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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926752/response-bias-and-response-monitoring-evidence-from-healthy-older-adults-and-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Rebecca G Deason, Michelle J Tat, Sean Flannery, Prabhakar S Mithal, Erin P Hussey, Eileen T Crehan, Brandon A Ally, Andrew E Budson
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often exhibit an abnormally liberal response bias in recognition memory tests, responding "old" more frequently than "new." Investigations have shown patients can to shift to a more conservative response bias when given instructions. We examined if patients with mild AD could alter their response patterns when the ratio of old items is manipulated without explicit instruction. Healthy older adults and AD patients studied lists of words and then were tested in three old/new ratio conditions (30%, 50%, or 70% old items)...
September 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925333/depression-and-cognitive-function-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#2
Seoyoung Yoon, Cheolmin Shin, Changsu Han
BACKGROUND: The coexistence of depression with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) seems to increase the risk of dementia. However, the explanations of that relationship have been inconsistent. We investigated cognitive profiles in patients with MCI with and without depression and whether changes in depression symptoms affect cognition longitudinally. METHODS: For the study, 161 patients with MCI were divided into a depressed group (D+) and a nondepressed group (D-)...
September 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914221/-the-default-setting-of-memory-is-forgetting
#3
D Draaisma
From the age of about 60, many people begin to experience difficulties with tasks that require the use of prospective memory and begin to have trouble finding words and names. Worried that these symptoms may be indicative of the onset of Alzheimer's disease, many of them fill in online self-tests or consult their family doctor. In the vast majority of cases, symptoms like these indicate completely natural age-related forgetfulness. Physicians should encourage a socially active lifestyle to slow down further decline...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912159/oscillatory-reinstatement-enhances-declarative-memory
#4
Amir-Homayoun Javadi, James C Glen, Sara Halkiopoulos, Mei Schulz, Hugo J Spiers
Declarative memory recall is thought to involve the reinstatement of neural activity patterns that occurred previously during encoding. Consistent with this view, greater similarity between patterns of activity recorded during encoding and retrieval has been found to predict better memory performance in a number of studies. Recent models have argued that neural oscillations may be crucial to reinstatement for successful memory retrieval. However, to date, no causal evidence has been provided to support this theory, nor has the impact of oscillatory electrical brain stimulation during encoding and retrieval been assessed...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891669/an-age-related-deficit-in-resolving-interference-evidence-from-speech-perception
#5
Avanti Dey, Mitchell S Sommers, Lynn Hasher
The presence of noise and interfering information can pose major difficulties during speech perception, particularly for older adults. Analogously, interference from similar representations during retrieval is a major cause of age-related memory failures. To demonstrate a suppression mechanism that underlies such speech and memory difficulties, we tested the hypothesis that interference between targets and competitors is resolved by suppressing competitors, thereby rendering them less intelligible in noise...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883499/a-reminder-before-extinction-strengthens-episodic-memory-via-reconsolidation-but-fails-to-disrupt-generalized-threat-responses
#6
Marijn C W Kroes, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Qi Lin, Michael Evans, Elizabeth A Phelps
A reminder can temporarily renew flexibility of consolidated memories, referred to as reconsolidation. Pavlovian threat-conditioning studies suggest that a reminder can renew flexibility of threat responses but that episodic memories remain stable. In contrast, outside the threat-conditioning domain, studies testing memory for word lists or stories find that a reminder can renew flexibility of episodic memory. This discrepancy in findings leaves it unclear if episodic memories reconsolidate, or only Pavlovian responses...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875464/changes-in-tryptophan-catabolite-trycat-pathway-patterning-are-associated-with-mild-impairments-in-declarative-memory-in-schizophrenia-and-deficits-in-semantic-and-episodic-memory-coupled-with-increased-false-memory-creation-in-deficit-schizophrenia
#7
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Solaphat Hemrungrojn, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Kiat Ruxrungtham, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, George Anderson, Michael Maes
Evidence indicates that schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms and deficit schizophrenia are accompanied by neurocognitive impairments and changes in the patterning of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. This cross-sectional study was carried out to examine the associations between cognitive functions (as measured with Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD)) and TRYCAT pathway patterning in patients with (n = 40) and without (n = 40) deficit schizophrenia and normal controls (n = 40)...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869474/cortical-metabolic-and-cognitive-correlates-of-disorientation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Gali H Weissberger, Rebecca J Melrose, Candace M Fanale, Joseph V Veliz, David L Sultzer
Orientation to time, date, and place is commonly utilized in clinical settings to aid in diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to identify the cerebral metabolic correlates of orientation in patients with AD, and the degree to which regions associated with orientation overlap with memory-related structures. Eighty-five patients with a diagnosis of probable AD underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological testing. Orientation items from the Dementia Rating Scale and recognition performance from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD (CERAD) Word List Learning test were correlated with cerebral glucose metabolism...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867993/impact-of-prefrontal-theta-burst-stimulation-on-clinical-neuropsychological-tasks
#9
Raquel Viejo-Sobera, Diego Redolar-Ripoll, Mercè Boixadós, Marc Palaus, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Elena M Marron
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocols hold high promise in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Nevertheless, their ability to either decrease (continuous, cTBS) or increase (intermittent, iTBS) cortical excitability in areas other than the primary motor cortex, and their consistency modulating human behaviors with clinically relevant tasks remain to be fully established. The behavioral effects of TBS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) are particularly interesting given its involvement in working memory (WM) and executive functions (EF), often impaired following frontal brain damage...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863828/quantitative-and-qualitative-analysis-of-semantic-verbal-fluency-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
A G Jaimes-Bautista, M Rodríguez-Camacho, I E Martínez-Juárez, Y Rodríguez-Agudelo
INTRODUCTION: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) perform poorly on semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks. Completing these tasks successfully involves multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. Therefore, quantitative analysis of SVF (number of correct words in one minute), conducted in most studies, has been found to be insufficient to identify cognitive dysfunction underlying SVF difficulties in TLE. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a sample of patients with TLE had SVF difficulties compared with a control group (CG), and to identify the cognitive components associated with SVF difficulties using quantitative and qualitative analysis...
August 29, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862710/letter-and-symbol-identification-no-evidence-for-letter-specific-crowding-mechanisms
#11
Eric Castet, Marine Descamps, Ambre Denis-Noël, Pascale Colé
It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861009/cognitive-processing-speed-working-memory-and-the-intelligibility-of-hearing-aid-processed-speech-in-persons-with-hearing-impairment
#12
Wycliffe Kabaywe Yumba
Previous studies have demonstrated that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual cognitive capacity, particularly working memory capacity (WMC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive abilities (cognitive processing speed and WMC) and individual listeners' responses to digital signal processing settings in adverse listening conditions. A total of 194 native Swedish speakers (83 women and 111 men), aged 33-80 years (mean = 60...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856956/semantic-and-phonological-schema-influence-spoken-word-learning-and-overnight-consolidation
#13
Viktória Havas, J S H Taylor, Lucía Vaquero, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Matthew H Davis
We studied the initial acquisition and overnight consolidation of new spoken words that resemble words in the native language (L1) or in an unfamiliar, non-native language (L2). Spanish-speaking participants learned the spoken forms of novel words in their native language (Spanish) or in a different language (Hungarian), which were paired with pictures of familiar or unfamiliar objects, or no picture. We thereby assessed, in a factorial way, the impact of existing knowledge (schema) on word learning by manipulating both semantic (familiar vs...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854849/spontaneous-retrieval-reveals-right-ear-advantage-in-prospective-memory
#14
Nicolas Rothen, Beat Meier
The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of individual costs on prospective memory performance. Individual costs were assessed by contrasting participants with high costs and those with low costs. Specifically, we tested whether prospective memory performance is moderated by costs, cue focality and intention specificity. Participants performed a dichotic listening paradigm where they had to indicate if a word presented to one ear was abstract or concrete while ignoring the word presented to the other ear...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854608/stereotypes-warnings-and-identity-related-variables-influence-older-adults-susceptibility-to-associative-false-memory-errors
#15
Amy M Smith, David A Gallo, Sarah J Barber, Keith B Maddox, Ayanna K Thomas
Background and Objectives: Activating ageist stereotypes can impair older adults' ability to remember information. This effect has been shown to be strongest for older adults who possess certain characteristics (e.g., young-old, highly educated). The present study extended this line of research to investigate the relationship between stereotyping and false memory susceptibility in older adults. Research Design and Methods: We first presented older adults with lists of associated words in an incidental learning paradigm...
August 1, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853331/the-effects-of-varying-levels-of-hemispheric-activation-on-episodic-memory
#16
Stephen Prunier, Stephen Christman, John Jasper
Bilateral saccadic eye movements enhance episodic memory retrieval; however, this usually only occurs for consistent-handed, not inconsistent-handed, individuals. It was hypothesized that inconsistent-handers begin closer to the peak of a Yerkes-Dodson-type inverted-U curve and increasing activation pushes them along the curve eventually decreasing performance, while consistent-handers start at a lower baseline and therefore increasing activation increases their performance. The current study tested this hypothesis by using hand clenching (grip strength) to increase activation at 5 different levels for both consistent- and inconsistent-handers...
August 30, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836450/validation-of-the-advanced-clinical-solutions-word-choice-test-wct-in-a-mixed-clinical-sample-establishing-classification-accuracy-sensitivity-specificity-and-cutoff-scores
#17
Kathleen M Bain, Jason R Soble
This study examined the Word Choice Test's (WCT) utility as a performance validity test in a mixed clinical sample of veterans referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Participants completed Green's Word Memory Test (WMT), WCT, and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) Trial 1. Using the WMT as the criterion for valid performance, logistic regressions examined the WCT and TOMM's classification accuracy for those with and without cognitive impairment (CI). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to establish cut scores which maximized the sensitivity/specificity of each measure...
August 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832639/single-neuron-recordings-of-bilinguals-performing-in-a-continuous-recognition-memory-task
#18
Erika K Hussey, Kiel Christianson, David M Treiman, Kris A Smith, Peter N Steinmetz
We report the results of a bilingual continuous recognition memory task during which single- and multi-neuron activity was recorded in human subjects with intracranial microwire implants. Subjects (n = 5) were right-handed Spanish-English bilinguals who were undergoing evaluation prior to surgery for severe epilepsy. Subjects were presented with Spanish and English words and the task was to determine whether any given word had been seen earlier in the testing session, irrespective of the language in which it had appeared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827894/recognizing-what-matters-value-improves-recognition-by-selectively-enhancing-recollection
#19
Joseph P Hennessee, Alan D Castel, Barbara J Knowlton
We examined the effects of value on recognition by assessing its contribution to recollection and familiarity. In three experiments, participants studied English words, each associated with a point-value they would earn for correct recognition, with the goal of maximizing their score. In Experiment 1, participants provided Remember/Know judgments. In Experiment 2 participants indicated whether items were recollected or if not, their degree of familiarity along a 6-point scale. In Experiment 3, recognition of words was accompanied by a test of memory for incidental details...
June 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826306/performance-on-the-test-of-memory-malingering-is-predicted-by-the-number-of-errors-on-its-first-10-items-on-an-inpatient-epilepsy-monitoring-unit
#20
Jonathan M Grabyan, Robert L Collins, W Alexander Alverson, David K Chen
OBJECTIVE: Performance validity testing is an increasingly vital component of neuropsychological evaluation, though administration of stand-alone performance validity tests (PVTs) can be time-consuming. As the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is among the most commonly used and researched PVTs, much work has focused on creating abbreviated versions while preserving diagnostic accuracy. A recent addition to this effort, errors on the first 10 items of Trial 1 (TOMMe10), was analyzed for its utility in predicting TOMM performance...
August 22, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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