keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

activity-regulated cytoskeletal

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138281/a-conserved-cytoskeletal-signaling-cascade-mediates-neurotoxicity-of-ftdp-17-tau-mutations-in-vivo
#1
Farah H Bardai, Liqun Wang, Yamini Mutreja, Mythili Yenjerla, T Chris Gamblin, Mel B Feany
The microtubule binding protein tau is strongly implicated in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), which is caused by mutations in tau. In vitro, FTDP-17 mutant versions of tau can reduce microtubule binding and increase aggregation of tau, but the mechanism by which these mutations promote disease in vivo is not clear. Here we take a combined biochemical and in vivo modeling approach to define functional properties of tau driving neurotoxicity in vivo We express wild type human tau and five FTDP-17 mutant forms of tau in Drosophila using a site-directed insertion strategy to ensure equivalent levels of expression...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138260/chloroplast-division-protein-arc3-acts-on-ftsz2-by-preventing-filament-bundling-and-enhancing-gtpase-activity
#2
Rahamthulla S Shaik, Min Woo Sung, Stanislav Vitha, Andreas Holzenburg
Chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacterial endosymbiotic ancestors and their division is a complex process initiated by assembly of cytoskeletal FtsZ proteins into a ring structure at the division site (Z-ring). The cyanobacterial Z-ring positioning system (MinCDE proteins) is also conserved in chloroplasts except that MinC was lost and replaced by the eukaryotic ARC3. Both MinC and ARC3 act as negative regulators of FtsZ assembly, but ARC3 bears little sequence similarity with MinC. Here, light scattering assays, co-sedimentation, GTPase assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in conjunction with single particle analysis have been used to elucidate the structure of ARC3 and its effect on its main target in chloroplast division: FtsZ2...
November 14, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136959/alterations-of-biomechanics-in-cancer-and-normal-cells-induced-by-doxorubicin
#3
Kaja Fraczkowska, Marcin Bacia, Magda Przybyło, Dominik Drabik, Aleksandra Kaczorowska, Justyna Rybka, Ewa Stefanko, Slawomir Drobczynski, Jan Masajada, Halina Podbielska, Tomasz Wrobel, Marta Kopaczynska
Mechanical properties of biological structures play an important role in regulating cellular activities and are critical for understanding metabolic processes in cancerous cells and the effects of drugs. For some cancers, such as acute myeloid leukaemia, chemotherapy is one of preferential methods. However, due to the lack of selectivity to cancer cells, cytostatic agents cause toxicity to normal tissues. Here, we study the effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on the mechanical properties of DNA molecules, leukemic blast cells and erythrocytes, using optical tweezers...
November 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129530/glutamylation-regulates-transport-specializes-function-and-sculpts-the-structure-of-cilia
#4
Robert O'Hagan, Malan Silva, Ken C Q Nguyen, Winnie Zhang, Sebastian Bellotti, Yasmin H Ramadan, David H Hall, Maureen M Barr
Ciliary microtubules (MTs) are extensively decorated with post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as glutamylation of tubulin tails. PTMs and tubulin isotype diversity act as a "tubulin code" that regulates cytoskeletal stability and the activity of MT-associated proteins such as kinesins. We previously showed that, in C. elegans cilia, the deglutamylase CCPP-1 affects ciliary ultrastructure, localization of the TRP channel PKD-2 and the kinesin-3 KLP-6, and velocity of the kinesin-2 OSM-3/KIF17, whereas a cell-specific α-tubulin isotype regulates ciliary ultrastructure, intraflagellar transport, and ciliary functions of extracellular vesicle (EV)-releasing neurons...
November 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119662/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-shifts-dendritic-cells-into-an-amoeboid-rapid-migration-mode-encompassing-podosome-dissolution-secretion-of-timp-1-and-reduced-proteolysis-of-extracellular-matrix
#5
Einar B Ólafsson, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Antonio Barragan
Dendritic cells (DCs) infected by Toxoplasma gondii rapidly acquire a hypermigratory phenotype that promotes systemic parasite dissemination by a 'Trojan horse' mechanism in mice. Recent paradigms of leukocyte migration have identified the amoeboid migration mode of DCs as particularly suited for rapid locomotion in extracellular matrix and tissues. Here, we have developed a microscopy-based high-throughput approach to assess motility and matrix degradation by Toxoplasma-challenged murine and human DCs. DCs challenged with T...
November 8, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114058/filament-rigidity-and-connectivity-tune-the-deformation-modes-of-active-biopolymer-networks
#6
Samantha Stam, Simon L Freedman, Shiladitya Banerjee, Kimberly L Weirich, Aaron R Dinner, Margaret L Gardel
Molecular motors embedded within collections of actin and microtubule filaments underlie the dynamics of cytoskeletal assemblies. Understanding the physics of such motor-filament materials is critical to developing a physical model of the cytoskeleton and designing biomimetic active materials. Here, we demonstrate through experiments and simulations that the rigidity and connectivity of filaments in active biopolymer networks regulates the anisotropy and the length scale of the underlying deformations, yielding materials with variable contractility...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113998/rhoc-regulates-actin-remodeling-to-form-phagosomes-during-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-phagocytosis
#7
Youhei Egami, Katsuhisa Kawai, Nobukazu Araki
Phagosome formation is a complicated process that requires spatiotemporally regulated actin reorganization. We found that RhoC GTPase is a critical regulator of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages. Our live-cell imaging revealed that RhoC, but not RhoA, is recruited to phagocytic cups engulfing IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es). RhoC silencing by RNAi, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas-mediated RhoC knockout and the expression of dominant-negative or dominant-active RhoC mutants suppressed the phagocytosis of IgG-Es...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107098/corticosteroid-induced-dendrite-loss-and-behavioral-deficiencies-can-be-blocked-by-activation-of-abl2-arg-kinase
#8
Lauren P Shapiro, Mitchell H Omar, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
Stressor exposure induces neuronal remodeling in specific brain regions. Given the persistence of stress-related illnesses, key next steps in determining the contributions of neural structure to mental health are to identify cell types that fail to recover from stressor exposure and to identify "trigger points" and molecular underpinnings of stress-related neural degeneration. We evaluated dendrite arbor structure on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons before, during, and following prolonged exposure to one key mediator of the stress response - corticosterone (cortisol in humans)...
October 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102633/actin-cytoskeleton-and-sperm-function
#9
Haim Breitbart, Maya Finkelstein
For the acquisition of the ability to fertilize the egg, mammalian spermatozoa should undergo a series of biochemical transformations in the female reproductive tract, collectively called capacitation. The capacitated sperm can undergo the acrosomal exocytosis process near or on the oocyte, which allows the spermatozoon to penetrate and fertilize it. One of the main processes in capacitation involves dynamic cytoskeletal remodeling particularly of actin. Actin polymerization occurs during sperm capacitation and the produced F-actin should be depolymerized prior to the acrosomal exocytosis...
November 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101221/%C3%AE-actin-dependent-global-chromatin-organization-and-gene-expression-programs-control-cellular-identity
#10
Xin Xie, Bader Almuzzaini, Nizar Drou, Stephan Kremb, Ayman Yousif, Ann-Kristin Östlund Farrants, Kristin Gunsalus, Piergiorgio Percipalle
During differentiation and development, cell fate and identity are established by waves of genetic reprogramming. Although the mechanisms are largely unknown, during these events, dynamic chromatin reorganization is likely to ensure that multiple genes involved in the same cellular functions are coregulated, depending on the nuclear environment. In this study, using high-content screening of embryonic fibroblasts from a β-actin knockout (KO) mouse, we found major chromatin rearrangements and changes in histone modifications, such as methylated histone (H)3-lysine-(K)9...
November 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098734/regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-astrocytes-mechanisms-consequences-and-unknowns
#11
Joshua G Jackson, Michael B Robinson
Astrocytes are the major glial cell in the central nervous system. These polarized cells possess numerous processes that ensheath the vasculature and contact synapses. Astrocytes play important roles in synaptic signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and recycling, control of nutrient uptake, and control of local blood flow. Many of these processes depend on local metabolism and/or energy utilization. While astrocytes respond to increases in neuronal activity and metabolic demand by upregulating glycolysis and glycogenolysis, astrocytes also possess significant capacity for oxidative (mitochondrial) metabolism...
November 3, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095606/ex-uno-plura-differential-labeling-of-phospholipid-biosynthetic-pathways-with-a-single-bioorthogonal-alcohol
#12
Timothy W Bumpus, Felice J Liang, Jeremy M Baskin
Imaging approaches that track biological molecules within cells are essential tools in modern biochemistry. Lipids are particularly challenging to visualize, as they are not directly genetically encoded. Phospholipids, the most abundant subgroup of lipids, are structurally diverse and accomplish many cellular functions, acting as major structural components of membranes and as signaling molecules that regulate cell growth, division, apoptosis, cytoskeletal dynamics, and numerous other physiological processes...
November 8, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093327/chelerythrine-inhibits-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-metastasis-in-vitro
#13
Yuanzhang Zhu, Yingyi Pan, Guibiao Zhang, Yingchun Wu, Weicai Zhong, Chunxiao Chu, Yun Qian, Guofu Zhu
Chelerythrine (CHE) is a type of benzophenanthridine alkaloid found in many herbs and is also the main alkaloid constituent of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. It has been proven to have various activities including antitumor, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic effects. We have previously demonstrated that CHE can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the effect of CHE on the metastasis of HCC and its related molecular mechanisms have yet to be validated...
October 31, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084224/a-trehalose-biosynthetic-enzyme-doubles-as-an-osmotic-stress-sensor-to-regulate-bacterial-morphogenesis
#14
Ximing Chen, Lizhe An, Xiaochuan Fan, Furong Ju, Binglin Zhang, Haili Sun, Jianxi Xiao, Wei Hu, Tao Qu, Liping Guan, Shukun Tang, Tuo Chen, Guangxiu Liu, Paul Dyson
The dissacharide trehalose is an important intracellular osmoprotectant and the OtsA/B pathway is the principal pathway for trehalose biosynthesis in a wide range of bacterial species. Scaffolding proteins and other cytoskeletal elements play an essential role in morphogenetic processes in bacteria. Here we describe how OtsA, in addition to its role in trehalose biosynthesis, functions as an osmotic stress sensor to regulate cell morphology in Arthrobacter strain A3. In response to osmotic stress, this and other Arthrobacter species undergo a transition from bacillary to myceloid growth...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073094/mechanistic-principles-underlying-regulation-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-by-phosphoinositides
#15
Yosuke Senju, Maria Kalimeri, Essi V Koskela, Pentti Somerharju, Hongxia Zhao, Ilpo Vattulainen, Pekka Lappalainen
The actin cytoskeleton powers membrane deformation during many cellular processes, such as migration, morphogenesis, and endocytosis. Membrane phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], regulate the activities of many actin-binding proteins (ABPs), including profilin, cofilin, Dia2, N-WASP, ezrin, and moesin, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Moreover, because of a lack of available methodology, the dynamics of membrane interactions have not been experimentally determined for any ABP...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066948/is-arc-mrna-unique-a-search-for-mrnas-that-localize-to-the-distal-dendrites-of-dentate-gyrus-granule-cells-following-neural-activity
#16
Christopher A de Solis, Anna A Morales, Matthew P Hosek, Alex C Partin, Jonathan E Ploski
There have been several attempts to identify which RNAs are localized to dendrites; however, no study has determined which RNAs localize to the dendrites following the induction of synaptic activity. We sought to identify all RNA transcripts that localize to the distal dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells following unilateral high frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway (pp-HFS) using Sprague Dawley rats. We then utilized laser microdissection (LMD) to very accurately dissect out the distal 2/3rds of the molecular layer (ML), which contains these dendrites, without contamination from the granule cell layer, 2 and 4 h post pp-HFS...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059211/screening-differential-mirnas-responsible-for-permeability-increase-in-huvecs-infected-with-influenza-a-virus
#17
Shujing Zhang, Ying Wu, Zinan Xuan, Xiaoming Chen, Junjie Zhang, Dongyu Ge, Xudan Wang
Severe influenza infections are featured by acute lung injury, a syndrome of increased pulmonary microvascular permeability. A growing number of evidences have shown that influenza A virus induces cytoskeletal rearrangement and permeability increase in endothelial cells. Although miRNA's involvement in the regulation of influenza virus infection and endothelial cell (EC) function has been well documented, little is known about the miRNA profiles in influenza-infected endothelial cells. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as cell models, the present study aims to explore the differential miRNAs in influenza virus-infected ECs and analyze their target genes involved in EC permeability regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056508/functions-of-actin-interacting-protein-1-aip1-wd-repeat-protein-1-wdr1-in-actin-filament-dynamics-and-cytoskeletal-regulation
#18
Shoichiro Ono
Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin and actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1), also known as WD-repeat protein 1 (WDR1), are conserved among eukaryotes and play critical roles in dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. AIP1 preferentially promotes disassembly of ADF/cofilin-decorated actin filaments but exhibits minimal effects on bare actin filaments. Therefore, AIP1 has been often considered to be an ancillary co-factor of ADF/cofilin that merely boosts ADF/cofilin activity level. However, genetic and cell biological studies show that AIP1 deficiency often causes lethality or severe abnormalities in multiple tissues and organs including muscle, epithelia, and blood, suggesting that AIP1 is a major regulator of many biological processes that depend on actin dynamics...
October 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055813/amyloid-%C3%AE-synaptotoxicity-is-wnt-pcp-dependent-and-blocked-by-fasudil
#19
Katherine J Sellers, Christina Elliott, Joshua Jackson, Anshua Ghosh, Elena Ribe, Ana I Rojo, Heledd H Jarosz-Griffiths, Iain A Watson, Weiming Xia, Mikhail Semenov, Peter Morin, Nigel M Hooper, Rod Porter, Jane Preston, Raya Al-Shawi, George Baillie, Simon Lovestone, Antonio Cuadrado, Michael Harte, Paul Simons, Deepak P Srivastava, Richard Killick
INTRODUCTION: Synapse loss is the structural correlate of the cognitive decline indicative of dementia. In the brains of Alzheimer's disease sufferers, amyloid β (Aβ) peptides aggregate to form senile plaques but as soluble peptides are toxic to synapses. We previously demonstrated that Aβ induces Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), which in turn activates the Wnt-planar cell polarity (Wnt-PCP) pathway to drive tau pathology and neuronal death. METHODS: We compared the effects of Aβ and of Dkk1 on synapse morphology and memory impairment while inhibiting or silencing key elements of the Wnt-PCP pathway...
October 19, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051760/interplay-of-gtpases-and-cytoskeleton-in-cellular-barrier-defects-during-gut-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Rocío López-Posadas, Michael Stürzl, Imke Atreya, Markus F Neurath, Nathalie Britzen-Laurent
An essential role of the intestine is to build and maintain a barrier preventing the luminal gut microbiota from invading the host. This involves two coordinated physical and immunological barriers formed by single layers of intestinal epithelial and endothelial cells, which avoid the activation of local immune responses or the systemic dissemination of microbial agents, and preserve tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, alterations of epithelial and endothelial barrier functions have been associated with gut inflammation, for example during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
keyword
keyword
68157
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"