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history of epilepsy

Matthew Zack, Cecily Luncheon
From 95,196 sample adults in the combined 2010, 2013, and 2015 U.S. National Health Interview Survey, we estimated the association between histories of epilepsy and heart disease after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors. Adults 18 years old or older with an epilepsy history reported heart disease (21%) about nine percentage points more often than those without such a history (12%), overall and within levels of characteristics and risk factors. These increases in heart disease history for adults with an epilepsy history compared with adults without such a history were greater in those 45-64 years old or at the lowest family income levels...
June 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Pratima Gulati, Puneet Jain, Hebah Qashqari, Laura Bradbury, Pamela Cooper, Hiroshi Otsubo, Robyn Whitney
A 17-years old girl presented with an 8-year history of absences with peri-oral twitching, eyelid twitching and head nodding, with poor response to anti-epileptic drugs. Video EEG revealed ictal and inter-ictal generalized spike wave discharges, and absences with peri-oral (predominant), eyelid, neck and shoulder myoclonia. There was also prominent eye closure sensitivity. Conundrums regarding epilepsy syndrome classification and pathophysiology are discussed.
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Carsten W Israel
Transient loss of consciousness represents one of the most frequent reasons for patients to present in the emergency room. Already at the very beginning, the diagnostic work-up is faced with fundamental questions: (1) Was it really a loss of consciousness? (2) Which department (neurology, cardiology, or others) should check the patient? (3) Is an in-hospital diagnostic work-up required? These questions can be answered from a meticulous patient history which needs to be adjusted to the individual case but also has to systematically go through a list of questions...
June 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
Amneh Al-Husseini, Mayyada Wazaify, Marie Claire Van Hout
Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. A qualitative study was undertaken in Jordan, where concerns have been raised about its unprescribed availability in community pharmacies and thereby its abuse. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all patients with a history of pregabalin use in two Jordanian addiction treatment centers. All were male patients aged 21-30 years ( n  = 11). The majority was poly-drug abusers and had a previous history of substance abuse (tramadol, Captagon, synthetic cannabinoids, and marijuana) ...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Kun Han, Zhaojian Li, Hongwei Yin, Weicheng Yao, Xiaolei Lan, Yongli Bo
BACKGROUND:  Liquid posterior fossa epidural hematoma (LPFEH) following head trauma is uncommon, and very few such cases have been described in the literature. Eight patients with this entity and their treatments are presented here. METHODS:  We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of all patients with diagnosed LPFEH over a 3-year period. Collected data included clinical history, laboratory results, treatment, and review of all imaging studies performed...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Ping Qian, Xiaoling Yang, Xiaojing Xu, Xiaoyan Liu, Yuehua Zhang, Zhixian Yang
OBJECTIVE: To detect potential mutations of the glutamate receptor subunit (GRIN2A) gene and delineate the clinical-genetic characteristics of patients with epilepsy-aphasia spectrum (EAS) disorders. METHODS: One hundred twenty two patients with Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (CSWS), benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECT) and BECT variants were recruited. Potential mutations of the GRIN2A gene were screened with Sanger sequencing...
June 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Kosuke Kusakabe, Akihiro Inoue, Shirabe Matsumoto, Mie Kurata, Riko Kitazawa, Hideaki Watanabe, Takeharu Kunieda
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri), a rare and treatable variant of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, lacks specific imaging and clinical features, and requires invasive brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) caused by CAA-ri in the right occipital lobe. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 78-year-old man with a history of hypertension and rheumatoid arthritis was admitted to our hospital following an episode of seizures...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Zachary B Jenner, Nuruddin Husein, Roy Riascos, Yoshua Esquenazi
Introduction Orbital meningoencephalocele formation is primarily a result of congenital defects in the pediatric population and trauma of the anterior cranial fossa in adults. We present a unique case of nontraumatic nasal and orbital meningoencephaloceles presenting as bilateral proptosis with exotropia secondary to chronic hydrocephalus. Clinical presentation A 20-year-old male with a history of tuberous sclerosis, X-linked intellectual disability, and epilepsy presented to the emergency department with two days of nausea, emesis, seizures, and two months of progressive proptosis...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Thomas Mathew, Amrutha Avati, Delon D'Souza, Manjusha Therambil
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease, typically characterized by pontine atrophy, vermian hypoplasia, infantile encephalopathy, generalized hypotonia, and intractable seizures. The purpose of this study is to describe the seizures and other neurological manifestations of RARS 2 gene mutations and to compare the clinical features with other causes of progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Detailed history, physical examination, and clinical and genetic work-up were performed in 2 siblings who presented with progressive myoclonic epilepsy...
June 2018: Epilepsia Open
Sharon Chiang, Marina Vannucci, Daniel M Goldenholz, Robert Moss, John M Stern
Objective: A fundamental challenge in treating epilepsy is that changes in observed seizure frequencies do not necessarily reflect changes in underlying seizure risk. Rather, changes in seizure frequency may occur due to probabilistic variation around an underlying seizure risk state caused by normal fluctuations from natural history, leading to seizure unpredictability and potentially suboptimal medication adjustments in epilepsy management. However, no rigorous statistical approach exists to systematically distinguish expected changes in seizure frequency due to natural variability from changes in underlying seizure risk...
June 2018: Epilepsia Open
Claire Dussaule, Viviane Bouilleret
Epileptic and psychiatric diseases share overlaps. Indeed, anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in epilepsy, and patients with psychiatric disease are at risk of epilepsy. Some antiepileptic drugs (AED) have psychiatric side effects; conversely, some AED could be used to treat psychiatric pathologies. Based on current literature data, the aim of this study is to determine the psychiatric effects induced by the most frequently prescribed AED in epileptic adults. Some AED will have positive mood or anxiolytic effects like sodium channel blockers, valproate and benzodiazepines; conversely, others might induce negative psychiatric effect, especially depression, anxiety or aggression, like levetiracetam, perampanel, topiramate, zonisamide, and barbiturates...
June 1, 2018: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Jan Dirk Blom, Esmeralda Mangoenkarso
Background: Sexual hallucinations are probably the most neglected types of hallucination, even in psychiatric settings. They are often multimodal in nature, and their prevalence rate is unknown. For other types of hallucination, notably auditory hallucinations, childhood trauma is an important risk factor. However, whether this also applies to sexual hallucinations is unexplored. Objective: To establish the prevalence rate of sexual hallucinations in a clinical sample of patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, to describe their phenomenological characteristics, and to estimate their relationship with childhood trauma...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mehmet Alp Dirik, Burcin Sanlidag
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is one of the most frequently diagnosed chronic neurological disorders in children. Diagnosis is often based on seizure history and electroencephalography (EEG) assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for etiologic workup and intervention requirements. We aimed to detect by MRI if focal structural abnormalities are present in the brain in relation to interictal epileptiform discharges (IED). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed retrospectively...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Osakpolor Ogbebor, Ankit Agrawal, Balaji Yegneswaran
This is a case of an elderly woman who presented to our emergency room with an episode of a witnessed fall. The past medical history of the patient was significant for post-stroke epilepsy for which she was on oxcarbazepine. Initial blood work showed a white cell count of 4.5, haemoglobin of 12.4, and platelet count of 15,000. Peripheral blood smear showed normal platelet and red cell morphology without clumping. The patient's history suggested that she was recently started on oxcarbazepine prompting discontinuing of the drug...
June 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Pedro Vicente Ferreira Naves, Marcelo Calderaro, Luis Otavio Caboclo
Myoclonic status epilepticus (MSE) in patients without epilepsy, or de novo MSE, is a rare condition associated with several acute symptomatic etiologies, including drugs and toxins. We describe a 94-year-old woman with Alzheimer dementia and long use of mirtazapine 30 mg/d and alprazolam 1 mg/d who developed MSE approximately 24 hours after abrupt discontinuation of alprazolam. The patient was taking sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim for urinary tract infection, diagnosed 2 weeks before admission. She had no history of seizures...
May 30, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Maria Arvio, Oili Sauna-Aho, Timo Nyrke, Nina Bjelogrlic-Laakso
We describe here the clinical outcome of four women with epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia (aged 21-53 years). All patients had an uneventful early history, normal physical growth and appearance and no comorbid sensory or motor disability and normal brain magnetic resonance imaging finding. Two women were moderately and one mildly intellectually disabled and one showed a low-average intelligence. The overall well-being of the patients was hampered by psychiatric or various somatic comorbidities and related psychosocial problems...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Lily C Wong-Kisiel, Thomas Blauwblomme, Mai-Lan Ho, Nathalie Boddaert, Joseph Parisi, Elaine Wirrell, Rima Nabbout
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the most common cause of intractable focal epilepsy in children, in whom seizures are most commonly pharmacoresistant from onset. This review summarizes the current understandings of the epidemiology, natural history, and the proposed mechanisms of epileptogenisis in FCD. Advances in neuroimaging techniques have enhanced the recognition of this pathology, which can be subtle. Illustrative neurophysiology and imaging examples are provided to help the clinicians identify diagnostic evidence of suspected FCD...
May 14, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Jianfei Cui, Xiaoman Yu, Shuli Liang, Shaohui Zhang, Xiaohong Hu
Tuberous scleroses complex (TSC) is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome and has autosomal dominant inheritance. However, larger family with TSC is very rare. Here, we report the first five generations family with TSC from China, and localize the pathogenic gene. A boy with TSC and epilepsy underwent preoperative evaluation and epileptic surgery. His TSC family history was gotten, and the clinical data of a Chinese family with TSC were collected in 2016. Complete exons sequencing was performed in the proband and his parents, and whole exons sequence of TSC was performed in the other family members...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Imane A Yassine, Waleed M Eldeeb, Khaled A Gad, Yossri A Ashour, Inas A Yassine, Ahmed O Hosny
INTRODUCTION: Neurocognitive impairment represents one of the most common comorbidities occurring in children with idiopathic epilepsy. Diagnosis of the idiopathic form of epilepsy requires the absence of any macrostructural abnormality in the conventional MRI. Though changes can be seen at the microstructural level imaged using advanced techniques such as the Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). AIM OF THE WORK: The aim of this work is to study the correlation between the microstructural white matter DTI findings, the electroencephalographic changes and the cognitive dysfunction in children with active idiopathic epilepsy...
May 21, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yasunori Nagahama, Alan J Schmitt, Daichi Nakagawa, Adam S Vesole, Janina Kamm, Christopher K Kovach, David Hasan, Mark Granner, Brian J Dlouhy, Matthew A Howard, Hiroto Kawasaki
OBJECTIVE Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) provides valuable information that guides clinical decision-making in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, but it carries technical challenges and risks. The technical approaches used and reported rates of complications vary across institutions and evolve over time with increasing experience. In this report, the authors describe the strategy at the University of Iowa using both surface and depth electrodes and analyze outcomes and complications. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review and analysis of all patients who underwent craniotomy and electrode implantation from January 2006 through December 2015 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
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