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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095899/what-is-the-relationship-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-status-and-the-neuroradiological-correlates-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#1
Clark Funnell, Mary M Doyle-Waters, Samuel Yip, Thalia Field
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common cause of stroke, dementia, and functional decline. In recent years, neuroradiologic correlates of CSVD have been identified. These imaging findings, best characterized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), include some combination of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, enlarged perivascular spaces, and cerebral atrophy. Though some cohorts have reported that participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), an important risk factor for CSVD, may have a distinct neuroradiologic phenotype, this relationship is not well-characterized...
January 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004274/imaging-biomarkers-of-dementia-recommended-visual-rating-scales-with-teaching-cases
#2
REVIEW
Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman, Danielle van Westen, Anders Wallin, Sara Shams, Lena Cavallin, Elna-Marie Larsson
: The diagnostic work up of dementia may benefit from structured reporting of CT and/or MRI and the use of standardised visual rating scales. We advocate a more widespread use of standardised scales as part of the workflow in clinical and research evaluation of dementia. We propose routine clinical use of rating scales for medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy (GCA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). These scales can be used for evaluation of both CT and MRI and are efficient in routine imaging assessment in dementia, and may improve the accuracy of diagnosis...
December 21, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994005/associations-of-brain-structure-with-adiposity-and-changes-in-adiposity-in-a-middle-aged-and-older-biracial-population
#3
B Gwen Windham, Seth T Lirette, Myriam Fornage, Emelia J Benjamin, Kirby G Parker, Stephen T Turner, Clifford R Jack, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
BACKGROUND: Studies of adiposity and brain pathology in African Americans (AA) are sparse despite higher rates of obesity, dementia, and dementia-associated brain pathology in AA. This study examined relations of adiposity to white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and total brain volume (TBV) in AA and non-Hispanic whites (NHW). METHODS: Waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study at Visits 1 (mean age 57 [±11]) and 2 (mean age 61 [±10], mean 5...
December 18, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986412/hippocampal-response-to-a-24-month-physical-activity-intervention-in-sedentary-older-adults
#4
Caterina Rosano, Jack Guralnik, Marco Pahor, Nancy W Glynn, Anne B Newman, Tamer S Ibrahim, Kirk Erickson, Ronald Cohen, C Elizabeth Shaaban, Rebecca L MacCloud, Howard J Aizenstein
BACKGROUND: Greater hippocampal volume is observed in healthy older adults after short-term structured exercise. Whether long-term exposure to real-world physical activity (PA) programs has similar effects for sedentary older adults with impaired mobility and comorbid conditions is not known. HYPOTHESIS: A long-term moderate intensity regimen of PA is related to larger volume of the hippocampus in older adults at risk for mobility disability. We further explore whether these associations are modified by factors known to be related to dementia...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980126/prevention-of-stroke-in-patients-with-silent-cerebrovascular-disease-a-scientific-statement-for-healthcare-professionals-from-the-american-heart-association-american-stroke-association
#5
Eric E Smith, Gustavo Saposnik, Geert Jan Biessels, Fergus N Doubal, Myriam Fornage, Philip B Gorelick, Steven M Greenberg, Randall T Higashida, Scott E Kasner, Sudha Seshadri
Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke, the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association convened a writing committee to evaluate existing evidence, to discuss clinical considerations, and to offer suggestions for future research on stroke prevention in patients with 3 cardinal manifestations of silent cerebrovascular disease: silent brain infarcts, magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, and cerebral microbleeds...
December 15, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956564/n-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-subclinical-brain-small-vessel-disease
#6
Andrea Vilar-Bergua, Iolanda Riba-Llena, Anna Penalba, Luz María Cruz, Joan Jiménez-Balado, Joan Montaner, Pilar Delgado
OBJECTIVE: To study the association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with several brain MRI markers of brain vascular disease in a sample of participants free of stroke and dementia. METHODS: NT-proBNP plasma level was determined by means of a sandwich immunoassay method in a cohort study comprising 278 hypertensive patients. The presence of silent brain infarcts, brain microbleeds, enlarged perivascular spaces, and white matter hyperintensity volumes was assessed by brain MRI...
December 13, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943055/reproducible-segmentation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-using-a-new-statistical-definition
#7
Soheil Damangir, Eric Westman, Andrew Simmons, Hugo Vrenken, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Gabriela Spulber
OBJECTIVES: We present a method based on a proposed statistical definition of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), which can work with any combination of conventional magnetic resonance (MR) sequences without depending on manually delineated samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1-weighted, T2-weighted, FLAIR, and PD sequences acquired at 1.5 Tesla from 119 subjects from the Kings Health Partners-Dementia Case Register (healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease) were used...
December 9, 2016: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917152/amyloid-dysmetabolism-relates-to-reduced-glucose-uptake-in-white-matter-hyperintensities
#8
Lisa Flem Kalheim, Per Selnes, Atle Bjørnerud, Christopher Coello, Kjetil Vegge, Tormod Fladby
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia and is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. AD has traditionally been considered to primarily affect gray matter, but multiple lines of evidence also indicate white matter (WM) pathology and associated small-vessel cerebrovascular disease. WM glucose delivery and metabolism may have implications for local tissue integrity, and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be helpful to assess neuroglial and axonal function in WM...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908171/automated-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-all-sizes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#9
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Inge W M van Uden, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Tom Heskes, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are seen on FLAIR-MRI in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinsonism, stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). WMHs are often used as biomarkers for prognosis or disease progression in these diseases, and additionally longitudinal quantification of WMHs is used to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Human readers show considerable disagreement and inconsistency on detection of small lesions. A multitude of automated detection algorithms for WMHs exists, but since most of the current automated approaches are tuned to optimize segmentation performance according to Jaccard or Dice scores, smaller WMHs often go undetected in these approaches...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884882/lymphomatosis-cerebri-diagnostic-challenges-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Paul J Lee, Idanis Berrios, Carolina Ionete, Thomas Smith
Lymphomatosis cerebri (LC) is a rare variant of a primary central nervous system non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PCNSL) characterised by diffuse infiltration of tumour cells throughout the brain parenchyma. We present a 68-year-old immunocompetent woman with headaches, dizziness, blurred vision, localised right leg weakness and rapidly progressive dementia. A brain MRI demonstrated diffuse T2 hyperintense white matter lesions that did not enhance with contrast. The clinical differential diagnosis of these lesions included metastatic disease, infectious or inflammatory process such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, demyelinating disease and less likely vascular aetiology, such as vasculitis or ischaemic stroke...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869586/hyperfamiliarity-in-amnestic-and-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Pei Shi Chia, Shahul Hameed, Kok Pin Yong, Ling Ling Chan, Simon Kang Seng Ting
OBJECTIVE: Hyperfamiliarity is a phenomenon where new stimuli are perceived as familiar. Previous studies have demonstrated familiarity disorder in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but mostly from the perspective of a neuropsychological approach, and the exact correlation of MCI aetiologies with the phenomenon remains uncertain. Based on current evidence suggesting a frontal-subcortical pathway contributing to familiarity processing, we hypothesize that individuals with a vascular aetiology of MCI will likely suffer more familiarity deficits...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866203/frontal-assessment-battery-as-a-useful-tool-to-differentiate-mild-cognitive-impairment-due-to-subcortical-ischemic-vascular-disease-from-alzheimer-disease
#12
Yen-Hsuan Hsu, Ching-Feng Huang, Chung-Ping Lo, Tzu-Lan Wang, Chi-Cheng Yang, Min-Chien Tu
BACKGROUND: Prominent executive dysfunction can differentiate vascular dementia from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) screening tool can differentiate subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) from AD at the pre-dementia stage. In addition, the neural correlates of FAB performance have yet to be clarified. METHODS: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to SIVD (MCI-V), MCI due to AD (MCI-A), and demographically matched controls completed the Mini-Mental State Examination, Taiwanese FAB (TFAB), Category Fluency, and Chinese Version of the Verbal Learning Test, and underwent magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793866/dementia-epilepsy-and-polyneuropathy-in-a-mercury-exposed-patient-investigation-identification-of-an-obscure-source-and-treatment
#13
Tobias Zellner, Nicolas Zellner, Norbert Felgenhauer, Florian Eyer
We present a patient aged 54 years with early onset of dementia, epilepsy and peripheral polyneuropathy. A mercury intoxication was diagnosed in 2010, chelation therapy with 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate had failed. A source of exposure could not be identified. MRI showed unspecific hyperintense brain lesions in 2015. She was referred for diagnosis and treatment. Neuropsychological testing indicated severe memory loss and nerve conduction speed measurements showed chronic neurogenically changed potentials...
October 28, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772777/status-epilepticus-in-the-elderly-prognostic-implications-of-rhythmic-and-periodic-patterns-in-electroencephalography-and-hyperintensities-on-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#14
Hajime Yoshimura, Riki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Ueda, Koichi Ariyoshi, Michi Kawamoto, Junko Ishii, Akio Ikeda, Ryosuke Takahashi, Nobuo Kohara
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical characteristics and functional outcome of status epilepticus (SE) in elderly people, and elucidate prognostic implications of SE-associated rhythmic and periodic patterns (RPPs) in electroencephalography and hyperintensities on diffusion-weighted imaging. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 107 consecutive patients with SE aged≥65years in a comprehensive community hospital. RPPs were classified using the 2012 American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772745/preserved-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-the-occipital-cortices-brainstem-and-cerebellum-of-patients-with-v180i-129m-genetic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-serial-spect-studies
#15
Yuichi Hayashi, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Akira Takekoshi, Megumi Yamada, Takahiko Asano, Akio Kimura, Katsuya Satoh, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Takashi Inuzuka
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with a causative point mutation of valine to isoleucine at codon 180 (V180I) is one of the major types of genetic CJD (gCJD) in Japan. V180I gCJD is rarely accompanied by a family history, and its clinical characteristics include late-onset, long disease duration, and edematous cortical hyperintensity in diffusion, fluid attenuate inversion and T2-weighted MRI. We performed serial imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and MRI in three V180I gCJD cases over long-term observation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752478/aortic-stiffness-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-memory
#16
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709513/resting-state-global-functional-connectivity-as-a-biomarker-of-cognitive-reserve-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
N Franzmeier, M Á Araque Caballero, A N W Taylor, L Simon-Vermot, K Buerger, B Ertl-Wagner, C Mueller, C Catak, D Janowitz, E Baykara, B Gesierich, M Duering, M Ewers
Cognitive reserve (CR) shows protective effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and reduces the risk of dementia. Despite the clinical significance of CR, a clinically useful diagnostic biomarker of brain changes underlying CR in AD is not available yet. Our aim was to develop a fully-automated approach applied to fMRI to produce a biomarker associated with CR in subjects at increased risk of AD. We computed resting-state global functional connectivity (GFC), i.e. the average connectivity strength, for each voxel within the cognitive control network, which may sustain CR due to its central role in higher cognitive function...
October 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694265/prediction-of-3-year-clinical-course-in-cadasil
#18
Eric Jouvent, Edouard Duchesnay, Foued Hadj-Selem, François De Guio, Jean-François Mangin, Dominique Hervé, Marco Duering, Stefan Ropele, Reinhold Schmidt, Martin Dichgans, Hugues Chabriat
OBJECTIVE: To obtain simple models predicting disease evolution at 3 years for a given patient with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: Based on data obtained in a prospective study of 236 patients, we built and validated models predicting, at the individual level, 3-year changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), Trail Making Test version B (TMTB), and modified Rankin Scale (mRS)...
October 25, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662299/white-matter-hyperintensities-potentiate-hippocampal-volume-reduction-in-non-demented-older-individuals-with-abnormal-amyloid-%C3%AE
#19
Whitney M Freeze, Heidi I L Jacobs, Ed H Gronenschild, Jacobus F A Jansen, Saartje Burgmans, Pauline Aalten, Lies Clerx, Stephanie J Vos, Mark A van Buchem, Frederik Barkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier, Marcel M Verbeek, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Walter H Backes, Frans R Verhey
Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition often co-exist in (prodromal) dementia, and both types of pathology have been associated with neurodegeneration. We examined whether cSVD and Aβ have independent or interactive effects on hippocampal volume (HV) in a memory clinic population. We included 87 individuals with clinical diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 24), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 26), and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) (n = 37). cSVD magnetic resonance imaging markers included white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, lacunar infarct presence, and microbleed presence...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659853/long-term-clinical-impact-of-vascular-brain-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-older-adults-in-the-population
#20
Sara Kaffashian, Aïcha Soumaré, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Bernard Mazoyer, Stéphanie Debette, Christophe Tzourio
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and covert brain infarcts are highly prevalent in older adults and are often asymptomatic. We compared the impact of WMH volume and brain infarcts on risk of clinical stroke and dementia in older adults in the population. METHODS: Participants were 1677 individuals aged ≥65 years from the 3-City Dijon study, who were free of stroke and dementia at baseline, followed-up for ≤12 years. RESULTS: Both lesion types were comparably associated with an increased risk of stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 1...
November 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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