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activity-regulated cytoskeletal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818840/hcn4-ion-channel-function-is-required-for-early-events-that-regulate-anatomical-left-right-patterning-in-a-nodal-and-lefty-asymmetric-gene-expression-independent-manner
#1
Vaibhav P Pai, Valerie Willocq, Emily J Pitcairn, Joan M Lemire, Jean-François Paré, Nian-Qing Shi, Kelly A McLaughlin, Michael Levin
Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817955/redox-signaling-mechanisms-in-nervous-system-development
#2
Mauricio Olguín-Albuerne, Julio Morán
SIGNIFICANCE: Numerous studies have demonstrated the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as regulators of several physiological processes. Here we discuss how the redox signaling mechanisms operate to control different processes such as neuronal differentiation, oligodendrocyte differentiation, dendritic growth, and axonal growth. Recent Advances: Redox homeostasis regulates the physiology of neural stem cells (NSCs). Notably, the neuronal differentiation process of NSCs is determined by a change towards an oxidative metabolism, increased levels of mitochondrial ROS, increased activity of NOX enzymes, decreased levels of Nrf2, and a differential regulation of different redoxins...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807816/mtor-in-down-syndrome-role-in-a%C3%A3-and-tau-neuropathology-and-transition-to-alzheimer-disease-like-dementia
#3
REVIEW
Fabio Di Domenico, Antonella Tramutola, Cesira Foppoli, Elisabeth Head, Marzia Perluigi, D Allan Butterfield
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and degradation, longevity and cytoskeletal formation. The mTOR pathway represents a key growth and survival pathway involved in several diseases such as cancer, obesity, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies linked the alterations of mTOR pathway to age-dependent cognitive decline, pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD-like dementia in Down syndrome (DS)...
August 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803726/golgi-resident-g%C3%AE-o-promotes-protrusive-membrane-dynamics
#4
Gonzalo P Solis, Oleksii Bilousov, Alexey Koval, Anne-Marie Lüchtenborg, Chen Lin, Vladimir L Katanaev
To form protrusions like neurites, cells must coordinate their induction and growth. The first requires cytoskeletal rearrangements at the plasma membrane (PM), the second requires directed material delivery from cell's insides. We find that the Gαo-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins localizes dually to PM and Golgi across phyla and cell types. The PM pool of Gαo induces, and the Golgi pool feeds, the growing protrusions by stimulated trafficking. Golgi-residing KDELR binds and activates monomeric Gαo, atypically for G protein-coupled receptors that normally act on heterotrimeric G proteins...
August 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790202/tethered-magnets-are-the-key-to-magnetotaxis-direct-observations-of-magnetospirillum-magneticum-amb-1-show-that-mamk-distributes-magnetosome-organelles-equally-to-daughter-cells
#5
Azuma Taoka, Ayako Kiyokawa, Chika Uesugi, Yousuke Kikuchi, Zachery Oestreicher, Kaori Morii, Yukako Eguchi, Yoshihiro Fukumori
Magnetotactic bacteria are a unique group of bacteria that synthesize a magnetic organelle termed the magnetosome, which they use to assist with their magnetic navigation in a specific type of bacterial motility called magneto-aerotaxis. Cytoskeletal filaments consisting of the actin-like protein MamK are associated with the magnetosome chain. Previously, the function of MamK was thought to be in positioning magnetosome organelles; this was proposed based on observations via electron microscopy still images...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783680/arc-arg3-1-governs-inflammatory-dendritic-cell-migration-from-the-skin-and-thereby-controls-t-cell-activation
#6
Friederike Ufer, Pablo Vargas, Jan Broder Engler, Joseph Tintelnot, Benjamin Schattling, Hana Winkler, Simone Bauer, Nina Kursawe, Anne Willing, Oliver Keminer, Ora Ohana, Gabriela Salinas-Riester, Ole Pless, Dietmar Kuhl, Manuel A Friese
Skin-migratory dendritic cells (migDCs) are pivotal antigen-presenting cells that continuously transport antigens to draining lymph nodes and regulate immune responses. However, identification of migDCs is complicated by the lack of distinguishing markers, and it remains unclear which molecules determine their migratory capacity during inflammation. We show that, in the skin, the neuronal plasticity molecule activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein/activity-regulated gene 3.1 (Arc/Arg3.1) was strictly confined to migDCs...
September 23, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775002/kindlin-2-association-with-rho-gdp-dissociation-inhibitor-%C3%AE-suppresses-rac1-activation-and-podocyte-injury
#7
Ying Sun, Chen Guo, Ping Ma, Yumei Lai, Fan Yang, Jun Cai, Zhehao Cheng, Kuo Zhang, Zhongzhen Liu, Yeteng Tian, Yue Sheng, Ruijun Tian, Yi Deng, Guozhi Xiao, Chuanyue Wu
Alteration of podocyte behavior is critically involved in the development and progression of many forms of human glomerular diseases. The molecular mechanisms that control podocyte behavior, however, are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Kindlin-2, a component of cell-matrix adhesions, in podocyte behavior in vivo Ablation of Kindlin-2 in podocytes resulted in alteration of actin cytoskeletal organization, reduction of the levels of slit diaphragm proteins, effacement of podocyte foot processes, and ultimately massive proteinuria and death due to kidney failure...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760985/distinct-functions-of-diaphanous-related-formins-regulate-hiv-1-uncoating-and-transport
#8
Michael Keegan Delaney, Viacheslav Malikov, Qingqing Chai, Guangyuan Zhao, Mojgan H Naghavi
Diaphanous (Dia)-related formins (DRFs) coordinate cytoskeletal remodeling by controlling actin nucleation and microtubule (MT) stabilization to facilitate processes such as cell polarization and migration; yet the full extent of their activities remains unknown. Here, we uncover two discrete roles and functions of DRFs during early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Independent of their actin regulatory activities, Dia1 and Dia2 facilitated HIV-1-induced MT stabilization and the intracellular motility of virus particles...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760815/endothelial-cells-respond-to-the-direction-of-mechanical-stimuli-through-smad-signaling-to-regulate-coronary-artery-size
#9
Aruna Poduri, Brian Raftrey, Andrew H Chang, Siyeon Rhee, Mike Van, Kristy Red-Horse
How mechanotransduction intersects with chemical and transcriptional factors to shape organogenesis is an important question in developmental biology. This is particularly relevant to the cardiovascular system, which uses mechanical signals from flowing blood to stimulate cytoskeletal and transcriptional responses that form a highly efficient vascular network. Using this system, artery size and structure are tightly regulated, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of Smad4 increased the diameter of coronary arteries during embryonic development, a phenotype that followed the initiation of blood flow...
July 31, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757604/mechanical-forces-in-the-immune-system
#10
REVIEW
Morgan Huse
Leukocytes can completely reorganize their cytoskeletal architecture within minutes. This structural plasticity, which facilitates their migration and communicative function, also enables them to exert a substantial amount of mechanical force against the extracellular matrix and the surfaces of interacting cells. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that these forces have crucial roles in immune cell activation and subsequent effector responses. Here, I review our current understanding of how mechanical force regulates cell-surface receptor activation, cell migration, intracellular signalling and intercellular communication, highlighting the biological ramifications of these effects in various immune cell types...
July 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753559/mir-19b-promotes-breast-cancer-metastasis-through-targeting-mylip-and-its-related-cell-adhesion-molecules
#11
Luqing Zhao, Yuelong Zhao, Yanong He, Yitao Mao
miR-19b is a key molecule for cancer development, however its crucial roles in breast cancer metastasis are rarely studied right now. In this study, using several bioinformatics databases to predict the downstream targets for miR-19b, we verified that a novel target gene, myosin regulatory light chain interacting protein (MYLIP), could be directly down-regulated by miR-19b through its 3'-UTR region. MYLIP belongs to the cytoskeletal protein clusters and is involved in the regulation of cell movement and migration...
July 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747611/histone-deacetylase-1-inhibition-protects-against-hypoxia-induced-swelling-in-h9c2-cardiomyocytes-through-regulating-cell-stiffness
#12
Yi Li, Zhengyi Zhang, Xiangnan Zhou, Rui Li, Yan Cheng, Bo Shang, Yu Han, Bin Liu, Xiaodong Xie
BACKGROUND: The process of cardiomyocyte swelling involves changes of biomechanical properties and profiles of cellular genes. Although many genes have been proved to regulate cell edema of cardiomyocyte, the mechanisms involved in this event, as well as the biomechanical properties of swelling cell, remain unknown.Methods and Results:Whether histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) inhibition protects against hypoxia-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte swelling is examined in this study. Hypoxia-induced changes in the biomechanical properties and cytoskeletal structure that are relevant to cell swelling were also determined...
July 26, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743721/mind-directly-interacts-with-ftsz-at-h10-helix-suggests-a-model-for-robust-activation-of-minc-to-destabilize-ftsz-polymers
#13
Ashoka Chary Taviti, Tushar Kant Beuria
Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen of proteins to it. The min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD...
July 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743718/twinfilin-2a-is-a-regulator-of-platelet-reactivity-and-turnover-in-mice
#14
Simon Stritt, Sarah Beck, Isabelle C Becker, Timo Vögtle, Markku Hakala, Katrin G Heinze, Xiaoping Du, Markus Bender, Attila Braun, Pekka Lappalainen, Bernhard Nieswandt
Regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is a prerequisite for proper platelet production and function. Consequently, defects in proteins controlling actin dynamics have been associated with platelet disorders in humans and mice. Twinfilin 2a (Twf2a) is a small actin-binding protein, which inhibits actin filament assembly by sequestering actin monomers and by capping filament barbed ends. Moreover, Twf2a binds heterodimeric capping proteins, but the role of this interaction in cytoskeletal dynamics has remained elusive...
July 25, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742127/tpc1-is-an-important-zn-ii-2cys6-transcriptional-regulator-required-for-polarized-growth-and-virulence-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#15
Rita Galhano, Adriana Illana, Lauren S Ryder, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Marie Demuez, Muhammad Badaruddin, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Darren M Soanes, David J Studholme, Nicholas J Talbot, Ane Sesma
The establishment of polarity is a critical process in pathogenic fungi, mediating infection-related morphogenesis and host tissue invasion. Here, we report the identification of TPC1 (Transcription factor for Polarity Control 1), which regulates invasive polarized growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. TPC1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the fungal Zn(II)2Cys6 family, exclusive to filamentous fungi. Tpc1-deficient mutants show severe defects in conidiogenesis, infection-associated autophagy, glycogen and lipid metabolism, and plant tissue colonisation...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739799/lgr5-receptor-promotes-cell-cell-adhesion-in-stem-cells-and-colon-cancer-cells-via-the-iqgap1-rac1-pathway
#16
Kendra S Carmon, Xing Gong, Jing Yi, Ling Wu, Anthony Thomas, Catherine M Moore, Ikuo Masuho, David J Timson, Kirill A Martemyanov, Qingyun J Liu
Leucine rich repeat containing G protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) is a bona fide marker of adult stem cells in several epithelial tissues, most notably in the intestinal crypts and is highly upregulated in many colorectal, hepatocellular, and ovarian cancers. LGR5 activation by R-spondin (RSPO) ligands potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vitro, yet deletion of LGR5 in stem cells has little or no effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling or cell proliferation in vivo. Remarkably, modulation of LGR5 expression has a major impact on the actin cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion in the absence of RSPO stimulation, but the molecular mechanism is unclear...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736134/stimulus-evoked-erk-dependent-phosphorylation-of-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-regulates-its-neuronal-subcellular-localization
#17
Oleksii Nikolaienko, Maria Steene Eriksen, Sudarshan Patil, Haruhiko Bito, Clive R Bramham
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) is implicated as a master regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation in mammalian brain. Arc acts at synapses and within the nucleus, but the mechanisms controlling Arc localization and function are little known. As Arc transcription and translation are regulated by extracellularsignal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, we asked whether Arc protein itself is phosphorylated by ERK. GST-fused Arc of rat origin was able to pull down endogenous ERK2 from rat hippocampal lysates...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733456/nestin-contributes-to-skeletal-muscle-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#18
Julia Lindqvist, Elin Torvaldson, Josef Gullmets, Henok Karvonen, Andras Nagy, Pekka Taimen, John E Eriksson
Nestin, a member of the cytoskeletal family of intermediate filaments, regulates the onset of myogenic differentiation through bidirectional signaling with the Cdk5-kinase. Here we show that these effects are also reflected at the organism level, as there is a loss of skeletal muscle mass in nestin(-/-) (NesKO) mice, reflected as reduced lean mass in the mice. Further examination of muscles in male mice revealed that these effects stemmed from nestin-deficient muscles being more prone to spontaneous regeneration...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731148/molecular-genetics-and-targeted-therapy-of-wnt-related-human-diseases-review
#19
Masuko Katoh, Masaru Katoh
Canonical WNT signaling through Frizzled and LRP5/6 receptors is transduced to the WNT/β-catenin and WNT/stabilization of proteins (STOP) signaling cascades to regulate cell fate and proliferation, whereas non-canonical WNT signaling through Frizzled or ROR receptors is transduced to the WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP), WNT/G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and WNT/receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling cascades to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and directional cell movement. WNT/β-catenin signaling cascade crosstalks with RTK/SRK and GPCR-cAMP-PKA signaling cascades to regulate β-catenin phosphorylation and β-catenin-dependent transcription...
September 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724775/n-degradomic-analysis-reveals-a-proteolytic-network-processing-the-podocyte-cytoskeleton
#20
Markus M Rinschen, Ann-Kathrin Hoppe, Florian Grahammer, Martin Kann, Linus A Völker, Eva-Maria Schurek, Julie Binz, Martin Höhne, Fatih Demir, Milena Malisic, Tobias B Huber, Christine Kurschat, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Bernhard Schermer, Pitter F Huesgen, Thomas Benzing
Regulated intracellular proteostasis, controlled in part by proteolysis, is essential in maintaining the integrity of podocytes and the glomerular filtration barrier of the kidney. We applied a novel proteomics technology that enables proteome-wide identification, mapping, and quantification of protein N-termini to comprehensively characterize cleaved podocyte proteins in the glomerulus in vivo We found evidence that defined proteolytic cleavage results in various proteoforms of important podocyte proteins, including those of podocin, nephrin, neph1, α-actinin-4, and vimentin...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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