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hyperintensities dementia

Timothy M Hughes, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz, Gerardo Heiss, Priya Palta, Dean Wong, Yun Zhou, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness has been associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. These complex relationships have not been examined in racially and cognitively diverse cohorts. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-Neurocognitive Study collected detailed cognitive testing for adjudication of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), brain MRI, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid-femoral [cfPWV] and heart-carotid [hcPWV])...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
Esther M C van Leijsen, H Bea Kuiperij, Iris Kersten, Mayra I Bergkamp, Ingeborg W M van Uden, Hugo Vanderstichele, Erik Stoops, Jurgen A H R Claassen, Ewoud J van Dijk, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Marcel M Verbeek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a frequent pathology in aging and contributor to the development of dementia. Plasma Aβ (amyloid β) levels may be useful as early biomarker, but the role of plasma Aβ in SVD remains to be elucidated. We investigated the association of plasma Aβ levels with severity and progression of SVD markers. METHODS: We studied 487 participants from the RUN DMC study (Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cohort) of whom 258 participants underwent 3 MRI assessments during 9 years...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
So Young Moon, Philipe de Souto Barreto, Yves Rolland, Marie Chupin, Ali Bouyahia, Ludovic Fillon, Jean François Mangin, Sandrine Andrieu, Matteo Cesari, Bruno Vellas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with decline in lower extremity function (LEF) over approximately 3 years in dementia-free older adults with memory complaints. METHODS: We obtained brain MRI data from 458 community-dwelling adults, aged 70 years or over, at baseline, and from 358 adults over an average follow-up of 963 days. We evaluated LEF using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). We related baseline WMH volumes and progression to SPPB scores over time, using mixed-effect linear regressions...
March 9, 2018: Neurology
L E M Wisse, S R Das, C Davatzikos, B C Dickerson, S X Xie, P A Yushkevich, D A Wolk
Introduction: Suspected non-Alzheimer's pathophysiology (SNAP) is a biomarker driven designation that represents a heterogeneous group in terms of etiology and prognosis. SNAP has only been identified by cross-sectional neurodegeneration measures, whereas longitudinal measures might better reflect "active" neurodegeneration and might be more tightly linked to prognosis. We compare neurodegeneration defined by cross-sectional 'hippocampal volume' only (SNAP/L-) versus both cross-sectional and longitudinal 'hippocampal atrophy rate' (SNAP/L+) and investigate how these definitions impact prevalence and the clinical and biomarker profile of SNAP in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Diederik Bulters, Sebastian Brandner, Janice Holton, Ajay Verma, David J Werring, Roxana O Carare
Aβ, amyloid beta, CAA, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CT, computed tomographic scanning, IPAD, intramural periarterial drainage, ISF, interstitial fluid, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, PVS, perivascular spaces, WMH, white matter hyperintensities.Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or low attenuation on computed tomographic scanning (CT), are the most frequent brain imaging finding in patients with small vessel disease or dementia. It has been assumed that WMH are due to arteriosclerosis or blood-brain barrier breakdown, though recently it was demonstrated that WMH have distinct molecular signatures in Alzheimer's disease (AD) where markers of Wallerian degeneration are present, compared to normal ageing [1]...
February 27, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Michael M Wang
Cerebral small-vessel disease is a prevalent condition that is strongly associated with ischemic stroke and dementia. The most prevalent inherited cause of cerebral small-vessel disease is CADASIL, cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, a disorder linked to mutations in NOTCH3. The most common symptoms of CADASIL are small ischemic strokes and/or transient ischemic attacks and cognitive impairment, appearing in middle age, that may progress to frank vascular dementia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Yanan Zhu, Saima Hilal, Yuek L Chai, M K Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
Background: While hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is known to exert cell growth, migration and morphogenic effects in various organs, recent studies suggest that HGF may also play a role in synaptic maintenance and cerebrovascular integrity. Although increased levels of HGF have been reported in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is unclear whether peripheral HGF may be associated with cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) and dementia. In this study, we examined the association of baseline serum HGF with neuroimaging markers of CeVD in a cohort of pre-dementia (cognitive impaired no dementia, CIND) and AD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hideto Joki, Yuichi Higashiyama, Yoshiharu Nakae, Chiharu Kugimoto, Hiroshi Doi, Katsuo Kimura, Hitaru Kishida, Naohisa Ueda, Tatsu Nakano, Tatsuya Takahashi, Shigeru Koyano, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Fumiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: In dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), it is still debated whether white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI reflect atherosclerotic cerebrovascular changes or Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy. To examine AD-related pathology in DLB and PDD, we compared the severity of WMH and medial temporal lobe atrophy among patients with DLB, PDD, non-demented PD (PDND), and AD. METHODS: We retrospectively studied sex- and age-matched outpatients with AD, DLB, PDD, and PDND, as well as subjects without central nervous system disorders as normal controls (n=50 each)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Eric E Smith, Alona Muzikansky, Cheryl R McCreary, Saima Batool, Anand Viswanathan, Bradford C Dickerson, Keith Johnson, Steven M Greenberg, Deborah Blacker
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the strongest modifiable risk factor for subcortical ischemic changes and is also a risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. We used neuroimaging to investigate the pathological basis of early cognitive symptoms in patients with hypertension. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cohort study 67 patients age >60 years with hypertension and Clinical Dementia Rating scale score of 0.5 without dementia, and without history of symptomatic stroke, underwent MRI for measurement of subcortical vascular changes and positron emission tomography (PET) scan with Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB-PET) to detect beta-amyloid deposition...
2018: PloS One
Ding Ding, Yunyun Xiong, Qianhua Zhao, Qihao Guo, Shuguang Chu, Winnie W C Chu, Jianfeng Luo, Xiaoniu Liang, Li Zheng, Zhen Hong, Lawrence K S Wong, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND: Unlike western countries, data on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in community dwelling elderly in Asian population is very limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between baseline WMH burden and the risk of incident cognitive decline in a community-based cohort with Chinese-dwelling elderly. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the incident cognitive decline for 226 participants in the Shanghai Aging Study. Baseline WMH severity was visually rated by the age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale based on MRI...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Walter Swardfager, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Mario Masellis, Joel Ramirez, Nathan Herrmann, Jodi D Edwards, Mahwesh Saleem, Parco Chan, Di Yu, Sean M Nestor, Christopher J M Scott, Melissa F Holmes, Demetrios J Sahlas, Alexander Kiss, Paul I Oh, Stephen C Strother, Fuqiang Gao, Bojana Stefanovic, Julia Keith, Sean Symons, Richard H Swartz, Krista L Lanctôt, Donald T Stuss, Sandra E Black
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) presumed to indicate disease of the cerebral small vessels, temporal lobe atrophy, and verbal memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD) and other dementias. METHODS: We recruited groups of participants with and without AD, including strata with extensive WMH and minimal WMH, into a cross-sectional proof-of-principle study (n = 118). A consecutive case series from a memory clinic was used as an independent validation sample (n = 702; Sunnybrook Dementia Study; NCT01800214)...
January 26, 2018: Neurology
Raul Romero Sevilla, Ignacio Casado Naranjo, Juan Carlos Portilla Cuenca, Beatriz Duque de San Juan, Jose Manuel Fuentes Rodriguez, Fidel Lopez Espuela
BACKGROUND: Evidence of the effect of vascular risk factors and white matter lesions on progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia is not conclusive. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of these factors on MCI progression to dementia from a global perspective. METHODS: Our study included a population of 105 patients with MCI. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up period of 3.09 years (range, 2-3.79), 47 patients (44...
January 18, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Giovanni Giulietti, Mario Torso, Laura Serra, Barbara Spanò, Camillo Marra, Carlo Caltagirone, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali
BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the clinical conversion from MCI to AD is unpredictable. Hence, identification of noninvasive biomarkers able to detect early changes induced by dementia is a pressing need. PURPOSE: To explore the added value of histogram analysis applied to measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for detecting brain tissue differences between AD, MCI, and healthy subjects (HS)...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Maila Rossato Holz, Renata Kochhann, Patrícia Ferreira, Marina Tarrasconi, Márcia Lorena Fagundes Chaves, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Background: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly associated with vascular dementia and poor executive functioning. Notwithstanding, recent findings have associated WMH with Alzheimer's disease as well as other cognitive functions, but there is no consensus. Objective: This study aimed to verify the relationship between WMH and cognitive performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The study also sought to identify cognitive and demographic/cultural factors that might explain variability of WMH...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Mika Shibuya, Claudia da Costa Leite, Leandro Tavares Lucato
In recent years, small vessel disease (SVD) has been recognized for its major impact on cognitive impairment in elderly people, where it is often difficult to separate its effects from those of neurodegenerative diseases individually. SVD is a systemic disease, probably related to diffuse endothelial dysfunction, which affects the perforating arterioles, capillaries and venules in the brain. Although often asymptomatic, it is responsible for almost half of all dementia cases and a significant proportion of stroke cases...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Batool Rizvi, Atul Narkhede, Briana S Last, Mariana Budge, Giuseppe Tosto, Jennifer J Manly, Nicole Schupf, Richard Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) have been linked to cognitive dysfunction and dementia, although the reasons are unclear. One possibility is that WMH promote neurodegeneration, which, in turn, affects cognition. We examined whether cortical thickness, a marker of neurodegeneration, mediates the relationship between WMH and cognition among 519 older adults. Using conditional process analysis modeling techniques, we examined the association between WMH volume and global cognition and tested whether cortical thickness mediates this relationship statistically...
December 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
Yuan Yao, Xiaoping Dong, Hongzhi Guan, Qiang Lu
RATIONALE: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) mainly occurs in the elderly, with the peak age of onset ranging from 55 to 75 years. The symptoms of sCJD are not unique, and laboratory tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)14-3-3 protein have low sensitivity or specificity. Therefore, excluding treatable diseases and establishing a diagnosis could be difficult in young patients with suspected sCJD. Recently, real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) has been used in the diagnosis of sCJD, with more than 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
S Y Moon, P de Souto Barreto, M Chupin, J F Mangin, A Bouyahia, L Fillon, S Andrieu, B Vellas
OBJECTIVES: The association between circulating biomarkers of red blood cells (RBC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on the brain MRI remains yet unclear. We investigated the cross-sectional and prospective associations of RBC omega-3 PUFAs with WMH in dementia-free older adults with subjective memory complaints. DESIGN: Participants were 234 older adults with assessments for both PUFA and MRI near to baseline; among them, 79 also had an MRI assessment at 3-year follow-up...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
David Della-Morte, Chuanhui Dong, Matthew S Markert, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Clinton B Wright, Tatjana Rundek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain white matter hyperintensities (WMH) have been associated with increased risk of stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. WMH can be a manifestation of small vessel disease, although the total microvascular contribution to multifactorial WMH pathophysiology remains unknown. We hypothesized a possible relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), an ultrasound imaging marker of subclinical vascular disease, and brain WMH in a multiethnic, elderly stroke-free community-based cohort...
February 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Isabelle Bos, Frans R Verhey, Inez H G B Ramakers, Heidi I L Jacobs, Hilkka Soininen, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Harald Hampel, Magda Tsolaki, Åsa K Wallin, Mark A van Buchem, Ania Oleksik, Marcel M Verbeek, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Pauline Aalten, Pieter Jelle Visser, Stephanie J B Vos
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and amyloid-β (Aβ) often coexist, but their influence on neurodegeneration and cognition in predementia stages remains unclear. We investigated the association between CVD and Aβ on neurodegenerative markers and cognition in patients without dementia. METHODS: We included 271 memory clinic patients with subjective or objective cognitive deficits but without dementia from the BioBank Alzheimer Center Limburg cohort (n = 99) and the LeARN (n = 50) and DESCRIPA (n = 122) multicenter studies...
December 29, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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