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activity-regulated cytoskeletal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646093/emerging-roles-of-mechanical-forces-in-chromatin-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Yekaterina A Miroshnikova, Michele M Nava, Sara A Wickström
Cells are constantly subjected to a spectrum of mechanical cues, such as shear stress, compression, differential tissue rigidity and strain, to which they adapt by engaging mechanisms of mechanotransduction. While the central role of cell adhesion receptors in this process is established, it has only recently been appreciated that mechanical cues reach far beyond the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton, and are directly transmitted to the nucleus. Furthermore, changes in the mechanical properties of the perinuclear cytoskeleton, nuclear lamina and chromatin are critical for cellular responses and adaptation to external mechanical cues...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641092/nuclear-mechanotransduction-sensing-the-force-from-within
#2
REVIEW
Avathamsa Athirasala, Nivi Hirsch, Amnon Buxboim
The cell nucleus is a hallmark of eukaryotic evolution, where gene expression is regulated and the genome is replicated and repaired. Yet, in addition to complex molecular processes, the nucleus has also evolved to serve physical tasks that utilize its optical and mechanical properties. Nuclear mechanotransduction of externally applied forces and extracellular stiffness is facilitated by the physical connectivity of the extracellular environment, the cytoskeleton and the nucleoskeletal matrix of lamins and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632994/role-of-the-small-gtpase-rap1-in-signal-transduction-cell-dynamics-and-bacterial-infection
#3
Hubert Hilbi, Arjan Kortholt
Rap1 belongs to the Ras family of small GTPases, which are involved in a multitude of cellular signal transduction pathways and have extensively been linked to cancer biogenesis and metastasis. The small GTPase is activated in response to various extracellular and intracellular cues. Rap1 has conserved functions in Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba and mammalian cells, which are important for cell polarity, substrate and cell-cell adhesion and other processes that involve the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630145/activity-dependent-trafficking-of-lysosomes-in-dendrites-and-dendritic-spines
#4
Marisa S Goo, Laura Sancho, Natalia Slepak, Daniela Boassa, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, Brenda L Bloodgood, Gentry N Patrick
In neurons, lysosomes, which degrade membrane and cytoplasmic components, are thought to primarily reside in somatic and axonal compartments, but there is little understanding of their distribution and function in dendrites. Here, we used conventional and two-photon imaging and electron microscopy to show that lysosomes traffic bidirectionally in dendrites and are present in dendritic spines. We find that lysosome inhibition alters their mobility and also decreases dendritic spine number. Furthermore, perturbing microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics has an inverse relationship on the distribution and motility of lysosomes in dendrites...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624895/semaphorin4d-plexinb1-signaling-attenuates-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-by-reducing-rac1-activity-of-rpe-cells
#5
Ayelen Bulloj, Arvydas Maminishkis, Masayuki Mizui, Silvia C Finnemann
Semaphorins form a family of secreted and membrane-bound molecules that were identified originally as axonal guidance factors during neuronal development. Given their wide distribution in many including mature tissues, semaphorin 4D (sema4D) and its main functional receptor plexin B1 (plxnB1) are expected to fulfill additional functions that remain to be uncovered. A main characteristic of the plexin receptor family is its ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PlxnB1 specifically may directly interact with Rho family GTPases to regulate F-actin driven pathways in cells in culture...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623279/divergent-regulation-of-actin-dynamics-and-megakaryoblastic-leukemia-1-and-2-mkl1-2-by-camp-in-endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Madeleine C Smith, Claire A Hudson, Tomomi E Kimura, Stephen J White, Graciela B Sala-Newby, Andrew C Newby, Mark Bond
Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) or endothelial cell (ECs) promote or inhibit, respectively, restenosis after angioplasty, vein graft intimal thickening and atherogenesis. Here we investigated the effects of cAMP-induced cytoskeletal remodelling on the serum response factor (SRF) co-factors Megakaryoblastic Leukemia-1 and -2 (MKL1 and MKL2) and their role in controlling VSMC and EC proliferation and migration. Elevation of cAMP using forskolin, dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP), BAY60-6583 or Cicaprost induced rapid cytoskeleton remodelling and inhibited proliferation and migration in VSMCs but not EC...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621459/microtubule-actin-crosslinking-factor-1-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-by-promoting-%C3%AE-catenin-tcf1-runx2-signaling-axis
#7
Lifang Hu, Peihong Su, Chong Yin, Yan Zhang, Runzhi Li, Kun Yan, Zhihao Chen, Dijie Li, Ge Zhang, Liping Wang, Zhiping Miao, Airong Qian, Cory J Xian
Osteoblast differentiation is a multistep process delicately regulated by many factors, including cytoskeletal dynamics and signaling pathways. Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1), a key cytoskeletal linker, has been shown to play key roles in signal transduction and in diverse cellular processes; however, its role in regulating osteoblast differentiation is still needed to be elucidated. To further uncover the functions and mechanisms of action of MACF1 in osteoblast differentiation, we examined effects of MACF1 knockdown (MACF1-KD) in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on their osteoblast differentiation and associated molecular mechanisms...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620580/the-human-nadph-oxidase-nox4-regulates-cytoskeletal-organization-in-two-cancer-cell-lines-hepg2-and-sh-sy5y
#8
Simon Auer, Mark Rinnerthaler, Johannes Bischof, Maria Karolin Streubel, Hannelore Breitenbach-Koller, Roland Geisberger, Elmar Aigner, Janne Cadamuro, Klaus Richter, Mentor Sopjani, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Thomas Klaus Felder, Michael Breitenbach
NADPH oxidases of human cells are not only functional in defense against invading microorganisms and for oxidative reactions needed for specialized biosynthetic pathways but also during the past few years have been established as signaling modules. It has been shown that human Nox4 is expressed in most somatic cell types and produces hydrogen peroxide, which signals to remodel the actin cytoskeleton. This correlates well with the function of Yno1, the only NADPH oxidase of yeast cells. Using two established tumor cell lines, which are derived from hepatic and neuroblastoma tumors, respectively, we are showing here that in both tumor models Nox4 is expressed in the ER (like the yeast NADPH oxidase), where according to published literature, it produces hydrogen peroxide...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608476/pro-migratory-and-tgf-%C3%AE-activating-functions-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-integrin-in-pancreatic-cancer-are-differentially-regulated-via-an-eps8-dependent-gtpase-switch
#9
Jo Tod, Christopher J Hanley, Mark R Morgan, Marta Rucka, Toby Mellows, Maria-Antoinette Lopez, Philip Kiely, Karwan A Moutasim, Steven J Frampton, Durgagauri Sabnis, David R Fine, Colin Johnson, John F Marshall, Giorgio Scita, Veronika Jenei, Gareth J Thomas
The integrin αvβ6 is upregulated in numerous carcinomas, where expression commonly correlates with poor prognosis. αvβ6 promotes tumour invasion, partly through regulation of proteases and cell migration, and is also the principal mechanism by which epithelial cells activate TGF-β1; this latter function complicates therapeutic targeting of αvβ6, since TGF-β1 has both tumour-promoting and -suppressive effects. It is unclear how these different αvβ6 functions are linked; both require actin cytoskeletal reorganisation, and it is suggested that tractive forces generated during cell migration activate TGF-β1 by exerting mechanical tension on the ECM-bound latent complex...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607103/dynamin-related-protein-1-inhibition-attenuates-cardiovascular-calcification-in-the-presence-of-oxidative-stress
#10
Maximillian Rogers, Natalia Maldonado-Martinez, Joshua D Hutcheson, Claudia Goettsch, Shinji Goto, Iwao Yamada, Tyler Faits, Hiromi Sesaki, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
Rationale: Mitochondrial changes occur during cell differentiation and cardiovascular disease. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a key regulator of mitochondrial fission. We hypothesized that DRP1 plays a role in cardiovascular calcification, a process involving cell differentiation and a major clinical problem with high unmet needs. Objective: To examine the effects of osteogenic promoting conditions on DRP1, and whether DRP1 inhibition alters the development of cardiovascular calcification. Methods and Results: DRP1 was enriched in calcified regions of human carotid arteries, examined by immunohistochemistry...
June 12, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604737/optogenetic-control-of-rhoa-reveals-zyxin-mediated-elasticity-of-stress-fibres
#11
Patrick W Oakes, Elizabeth Wagner, Christoph A Brand, Dimitri Probst, Marco Linke, Ulrich S Schwarz, Michael Glotzer, Margaret L Gardel
Cytoskeletal mechanics regulates cell morphodynamics and many physiological processes. While contractility is known to be largely RhoA-dependent, the process by which localized biochemical signals are translated into cell-level responses is poorly understood. Here we combine optogenetic control of RhoA, live-cell imaging and traction force microscopy to investigate the dynamics of actomyosin-based force generation. Local activation of RhoA not only stimulates local recruitment of actin and myosin but also increased traction forces that rapidly propagate across the cell via stress fibres and drive increased actin flow...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602951/ced-10-wasp-arp2-3-signaling-axis-regulates-apoptotic-cell-corpse-engulfment-in-c-elegans
#12
Dou Wu, Yongping Chai, Zhiwen Zhu, Wenjing Li, Guangshuo Ou, Wei Li
Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is essential for tissue homeostasis in metazoans. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have identified signaling cascades that activate CED-10/Rac1 GTPase and promote actin cytoskeletal rearrangement during apoptotic cell engulfment. However, the molecular connection between CED-10 activation and actin reorganization remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that CED-10 binds to the Arp2/3 nucleation promoting factor WASP; CED-10 recruits WASP and Arp2/3 to apoptotic cell corpses in the phagocytes...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593150/the-antitumor-effect-of-c-terminus-of-hsp70-interacting-protein-via-degradation-of-c-met-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Sung Ho Cho, Jong In Kim, Hyun Su Kim, Sung Dal Park, Kang Won Jang
BACKGROUND: The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) receptor can be overexpressed in solid tumors, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, the molecular mechanism regulating MET stability and turnover in SCLC remains undefined. One potential mechanism of MET regulation involves the C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), which targets heat shock protein 90-interacting proteins for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In the present study, we investigated the functional effects of CHIP expression on MET regulation and the control of SCLC cell apoptosis and invasion...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593137/msk1-regulates-transcriptional-induction-of-arc-arg3-1-in-response-to-neurotrophins
#14
Chris J Hunter, Judit Remenyi, Sonia A Correa, Lucia Privitera, Kathleen M S E Reyskens, Kirsty J Martin, Rachel Toth, Bruno G Frenguelli, J Simon C Arthur
The immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc)/Arg3.1 and the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play important roles in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory in the mammalian brain. However, the mechanisms by which BDNF regulates the expression of Arc/Arg3.1 are unclear. In this study, we show that BDNF acts via the ERK1/2 pathway to activate the nuclear kinase mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 then induces Arc/Arg3.1 expression via the phosphorylation of histone H3 at the Arc/Arg3...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588038/the-amp-related-kinase-ampk-induces-ca-2-independent-dilation-of-resistance-arteries-by-interfering-with-actin-filament-formation
#15
Kai M Schubert, Jiehua Qiu, Stephanie Blodow, Margarethe Wiedenmann, Lubomir T Lubomirov, Gabriele Pfitzer, Ulrich Pohl, Holger Schneider
Rationale: Decreasing Ca(2+) sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) allows for vasodilation without lowering of cytosolic Ca(2+) This may be particularly important in states requiring maintained dilation such as hypoxia. AMPK is an important cellular energy sensor in VSM. Regulation of Ca(2+) sensitivity usually is attributed to myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity but findings in non-VSM identified changes in the actin cytoskeleton. The potential role of AMPK in this setting is widely unknown...
June 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584191/arhgap42-is-activated-by-src-mediated-tyrosine-phosphorylation-to-promote-cell-motility
#16
Weifeng Luo, Radoslav Janoštiak, Ondřej Tolde, Larisa M Ryzhova, Lenka Koudelková, Michal Dibus, Jan Brábek, Steven K Hanks, Daniel Rosel
The tyrosine kinase Src acts as a key regulator of cell motility by phosphorylating multiple protein substrates that control cytoskeletal and adhesion dynamics. In an earlier phosphotyrosine proteomics study we identified a novel Rho‑GTPase activating protein, now called ARHGAP42, as a likely biologically relevant Src substrate. ARHGAP42 is a member of a family of RhoGAPs distinguished by tandem BAR‑PH domains lying N‑terminal to the GAP domain. Like other family members, ARHGAP42 acts preferentially as a GAP for RhoA...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577924/forceful-patterning-in-mouse-preimplantation-embryos
#17
REVIEW
Ravikrishna Ramanujam, Tricia Yu Feng Low, Yen Wei Lim, Fumio Motegi
The generation of a functional organism from a single, fertilized ovum requires the spatially coordinated regulation of diverse cell identities. The establishment and precise arrangement of differentiated cells in developing embryos has, historically, been extensively studied by geneticists and developmental biologists. While chemical gradients and genetic regulatory networks are widely acknowledged to play significant roles in embryo patterning, recent studies have highlighted that mechanical forces generated by, and exerted on, embryos are also crucial for the proper control of cell differentiation and morphogenesis...
May 31, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576936/%C3%AE-iii-spectrin-is-necessary-for-formation-of-the-constricted-neck-of-dendritic-spines-and-regulation-of-synaptic-activity-in-neurons
#18
Nadia Efimova, Farida Korobova, Michael C Stankewich, Andrew H Moberly, Donna B Stolz, Junling Wang, Anna Kashina, Minghong Ma, Tatyana Svitkina
Dendritic spines are postsynaptic structures in neurons often having a mushroom-like shape. Physiological significance and cytoskeletal mechanisms that maintain this shape are poorly understood. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton maintains the biconcave shape of erythrocytes, but whether spectrins also determine the shape of non-erythroid cells is less clear. We show that βIII spectrin in hippocampal and cortical neurons from rodent embryos of both sexes is distributed throughout the somatodendritic compartment, but is particularly enriched in the neck and base of dendritic spines and largely absent from spine heads...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574744/spatial-regulation-of-coalesced-protein-assemblies-lessons-from-yeast-to-diseases
#19
Juha Saarikangas, Fabrice Caudron
Organisms rely on correctly folded proteins to carry out essential functions. Protein quality control factors guard proteostasis and prevent protein misfolding. When quality control fails and in response to diverse stresses, many proteins start to accumulate at specific deposit sites that maintain cellular organization and protect the functionality of coalescing proteins. These transitions involve dedicated proteins that promote coalescence and are facilitated by endo-membranes and cytoskeletal platforms...
May 4, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574598/integrin-linked-kinase-regulates-bone-formation-by-controlling-cytoskeletal-organization-and-modulating-bmp-and-wnt-signaling-in-osteoprogenitors
#20
Marian Dejaeger, Anna-Marei Böhm, Naomi Dirckx, Joke Devriese, Elena Nefyodova, Ruben Cardoen, René St-Arnaud, Jos Tournoy, Frank P Luyten, Christa Maes
Cell-matrix interactions constitute a fundamental aspect of skeletal cell biology and play essential roles in bone homeostasis. These interactions are primarily mediated by transmembrane integrin receptors, which mediate cell adhesion and transduce signals from the extracellular matrix to intracellular responses via various downstream effectors, including integrin-linked kinase (ILK). ILK functions as adaptor protein at focal adhesion sites, linking integrins to the actin cytoskeleton, and has been reported to act as a kinase phosphorylating signaling molecules such as GSK-3β and Akt...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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