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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548702/p16-loss-and-e2f-cell-cycle-deregulation-in-infant-posterior-fossa-ependymoma
#1
Seth C Lummus, Andrew M Donson, Katherine Gowan, Kenneth L Jones, Rajeev Vibhakar, Nicholas K Foreman, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
BACKGROUND: Posterior fossa (PF) ependymomas (EPNs) in infants less than 1 year of age (iEPN-PF) have a poorer clinical outcome than EPNs in older children. While radiation therapy is the standard of care for the latter, it is withheld in infants to avoid neurotoxicity to immature brain. It is unknown whether the adverse outcome in iEPN-PFs is due to treatment differences or aggressive biology. We examined this question using molecular profiling. METHODS: Six anaplastic iEPN-PFs were subjected to transcriptomic analysis and FISH for p16 loss and gains of 1q, and compared with anaplastic PF EPNs from older children...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548617/sporadic-pediatric-meningiomas-a-neuroradiological-and-neuropathological-study-of-15-cases
#2
Kristin Huntoon, Charles P Pluto, Lynne Ruess, Daniel R Boué, Christopher R Pierson, Jerome A Rusin, Jeffrey Leonard
OBJECTIVE Sporadic meningiomas have been classified in many different ways. Radiographically, these lesions can be described as occurring in either typical or atypical locations. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are any histopathological differences between sporadic meningiomas that arise in these varying locations in children. METHODS The neuroimaging, histopathological findings, and clinical records in patients with sporadic pediatric meningiomas not associated with neurofibromatosis Type 2 or prior radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548315/aapm-medical-physics-practice-guideline-8-a-linear-accelerator-performance-tests
#3
Koren Smith, Peter Balter, John Duhon, Gerald A White, David L Vassy, Robin A Miller, Christopher F Serago, Lynne A Fairobent
PURPOSE: The purpose of this guideline is to provide a list of critical performance tests in order to assist the Qualified Medical Physicist (QMP) in establishing and maintaining a safe and effective quality assurance (QA) program. The performance tests on a linear accelerator (linac) should be selected to fit the clinical patterns of use of the accelerator and care should be given to perform tests which are relevant to detecting errors related to the specific use of the accelerator. METHODS: A risk assessment was performed on tests from current task group reports on linac QA to highlight those tests that are most effective at maintaining safety and quality for the patient...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547593/radiotherapy-for-cranial-and-brain-metastases-from-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#4
Timothy L Sita, Katarina G Petras, Q Eileen Wafford, Mark A Berendsen, Tim J Kruser
Intracranial metastasis from prostate cancer is rare. As treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer improves, the incidence of men with intracranial metastasis from prostate cancer is increasing. Radiation therapy for treatment of intracranial metastasis from prostate cancer is systematically reviewed. A comprehensive review examining peer-reviewed, English language articles from 1990 to 2015 was performed on multiple databases, yielding 1274 articles. These articles were reviewed and selected for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) patients with intracranial metastases from prostate cancer; (2) patients underwent radiation therapy as primary or adjuvant therapy; (3) the sample size of patients was larger than 2...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546761/spotlight-on-vismodegib-in-the-treatment-of-basal-cell-carcinoma-an-evidence-based-review-of-its-place-in-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Zoe Apalla, Chrysoula Papageorgiou, Aimilios Lallas, Elena Sotiriou, Elizabeth Lazaridou, Efstratios Vakirlis, Athanassios Kyrgidis, Demetrios Ioannides
Vismodegib is approved for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic (mBCC) or locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (laBCC) that have recurred following surgery or for those who are not good candidates for surgery (risk/benefit ratio is against patient's benefit, either because of the general condition or because of the expected morbidity from the surgery) or radiation therapy. This article provides an evidence-based review of its current place in therapy. Analytically, the clinical implications in the management of laBCCs and mBCCs and possible new indications, including the neoadjuvant use before surgical excision, are discussed, while in the end, the challenges regarding class-related adverse events and their optimal management are highlighted...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546722/malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumour-of-the-small-bowel-presenting-with-intussusception-and-perforation-a-double-jeopardy
#6
Ananth P Abraham, Joshua Franklyn, Jagan Chandramohan, Pranay Gaikwad, John C Muthusami
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare soft tissue sarcomas which largely occur in the extremities and the head and neck region. The tumours are aggressive with a high rate of recurrence. Radical surgical resection remains the treatment of choice with adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy still failing to demonstrate a clear benefit. The gastrointestinal tract is an exceedingly rare site for these tumours. We report an unusual case of a young male with an MPNST of the small bowel who presented with an ileocolic intussusception and sigmoid perforation...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546250/the-management-and-imaging-of-vestibular-schwannomas
#7
REVIEW
E P Lin, B T Crane
Vestibular schwannomas are the most common cerebellopontine angle tumor. During the past century, the management goals of vestibular schwannomas have shifted from total resection to functional preservation. Current treatment options include surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and observation. Imaging has become a crucial part of the initial screening, evaluation, and follow-up assessment of vestibular schwannomas. Recognizing and understanding the management objectives, various treatment modalities, expected posttreatment findings, and complications allows the radiologist to play an essential role in a multidisciplinary team by providing key findings relevant to treatment planning and outcome assessment...
May 25, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545662/-nipple-projection-augmentation-in-breast-reconstruction-by-artificial-derm-injection
#8
A Serre, D Guillier, V Moris, K Rem, M Revol, C François, S Cristofari
INTRODUCTION: The reconstruction of the Nipple-Areola Complex (NAC) is the last step and a key part in breast reconstruction. The technique to be used should be chosen as to avoid any complications on previous reconstruction steps. The use of local flaps for NAC reconstruction could be associated with implant exposure especially in the presence of a history of radiation therapy. The pure dermal flap could be indicated for the nipple reconstruction after breast reconstruction by implant after radiotherapy...
May 22, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545264/reduction-of-dose-to-the-contralateral-breast-by-superflab-use-in-radiation-therapy-for-mammary-carcinomas
#9
Akanksha Solanki, Athiyaman M, Hemalatha A, H S Kumar
Background: Radiation therapy is an integral part of multimodality treatment for locally advanced carcinoma of breast. Radiation doses to nearby critical normal structures like heart, lungs, and contralateral breast (CLB increases risk of second malignancies. In this study, we measured doses to the CLB and studied effects of a 1 cm thickness superflap. Materials and Methods: Fifty post-mastectomy carcinoma breast patients were included in the study.Radiation therapy of 50 Gy was planned in 25 fractions, 5 days a week, using the Eclipse Treatment Planning System version 8...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545017/12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-tpa-increases-murine-intestinal-crypt-stem-cell-survival-following-radiation-injury
#10
Yaojie Liang, Hongwei Zhou, Yibing Yao, Ailing Deng, Zhihong Wang, Boning Gao, Minhang Zhou, Yu Cui, Lili Wang, Lei Zhou, Bianhong Wang, Li Wang, Anqi Liu, Lanlan Qiu, Kun Qian, Yejian Lu, Wanping Deng, Xi Zheng, Zhengtao Han, Yonghui Li, Junzhong Sun
Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients following radiation therapy. Thus, there is a need for agents that can protect the intestinal epithelium against radiation. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) has been shown to induce differentiation and/or apoptosis in multiple cell lines and primary cells. In the current report, we studied the function of TPA in radiation induced enteropathy in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6 after ionizing radiation (IR) and in mice after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI)...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544780/spinal-metastatic-disease-a-review-of-the-role-of-the-multidisciplinary-team
#11
REVIEW
Mark Curtin, Robert P Piggott, Evelyn P Murphy, Sudarshan Munigangaiah, Joseph F Baker, John P McCabe, Aiden Devitt
Historically, a simple approach centered on palliation was applicable to the majority of patients with metastatic spinal disease. With advances in diagnosis and treatment, a more complicated algorithm has devolved requiring a multidisciplinary approach with institutional commitment and support. We performed a database review including pertinent articles exploring the multidisciplinary management of spinal metastatic disease. The wide variation in clinical presentation and tumor response to treatment necessitates a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the diagnosis and treatment of the cancer, symptom management, and rehabilitation for optimal care of patients with spinal metastases...
May 24, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544128/a-pediatric-trial-of-radiation-cetuximab-followed-by-irinotecan-cetuximab-in-newly-diagnosed-diffuse-pontine-gliomas-and-high-grade-astrocytomas-a-pediatric-oncology-experimental-therapeutics-investigators-consortium-study
#12
Margaret E Macy, Mark W Kieran, Susan N Chi, Kenneth J Cohen, Tobey J MacDonald, Amy A Smith, Michael M Etzl, Michele C Kuei, Andrew M Donson, Lia Gore, Jennifer DiRenzo, Tanya M Trippett, Irina Ostrovnaya, Aru Narendran, Nicholas K Foreman, Ira J Dunkel
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and high-grade astrocytomas (HGA) continue to have dismal prognoses. The combination of cetuximab and irinotecan was demonstrated to be safe and tolerable in a previous pediatric phase 1 combination study. We developed this phase 2 trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of cetuximab given with radiation therapy followed by adjuvant cetuximab and irinotecan. METHODS: Eligible patients of age 3-21 years had newly diagnosed DIPG or HGA...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543610/metallic-nanoparticles-irradiated-by-low-energy-protons-for-radiation-therapy-are-there-significant-physical-effects-to-enhance-the-dose-delivery
#13
Anne-Catherine Heuskin, Bernard Gallez, Olivier Feron, Philippe Martinive, Carine Michiels, Stéphane Lucas
PURPOSE: To identify which physical properties of nanoparticles are correlated to the survival fraction of cells exposed in vitro to low energy protons in combination with nanoparticles. METHODS: The Geant4 simulation toolkit (version 10.3) was used to model nanoparticles of different sizes (5 to 50 nm) and materials (Ti, Zr, Hf, Ta, Au, Pt), with or without an organic capping ensuring biocompatibility and to irradiate them with 1.3 or 4 MeV protons and 5.3 MeV alpha particles...
May 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543437/the-adenoid-its-history-and-a-cautionary-tale
#14
Robert J Ruben
The existence of the adenoid first appears to have been noted by Conrad Victor Schneider in 1661. James Yearsley reported in 1842 one case in which he improved hearing by removal of a mucus membrane from behind the uvula, which indicates some appreciation of a relationship of the nasopharynx to ear disease. Hans Wilhelm Meyer, in 1868, was the first to demonstrate the relationship of the adenoid to ear disease and to develop an effective, although somewhat difficult, surgical operation to remove the adenoid...
June 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543072/obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-the-irradiated-head-and-neck-cancer-patient
#15
Phillip Huyett, Seungwon Kim, Jonas T Johnson, Ryan J Soose
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients treated with radiation therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series without comparison group. METHODS: Patients who underwent radiation therapy for oropharyngeal or laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma completed a 3-night home sleep test (HST), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire...
May 23, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541635/safety-of-ovarian-preservation-in-premenopausal-women-with-stage-i-uterine-sarcoma
#16
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Eloise Chapman-Davis, Melissa Frey, Kevin Holcomb
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oncologic safety of ovarian preservation (OP) in premenopausal women diagnosed with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I uterine sarcoma. METHODS: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was accessed and a cohort of women aged ≤50 diagnosed between 1988-2013 with a sarcoma limited to the uterus was drawn. Based on site-specific surgery codes, women who underwent hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy and did not receive radiation therapy were selected for further analysis...
July 2017: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541578/disrupted-development-and-integrity-of-frontal-white-matter-in-patients-treated-for-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#17
John O Glass, Robert J Ogg, Jung W Hyun, Julie H Harreld, Jane E Schreiber, Yimei Li, Amar J Gajjar, Wilburn E Reddick
Background.: Treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma is associated with known neurocognitive deficits that we hypothesize are caused by microstructural damage to frontal white matter (WM). Methods.: Longitudinal MRI examinations were collected from baseline (after surgery but before therapy) to 36 months in 146 patients and at 3 time points in 72 controls. Regional analyses of frontal WM volume and diffusion tensor imaging metrics were performed and verified with tract-based spatial statistics...
May 25, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541100/patient-education-and-mind-diversion-in-supportive-care
#18
Salima Sadruddin, Rafat Jan, Adnan A Jabbar, Kashmira Nanji, Ambreen Tharani Name
Cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Systemic anti-cancer medications often result in an array of physical and psychological side effects. Supportive care assists patients with cancer in managing multidimensional symptoms that result from treatment or the illness itself. This review discusses supportive care and examines patient counselling and mind-diversion activities, which are safe and cost-effective strategies. Improving cancer patients' health and wellbeing should be encouraged in oncology nursing practice and by teaching students the knowledge and skills needed to provide supportive care...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540811/gadolinium-doped-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-induced-magnetic-field-hyperthermia-combined-with-radiotherapy-increases-tumour-response-by-vascular-disruption-and-improved-oxygenation
#19
Pei-Shin Jiang, Hsin-Yu Tsai, Philip Drake, Fu-Nien Wang, Chi-Shiun Chiang
The gadolinium-doped iron oxide nanoparticles (GdIONP) with greater specific power adsorption rate (SAR) than Fe3O4 was developed and its potential application in tumour therapy and particle tracking were demonstrated in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate C1 (TRAMP-C1) tumours. The GdIONPs accumulated in tumour region during the treatment could be clearly tracked and quantified by T2-weighted MR imaging. The therapeutic effects of GdIONP-mediated hyperthermia alone or in combination with radiotherapy (RT) were also evaluated...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540671/multidisciplinary-management-of-mycosis-fungoides-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Sara Berg, Jennifer Villasenor-Park, Paul Haun, Ellen J Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis and management of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) require accurate clinicopathological correlation and a multidisciplinary approach. We reviewed major advances in the field regarding diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as skin-directed therapies (SDTs) and systemic agents for MF/SS published in the past 2 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Improved technology (T-cell receptor high-throughput sequencing) and increased multicenter collaboration (Cutaneous Lymphoma International Consortium) have led to diagnostic/prognostic advances...
May 24, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
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