/purging subtype; average disease duration: 9.32 years) and 30 healthy controls using an extended version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, applying semantically related and unrelated word stimuli...
December 29, 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032007/cognition-depression-fatigue-and-quality-of-life-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-correlations
#16
Belgin Koçer, Mehmet Engin Tezcan, Hale Zeynep Batur, Şeminur Haznedaroğlu, Berna Göker, Ceyla İrkeç, Rümeysa Çetinkaya
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of cognitive dysfunction observed in primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) and to examine the relationships between cognitive abilities, depression, fatigue, and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two subjects with PSS were compared with 19 healthy controls on comprehensive neuropsychological, depression, fatigue, health state, and daily-life activities tests. RESULTS: There was low performance in Clock Drawing, COWAT, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Colorless Word Reading (Stroop1) and Recognizing Colors (Stroop2) Patterns of STROOP test, SDLT, Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), immediate and long-term verbal memory, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and in all the patterns of RCFT in PSS patients compared to the healthy control group (p < ...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003570/correlations-between-cognitive-impairments-and-employment-status-in-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury
#17
Shin Hirota, Motoki Inaji, Tadashi Nariai, Mutsuya Hara, Masashi Tamaki, Taketoshi Maehara, Hiroki Tomita, Osamu Tone
Patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) may initially present with prominent physical impairments, but their cognitive dysfunctions are more persistent and are attributable to later unemployment. In this study, we analyzed how the findings of early and delayed neuropsychological assessments correlated with employment outcome of patients with DAI. A total of 56 patients with DAI without motor or visual dysfunction were included in this study. The neuropsychological battery consisted of the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale - Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R), Trail Making Test (TMT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Word Fluency Test (WFT)...
December 22, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002634/fkbp5-polymorphisms-influence-pre-learning-stress-induced-alterations-of-learning-and-memory
#18
Phillip R Zoladz, Alison M Dailey, Hannah E Nagle, Miranda K Fiely, Brianne E Mosley, Callie M Brown, Tessa J Duffy, Amanda R Scharf, McKenna B Earley, Boyd R Rorabaugh
FK506 binding protein 51(FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 90 and significantly influences glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene are associated with altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, changes in the structure and function of several cognitive brain areas, and increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder, and suicidal events. The mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown, but it has been speculated that the influence of these SNPs on emotional memory systems may play a role...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000115/tied-to-expectations-predicting-features-speeds-processing-even-under-adverse-circumstances
#19
Sabine Schwager, Robert Gaschler, Dennis Rünger, Peter A Frensch
When participants predict the upcoming stimulus in a randomized choice reaction task, a match between prediction and stimulus increases processing speed at a level similar to that observed in cueing studies with highly valid cues. This might be taken to suggest that people cannot help but fully use their self-generated, verbalized predictions for preparing task processing. Thus, we tested how flexibly participants can control formation and implementation of predictions. In Experiment 1, we varied validity and response-relevance of predictions...
December 20, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998904/word-memory-test-performance-across-cognitive-domains-psychiatric-presentations-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Jared A Rowland, Holly M Miskey, Timothy W Brearly, Sarah L Martindale, Robert D Shura
OBJECTIVE: The current study addressed two aims: (i) determine how Word Memory Test (WMT) performance relates to test performance across numerous cognitive domains and (ii) evaluate how current psychiatric disorders or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history affects performance on the WMT after excluding participants with poor symptom validity. METHOD: Participants were 235 Iraq and Afghanistan-era veterans (Mage = 35.5) who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
December 19, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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