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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428977/19th-workshop-of-the-international-stroke-genetics-consortium-april-28-29-2016-boston-massachusetts-usa-2016-001-mri-defined-cerebrovascular-genomics-the-charge-consortium
#1
S Debette, Y Saba, D Vojinovic, X Jian, H Adams, G Chauhan, M Sargurupremraj, S Kaffashian, J Ding, J C Bis, P Nyquist, K Mather, C Van Duijn, L J Launer, M A Ikram, H Schmidt, W T Longstreth, M Fornage, S Seshadri
The CHARGE consortium is an investigator-initiated collaboration to facilitate meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic analyses based on next generation sequencing (NGS), among multiple large and well-phenotyped population-based cohort studies around the world (http://www.chargeconsortium.com). Within the neuro-CHARGE working group, we are presenting an update of ongoing genomic studies on MRI-markers of cerebrovascular disease. Large population-based studies have shown that the burden of cerebrovascular disease extends far beyond that of clinical stroke...
March 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382615/a-case-of-multiple-system-atrophy-with-preexisting-alzheimer-s-disease-and-predating-the-hot-cross-bun-sign
#2
Chi-Wei Lin, Chi-Yu Tseng, Chung-Ping Lo, Min-Chien Tu
PURPOSE: Synucleinopathy, tauopathy and amyloidopathy were classified as distinct clinical and pathological entities in traditional classification systems, and their interactions have been studied on neuropathology and molecular genetics recently. CASE REPORT: In this report, we present a 69-year-old male patient who had been diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia due to progressive forgetfulness in February 2013. His Mini- Mental State Examination score was 21/30, and his Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument score was 78/100, resulted from profound deficits in recent memory and abstract thinking domains...
December 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378939/medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-as-a-predictor-of-poor-cognitive-outcomes-in-general-paresis
#3
Ben Chen, Haishan Shi, Le Hou, Xiaomei Zhong, Yanhua Wang, Zhangying Wu, Qi Peng, Dong Zheng, Yuefen Zhang, Yan Tan, Ziyan Fang, Xinru Chen, Xinni Luo, Sha Liu, Ning Yuping
BACKGROUND: The effect of penicillin therapy on clinical outcomes vary among patients with general paresis (GP). We sought to explore biomarkers that might serve as predictors of clinical outcomes in GP and identify patients requiring early intervention. METHODS: Thirty-five inpatients with GP were recruited. Each GP patient underwent comprehensive neuropsychological, neuroimaging and laboratory assessments before receiving penicillin therapy, and returned for follow-up evaluations after 6 months...
April 5, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371474/muscle-mass-decline-arterial-stiffness-white-matter-hyperintensity-and-cognitive-impairment-japan-shimanami-health-promoting-program-study
#4
Katsuhiko Kohara, Yoko Okada, Masayuki Ochi, Maya Ohara, Tokihisa Nagai, Yasuharu Tabara, Michiya Igase
BACKGROUND: There is a close association between frailty and cognitive impairment. However, the underlying contribution of sarcopenia to the development of cognitive impairment is unclear. We investigated the possible association between muscle mass decline and cognitive impairment in a cross-sectional study of 1518 subjects aged 55 years or above. We also evaluated arterial stiffness and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) as possible underlying mechanisms for this association. METHODS: Two sarcopenic indices were measured: thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA; calculated by computed tomography) and skeletal muscle mass (bioelectric impedance)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351960/pathogenesis-of-white-matter-changes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-diseases-beyond-vessel-intrinsic-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Anne Joutel, Hugues Chabriat
Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) are a leading cause of age and hypertension-related stroke and dementia. The salient features of SVDs visible on conventional brain magnetic resonance images include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on T2-weighted images, small infarcts, macrohemorrhages, dilated perivascular spaces, microbleeds and brain atrophy. Among these, WMHs are the most common and often the earliest brain tissue changes. Moreover, over the past two decades, large population- and patient-based studies have established the clinical importance of WMHs, notably with respect to cognitive and motor disturbances...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341686/incidental-findings-on-brain-mri-of-cognitively-normal-first-degree-descendants-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-the-alfa-alzheimer-and-families-project
#6
Anna Brugulat-Serrat, Santiago Rojas, Nuria Bargalló, Gerardo Conesa, Carolina Minguillón, Karine Fauria, Nina Gramunt, José Luis Molinuevo, Juan Domingo Gispert
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of brain MRI incidental findings (IF) in a cohort of cognitively normal first-degree descendants of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: All scans were obtained with a 3.0 T scanner. Scans were evaluated by a single neuroradiologist and IF recorded and categorised. The presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) was determined with the Fazekas scale and reported as relevant if ≥2...
March 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324763/interaction-of-apoe-e4-and-poor-glycemic-control-predicts-white-matter-hyperintensity-growth-from-73-to-76
#7
Simon R Cox, Stuart J Ritchie, David Alexander Dickie, Alison Pattie, Natalie A Royle, Janie Corley, Benjamin S Aribisala, Sarah E Harris, Maria Valdés Hernández, Alan J Gow, Susana Muñoz Maniega, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
We examined whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) status interacts with vascular risk factors (VRFs) to predict the progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on brain MRI scans over a specific period of life in older age when the risk of dementia increases. At age 73 years, baseline VRFs were assessed via self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, and via objective measures of blood HbA1c, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and blood high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (HDL) ratio...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322203/associations-between-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Austyn Roseborough, Joel Ramirez, Sandra E Black, Jodi D Edwards
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review synthesizes current evidence for associations between cortical amyloid β, visualized on amyloid positron emission tomography imaging, and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden on magnetic resonance imaging in healthy elderly adults and individuals with cognitive impairment and dementia. METHODS: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) systematic review guidelines, we systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases from January 2000 to September 2015...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318355/dementia-incidence-and-predictors-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-patients-without-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Li Xiong, Gregoire Boulouis, Andreas Charidimou, Duangnapa Roongpiboonsopit, Michael J Jessel, Marco Pasi, Yael D Reijmer, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Alison Ayres, Emily Merrill, Kristin Schwab, Deborah Blacker, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common cause of cognitive impairment in older individuals. This study aimed to investigate predictors of dementia in CAA patients without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 158 non-demented patients from the Stroke Service or the Memory Clinic who met the modified Boston Criteria for probable CAA were included. At baseline, neuroimaging markers, including lobar microbleeds (cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible centrum semiovale perivascular spaces (CSO-PVS), lacunes, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA) were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316994/multiple-factors-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-white-matter-lesions
#10
REVIEW
Jing Lin, Dilong Wang, Linfang Lan, Yuhua Fan
White matter lesions (WMLs), also known as leukoaraiosis (LA) or white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), are characterized mainly by hyperintensities on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. With the aging of the population and the development of imaging technology, the morbidity and diagnostic rates of WMLs are increasing annually. WMLs are not a benign process. They clinically manifest as cognitive decline and the subsequent development of dementia. Although WMLs are important, their pathogenesis is still unclear...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289478/cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-and-acceleration-of-epigenetic-aging-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#11
Abhay Raina, Xiaoping Zhao, Megan L Grove, Jan Bressler, Rebecca F Gottesman, Weihua Guan, James S Pankow, Eric Boerwinkle, Thomas H Mosley, Myriam Fornage
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are part of the spectrum of brain vascular injury accompanying aging and are associated with a substantial risk of stroke and dementia. We investigated the association of cerebral WMH burden on MRI with a DNA methylation-based biomarker of aging, termed DNA methylation age acceleration, which represents the deviation of the DNA methylation-predicted age from the chronologic age. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional observational study of 713 African-American participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, aged 51-73 years, estimates of predicted age were obtained based on two algorithms (Hannum et al...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276131/different-clinical-effect-of-four-antidementia-drugs-for-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-depending-on-white-matter-severity
#12
Yusuke Fukui, Nozomi Hishikawa, Jin Ichinose, Kota Sato, Yumiko Nakano, Ryuta Morihara, Yasuyuki Ohta, Toru Yamashita, Koji Abe
AIM: To examine the clinical effect of four antidementia drugs (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine) in Alzheimer's disease patients who were divided into subgroups based on their periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) severity. METHODS: A total of 551 Alzheimer's disease patients (201 men and 350 women) were divided into four subgroups based on their PVH severity (0-III). They received monotherapy for 12 months. We compared the clinical effects at the baseline, and at 3, 6 and 12 months after initiation...
March 9, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255864/hyperinsulinemia-and-elevated-systolic-blood-pressure-independently-predict-white-matter-hyperintensities-with-associated-cognitive-decrement-in-the-middle-aged-offspring-of-dementia-patients
#13
Keith A Hawkins, Nazli Emadi, Godfrey D Pearlson, Anderson M Winkler, Beth Taylor, Latha Dulipsingh, Diana King, Brian Pittman, Karen Blank
Cerebrovascular disease is an independent risk factor for dementia that may also be synergistic with Alzheimer's disease. In recent years attention has switched from cerebral infarcts to microvascular disease as the primary cause of cerebrovascular cognitive decline, with damage to the white matter the primary mechanism. Uncertainties remain regarding the risks posed by different types vascular threat, the extent to which cerebrovascular damage occurs in middle age, and whether relatively "normal" amounts of white matter damage are accompanied by meaningful degrees of cognitive decline...
March 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254515/hereditary-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-stroke
#14
REVIEW
Christian Baastrup Søndergaard, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Christine Krarup Hansen, Hanne Christensen
Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis...
April 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245482/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-disease-vascular-dementia-and-mixed-dementia
#15
Cassandra J Anor, Sean O'Connor, Amardeep Saund, David F Tang-Wai, Ron Keren, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and are distressful to patients and caregivers. NPS are likely related to the underlying pathology. Previous studies suggest that frontal lobe lesions and vascular changes such as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) have a significant association with specific NPS. The current study aimed to compare NPS in patients with AD, VaD, and mixed AD/VaD, and to evaluate the differences in the prevalence of NPS in relation to frontal WMH volume...
March 1, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239640/serum-il-8-is-a-marker-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Yanan Zhu, Yuek Ling Chai, Saima Hilal, M Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Boon-Seng Wong, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) have been implicated in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to examine serum inflammatory markers in preclinical stages of dementia and in AD, as well as to investigate their associations with concomitant CeVD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional case-control study including 96 AD, 140 cognitively impaired no dementia (CIND), and 79 noncognitively impaired participants...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239530/hippocampal-atrophy-and-memory-dysfunction-associated-with-physical-inactivity-in-community-dwelling-elderly-subjects-the-sefuri-study
#17
Manabu Hashimoto, Yuko Araki, Yuki Takashima, Kohjiro Nogami, Akira Uchino, Takefumi Yuzuriha, Hiroshi Yao
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is one of the modifiable risk factors for hippocampal atrophy and Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the relationship between physical activity, hippocampal atrophy, and memory using structural equation modeling (SEM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 213 community-dwelling elderly subjects (99 men and 114 women with a mean age of 68.9 years) without dementia or clinically apparent depression. All participants underwent Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT)...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166312/association-between-subclinical-cardiac-biomarkers-and-clinically-manifest-cardiac-diseases-with-cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts
#18
Saima Hilal, Yuek Ling Chai, Susanne van Veluw, Muhammad Amin Shaik, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Arthur Mark Richards, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher Chen
Importance: Subclinical and clinical cardiac diseases have been previously linked to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestations of cerebrovascular disease, such as lacunes and white matter hyperintensities, as well as dementia. Cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs), a novel MRI marker of cerebral vascular disease, have not been studied, to date, in relation to subclinical and clinical cardiac diseases. Objective: To examine the association of blood biomarkers of subclinical cardiac disease and clinically manifest cardiac diseases with CMIs graded on 3-T MRI in a memory clinic population...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153848/cjd-mimics-and-chameleons
#19
REVIEW
Simon Mead, Peter Rudge
Rapidly progressive dementia mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a relatively rare presentation but a rewarding one to become familiar with, as the potential diagnoses range from the universally fatal to the completely reversible. Patients require urgent decisions about assessment and investigation and have quickly evolving needs for treatments and support, through symptom management and end-of-life care in most cases. We have based this pragmatic review on the experiences of a specialist prion referral centre in the UK, which, unsurprisingly, is strongly biased towards seeing patients with CJD...
April 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115193/associations-between-reaction-time-measures-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-very-old-age
#20
Becky I Haynes, David Bunce, Nicole A Kochan, Wei Wen, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
In old age, a relationship has been reported between intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time and white matter integrity as evidenced by white matter hyperintensities (WMH). However, it is unclear how far such associations are due to incipient neurodegenerative pathology in the samples investigated. The present study examined the relationship between IIV and WMH in older individuals (N=526) drawn from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Using a complex reaction time (RT) task, greater IIV and mean-RT were related to a higher WMH burden in the frontal lobe...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
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