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H Alloul, P Wzietek, T Mito, D Pontiroli, M Aramini, M Riccò, J P Itie, E Elkaim
We present a detailed NMR study of the insulator-to-metal transition induced by an applied pressure p in the A15 phase of Cs_{3}C_{60}. We evidence that the insulating antiferromagnetic (AFM) and superconducting (SC) phases coexist only in a narrow p range. At fixed p, in the metallic state above the SC transition T_{c}, the ^{133}Cs and ^{13}C NMR spin-lattice relaxation data are seemingly governed by a pseudogaplike feature. We prove that this feature, also seen in the ^{133}Cs NMR shift data, is rather a signature of the Mott transition which broadens and smears out progressively for increasing (p,T)...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yasuhiro Takabayashi, Melita Menelaou, Hiroyuki Tamura, Nayuta Takemori, Takashi Koretsune, Aleš Štefančič, Gyöngyi Klupp, A Johan C Buurma, Yusuke Nomura, Ryotaro Arita, Denis Arčon, Matthew J Rosseinsky, Kosmas Prassides
Molecular solids with cooperative electronic properties based purely on π electrons from carbon atoms offer a fertile ground in the search for exotic states of matter, including unconventional superconductivity and quantum magnetism. The field was ignited by reports of high-temperature superconductivity in materials obtained by the reaction of alkali metals with polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and picene, but the composition and structure of any compound in this family remained unknown. Here we isolate the binary caesium salts of phenanthrene, Cs(C14H10) and Cs2(C14H10), to show that they are multiorbital strongly correlated Mott insulators...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
Charles Mottes, Magalie Lesueur Jannoyer, Marianne Le Bail, Mathilde Guéné, Céline Carles, Eric Malézieux
The understanding of factors affecting pesticide transfers to catchment outlet is still at a very early stage in tropical context, and especially on tropical volcanic context. We performed on-farm pesticide use surveys during 87 weeks and monitored pesticides in water weekly during 67 weeks at the outlet of a small catchment in Martinique. We identified three types of pollution. First, we showed long-term chronic pollution by chlordecone, diuron and metolachlor resulting from horticultural practices applied 5-20 years ago (quantification frequency higher than 80%)...
June 16, 2017: Chemosphere
K T Law, Patrick A Lee
1T-TaS2 is unique among transition metal dichalcogenides in that it is understood to be a correlation-driven insulator, where the unpaired electron in a 13-site cluster experiences enough correlation to form a Mott insulator. We argue, based on existing data, that this well-known material should be considered as a quantum spin liquid, either a fully gapped [Formula: see text] spin liquid or a Dirac spin liquid. We discuss the exotic states that emerge upon doping and propose further experimental probes.
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sarah E Mott, William J Hunter, Edibaldo Silva, Christopher J Huerter
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a common nonmelanoma skin cancer with increasing incidence in the United States and worldwide. It is strongly linked to UV radiation exposure and typically is slow growing. Malignancy in BCCs is due to local growth and invasion rather than metastasis, and the prognosis is generally favorable. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with a large, locally destructive giant BCC on the right side of the upper back that was successfully treated via complete surgical excision (SE) and did not recur in the subsequent 36 months...
May 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Tao Du, Yue-Xun Li, Yan Li, He-Lin Lu, Hui Zhang
The dimerized Kane-Mele model with/without the strong interaction is studied using analytical methods. The boundary of the topological phase transition of the model without strong interaction is obtained. Our results show that the occurrence of the transition only depends on dimerized parameter α . From the one-particle spectrum, we obtain the completed phase diagram including the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state and the topologically trivial insulator. Then, using different mean-field methods, we investigate the Mott transition and the magnetic transition of the strongly correlated dimerized Kane-Mele model...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Ch Uma Lavanya, I V Sankar, Ashok Chatterjee
The Holstein-Hubbard model with Gaussian phonon anharmonicity is studied in one-dimension at half filling using a variational method based on a series of canonical transformations. A fairly accurate phonon state is chosen to average the transformed Holstein-Hubbard Hamiltonian to obtain an effective Hubbard model which is then solved using the exact Bethe - ansatz following Lieb and Wu to obtain the ground state energy, the average lattice displacement and the renormalized parameters. The Mott-Hubbard criterion, local spin moment and the von Neumann entropy (which is a measure of quantum entanglement) are calculated to determine the ground state phase diagram which shows that the width of the metallic phase flanked by the SDW and CDW phases increases with increasing anharmonicity at low and moderate values of anharmonicity but eventually saturates when the anharmonicity becomes substantially large...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Lei Liu, David D Mott, Alexander J McDonald
The basolateral amygdala receives a very dense cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is important for memory consolidation. Although behavioral studies have shown that both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors are critical for these mnemonic functions, there have been very few neuroanatomical and electrophysiological investigations of the localization and function of different types of muscarinic receptors in the amygdala. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) in the anterior basolateral nucleus (BLa) of the mouse, including the localization of M2Rs in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive interneurons, using double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
Xuegang Chen, Xin Zhang, Mark A Koten, Hanghui Chen, Zhiyong Xiao, Le Zhang, Jeffrey E Shield, Peter A Dowben, Xia Hong
Heteroepitaxial coupling at complex oxide interfaces presents a powerful tool for engineering the charge degree of freedom in strongly correlated materials, which can be utilized to achieve tailored functionalities that are inaccessible in the bulk form. Here, the charge-transfer effect between two strongly correlated oxides, Sm0.5 Nd0.5 NiO3 (SNNO) and La0.67 Sr0.33 MnO3 (LSMO), is exploited to realize a giant enhancement of the ferroelectric field effect in a prototype Mott field-effect transistor. By switching the polarization field of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate, nonvolatile resistance modulation in the Mott transistors with single-layer SNNO and bilayer SNNO/LSMO channels is induced...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
Patricia Pautier, Elsa Kalbacher, Thibault de la Motte Rouge, Franck Bonnetain, Anne Lesoin
EARLY RELAPSE: Early relapse (primary or secondary) is defined by relapse of disease less than 6 months before the last infusion of chemotherapy (with a platinum compound). There is no carcinological surgical indication. Disease should be treated with a non-platinum single agent (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, weekly paclitaxel, gemcitabine or topotecan). Bevacizumab can be added if patients have not already received it (level of proof 1, grade A).
May 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
Niccolò Riccardi, Filippo Del Puente, Federica Magnè, Lucia Taramasso, Antonio Di Biagio
In 2014, an estimated 1.8 million people died from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB); moreover, 680,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Currently available anti-MDR and XDR regimens are long-lasting and expensive, need high adherence and are undermined by a high frequency of adverse drug events, thus leading to a low success rate; moreover, in the last 50 years only two new molecules, bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid, have been approved and released for treatment of MDR-TB. BDQ is a diarylquinoline anti-mycobacterial drug, active regardless the state of MTB; in fact, its efficacy is conserved against replicating and non-replicating bacilli, despite extracellular or intracellular location...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Adele Moatti, Ritesh Sachan, John Prater, Jay Narayan
Unstrained and defect-free VO2 single crystals undergo structural (from high temperature tetragonal to low temperature monoclinic phase) and electronic phase transitions simultaneously. In thin films, however, in the presence of unrelaxed strains and defects, structural (Peierls) and electronic (Mott) transitions are affected differently, and are separated. In this paper, we have studied the temperature-dependence of structural and electrical transitions in epitaxially grown vanadium dioxide films on (0001) sapphire substrates...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jing Kong, Emil Proynov, Jianguo Yu, Ruth Pachter
The linear chain of hydrogen atoms, a basic prototype for the transition from metal to Mott insulator, is studied with a recent density functional theory model functional for nondynamic and strong correlation. The computed cohesive energy curve for the transition agrees well with accurate literature results. The variation of the electronic structure in this transition is characterized with a density-functional descriptor that yields atomic population of effectively localized electrons. These new methods are also applied to the study of the Peierls dimerization of the stretched even-spaced Mott insulator to a chain of H2 molecules, a different insulator...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Gia-Wei Chern, Kipton Barros, Cristian D Batista, Joel D Kress, Gabriel Kotliar
We present a formulation of quantum molecular dynamics that includes electron correlation effects via the Gutzwiller method. Our new scheme enables the study of the dynamical behavior of atoms and molecules with strong electron interactions. The Gutzwiller approach goes beyond the conventional mean-field treatment of the intra-atomic electron repulsion and captures crucial correlation effects such as band narrowing and electron localization. We use Gutzwiller quantum molecular dynamics to investigate the Mott transition in the liquid phase of a single-band metal and uncover intriguing structural and transport properties of the atoms...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Zejun Li, Jiajing Wu, Zhenpeng Hu, Yue Lin, Qi Chen, Yuqiao Guo, Yuhua Liu, Yingcheng Zhao, Jing Peng, Wangsheng Chu, Changzheng Wu, Yi Xie
In correlated systems, intermediate states usually appear transiently across phase transitions even at the femtosecond scale. It therefore remains an open question how to determine these intermediate states-a critical issue for understanding the origin of their correlated behaviour. Here we report a surface coordination route to successfully stabilize and directly image an intermediate state in the metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide. As a prototype metal-insulator transition material, we capture an unusual metal-like monoclinic phase at room temperature that has long been predicted...
June 14, 2017: Nature Communications
Luca Dalle Carbonare, Monica Mottes, Giovanni Malerba, Antonio Mori, Martina Zaninotto, Mario Plebani, Alessandra Dellantonio, Maria Teresa Valenti
Bisphosphonates are well known inhibitors of osteoclast activity and thus may be employed to influence osteoblast activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the proliferation and osteoblastic commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in osteoporotic patients. We studied 22 postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. Densitometric, biochemical, cellular and molecular data were collected before as well as after 6 and 12 months of ZA treatment. Peripheral blood MSC-like cells were quantified by colony-forming unit fibroblastic assay; their osteogenic differentiation potential was evaluated after 3 and 7 days of induction, respectively...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Felix Kohle, Jeremias Motte, Oluwaseun Fatoba, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Ralf Gold, Min-Suk Yoon
Intravenous human immunoglobulins dominate in the treatment of autoimmune neuropathies. We introduce intrathecal application as a new option for experimental autoimmune neuritis in Lewis rats. After immunisation with neuritogenic P2 peptide, we show a therapeutic and preventive effect of intrathecal human immunoglobulins (5-40mg/kg) on clinical and electrophysiological neuritis signs. Histology corroborated a lower degree of inflammation, demyelination, ICAM-1-dependent blood-nerve-barrier permeability and complement activation in the sciatic nerve...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Richard L McGough, Michael P Mott, Kristy Weber
The evaluation of any orthopaedic condition often begins with obtaining plain radiographs. Fortuitously, plain radiographs provide surgeons with direct information on the biologic activity and, therefore, the aggressiveness of any bone lesion. More advanced imaging modalities may fail to elucidate the problem and may even obscure the diagnosis. The accurate interpretation of the aggressiveness of a bone lesion on plain radiographs is the first step in establishing a differential diagnosis for any bone lesion and, often, may result in a correct diagnosis without the need for additional imaging studies...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
Bevin Huang, Genevieve Clark, Efrén Navarro-Moratalla, Dahlia R Klein, Ran Cheng, Kyle L Seyler, Ding Zhong, Emma Schmidgall, Michael A McGuire, David H Cobden, Wang Yao, Di Xiao, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Xiaodong Xu
Since the discovery of graphene, the family of two-dimensional materials has grown, displaying a broad range of electronic properties. Recent additions include semiconductors with spin-valley coupling, Ising superconductors that can be tuned into a quantum metal, possible Mott insulators with tunable charge-density waves, and topological semimetals with edge transport. However, no two-dimensional crystal with intrinsic magnetism has yet been discovered; such a crystal would be useful in many technologies from sensing to data storage...
June 7, 2017: Nature
Andrew P Morgan, Daniel M Gatti, Maya L Najarian, Thomas M Keane, Raymond J Galante, Allan I Pack, Richard Mott, Gary A Churchill, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena
Meiotic recombination is an essential feature of sexual reproduction that ensures faithful segregation of chromosomes and redistributes genetic variants in populations. Multiparent populations such as the Diversity Outbred (DO) mouse stock accumulate large numbers of crossover (CO) events between founder haplotypes, and thus present a unique opportunity to study the role of genetic variation in shaping the recombination landscape. We obtained high-density genotype data from [Formula: see text] DO mice, and localized 2...
June 2017: Genetics
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