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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333384/transcriptional-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#1
Paula Mota de Sá, Allison J Richard, Hardy Hang, Jacqueline M Stephens
Adipocytes are the defining cell type of adipose tissue. Once considered a passive participant in energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as a dynamic organ that contributes to several important physiological processes, such as lipid metabolism, systemic energy homeostasis, and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in its development and function is of great importance. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly orchestrated process which can vary between different fat depots as well as between the sexes...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326224/role-and-mechanism-of-action-of-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-1-in-bone
#2
REVIEW
Weirong R Xing, Helen Goodluck, Canjun Zeng, Subburaman Mohan
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 1 (LRRK1) plays a critical role in regulating cytoskeletal organization, osteoclast activity, and bone resorption with little effect on bone formation parameters. Deficiency of Lrrk1 in mice causes a severe osteopetrosis in the metaphysis of the long bones and vertebrae bones, which makes LRRK1 an attractive alternative drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis and other high-turnover bone diseases. This review summarizes recent advances on the functions of the Lrrk1-related family members, Lrrk1 deficiency-induced skeletal phenotypes, LRRK1 structure-function, potential biological substrates and interacting proteins, and the mechanisms of LRRK1 action in osteoclasts...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322822/asymmetry-at-cell-cell-interfaces-direct-cell-sorting-boundary-formation-and-tissue-morphogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Rosa Ventrella, Nihal Kaplan, Spiro Getsios
During development, cells of seemingly homogenous character sort themselves out into distinct compartments in order to generate cell types with specialized features that support tissue morphogenesis and function. This process is often driven by receptors at the cell membrane that probe the extracellular microenvironment for specific ligands and alter downstream signaling pathways impacting transcription, cytoskeletal organization, and cell adhesion to regulate cell sorting and subsequent boundary formation...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320969/ena-vasp-proteins-regulate-activated-t-cell-trafficking-by-promoting-diapedesis-during-transendothelial-migration
#4
Miriam L Estin, Scott B Thompson, Brianna Traxinger, Marlie H Fisher, Rachel S Friedman, Jordan Jacobelli
Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and Ena-VASP-like (EVL) are cytoskeletal effector proteins implicated in regulating cell morphology, adhesion, and migration in various cell types. However, the role of these proteins in T-cell motility, adhesion, and in vivo trafficking remains poorly understood. This study identifies a specific role for EVL and VASP in T-cell diapedesis and trafficking. We demonstrate that EVL and VASP are selectively required for activated T-cell trafficking but are not required for normal T-cell development or for naïve T-cell trafficking to lymph nodes and spleen...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318265/cytoskeletal-like-filaments-of-camkii-are-formed-in-a-regulated-and-zn2-dependent-manner
#5
Laurel Hoffman, Lin Li, Emil Alexov, Hugo Sanabria, Melvin Neal Waxham
Ca2+-Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is highly abundant in neurons, where its concentration reaches that typically found for cytoskeletal proteins. Functional reasons for such a high concentration are not known, but given the multitude of known binding partners for CaMKII, a role as a scaffolding molecule has been proposed. In this report, we provide experimental evidence that demonstrates a novel structural role for CaMKII. We discovered that CaMKII forms filaments that can extend for several microns in the presence of certain divalent cations (Zn2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+) but not with others (Ca2+, Mg2+, Co2+ and Ni2+)...
March 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303576/nonmuscle-nm-myosin-heavy-chain-phosphorylation-regulates-the-formation-of-nm-myosin-filaments-adhesome-assembly-and-smooth-muscle-contraction
#6
Wenwu Zhang, Susan J Gunst
The molecular function of nonmuscle (NM) isoforms of myosin II in smooth muscle (SM) tissues, and their possible role in contraction are largely unknown. We evaluated the function of NM myosin during contractile stimulation of canine tracheal SM tissues. Stimulation with ACh caused NM myosin filament assembly, as assessed by a Triton solubility assay and a proximity ligation assay to measure interactions between NM myosin monomers. ACh stimulated the phosphorylation of NM myosin heavy chain (HC) on Ser1943 in tracheal SM tissues, which can regulate NM myosin IIA filament assembly in vitro...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301547/epidermal-loss-of-g%C3%AE-q-confers-a-migratory-and-differentiation-defect-in-keratinocytes
#7
Colleen L Doçi, Constantinos M Mikelis, Juan Luis Callejas-Valera, Karina K Hansen, Alfredo A Molinolo, Asuka Inoue, Stefan Offermanns, J Silvio Gutkind
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which activate heterotrimeric G proteins, are an essential class of transmembrane receptors that are responsible for a myriad of signaling events in normal and pathologic conditions. Two members of the G protein family, Gαq and Gα11, activate one of the main GPCR pathways and function as oncogenes by integrating mitogen-stimulated signaling cascades that are active under malignant conditions. Recently, it has been shown that targeted deletion of Gα11 and Gαq from endothelial cells impairs the Rho-mediated formation of focal adherens junctions, suggesting that Gα11/q signaling may also play a significant role in cytoskeletal-mediated cellular responses in epithelial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300831/immunoproteomic-identification-and-characterization-of-ni-2-regulated-proteins-implicates-ni-2-in-the-induction-of-monocyte-cell-death
#8
Annika Jakob, Franz Mussotter, Stefanie Ohnesorge, Lisa Dietz, Julian Pardo, Ian D Haidl, Hermann-Josef Thierse
Nickel allergy is the most common cause of allergic reactions worldwide, with cutaneous and systemic effects potentially affecting multiple organs. Monocytes are precursors of not only macrophages but also dendritic cells, the most potent activators of nickel hypersensitivity. Monocytes are themselves important antigen-presenting cells, capable of nickel-specific T-cell activation in vivo and in vitro, in addition to being important for immediate innate immune inflammation. To elucidate early Ni(2+)-dependent inflammatory molecular mechanisms in human monocytes, a Ni(2+)-specific proteomic approach was applied...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300565/the-shift-in-gh3-cell-shape-and-cell-motility-is-dependent-on-mlck-and-rock
#9
Dulce Ávila-Rodríguez, Carmen Solano Agama, Sirenia González-Pozos, Juan Vicente Méndez-Méndez, Alma Ortiz Plata, Laura Arreola-Mendoza, María E Mendoza-Garrido
Cytoskeletal organization, actin-myosin contractility and the cell membrane together regulate cell morphology in response to the cell environment, wherein the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an indispensable component. Plasticity in cell shape enables cells to adapt their migration mode to their surroundings. GH3 endocrine cells respond to different ECM proteins, acquiring different morphologies: a rounded on collagen I-III (C I-III) and an elongated on collagen IV (C IV). However, the identities of the molecules that participate in these responses remain unknown...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283543/kcnq-smit-complex-formation-facilitates-ion-channel-solute-transporter-cross-talk
#10
Daniel L Neverisky, Geoffrey W Abbott
Voltage-gated potassium channels formed by KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 are essential for normal neuronal excitability. KCNQ2/3 channel activity is augmented in vivo by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which is generated from myo-inositol, an osmolyte transported into cells by sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporters (SMITs). Here, we discovered that KCNQ2/3 channels isoform-specifically colocalize with SMIT1 and SMIT2 at sciatic nerve nodes of Ranvier and in axon initial segments, and form channel-transporter complexes in vitro and in vivo KCNQ2/3 coexpression protected SMIT1 activity from the otherwise inhibitory effects of cellular depolarization imposed by elevating extracellular [K(+)], and KCNQ2 was required for potentiation of SMIT activity by myo-inositol preincubation...
March 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281696/plectin-is-a-novel-regulator-for-apical-extrusion-of-rasv12-transformed-cells
#11
Ailijiang Kadeer, Takeshi Maruyama, Mihoko Kajita, Tomoko Morita, Ayana Sasaki, Atsuko Ohoka, Susumu Ishikawa, Masaya Ikegawa, Takashi Shimada, Yasuyuki Fujita
Several lines of evidence have revealed that newly emerging transformed cells are often eliminated from the epithelium, though the underlying molecular mechanisms of this cancer preventive phenomenon still remain elusive. In this study, using mammalian cell culture systems we have identified plectin, a versatile cytoskeletal linker protein, as a novel regulator for apical extrusion of RasV12-transformed cells. Plectin is accumulated in RasV12 cells when they are surrounded by normal epithelial cells. Similarly, cytoskeletal proteins tubulin, keratin, and Epithelial Protein Lost In Neoplasm (EPLIN) are also accumulated in the transformed cells surrounded by normal cells...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272166/inhibition-of-myosin-light-chain-kinase-enhances-the-clearance-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-lung-inflammation-possibly-by-accelerating-neutrophil-apoptosis
#12
Wei Shi, Chengyun Xu, Musaddique Hussain, Fugen Wu, Meiping Lu, Xiling Wu, Lanfang Tang, Ximei Wu, Junsong Wu
Neutrophils are a population of inflammatory cell involved in acute lung injury (ALI), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced prolonged neutrophil survival and delayed neutrophil apoptosis hinder the alleviation of lung inflammation. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) involved the RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathway responsible for the cytoskeletal arrangement, and previous studies have revealed that inhibition of MLCK induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In this study, glycogen-induced neutrophils isolated from rats or mice were incubated with ML-7, a MLCK specific inhibitor, and LPS-induced ALI mice administrated with ML-7 were investigated, to demonstrate the roles of MLCK in neutrophils apoptosis as well as the possibility of which contributing to the clearance of inflammation...
March 7, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271280/rcan1-4-regulates-vegfr-2-internalisation-cell-polarity-and-migration-in-human-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#13
Ahmad F Alghanem, Emma L Wilkinson, Maxine S Emmett, Mohammad A Aljasir, Katherine Holmes, Beverley A Rothermel, Victoria A Simms, Victoria L Heath, Michael J Cross
Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is an endogenous inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway in cells. It is expressed as two isoforms in vertebrates: RCAN1.1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, whereas transcription of RCAN1.4 is induced by several stimuli that activate the calcineurin-NFAT pathway. RCAN1.4 is highly upregulated in response to VEGF in human endothelial cells in contrast to RCAN1.1 and is essential for efficient endothelial cell migration and tubular morphogenesis. Here, we show that RCAN1...
March 7, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271233/regulation-of-glomerulotubular-balance-flow-activated-proximal-tubule-function
#14
REVIEW
Tong Wang, Sheldon Weinbaum, Alan M Weinstein
The purpose of this review is to summarize our knowledge and understanding of the physiological importance and the mechanisms underlying flow-activated proximal tubule transport. Since the earliest micropuncture studies of mammalian proximal tubule, it has been recognized that tubular flow is an important regulator of sodium, potassium, and acid-base transport in the kidney. Increased fluid flow stimulates Na(+) and HCO3(-) absorption in the proximal tubule via stimulation of Na/H-exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and H(+)-ATPase...
March 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270557/raf1-braf-dimerization-integrates-the-signal-from-ras-to-erk-and-rok%C3%AE
#15
Andrea Varga, Karin Ehrenreiter, Bertram Aschenbrenner, Pawel Kocieniewski, Marek Kochanczyk, Tomasz Lipniacki, Manuela Baccarini
Downstream of growth factor receptors and of the guanine triphosphatase (GTPase) RAS, heterodimers of the serine/threonine kinases BRAF and RAF1 are critical upstream kinases and activators of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) module containing the mitogen-activated and extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and their targets, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) family. Either direct or scaffold protein-mediated interactions among the components of the ERK module (the MAPKKKs BRAF and RAF1, MEK, and ERK) facilitate signal transmission...
March 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270556/cytoskeletal-adaptivity-regulates-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#16
Timothy J Thauland, Kenneth H Hu, Marc A Bruce, Manish J Butte
The factors that govern T cell activation control the initiation and progression of adaptive immune responses. T cells recognize their cognate antigen on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) through the T cell receptor, which results in the formation of a contact region (immune synapse) between the two cells and the activation of the T cells. Activated T cells proliferate and differentiate into effector T cells that secrete cytokines, provide help to B cells, and kill target cells. We asked whether the actin cytoskeleton governs differences in signaling in effector T cells versus naïve (unstimulated) T cells...
March 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264780/active-and-separate-secretion-of-fiber-and-penton-base-during-the-early-phase-of-ad2-or-ad5-infection
#17
Yuhua Yan, Bo Zhang, Weihong Hou, Hongyu Lin, Johan Rebetz, Saw-See Hong, Youjun Wang, Liang Ran, Xiaolong Fan
Fiber and penton base overproduced in adenovirus (Ad) infected cells can be secreted prior to progeny release and thereby regulate progeny spread. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of fiber and penton base secretion in Ad2- or Ad5-infected A549 cells. Our flow cytometry analyses detected abundant surface fiber molecules, but little penton base molecules at 12h post infection. Immunogold staining combined with transmission electron microscopic analyses revealed separate, non-co-localized release of fiber and penton base in the proximity of the plasma membrane...
March 3, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260489/mechanisms-of-non-canonical-activation-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated
#18
REVIEW
S V Khoronenkova
ATM is a master regulator of the cellular response to DNA damage. The classical mechanism of ATM activation involves its monomerization in response to DNA double-strand breaks, resulting in ATM-dependent phosphorylation of more than a thousand substrates required for cell cycle progression, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Here, new experimental evidence for non-canonical mechanisms of ATM activation in response to stimuli distinct from DNA double-strand breaks is discussed. It includes cytoskeletal changes, chromatin modifications, RNA-DNA hybrids, and DNA single-strand breaks...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260060/bioinformatics-analysis-on-the-differentiation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-osteoblasts-and-adipocytes
#19
Xiaoyuan Xu, He Jiang, Xingnuan Li, Ping Wu, Jianyun Liu, Tao Wang, Xiaoou Zhou, Jianjun Xiong, Weidong Li
The present study aimed to screen several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) for two types of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP‑6) and dexamethasone were used to induce MSCs towards osteoblastic differentiation or adipocytic differentiation. The t‑test in the Bioconductor bioinformatics software tool was used to screen DEGs and differentially expressed miRNAs in the two samples. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses on the DEGs were performed using the GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, respectively; potential target genes for the screened miRNAs were predicted using the TargetScan database...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255017/cdk6-contributes-to-cytoskeletal-stability-in-erythroid-cells
#20
Iris Z Uras, Ruth M Scheicher, Karoline Kollmann, Martin Glösmann, Michaela Prchal-Murphy, Anca S Tigan, Daniela A Fux, Sandro Altamura, Joana Neves, Martina Muckenthaler, Keiryn L Bennett, Stefan Kubicek, Philip W Hinds, Marieke von Lindern, Veronika Sexl
Mice lacking Cdk6 kinase activity suffer from mild anemia accompanied by elevated numbers of Ter119+ cells in the bone marrow. The animals show hardly any alterations in erythroid development, indicating that Cdk6 is not required for proliferation and maturation of erythroid cells. There is also no difference in stress erythropoiesis following hemolysis in vivo. However, Cdk6-/- erythrocytes have a shortened lifespan and are more sensitive to mechanical stress in vitro, suggesting differences in the cytoskeletal architecture...
March 2, 2017: Haematologica
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