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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028941/dysregulation-of-cortical-neuron-dna-methylation-profile-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Stefano Nardone, Dev Sharan Sams, Antonino Zito, Eli Reuveni, Evan Elliott
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome whose etiology includes genetic and environmental components. Since epigenetic marks are sensitive to environmental insult, they may be involved in the development of ASD. Initial brain studies have suggested a dysregulation of epigenetic marks in ASD. However, due to cellular heterogeneity in the brain, these studies have not determined if there is a true change in the neuronal epigenetic signature. Here, we report a genome-wide methylation study on fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted neuronal nuclei from the frontal cortex of 16 male ASD and 15 male control subjects...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019980/radically-truncated-mecp2-rescues-rett-syndrome-like-neurological-defects
#2
Rebekah Tillotson, Jim Selfridge, Martha V Koerner, Kamal K E Gadalla, Jacky Guy, Dina De Sousa, Ralph D Hector, Stuart R Cobb, Adrian Bird
Heterozygous mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene cause the neurological disorder Rett syndrome. The methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) protein is an epigenetic reader whose binding to chromatin primarily depends on 5-methylcytosine. Functionally, MeCP2 has been implicated in several cellular processes on the basis of its reported interaction with more than 40 binding partners, including transcriptional co-repressors (for example, the NCoR/SMRT complex), transcriptional activators, RNA, chromatin remodellers, microRNA-processing proteins and splicing factors...
October 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993790/network-diffusion-based-prioritization-of-autism-risk-genes-identifies-significantly-connected-gene-modules
#3
Ettore Mosca, Matteo Bersanelli, Matteo Gnocchi, Marco Moscatelli, Gastone Castellani, Luciano Milanesi, Alessandra Mezzelani
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by a strong genetic heterogeneity, which is underlined by the low overlap between ASD risk gene lists proposed in different studies. In this context, molecular networks can be used to analyze the results of several genome-wide studies in order to underline those network regions harboring genetic variations associated with ASD, the so-called "disease modules." In this work, we used a recent network diffusion-based approach to jointly analyze multiple ASD risk gene lists...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990199/the-epigenetic-component-of-the-brain-response-to-electromagnetic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-a-literature-overview
#4
REVIEW
Claudia Consales, Caterina Merla, Carmela Marino, Barbara Benassi
Modulations of epigenetic machinery, namely DNA methylation pattern, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs expression, have been recently included among the key determinants contributing to Parkinson's Disease (PD) aetiopathogenesis and response to therapy. Along this line of reasoning, a set of experimental findings are highlighting the epigenetic-based response to electromagnetic (EM) therapies used to alleviate PD symptomatology, mainly Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)...
October 9, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989734/detecting-rare-asymmetrically-methylated-cytosines-and-decoding-methylation-patterns-in-the-honeybee-genome
#5
Laura Welsh, Ryszard Maleszka, Sylvain Foret
Context-dependent gene expression in eukaryotes is controlled by several mechanisms including cytosine methylation that primarily occurs in the CG dinucleotides (CpGs). However, less frequent non-CpG asymmetric methylation has been found in various cell types, such as mammalian neurons, and recent results suggest that these sites can repress transcription independently of CpG contexts. In addition, an emerging view is that CpG hemimethylation may arise not only from deregulation of cellular processes but also be a standard feature of the methylome...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986235/alpha-synuclein-epigenetics-mitochondria-metabolism-calcium-traffic-circadian-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-integrated-strategy-for-management
#6
REVIEW
Oliver T Phillipson
The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combination of nutrients: R-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, ubiquinol, melatonin (or receptor agonists) and vitamin D3, with the collective potential to slow progression of these features...
October 3, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982677/inhibiting-histone-deacetylase-2-hdac2-promotes-functional-recovery-from-stroke
#7
Ying Tang, Yu-Hui Lin, Huan-Yu Ni, Jian Dong, Hong-Jin Yuan, Yu Zhang, Hai-Ying Liang, Meng-Cheng Yao, Qi-Gang Zhou, Hai-Yin Wu, Lei Chang, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. However, current therapies that promote functional recovery from stroke are limited to physical rehabilitation. No pharmacological therapy is available. Thus, understanding the role of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the pathophysiological process of stroke-induced functional loss may provide a novel strategy for stroke recovery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Focal stroke was induced by photothrombosis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982626/long-term-effects-of-early-environment-on-the-brain-lesson-from-rodent-models
#8
REVIEW
Matteo Di Segni, Diego Andolina, Rossella Ventura
The postnatal period is characterized by extensive neuronal plasticity, synaptic organization, and remodeling. High neuroplasticity renders the brain sensitive to the remodeling effects induced by environmental factors, such as exposure to adversity, which can imprint neurochemical, neuroendocrine, morphological, and behavioral changes. Early experiences that influence developmental trajectories during maturation of the brain can have a wide range of long-lasting effects, modulating stress-coping strategies in adult life and inducing vulnerability or resilience to psychopathologies, depending on the gene×later experience interplay...
October 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982536/hoxa1-targets-signaling-pathways-during-neural-differentiation-of-es-cells-and-mouse-embryogenesis
#9
Bony De Kumar, Hugo J Parker, Ariel Paulson, Mark E Parrish, Julia Zeitlinger, Robb Krumlauf
Hoxa1 has important functional roles in neural crest specification, hindbrain patterning and heart and ear development, yet the enhancers and genes that are targeted by Hoxa1 are largely unknown. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of Hoxa1 target genes using genome-wide Hoxa1 binding data in mouse ES cells differentiated with retinoic acid (RA) into neural fates in combination with differential gene expression analysis in Hoxa1 gain- and loss-of-function mouse and zebrafish embryos. Our analyses reveal that Hoxa1-bound regions show epigenetic marks of enhancers, occupancy of Hox cofactors and differential expression of nearby genes, suggesting that these regions are enriched for enhancers...
October 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980068/a-unique-methylation-pattern-co-segregates-with-neural-tube-defect-statuses-in-han-chinese-pedigrees
#10
Ruiping Zhang, Lirong Cao, Yizheng Wang, Yulian Fang, Linsheng Zhao, Weidong Li, Ou-Yan Shi, Chun-Quan Cai
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a complex trait associated with gene-environment interactions. Folic acid deficiency and planar cell polarity gene mutations account for some NTD cases; however, the etiology of NTDs is still little understood. In this study, in three Han Chinese NTD pedigrees (two with multiple affected children), with no information on folic acid deficiency or supplement, we examined genome-wide methylation profiles of each individual in these families. We further compared methylation status among cases and normal individuals within the pedigrees...
October 4, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968796/the-tbr2-molecular-network-controls-cortical-neuronal-differentiation-through-complementary-genetic-and-epigenetic-pathways
#11
Alessandro Sessa, Ernesto Ciabatti, Daniela Drechsel, Luca Massimino, Gaia Colasante, Serena Giannelli, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira, Francois Guillemot, Vania Broccoli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968778/neuronal-expression-of-opioid-gene-is-controlled-by-dual-epigenetic-and-transcriptional-mechanism-in-human-brain
#12
Igor Bazov, Daniil Sarkisyan, Olga Kononenko, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Mumtaz Malik Taqi, Lada Stålhandske, Dineke S Verbeek, Jan Mulder, Grazyna Rajkowska, Donna Sheedy, Jillian Kril, Xueguang Sun, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Tatiana Yakovleva, Georgy Bakalkin
Molecular mechanisms that define patterns of neuropeptide expression are essential for the formation and rewiring of neural circuits. The prodynorphin gene (PDYN) gives rise to dynorphin opioid peptides mediating depression and substance dependence. We here demonstrated that PDYN is expressed in neurons in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and identified neuronal differentially methylated region in PDYN locus framed by CCCTC-binding factor binding sites. A short, nucleosome size human-specific promoter CpG island (CGI), a core of this region may serve as a regulatory module, which is hypomethylated in neurons, enriched in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, and targeted by USF2, a methylation-sensitive E-box transcription factor (TF)...
July 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958754/kiaa0319-promoter-dna-methylation-predicts-dichotic-listening-performance-in-forced-attention-conditions
#13
Judith Schmitz, Robert Kumsta, Dirk Moser, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Language lateralization is one of the most prominent examples of functional hemispheric asymmetries. Previous studies indicate a significant contribution of factors not related to DNA sequence variation on the development of language lateralization, but the molecular processes underlying this relation are unclear. The Brandler-Paracchini model of hemispheric asymmetries assumes that genes involved in the establishment of ciliogenesis and bodily asymmetries also affect functional hemispheric asymmetries. Thus, genes implicated in this model represent a key target for epigenetic modulation of language lateralization...
September 25, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943252/vitamin-c-induced-epigenetic-modifications-in-donor-nscs-establish-midbrain-marker-expressions-critical-for-cell-based-therapy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Noviana Wulansari, Eun-Hee Kim, Yanuar Alan Sulistio, Yong-Hee Rhee, Jae-Jin Song, Sang-Hun Lee
Cultured neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) are regarded as a potential systematic cell source to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the therapeutic potential of these cultured NSCs is lost during culturing. Here, we show that treatment of vitamin C (VC) enhances generation of authentic midbrain-type dopamine (mDA) neurons with improved survival and functions from ventral midbrain (VM)-derived NSCs. VC acted by upregulating a series of mDA neuron-specific developmental and phenotype genes via removal of DNA methylation and repressive histone code (H3K9m3, H3K27m3) at associated gene promoter regions...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939414/role-of-the-epigenetic-factor-sirt7-in-neuroinflammation-and-neurogenesis
#15
Nicolas Burg, Stefan Bittner, Erik Ellwardt
Epigenetic regulators are increasingly recognized as relevant modulators in the immune and nervous system. The class of sirtuins consists of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases that regulate transcription. Sirtuin family member Sirt1 has already been shown to influence the disease course in an animal model of autoimmune neuroinflammation (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). A role of Sirt7, a related epigenetic regulator, on immune system regulation has been proposed before, as these mice are more susceptible to develop inflammatory cardiomyopathy...
September 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937692/bdnf-at-the-synapse-why-location-matters
#16
M Song, K Martinowich, F S Lee
Neurotrophic factors, a family of secreted proteins that support the growth, survival and differentiation of neurons, have been intensively studied for decades due to the powerful and diverse effects on neuronal physiology, as well as their therapeutic potential. Such efforts have led to a detailed understanding on the molecular mechanisms of neurotrophic factor signaling. One member, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has drawn much attention due to its pleiotropic roles in the central nervous system and implications in various brain disorders...
October 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931573/chd7-collaborates-with-sox2-to-regulate-activation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Toru Doi, Toru Ogata, Junji Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Sawada, Sakae Tanaka, Motoshi Nagao
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) act as a reservoir of new oligodendrocytes (OLs) in homeostatic and pathological conditions. OPCs are activated in response to injury, to generate myelinating OLs; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Chd7 regulates OPC activation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Chd7 is expressed in OPCs in the adult spinal cord and its expression is upregulated with a concomitant increase in Sox2 expression following SCI. OPC-specific ablation of Chd7 in the injured mice leads to reduced OPC proliferation, the loss of OPC identity, and impaired OPC differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930592/choline-the-brain-and-neurodegeneration-insights-from-epigenetics
#18
Rola A Bekdash
  Neurodegenerative disorders are a major public health problem worldwide with huge socioeconomic effect. Recent evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is not only caused by genetic factors but also affected by environmental factors including nutrients. Environmental influences have been shown to cause epigenetic modifications in the brain with long-lasting effects on behavior if they occur in early life. It has been suggested that early nutritional intervention that includes choline, betaine, VitB6, VitB12 and/or folic acid could attenuate decline in cognitive functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928640/hdac3-inhibitor-rgfp966-modulates-neuronal-memory-for-vocal-communication-signals-in-a-songbird-model
#19
Mimi L Phan, Mark M Gergues, Shafali Mahidadia, Jorge Jimenez-Castillo, David S Vicario, Kasia M Bieszczad
Epigenetic mechanisms that modify chromatin conformation have recently been under investigation for their contributions to learning and the formation of memory. For example, the role of enzymes involved in histone acetylation are studied in the formation of long-lasting memories because memory consolidation requires gene expression events that are facilitated by an open state of chromatin. We recently proposed that epigenetic events may control the entry of specific sensory features into long-term memory by enabling transcription-mediated neuronal plasticity in sensory brain areas...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927787/a-mimetic-of-the-msin3-binding-helix-of-nrsf-rest-ameliorates-abnormal-pain-behavior-in-chronic-pain-models
#20
Hiroshi Ueda, Jun-Ichi Kurita, Hiroyuki Neyama, Yuuka Hirao, Hiroyuki Kouji, Tadashi Mishina, Masaji Kasai, Hirofumi Nakano, Atsushi Yoshimori, Yoshifumi Nishimura
The neuron-restrictive silencing factor NRSF/REST binds to neuron-restrictive silencing elements in neuronal genes and recruits corepressors such as mSin3 to inhibit epigenetically neuronal gene expression. Because dysregulation of NRSF/REST is related to neuropathic pain, here, we have designed compounds to target neuropathic pain based on the mSin3-binding helix structure of NRSF/REST and examined their ability to bind to mSin3 by NMR. One compound, mS-11, binds strongly to mSin3 with a binding mode similar to that of NRSF/REST...
September 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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