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neuronal epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437360/dna-hydroxymethylation-by-ten-eleven-translocation-methylcytosine-dioxygenase-1-and-3-regulates-nociceptive-sensitization-in-a-chronic-inflammatory-pain-model
#1
Zhiqiang Pan, Zhou-Ya Xue, Guo-Fang Li, Meng-Lan Sun, Ming Zhang, Ling-Yun Hao, Qian-Qian Tang, Li-Jiao Zhu, Jun-Li Cao
BACKGROUND: Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase converts 5-methylcytosine in DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, which plays an important role in gene transcription. Although 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is enriched in mammalian neurons, its regulatory function in nociceptive information processing is unknown. METHODS: The global levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase were measured in spinal cords in mice treated with complete Freund's adjuvant...
April 24, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433420/dna-methylation-program-in-normal-and-alcohol-induced-thinning-cortex
#2
Nail Can Öztürk, Marisol Resendiz, Hakan Öztürk, Feng C Zhou
While cerebral underdevelopment is a hallmark of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the mechanism(s) guiding the broad cortical neurodevelopmental deficits are not clear. DNA methylation is known to regulate early development and tissue specification through gene regulation. Here, we examined DNA methylation in the onset of alcohol-induced cortical thinning in a mouse model of FASD. C57BL/6 (B6) mice were administered a 4% alcohol (v/v) liquid diet from embryonic (E) days 7-16, and their embryos were harvested at E17, along with isocaloric liquid diet and lab chow controls...
February 20, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433417/mechanistic-insights-into-epigenetic-modulation-of-ethanol-consumption
#3
Igor Ponomarev, Claire E Stelly, Hitoshi Morikawa, Yuri A Blednov, R Dayne Mayfield, R Adron Harris
There is growing evidence that small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic modulators, such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), can reduce voluntary ethanol consumption in animal models, but molecular and cellular processes underlying this behavioral effect are poorly understood. We used C57BL/6J male mice to investigate the effects of two FDA-approved drugs, decitabine (a DNMT inhibitor) and SAHA (an HDAC inhibitor), on ethanol consumption using two tests: binge-like drinking in the dark (DID) and chronic intermittent every other day (EOD) drinking...
March 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429219/effects-of-different-modes-of-hypobaric-hypoxia-on-the-content-of-epigenetic-factors-in-the-rat-in-neurons-of-rat-neocortex
#4
M O Samoilov, A V Churilova, T S Glushchenko, E A Rybnikova
We studied the effects of different modes of hypobaric hypoxia on the content of epigenetic factors acH3K24, meH3K9, and meDNA modulating conformational characteristics of chromatin and gene expression in neurons of associative complex of rat parietal neocortex. Severe destructive hypoxia dramatically reduced the level of acH3K24 in 3 h after the end of exposure and increased meH3K9 and meDNA content. By contrast, 3-fold (but not single) adaptive exposure to moderate hypobaric hypoxia that produced a neuroprotective effect enhanced neuronal acH3K24 expression and decreased both meH3K9 and meDNA levels...
April 21, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426967/an-intrinsic-epigenetic-barrier-for-functional-axon-regeneration
#5
Yi-Lan Weng, Ran An, Jessica Cassin, Jessica Joseph, Ruifa Mi, Chen Wang, Chun Zhong, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Alfonso Bellacosa, Xinzhong Dong, Ahmet Hoke, Zhigang He, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG neurons and behavioral recovery...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426953/methylock-dna-demethylation-is-the-epigenetic-key-to-axon-regeneration
#6
Scarlett J Barker, Li-Huei Tsai
In this issue of Neuron, Weng et al. (2017) reveal a role for active DNA demethylation in allowing axon regeneration to occur in the mature nervous system following axonal injury.
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416970/dna-methylation-profiling-in-peripheral-lung-tissues-of-smokers-and-patients-with-copd
#7
Isaac K Sundar, Qiangzong Yin, Brian S Baier, Li Yan, Witold Mazur, Dongmei Li, Martha Susiarjo, Irfan Rahman
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics changes have been shown to be affected by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated DNA methylation can potentially affect several cellular and pathophysiological processes, acute exacerbations, and comorbidity in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine whether genome-wide lung DNA methylation profiles of smokers and patients with COPD were significantly different from non-smokers. We isolated DNA from parenchymal lung tissues of patients including eight lifelong non-smokers, eight current smokers, and eight patients with COPD and analyzed the samples using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415063/neuron-restrictive-silencer-factor-mediated-downregulation-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-contributes-to-the-reduced-morphine-analgesia-in-bone-cancer-pain
#8
Chao Zhu, Jun Tang, Tan Ding, Lei Chen, Wei Wang, Xiao-Peng Mei, Xiao-Tao He, Wen Wang, Li-Dong Zhang, Yu-Lin Dong, Zhuo-Jing Luo
Bone cancer pain has been reported to have unique mechanisms and is resistant to morphine treatment. Recent studies have indicated that neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) plays a crucial role in modulating the expression of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) gene. The present study elucidates the regulatory mechanisms of MOR and its ability to affect bone cancer pain. Using a sarcoma-inoculated murine model, pain behaviors that represent continuous or breakthrough pain were evaluated. Expression of NRSF in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn was quantified at the transcriptional and translational levels, respectively...
May 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413720/direct-imaging-of-app-proteolysis-in-living-cells
#9
Niccoló Parenti, Ambra Del Grosso, Claudia Antoni, Marco Cecchini, Renato Corradetti, Francesco S Pavone, Martino Calamai
Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial disorder caused by the interaction of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. The formation of cytotoxic oligomers consisting of Aβ peptide is widely accepted as being one of the main key events triggering the development of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ peptide production results from the specific proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Deciphering the factors governing the activity of the secretases responsible for the cleavage of APP is still a critical issue...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413671/paraneoplastic-limbic-encephalitis-in-a-patient-with-extensive-disease-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Sebastian Ochenduszko, Bartosz Wilk, Joanna Dabrowska, Izabela Herman-Sucharska, Anna Dubis, Miroslawa Puskulluoglu
Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare disorder infrequently accompanying malignancy, coexisting in ~50% of the cases with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The pathomechanism of PLE is considered to be immune-mediated, with production of specific anti-Hu antibodies and activation of T-cells directed against onconeural antigens present on both tumor cells and neurons. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old male patient who, prior to being diagnosed with SCLC, presented with typical symptoms of PLE (seizures, subacute cognitive dysfunction with severe memory impairment, anxiety and hallucinations)...
April 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408410/decreased-cohesin-in-the-brain-leads-to-defective-synapse-development-and-anxiety-related-behavior
#11
Yuki Fujita, Koji Masuda, Masashige Bando, Ryuichiro Nakato, Yuki Katou, Takashi Tanaka, Masahiro Nakayama, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Tatsunori Tanaka, Yukio Ago, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Toshihide Yamashita
Abnormal epigenetic regulation can cause the nervous system to develop abnormally. Here, we sought to understand the mechanism by which this occurs by investigating the protein complex cohesin, which is considered to regulate gene expression and, when defective, is associated with higher-level brain dysfunction and the developmental disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We generated conditional Smc3-knockout mice and observed greater dendritic complexity and larger numbers of immature synapses in the cerebral cortex of Smc3(+/-) mice...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401839/caregiver-maltreatment-causes-altered-neuronal-dna-methylation-in-female-rodents
#12
Jennifer Blaze, Tania L Roth
Negative experiences with a caregiver during infancy can result in long-term changes in brain function and behavior, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. It is our central hypothesis that brain and behavior changes are conferred by early childhood adversity through epigenetic changes involving DNA methylation. Using a rodent model of early-life caregiver maltreatment (involving exposure to an adverse caregiving environment for postnatal days 1-7), we have previously demonstrated abnormal methylation of DNA associated with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult rats...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400482/epigenetic-programming-of-the-neuroendocrine-stress-response-by-adult-life-stress
#13
Bart Dirven, Judith Homberg, Tamas Kozicz, Marloes Henckens
The hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and chronic anxiety. It has long been understood that stress during early life can have a significant lasting influence on the development of the neuroendocrine system and its neural regulators, partially by modifying epigenetic regulation of gene expression, with implications for health and well-being in later life...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398586/neonatal-inhibition-of-dna-methylation-alters-cell-phenotype-in-sexually-dimorphic-regions-of-the-mouse-brain
#14
M Mosley, J Weathington, L R Cortes, E Bruggeman, A Castillo-Ruiz, B Xue, N G Forger
Many of the best-studied neural sex differences relate to differences in cell number and are due to the hormonal control of developmental cell death. However, several prominent neural sex differences persist even if cell death is eliminated. We hypothesized that these may reflect cell phenotype "decisions" that depend on epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. To test this, we treated newborn mice with the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine, or vehicle, and examined two sexually dimorphic markers at weaning...
April 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397704/the-influence-of-tsa-and-vpa-on-the-in-vitro-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neuronal-lineage-cells-gene-expression-studies
#15
Anna Fila-Danilow, Paulina Borkowska, Monika Paul-Samojedny, Malgorzata Kowalczyk, Jan Kowalski
INTRODUCTION: Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the transcription of genes, which can affect the differentiation of MSCs. The aim of the current work is to determine how the histone deacetylase inhibitors TSA and VPA affect the expression of neuronal lineage genes in a culture of rat MSCs (rMSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of early neuron marker gene (Tubb3), mature neuron markers genes (Vacht, Th, Htr2a) and the oligodendrocyte progenitor marker gene (GalC)...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393704/epigenetic-regulation-of-memory-therapeutic-potential-for-disorders
#16
Padmanabh Singh, Sweta Srivas, M K Thakur
Memory is a vital function which declines in different physiological and pathological conditions such as aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Research in the past has reported that memory formation and consolidation require the precise expression of synaptic plasticity genes. However, little is known about the regulation of these genes. Epigenetic modification is now a well established mechanism that regulates synaptic plasticity genes and neuronal functions including memory. Such modification includes mainly DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, histone acetylation and methylation which involve chromatin modifying enzymes...
April 4, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389369/prenatal-stress-and-depression-associated-neuronal-development-in-neonates
#17
REVIEW
Mahino Fatima, Saurabh Srivastav, Amal Chandra Mondal
Prenatal maternal depression has its direct effects on early brain development deficits with permanent changes in neuroendocrine functions and impaired behavior in offsprings. Prenatal stress (PS) transmits its affect on developing fetus and on pregnancy outcomes in adult offsprings. This results in impaired neurodevelopment, delayed cognitive and motor development with impaired behavior towards stressful conditions. There are sufficient evidences in animal models suggesting depression responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its hormonal response via cortisol, responsible for its critical effects in both the mother and offspring...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386263/adaptive-immunity-is-the-key-to-the-understanding-of-autoimmune-and-paraneoplastic-inflammatory-central-nervous-system-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Robert Weissert
There are common aspects and mechanisms between different types of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), and autoimmune encephalitis (AE) as well as paraneoplastic inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system. To our present knowledge, depending on the disease, T and B cells as well as antibodies contribute to various aspects of the pathogenesis. Possibly the events leading to the breaking of tolerance between the different diseases are of great similarity and so far, only partially understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372535/klf11-is-an-epigenetic-mediator-of-drd2-dopaminergic-signaling-in-endometriosis
#19
Elliott G Richards, Ye Zheng, Chandra C Shenoy, Alessandra J Ainsworth, Abigail A Delaney, Tiffanny L Jones, Zaraq Khan, Gaurang S Daftary
Endometriosis is a heterogeneous, recalcitrant disease that affects 10% of reproductive-age women. Resistance to conventional therapy critically raises the need for novel treatment options that target specific, dysregulated underlying molecular mechanisms. Dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2) has been shown to be associated with vascularity and fibrosis in endometriosis. Transcription factor KLF11 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human endocrine and reproductive tract diseases including endometriosis...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367113/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-altered-expression-of-memory-and-neurotransmission-associated-genes-in-the-rem-sleep-deprived-rat-brain
#20
Santosh C Narwade, Birendra N Mallick, Deepti D Deobagkar
Sleep disorders are associated with cognitive impairment. Selective rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation (REMSD) alters several physiological processes and behaviors. By employing NGS platform we carried out transcriptomic analysis in brain samples of control rats and those exposed to REMSD. The expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly, methylation, learning, memory, regulation of synaptic transmission, neuronal plasticity and neurohypophysial hormone synthesis were altered. Increased transcription of BMP4, DBH and ATP1B2 genes after REMSD supports our earlier findings and hypothesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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