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Aharon Nachshon, Hanifa J Abu-Toamih Atamni, Yael Steuerman, Roa'a Sheikh-Hamed, Alexandra Dorman, Richard Mott, Juliane C Dohm, Hans Lehrach, Marc Sultan, Ron Shamir, Sascha Sauer, Heinz Himmelbauer, Fuad A Iraqi, Irit Gat-Viks
A central challenge in pharmaceutical research is to investigate genetic variation in response to drugs. The Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse reference population is a promising model for pharmacogenomic studies because of its large amount of genetic variation, genetic reproducibility, and dense recombination sites. While the CC lines are phenotypically diverse, their genetic diversity in drug disposition processes, such as detoxification reactions, is still largely uncharacterized. Here we systematically measured RNA-sequencing expression profiles from livers of 29 CC lines under baseline conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Rong-Qiang He, Zheng-Yu Weng
Many-body localization (MBL) is currently a hot issue of interacting systems, in which quantum mechanics overcomes thermalization of statistical mechanics. Like Anderson localization of non-interacting electrons, disorders are usually crucial in engineering the quantum interference in MBL. For translation invariant systems, however, the breakdown of eigenstate thermalization hypothesis due to a pure many-body quantum effect is still unclear. Here we demonstrate a possible MBL phenomenon without disorder, which emerges in a lightly doped Hubbard model with very strong interaction...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lorraine Lau, Zubaida Al-Ismaili, Maya Harel-Sterling, Michael Pizzi, Jillian S Caldwell, Melissa Piccioni, Larry C Lands, Theresa Mottes, Prasad Devarajan, Stuart L Goldstein, Michael R Bennett, Michael Zappitelli
BACKGROUND: Serum cystatin C (CysC) is a more accurate glomerular filtration rate marker than serum creatinine (SCr) and may rise more quickly with acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 81 non-critically ill children during 110 aminoglycoside (AG) treatments. We calculated area under the curve (AUC) for CysC to diagnose SCr-defined AKI and predict persistent AKI. SCr-AKI definition was based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (≥stage 1: ≥50 % or 26...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Andrey E Antipov, Younes Javanmard, Pedro Ribeiro, Stefan Kirchner
Disorder or sufficiently strong interactions can render a metallic state unstable, causing it to turn into an insulating one. Despite the fact that the interplay of these two routes to a vanishing conductivity has been a central research topic, a unifying picture has not emerged so far. Here, we establish that the two-dimensional Falicov-Kimball model, one of the simplest lattice models of strong electron correlation, does allow for the study of this interplay. In particular, we show that this model at particle-hole symmetry possesses three distinct thermodynamic insulating phases and exhibits Anderson localization...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Haofei I Wei, Carolina Adamo, Elizabeth A Nowadnick, Edward B Lochocki, Shouvik Chatterjee, Jacob P Ruf, Malcolm R Beasley, Darrell G Schlom, Kyle M Shen
In the cuprates, carrier doping of the Mott insulating parent state is necessary to realize superconductivity as well as a number of other exotic states involving charge or spin density waves. Cation substitution is the primary method for doping carriers into these compounds, and is the only known method for electron doping in these materials. Here, we report electron doping without cation substitution in epitaxially stabilized thin films of La_{2}CuO_{4} grown via molecular-beam epitaxy. We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to directly measure their electronic structure and conclusively determine that these compounds are electron doped with a carrier concentration of 0...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Sophie Richard, Véronique Eder, Gianvito Caputo, Clément Journé, Phalla Ou, Julie Bolley, Liliane Louedec, Erwann Guenin, Laurence Motte, Nicola Pinna, Yoann Lalatonne
AIM: Tunable size ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles from 3 to 9 nm coated with polyethylene glycol phosphonate moieties have been designed for neovascularization MRI. MATERIALS & METHODS: USPIO were synthesized using a nonaqueous sol-gel method. An ischemia-reperfusion rat model has been chosen for neo-angiogenesis and scanned on MRI after injection of different sized USPIO. Histological studies have been performed for USPIO localization within the tissue...
October 14, 2016: Nanomedicine
Asif Iqbal, Md Sazzad Hossain, Kirk H Bevan
In this work, we present a theoretical study of surface state occupation statistics at semiconductor-liquid interfaces, as it pertains to the evolution of H2 and O2 through water splitting. Our approach combines semiclassical charge transport and electrostatics at the semiconductor-liquid junction, with a master rate equation describing surface state mediated electron/hole transfer. As a model system we have studied the TiO2-water junction in the absence of illumination, where it is shown that surface states might not always equilibrate with the semiconductor...
October 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Aruna Rangan, Daniel W Visscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Blood
Jong Seok Jeong, Mehmet Topsakal, Peng Xu, Bharat Jalan, Renata M Wentzcovitch, K Andre Mkhoyan
Perovskite oxides form an eclectic class of materials owing to their structural flexibility in accommodating cations of different sizes and valences. They host well known point and planar defects, but so far no line defect has been identified other than dislocations. Using analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and ab initio calculations we have detected and characterized the atomic and electronic structures of a novel line defect in NdTiO3 perovskite. It appears in STEM images as a perovskite cell rotated by 45 degrees...
October 13, 2016: Nano Letters
Patrick W Maes, Pedro A P Rodrigues, Randy Oliver, Brendon M Mott, Kirk E Anderson
Dysbiosis, defined as unhealthy shifts in bacterial community composition, can lower the colonization resistance of the gut to intrinsic pathogens. Here, we determined the effect of diet age and type on the health and bacterial community composition of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We fed newly emerged bees fresh or aged diets, and then recorded host development and bacterial community composition from four distinct regions of the hosts' digestive tract. Feeding fresh pollen or fresh substitute, we found no difference in host mortality, diet consumption, development or microbial community composition...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Joanna R Watson, Darerca Owen, Helen R Mott
The small GTPase, Cdc42, is a key regulator of actin dynamics, functioning to connect multiple signals to actin polymerization through effector proteins of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and Transducer of Cdc42-dependent actin assembly (TOCA) families. WASP family members serve to couple Cdc42 with the actin nucleator, the Arp2/3 complex, via direct interactions. The regulation of these proteins in the context of actin dynamics has been extensively studied. Studies on the TOCA family, however, are more limited and relatively little is known about their roles and regulation...
August 11, 2016: Small GTPases
Tsung-Han Lee, Serge Florens, Vladimir Dobrosavljević
Gapless spin liquids have recently been observed in several frustrated Mott insulators, with elementary spin excitations-"spinons"-reminiscent of degenerate Fermi systems. However, their precise role at the Mott point, where charge fluctuations begin to proliferate, remains controversial and ill understood. Here we present the simplest theoretical framework that treats the dynamics of emergent spin and charge excitations on the same footing, providing a new physical picture of the Mott metal-to-insulator transition at half filing...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
J H Drewes, E Cocchi, L A Miller, C F Chan, D Pertot, F Brennecke, M Köhl
The crossover between a metal and a Mott insulator leads to a localization of fermions from delocalized Bloch states to localized states. We experimentally study this crossover using fermionic atoms in an optical lattice by measuring thermodynamic and local (on-site) density correlations. In the metallic phase at incommensurable filling we observe the violation of the local fluctuation-dissipation theorem indicating that the thermodynamics of the system cannot be characterized by local observables alone. In contrast, in the Mott insulator we observe the convergence of local and thermodynamic fluctuations indicating the absence of long-range density-density correlations...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
S S Naghavi, M Fabrizio, T Qin, E Tosatti
The quantum physics of ions and electrons behind low-energy spectra of strongly correlated molecular conductors, superconductors and Mott insulators is poorly known, yet fascinating especially in orbitally degenerate cases. The fulleride insulator Cs3C60 (A15), one such system, exhibits infrared (IR) spectra with low temperature peak features and splittings suggestive of static Jahn-Teller distortions with a breakdown of orbital symmetry in the molecular site. That is puzzling, since there is no detectable static distortion, and because the features and splittings disappear upon modest heating, which they should not...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Mohammed Hashim Al-Yasiri, Anne-Cécile Normand, Renaud Piarroux, Stéphane Ranque, Jean-François Mauffrey
Yellow-legged gulls have been reported to carry antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; however, the gut mycobiota of these birds has not yet been described. In this study, we analyzed the gut yeast communities in five yellow-legged gull breeding colonies along the Mediterranean littoral in southern France. Gull fecal samples were inoculated onto four types of culture media, including one supplemented with itraconazole. Yeast species richness, abundance, and diversity were estimated, and factorial analysis was used to highlight correspondences between breeding colonies...
October 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
João Paulo Felix Augusto De Almeida, Francisco Dal Vechio, Mauro Jr Teixeira, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Tamí Mott
To date, 22 species of amphisbaenids have been recorded at Brazilian Amazon (Ribeiro et al. 2008), six of them are small and have two pre-cloacal pores (Hoogmoed & Ávila-Pires 1991; Teixeira Jr. et al. 2014). Most of these species have narrow distributions, and its biology and phylogenetic relationships are poorly understood (Hoogmoed & Ávila-Pires 1991). Amphisbaena mitchelli Procter, 1923 and A. miringoera Vanzolini, 1971 share several morphological similarities that could reflect phylogenetic relatedness (Vanzolini 1971)...
September 16, 2016: Zootaxa
Pauline Della Rossa, Magalie Jannoyer, Charles Mottes, Joanne Plet, Abderazak Bazizi, Luc Arnaud, Alexandra Jestin, Thierry Woignier, Jean-Marie Gaude, Philippe Cattan
Persistent organic pollutants like organochlorine pesticides continue to contaminate large areas worldwide raising questions concerning their management. We designed and tested a method to link soil and water pollution in the watershed of the Galion River in Martinique. We first estimated the risk of soil contamination by chlordecone by referring to past use of land for banana cultivation and took 27 soil samples. We then sampled surface waters at 39 points and groundwater at 16 points. We tested three hypotheses linked to the source of chlordecone pollution at the watershed scale: (i) soils close to the river, (ii) soils close to the sampling point, (iii) throughout the sub-watershed generated at the sampling point...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
David J Graham, Marsha E Reichman, Michael Wernecke, Ya-Hui Hsueh, Rima Izem, Mary Ross Southworth, Yuqin Wei, Jiemin Liao, Margie R Goulding, Katrina Mott, Yoganand Chillarige, Thomas E MaCurdy, Chris Worrall, Jeffrey A Kelman
Importance: Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants approved for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). There are no randomized head-to-head comparisons of these drugs for stroke, bleeding, or mortality outcomes. Objective: To compare risks of thromboembolic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), major extracranial bleeding including major gastrointestinal bleeding, and mortality in patients with nonvalvular AF who initiated dabigatran or rivaroxaban treatment for stroke prevention...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
A Koitzsch, C Habenicht, E Müller, M Knupfer, B Büchner, H C Kandpal, J van den Brink, D Nowak, A Isaeva, Th Doert
Novel ground states might be realized in honeycomb lattices with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here we study the electronic structure of α-RuCl_{3}, in which the Ru ions are in a d^{5} configuration and form a honeycomb lattice, by angle-resolved photoemission, x-ray photoemission, and electron energy loss spectroscopy supported by density functional theory and multiplet calculations. We find that α-RuCl_{3} is a Mott insulator with significant spin-orbit coupling, whose low energy electronic structure is naturally mapped onto J_{eff} states...
September 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Myung-Joong Hwang, Martin B Plenio
Phase transitions are commonly held to occur only in the thermodynamical limit of a large number of system components. Here, we exemplify at the hand of the exactly solvable Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model and its generalization to finite JC lattices that finite component systems of coupled spins and bosons may exhibit quantum phase transitions (QPTs). For the JC model we find a continuous symmetry-breaking QPT, a photonic condensate with a macroscopic occupation as the ground state, and a Goldstone mode as a low-energy excitation...
September 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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