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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917152/amyloid-dysmetabolism-relates-to-reduced-glucose-uptake-in-white-matter-hyperintensities
#1
Lisa Flem Kalheim, Per Selnes, Atle Bjørnerud, Christopher Coello, Kjetil Vegge, Tormod Fladby
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia and is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. AD has traditionally been considered to primarily affect gray matter, but multiple lines of evidence also indicate white matter (WM) pathology and associated small-vessel cerebrovascular disease. WM glucose delivery and metabolism may have implications for local tissue integrity, and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be helpful to assess neuroglial and axonal function in WM...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908171/automated-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-all-sizes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#2
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Inge W M van Uden, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Tom Heskes, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are seen on FLAIR-MRI in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinsonism, stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). WMHs are often used as biomarkers for prognosis or disease progression in these diseases, and additionally longitudinal quantification of WMHs is used to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Human readers show considerable disagreement and inconsistency on detection of small lesions. A multitude of automated detection algorithms for WMHs exists, but since most of the current automated approaches are tuned to optimize segmentation performance according to Jaccard or Dice scores, smaller WMHs often go undetected in these approaches...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884882/lymphomatosis-cerebri-diagnostic-challenges-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Paul J Lee, Idanis Berrios, Carolina Ionete, Thomas Smith
Lymphomatosis cerebri (LC) is a rare variant of a primary central nervous system non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PCNSL) characterised by diffuse infiltration of tumour cells throughout the brain parenchyma. We present a 68-year-old immunocompetent woman with headaches, dizziness, blurred vision, localised right leg weakness and rapidly progressive dementia. A brain MRI demonstrated diffuse T2 hyperintense white matter lesions that did not enhance with contrast. The clinical differential diagnosis of these lesions included metastatic disease, infectious or inflammatory process such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, demyelinating disease and less likely vascular aetiology, such as vasculitis or ischaemic stroke...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869586/hyperfamiliarity-in-amnestic-and-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Pei Shi Chia, Shahul Hameed, Kok Pin Yong, Ling Ling Chan, Simon Kang Seng Ting
OBJECTIVE: Hyperfamiliarity is a phenomenon where new stimuli are perceived as familiar. Previous studies have demonstrated familiarity disorder in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but mostly from the perspective of a neuropsychological approach, and the exact correlation of MCI aetiologies with the phenomenon remains uncertain. Based on current evidence suggesting a frontal-subcortical pathway contributing to familiarity processing, we hypothesize that individuals with a vascular aetiology of MCI will likely suffer more familiarity deficits...
November 21, 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866203/frontal-assessment-battery-as-a-useful-tool-to-differentiate-mild-cognitive-impairment-due-to-subcortical-ischemic-vascular-disease-from-alzheimer-disease
#5
Yen-Hsuan Hsu, Ching-Feng Huang, Chung-Ping Lo, Tzu-Lan Wang, Chi-Cheng Yang, Min-Chien Tu
BACKGROUND: Prominent executive dysfunction can differentiate vascular dementia from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) screening tool can differentiate subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) from AD at the pre-dementia stage. In addition, the neural correlates of FAB performance have yet to be clarified. METHODS: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to SIVD (MCI-V), MCI due to AD (MCI-A), and demographically matched controls completed the Mini-Mental State Examination, Taiwanese FAB (TFAB), Category Fluency, and Chinese Version of the Verbal Learning Test, and underwent magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793866/dementia-epilepsy-and-polyneuropathy-in-a-mercury-exposed-patient-investigation-identification-of-an-obscure-source-and-treatment
#6
Tobias Zellner, Nicolas Zellner, Norbert Felgenhauer, Florian Eyer
We present a patient aged 54 years with early onset of dementia, epilepsy and peripheral polyneuropathy. A mercury intoxication was diagnosed in 2010, chelation therapy with 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate had failed. A source of exposure could not be identified. MRI showed unspecific hyperintense brain lesions in 2015. She was referred for diagnosis and treatment. Neuropsychological testing indicated severe memory loss and nerve conduction speed measurements showed chronic neurogenically changed potentials...
October 28, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772777/status-epilepticus-in-the-elderly-prognostic-implications-of-rhythmic-and-periodic-patterns-in-electroencephalography-and-hyperintensities-on-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#7
Hajime Yoshimura, Riki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Ueda, Koichi Ariyoshi, Michi Kawamoto, Junko Ishii, Akio Ikeda, Ryosuke Takahashi, Nobuo Kohara
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical characteristics and functional outcome of status epilepticus (SE) in elderly people, and elucidate prognostic implications of SE-associated rhythmic and periodic patterns (RPPs) in electroencephalography and hyperintensities on diffusion-weighted imaging. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 107 consecutive patients with SE aged≥65years in a comprehensive community hospital. RPPs were classified using the 2012 American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772745/preserved-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-the-occipital-cortices-brainstem-and-cerebellum-of-patients-with-v180i-129m-genetic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-serial-spect-studies
#8
Yuichi Hayashi, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Akira Takekoshi, Megumi Yamada, Takahiko Asano, Akio Kimura, Katsuya Satoh, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Takashi Inuzuka
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with a causative point mutation of valine to isoleucine at codon 180 (V180I) is one of the major types of genetic CJD (gCJD) in Japan. V180I gCJD is rarely accompanied by a family history, and its clinical characteristics include late-onset, long disease duration, and edematous cortical hyperintensity in diffusion, fluid attenuate inversion and T2-weighted MRI. We performed serial imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and MRI in three V180I gCJD cases over long-term observation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752478/aortic-stiffness-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-memory
#9
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709513/resting-state-global-functional-connectivity-as-a-biomarker-of-cognitive-reserve-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
N Franzmeier, M Á Araque Caballero, A N W Taylor, L Simon-Vermot, K Buerger, B Ertl-Wagner, C Mueller, C Catak, D Janowitz, E Baykara, B Gesierich, M Duering, M Ewers
Cognitive reserve (CR) shows protective effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and reduces the risk of dementia. Despite the clinical significance of CR, a clinically useful diagnostic biomarker of brain changes underlying CR in AD is not available yet. Our aim was to develop a fully-automated approach applied to fMRI to produce a biomarker associated with CR in subjects at increased risk of AD. We computed resting-state global functional connectivity (GFC), i.e. the average connectivity strength, for each voxel within the cognitive control network, which may sustain CR due to its central role in higher cognitive function...
October 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694265/prediction-of-3-year-clinical-course-in-cadasil
#11
Eric Jouvent, Edouard Duchesnay, Foued Hadj-Selem, François De Guio, Jean-François Mangin, Dominique Hervé, Marco Duering, Stefan Ropele, Reinhold Schmidt, Martin Dichgans, Hugues Chabriat
OBJECTIVE: To obtain simple models predicting disease evolution at 3 years for a given patient with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: Based on data obtained in a prospective study of 236 patients, we built and validated models predicting, at the individual level, 3-year changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), Trail Making Test version B (TMTB), and modified Rankin Scale (mRS)...
October 25, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662299/white-matter-hyperintensities-potentiate-hippocampal-volume-reduction-in-non-demented-older-individuals-with-abnormal-amyloid-%C3%AE
#12
Whitney M Freeze, Heidi I L Jacobs, Ed H Gronenschild, Jacobus F A Jansen, Saartje Burgmans, Pauline Aalten, Lies Clerx, Stephanie J Vos, Mark A van Buchem, Frederik Barkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier, Marcel M Verbeek, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Walter H Backes, Frans R Verhey
Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition often co-exist in (prodromal) dementia, and both types of pathology have been associated with neurodegeneration. We examined whether cSVD and Aβ have independent or interactive effects on hippocampal volume (HV) in a memory clinic population. We included 87 individuals with clinical diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 24), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 26), and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) (n = 37). cSVD magnetic resonance imaging markers included white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, lacunar infarct presence, and microbleed presence...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659853/long-term-clinical-impact-of-vascular-brain-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-older-adults-in-the-population
#13
Sara Kaffashian, Aïcha Soumaré, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Bernard Mazoyer, Stéphanie Debette, Christophe Tzourio
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and covert brain infarcts are highly prevalent in older adults and are often asymptomatic. We compared the impact of WMH volume and brain infarcts on risk of clinical stroke and dementia in older adults in the population. METHODS: Participants were 1677 individuals aged ≥65 years from the 3-City Dijon study, who were free of stroke and dementia at baseline, followed-up for ≤12 years. RESULTS: Both lesion types were comparably associated with an increased risk of stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 1...
November 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648320/flair-hyperintense-vessel-sign-of-both-mcas-with-severe-heart-failure
#14
Donghee Kim, Seung-Yul Lee, Kwon-Duk Seo
Introduction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense vessels (FHVs) can be seen in patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the cerebral arteries. FHVs are known to reflect stagnant or slow blood flow within the cerebral artery. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman presented with suddenly developed gait disturbance. She had a history of hypertension, heart failure, and dementia. Brain MRI demonstrated FHVs within both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). However, there was no acute ischemic lesion and severe stenosis or occlusion of the cerebral arteries...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630617/the-ticking-of-the-epigenetic-clock-antipsychotic-drugs-in-old-age
#15
Adonis Sfera, Carolina Osorio, Luzmin Inderias, Michael Cummings
BACKGROUND: Exposed to antipsychotic drugs (APDs), older individuals with dementing illness are at risk of cerebrovascular adverse effects (CVAE), including sudden death. Transient microvascular dysfunctions are known to occur in younger persons exposed to APDs; however, they seldom progress to CVAE, suggesting that APDs alone are insufficient for engendering this untoward effect. It is, therefore, believed that a preexistent microvascular damage is necessary for CVAE to take place, but the exact nature of this lesion remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590706/progression-from-normal-cognition-to-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-a-diverse-clinic-based-and-community-based-elderly-cohort
#16
Yingjia Chen, Katherine G Denny, Danielle Harvey, Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, Dan Mungas, Charles DeCarli, Laurel Beckett
IMPORTANCE: Investigation of the conversion rates from normal cognition (NC) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is important, as effective early intervention could potentially prevent or substantially delay the onset of dementia. However, reported conversion rates differ across studies and recruitment source. OBJECTIVE: Our study examined predictors of conversion from NC to MCI in a racially and ethnically diverse sample drawn both from community and clinic recruitment sources...
August 30, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590296/cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts-on-3t-mri-a-novel-marker-of-cerebrovascular-disease
#17
Saima Hilal, Emiel Sikking, Muhammad Amin Shaik, Qun Lin Chan, Susanne J van Veluw, Henri Vrooman, Ching-Yu Cheng, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Carol Y Cheung, Tien Yin Wong, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher Chen, Mohammad Kamran Ikram
OBJECTIVE: We examined the risk factors of cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) on 3T MRI and their association with cognitive impairment. METHODS: Participants (aged 60 years and older) from the multiethnic Epidemiology of Dementia In Singapore Study underwent detailed neuropsychological testing and 3T brain MRI. Cortical CMIs were graded using a previously validated protocol. Cognitive impairment was categorized into cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND)-mild, CIND-moderate, and dementia...
October 11, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587951/a-comparison-of-substantia-nigra-t1-hyperintensity-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-alzheimer-s-disease-and-age-matched-controls-volumetric-analysis-of-neuromelanin-imaging
#18
Won-Jin Moon, Ju-Yeon Park, Won-Sung Yun, Ji Yeong Jeon, Yeon Sil Moon, Heejin Kim, Ki-Chang Kwak, Jong-Min Lee, Seol-Heui Han
OBJECTIVE: Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568989/carotid-atherosclerosis-silent-ischemic-brain-damage-and-brain-atrophy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Francesco Moroni, Enrico Ammirati, Marco Magnoni, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Matteo Anselmino, Nicoletta Anzalone, Maria Assunta Rocca, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi, Paolo G Camici
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of brain imaging has led to increased recognition of subclinical brain abnormalities, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and silent brain infarctions (SBI), which have a vascular origin, and have been associated to a high risk of stroke, disability and dementia. Carotid atherosclerosis (CA) may be causative in the development of WMH, SBI and eventually brain atrophy. Aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the existing evidence linking CA to WMH, SBI and brain atrophy...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537582/growth-differentiation-factor-15-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#20
Yuek Ling Chai, Saima Hilal, Jenny P C Chong, Yan Xia Ng, Oi Wah Liew, Xin Xu, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, A Mark Richards, Mitchell K P Lai, Christopher P Chen
Vascular pathology plays an important role in the development of cognitive decline and dementia. In this context, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has been suggested to be a biomarker due to its regulatory roles in inflammatory and trophic responses during tissue injury. However, limited data exist on the associations of GDF-15 with either cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) burden or the spectrum of cognitive impairment. Therefore, we aimed to study peripheral levels of GDF-15 incognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) or Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects assessed for CeVD using a case-control cohort design, with cases recruited from memory clinics and controls from memory clinics and the community...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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