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B Torriss, J Margot, M Chaker
Samarium nickelate (SmNiO3) thin films were successfully synthesized on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed-laser deposition. The Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition of the thin films is sensitive to epitaxial strain and strain relaxation. Once the strain changes from compressive to tensile, the transition temperature of the SmNiO3 samples shifts to slightly higher values. The optical conductivity reveals the strong dependence of the Drude spectral weight on the strain relaxation. Actually, compressive strain broadens the bandwidth...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lucas C Flatten, David M Coles, Zhengyu He, David G Lidzey, Robert A Taylor, Jamie H Warner, Jason M Smith
Exciton-polaritons are quasiparticles consisting of a linear superposition of photonic and excitonic states, offering potential for nonlinear optical devices. The excitonic component of the polariton provides a finite Coulomb scattering cross section, such that the different types of exciton found in organic materials (Frenkel) and inorganic materials (Wannier-Mott) produce polaritons with different interparticle interaction strength. A hybrid polariton state with distinct excitons provides a potential technological route towards in situ control of nonlinear behaviour...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Feng-Qiang Xiong, Lipeng Wan, Yue Li, Tiju Thomas, Francis Joseph DiSalvo, Minghui Yang
LaTiO2N photocatalysts were prepared via thermal ammonalysis of flux-synthesized La2Ti2O7 and La2TiO5, and were investigated for water oxidation. Though LaTiO2N derived from La2TiO5 appears defect-free in UV-Vis-NIR and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies, its performance is much lower than conventional La2Ti2O7-derived LaTiO2N with defects. It is shown by Mott-Schottky analysis that La2TiO5-derived LaTiO2N has significantly lower donor density; this can result in insufficient build-in electric field for the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes...
January 17, 2017: ChemSusChem
H Chu, L Zhao, A de la Torre, T Hogan, S D Wilson, D Hsieh
Layered perovskite iridates realize a rare class of Mott insulators that are predicted to be strongly spin-orbit coupled analogues of the parent state of cuprate high-temperature superconductors. Recent discoveries of pseudogap, magnetic multipolar ordered and possible d-wave superconducting phases in doped Sr2IrO4 have reinforced this analogy among the single layer variants. However, unlike the bilayer cuprates, no electronic instabilities have been reported in the doped bilayer iridate Sr3Ir2O7. Here we show that Sr3Ir2O7 realizes a weak Mott state with no cuprate analogue by using ultrafast time-resolved optical reflectivity to uncover an intimate connection between its insulating gap and antiferromagnetism...
January 16, 2017: Nature Materials
A P Mackenzie
Although they were first synthesized in chemistry laboratories nearly fifty years ago, the physical properties of the metals PdCoO2, PtCoO2 and PdCrO2 have only more recently been studied in detail. The delafossite structure contains triangular co-ordinated atomic layers, and electrical transport in the delafossite metals is strongly 2D. Their most notable feature is their in-plane conductivity, which is amazingly high for oxide metals. At room temperature, the conductivity of non-magnetic PdCoO2 and PtCoO2 is higher per carrier than those of any alkali metal and even the most conductive elements, copper and silver...
January 12, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Linus K Ndegwa, Gideon Emukule, Timothy M Uyeki, Eunice Mailu, Sandra S Chaves, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Bandika V Lewa, Francis K Muiruri, Peter Omoth, Barry Fields, Joshua A Mott
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. METHODS: Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)/oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from patients with influenza like illness and/or severe acute respiratory infection...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
N Helaïli, A Boudjamaa, M Kebir, K Bachari
The present study focused on the evaluation of photo-catalytic and photo-electrochemical properties of the photo-catalyst based on nickel tungstate material prepared by a nitrate method through the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye's. The effect of catalyst loading and dye concentration was examined. Physico-chemical, optical, electrical, electrochemical, and photo-electrochemical properties of the prepared material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, optical reflectance diffuse (DR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry (CV), current intensity, mott-shottky, and nyquist...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Monica Mottes
Autophagy in eukaryotic cells is a constitutive process and functions as a homeostatic mechanism; it is upregulated in response to specific stress stimuli such as starvation, hypoxia and as oxidative stress. In addition to playing a crucial role in adaptive responses to different stimuli, autophagy is also required for intracellular quality control. This second aspect is important to prevent the activation of pathological processes. Autophagy also plays a central role in cellular development and differentiation because it is involved in the regulation of energetic balance...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
G Lantz, B Mansart, D Grieger, D Boschetto, N Nilforoushan, E Papalazarou, N Moisan, L Perfetti, V L R Jacques, D Le Bolloc'h, C Laulhé, S Ravy, J-P Rueff, T E Glover, M P Hertlein, Z Hussain, S Song, M Chollet, M Fabrizio, M Marsi
The study of photoexcited strongly correlated materials is attracting growing interest since their rich phase diagram often translates into an equally rich out-of-equilibrium behaviour. With femtosecond optical pulses, electronic and lattice degrees of freedom can be transiently decoupled, giving the opportunity of stabilizing new states inaccessible by quasi-adiabatic pathways. Here we show that the prototype Mott-Hubbard material V2O3 presents a transient non-thermal phase developing immediately after ultrafast photoexcitation and lasting few picoseconds...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
Ryotaro Arita, Takashi Koretsune, Shiro Sakai, Ryosuke Akashi, Yusuke Nomura, Wataru Sano
Recent progress in the fully nonempirical calculation of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc ) is reviewed. Especially, this study focuses on three representative light-element high-Tc superconductors, i.e., elemental Li, sulfur hydrides, and alkali-doped fullerides. Here, it is discussed how crucial it is to develop the beyond Migdal-Eliashberg (ME) methods. For Li, a scheme of superconducting density functional theory for the plasmon mechanism is formulated and it is found that Tc is dramatically enhanced by considering the frequency dependence of the screened Coulomb interaction...
January 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jay P N Singh, Reem Mohammed, Thanveer Thayyullathil, Abdullatif Al-Khal, Zubaida Al-Suwaidi
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been long neglected but has gained attention in recent years. In 2012, the World Health Organization annual report included an estimate for childhood TB for the first time, and in the following year, the TB Alliance received a grant from UNITAID (International Drug Purchase Facility) to develop pediatric TB formulations. Qatar is a low-incidence country. In this observational study, laboratory-confirmed cases of TB were analyzed from 2013 to 2015 and included patients aged ⩽14years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Ryan L Steinberg, Nathan A Brooks, Lewis J Thomas, Sarah L Mott, Michael A O'Donnell
OBJECTIVES: Adjuvant intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) remains the standard-of-care for high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Conflicting reports exist regarding disparate outcomes among BCG strains. We sought to determine whether a difference in recurrence-free survival (RFS) existed between TICE BCG and Connaught BCG strains used with interferon (IFN) for the treatment of NMBIC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A post hoc analysis of the phase 2 BCG/IFN study, conducted from May 1999 to February 2001...
December 29, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Yoshiaki Sato, Yoshitaka Kawasugi, Masayuki Suda, Hiroshi M Yamamoto, Reizo Kato
We present the carrier transport properties in the vicinity of a doping-driven Mott transition observed at a field-effect transistor (FET) channel using a single crystal of the typical two-dimensional organic Mott insulator κ-(BEDT-TTF)2CuN(CN)2Cl (κ-Cl). The FET shows a continuous metal-insulator transition (MIT) as electrostatic doping proceeds. The phase transition appears to involve two-step crossovers, one in Hall measurement and the other in conductivity measurement. The crossover in conductivity occurs around the conductance quantum e(2)/h, and hence is not associated with 'bad metal' behavior, in stark contrast to the MIT in half-filled organic Mott insulators or that in doped inorganic Mott insulators...
December 30, 2016: Nano Letters
Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Monica Mottes
This review focuses on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone formation and turn-over in good and ill skeletal fates. The interacting molecular pathways which control bone remodeling in physiological conditions during a lifelong process are described. Then, alterations of the molecular pathways regulating osteogenesis are addressed. In the aging process, as well as in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, bone loss is caused not only by an unbalanced bone resorption activity, but also by an impairment of MSCs' commitment towards the osteogenic lineage, in favour of adipogenesis...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hongzhen Liu, Yanyan Lou, Siriporn Jungsuttiwong, Shuai Yuan, Yin Zhao, Zhuyi Wang, Liyi Shi, Hualan Zhou
Charge recombination and transfer at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface play a crucial role in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, a fine-controlled gold nanoparticle (Au NP) via electrodeposition incorporated into a porous TiO2 photoanode and dodecanethiol molecules as an assembled monolayer capping on Au NPs was designed and prepared. The "fence-like" structure of gold thiol molecules at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface can not only insulate the electrolyte to suppress recombination but also make full use of the plasmon-enhanced light absorption of Au NPs...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rowan Mott, Ashley Herrod, Rohan H Clarke
Conspecific individuals inhabiting nearby breeding colonies are expected to compete strongly for food resources owing to the constraints imposed by shared morphology, physiology, and behavior on foraging strategy. Consequently, colony-specific foraging patterns that effectively partition the available resources may be displayed. This study aimed to determine whether intraspecific resource partitioning occurs in two nearby colonies of Lesser Frigatebirds (Fregata ariel). A combination of stable isotope analysis and GPS tracking was used to assess dietary and spatial partitioning of foraging resources during the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Simone Latini, Kirsten Trøstrup Winther, Thomas Olsen, Kristian S Thygesen
Van der Waals heterostructures (vdWH) provide an ideal playground for exploring light-matter interactions at the atomic scale. In particular, structures with a type-II band alignment can yield detailed insight into free carrier-to-photon conversion pro- cesses, which are central to e.g. solar cells and light emitting diodes. An important first step in describing such processes is to obtain the energies of the interlayer exciton states existing at the interface. Here we present a general first-principles method to compute the electronic quasi-particle (QP) band structure and excitonic binding en- ergies of incommensurate vdWHs...
December 27, 2016: Nano Letters
Sophie Richard, Marianne Boucher, Yoann Lalatonne, Sébastien Mériaux, Laurence Motte
In this article, a specific targeting Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) nanoplatform, composed by iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) with cRGD peptides as targeting agent onto NP surface, is explored for the diagnosis of brain tumors by MRI using intracranial U87MG mice xenograft tumor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editor: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader.
December 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hui Su, Ke-Xin Zhang, Bing Zhang, Hong-Hui Wang, Qiu-Ying Yu, Xin-Hao Li, Markus Antonietti, Jie-Sheng Chen
Heterogeneous catalysts of inexpensive and reusable transition-metal are attractive alternatives to homogeneous catalysts; the relatively low activity of transition-metal nanoparticles has become the main hurdle for their practical applications. Here, the de novo design of a Mott-Schottky-type heterogeneous catalyst is reported to boost the activity of a transition-metal nanocatalyst through electron transfer at the metal/nitrogen-doped carbon interface. The Mott-Schottky catalyst of nitrogen-rich carbon-coated cobalt nanoparticles (Co@NC) was prepared through direct polycondensation of simple organic molecules and inorganic metal salts in the presence of g-C3N4 powder...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Soobin Sinn, Choong Hyun Kim, Beom Hyun Kim, Kyung Dong Lee, Choong Jae Won, Ji Seop Oh, Moonsup Han, Young Jun Chang, Namjung Hur, Hitoshi Sato, Byeong-Gyu Park, Changyoung Kim, Hyeong-Do Kim, Tae Won Noh
Recently, α-RuCl3 has attracted much attention as a possible material to realize the honeycomb Kitaev model of a quantum-spin-liquid state. Although the magnetic properties of α-RuCl3 have been extensively studied, its electronic structure, which is strongly related to its Kitaev physics, is poorly understood. Here, the electronic structure of α-RuCl3 was investigated by photoemission (PE) and inverse-photoemission (IPE) spectroscopies. The band gap was directly measured from the PE and IPE spectra and was found to be 1...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
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