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hyperintensities dementia

Hajime Yoshimura, Riki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Ueda, Koichi Ariyoshi, Michi Kawamoto, Junko Ishii, Akio Ikeda, Ryosuke Takahashi, Nobuo Kohara
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical characteristics and functional outcome of status epilepticus (SE) in elderly people, and elucidate prognostic implications of SE-associated rhythmic and periodic patterns (RPPs) in electroencephalography and hyperintensities on diffusion-weighted imaging. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 107 consecutive patients with SE aged≥65years in a comprehensive community hospital. RPPs were classified using the 2012 American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Yuichi Hayashi, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Akira Takekoshi, Megumi Yamada, Takahiko Asano, Akio Kimura, Katsuya Satoh, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Takashi Inuzuka
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with a causative point mutation of valine to isoleucine at codon 180 (V180I) is one of the major types of genetic CJD (gCJD) in Japan. V180I gCJD is rarely accompanied by a family history, and its clinical characteristics include late-onset, long disease duration, and edematous cortical hyperintensity in diffusion, fluid attenuate inversion and T2-weighted MRI. We performed serial imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and MRI in three V180I gCJD cases over long-term observation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
N Franzmeier, M Á Araque Caballero, A N W Taylor, L Simon-Vermot, K Buerger, B Ertl-Wagner, C Mueller, C Catak, D Janowitz, E Baykara, B Gesierich, M Duering, M Ewers
Cognitive reserve (CR) shows protective effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and reduces the risk of dementia. Despite the clinical significance of CR, a clinically useful diagnostic biomarker of brain changes underlying CR in AD is not available yet. Our aim was to develop a fully-automated approach applied to fMRI to produce a biomarker associated with CR in subjects at increased risk of AD. We computed resting-state global functional connectivity (GFC), i.e. the average connectivity strength, for each voxel within the cognitive control network, which may sustain CR due to its central role in higher cognitive function...
October 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Eric Jouvent, Edouard Duchesnay, Foued Hadj-Selem, François De Guio, Jean-François Mangin, Dominique Hervé, Marco Duering, Stefan Ropele, Reinhold Schmidt, Martin Dichgans, Hugues Chabriat
OBJECTIVE: To obtain simple models predicting disease evolution at 3 years for a given patient with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: Based on data obtained in a prospective study of 236 patients, we built and validated models predicting, at the individual level, 3-year changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), Trail Making Test version B (TMTB), and modified Rankin Scale (mRS)...
September 30, 2016: Neurology
Whitney M Freeze, Heidi I L Jacobs, Ed H Gronenschild, Jacobus F A Jansen, Saartje Burgmans, Pauline Aalten, Lies Clerx, Stephanie J Vos, Mark A van Buchem, Frederik Barkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier, Marcel M Verbeek, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Walter H Backes, Frans R Verhey
Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition often co-exist in (prodromal) dementia, and both types of pathology have been associated with neurodegeneration. We examined whether cSVD and Aβ have independent or interactive effects on hippocampal volume (HV) in a memory clinic population. We included 87 individuals with clinical diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 24), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 26), and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) (n = 37). cSVD magnetic resonance imaging markers included white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, lacunar infarct presence, and microbleed presence...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sara Kaffashian, Aïcha Soumaré, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Bernard Mazoyer, Stéphanie Debette, Christophe Tzourio
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and covert brain infarcts are highly prevalent in older adults and are often asymptomatic. We compared the impact of WMH volume and brain infarcts on risk of clinical stroke and dementia in older adults in the population. METHODS: Participants were 1677 individuals aged ≥65 years from the 3-City Dijon study, who were free of stroke and dementia at baseline, followed-up for ≤12 years. RESULTS: Both lesion types were comparably associated with an increased risk of stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 1...
September 22, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Donghee Kim, Seung-Yul Lee, Kwon-Duk Seo
Introduction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense vessels (FHVs) can be seen in patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the cerebral arteries. FHVs are known to reflect stagnant or slow blood flow within the cerebral artery. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman presented with suddenly developed gait disturbance. She had a history of hypertension, heart failure, and dementia. Brain MRI demonstrated FHVs within both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). However, there was no acute ischemic lesion and severe stenosis or occlusion of the cerebral arteries...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Adonis Sfera, Carolina Osorio, Luzmin Inderias, Michael Cummings
BACKGROUND: Exposed to antipsychotic drugs (APDs), older individuals with dementing illness are at risk of cerebrovascular adverse effects (CVAE), including sudden death. Transient microvascular dysfunctions are known to occur in younger persons exposed to APDs; however, they seldom progress to CVAE, suggesting that APDs alone are insufficient for engendering this untoward effect. It is, therefore, believed that a preexistent microvascular damage is necessary for CVAE to take place, but the exact nature of this lesion remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yingjia Chen, Katherine G Denny, Danielle Harvey, Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, Dan Mungas, Charles DeCarli, Laurel Beckett
IMPORTANCE: Investigation of the conversion rates from normal cognition (NC) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is important, as effective early intervention could potentially prevent or substantially delay the onset of dementia. However, reported conversion rates differ across studies and recruitment source. OBJECTIVE: Our study examined predictors of conversion from NC to MCI in a racially and ethnically diverse sample drawn both from community and clinic recruitment sources...
August 30, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Saima Hilal, Emiel Sikking, Muhammad Amin Shaik, Qun Lin Chan, Susanne J van Veluw, Henri Vrooman, Ching-Yu Cheng, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Carol Y Cheung, Tien Yin Wong, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher Chen, Mohammad Kamran Ikram
OBJECTIVE: We examined the risk factors of cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) on 3T MRI and their association with cognitive impairment. METHODS: Participants (aged 60 years and older) from the multiethnic Epidemiology of Dementia In Singapore Study underwent detailed neuropsychological testing and 3T brain MRI. Cortical CMIs were graded using a previously validated protocol. Cognitive impairment was categorized into cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND)-mild, CIND-moderate, and dementia...
October 11, 2016: Neurology
Won-Jin Moon, Ju-Yeon Park, Won-Sung Yun, Ji Yeong Jeon, Yeon Sil Moon, Heejin Kim, Ki-Chang Kwak, Jong-Min Lee, Seol-Heui Han
OBJECTIVE: Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Francesco Moroni, Enrico Ammirati, Marco Magnoni, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Matteo Anselmino, Nicoletta Anzalone, Maria Assunta Rocca, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi, Paolo G Camici
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of brain imaging has led to increased recognition of subclinical brain abnormalities, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and silent brain infarctions (SBI), which have a vascular origin, and have been associated to a high risk of stroke, disability and dementia. Carotid atherosclerosis (CA) may be causative in the development of WMH, SBI and eventually brain atrophy. Aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the existing evidence linking CA to WMH, SBI and brain atrophy...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Yuek Ling Chai, Saima Hilal, Jenny P C Chong, Yan Xia Ng, Oi Wah Liew, Xin Xu, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, A Mark Richards, Mitchell K P Lai, Christopher P Chen
Vascular pathology plays an important role in the development of cognitive decline and dementia. In this context, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has been suggested to be a biomarker due to its regulatory roles in inflammatory and trophic responses during tissue injury. However, limited data exist on the associations of GDF-15 with either cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) burden or the spectrum of cognitive impairment. Therefore, we aimed to study peripheral levels of GDF-15 incognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) or Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects assessed for CeVD using a case-control cohort design, with cases recruited from memory clinics and controls from memory clinics and the community...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sara Shams, Juha Martola, Andreas Charidimou, Lena Cavallin, Tobias Granberg, Mana Shams, Yngve Forslin, Peter Aspelin, Maria Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Lars-Olof Wahlund
OBJECTIVE: To gain further insight into cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), a new hemorrhagic neuroimaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and to investigate the clinical, neuroimaging, genetic, and CSF biomarker profile of cSS in a large, consecutive memory clinic series. METHODS: We included 1,504 memory clinic patients undergoing dementia investigation including a brain MRI in our center. Routine CSF biomarker analysis was performed in 1,039 patients and APOE genotyping in 520 patients...
September 13, 2016: Neurology
Kunihiko Araki, Jun Sone, Yusuke Fujioka, Michihito Masuda, Reiko Ohdake, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Tomohiko Nakamura, Hirohisa Watanabe, Gen Sobue
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Adult-onset NIID can result in prominent dementia. We herein describe the case of a 74-year-old man who presented with dementia, cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, and autonomic dysfunction. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the corticomedullary junction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed frontal-dominant white matter hyperintensity. NIID was diagnosed from the presence of intranuclear inclusions in a skin biopsy sample...
2016: Internal Medicine
Lidia Sarro, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Christopher G Schwarz, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Scott A Przybelski, Timothy G Lesnick, Samantha M Zuk, Robert I Reid, Mekala R Raman, Bradley F Boeve, Tanis J Ferman, David S Knopman, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Melissa E Murray, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Kejal Kantarci
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular lesions on MRI are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, but less is known about their frequency and impact on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and infarcts on MRI were assessed in consecutive DLB (n = 81) and AD dementia (n = 240) patients and compared to age-matched and sex-matched cognitively normal subjects (CN) from a population-based cohort. RESULTS: DLB had higher WMH volume compared to CN, and WMH volume was higher in the occipital and posterior periventricular regions in DLB compared to AD...
August 10, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Alessandro Biffi, Abbas Rattani, Christopher D Anderson, Alison M Ayres, Edip M Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Jonathan Rosand, Anand Viswanathan
Late seizures after intracerebral haemorrhage occur after the initial acute haemorrhagic insult subsides, and represent one of its most feared long-term sequelae. Both susceptibility to late seizures and their functional impact remain poorly characterized. We sought to: (i) compare patients with new-onset late seizures (i.e. delayed seizures), with those who experienced a recurrent late seizure following an immediately post-haemorrhagic seizure; and (ii) investigate the effect of late seizures on long-term functional performance after intracerebral haemorrhage...
August 6, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Yulu Shi, Michael J Thrippleton, Stephen D Makin, Ian Marshall, Mirjam I Geerlings, Anton Jm de Craen, Mark A van Buchem, Joanna M Wardlaw
White matter hyperintensities are frequent on neuroimaging of older people and are a key feature of cerebral small vessel disease. They are commonly attributed to chronic hypoperfusion, although whether low cerebral blood flow is cause or effect is unclear. We systematically reviewed studies that assessed cerebral blood flow in small vessel disease patients, performed meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis of potential confounders. Thirty-eight studies (n = 4006) met the inclusion criteria, including four longitudinal and 34 cross-sectional studies...
October 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Saima Hilal, Xin Xu, M Kamran Ikram, Henri Vrooman, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Chen
Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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