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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226330/transcutaneous-immunization-with-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-in-mice
#1
Hiromi Nagano, Masaki Kawabata, Gen Sugita, Akitoshi Tsuruhara, Junichiro Ohori, Tomohiro Jimura, Keiichi Miyashita, Yuichi Kurono, Kazuhiro Tomonaga, David E Briles, Kohtaro Fujihashi
OBJECTIVE: Pneumococcal infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major upper respiratory tract disease that causes severe illness and mortality. Therefore, it is important to develop safe and effective vaccines to prevent pneumococcal infections. The goal of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of transcutaneous immunization (TCI) for induction of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) responses in the upper respiratory tract. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were transcutaneously immunized with 1 μg of PspA and 2 μg of cholera toxin (CT) six times at weekly intervals and compared with transcutaneously treated controls (PBS alone/PspA alone/CT alone)...
December 11, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225477/molecular-evaluation-of-colistin-resistant-gene-expression-changes-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-with-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction
#2
Shahriar Sepahvand, Mohammad Ali Davarpanah, Amir Roudgari, Abbas Bahador, Vajihe Karbasizade, Zahra Kargar Jahromi
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen which has recently gained increased attention due to the occurrence of drug-resistant nosocomial infections in patients suffering from immune system disorders, and those in hospital intensive care units. The aim of this research was to identify and isolate A. baumannii strains resistant to colistin, determine antibiotic resistance pattern of this bacteria, investigate the presence of colistin-resistant genes, and finally assess the effect of expression changes in pmrA and pmrB genes resistant to A...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208560/multiplex-pcr-system-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-respiratory-virus-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Huai-Shiuan Huang, Chi-Lin Tsai, Jeffrey Chang, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Samuel Lin, Chien-Chang Lee
OBJECTIVES: We aim to provide a summary of evidence for the diagnostic accuracies of three multiplex PCR systems (mPCRs): BioFire Filmarray RP (Filmarray), Nanosphere Verigene RV+ test (Verigene) and Hologic Gen-Probe Prodesse assays on the detection of viral respiratory infections. METHODS: A comprehensive search up to July 1st, 2017 was conducted on Medline and Embase for studies that utilized Filmarray, Verigene and Prodesse for diagnosis of viral respiratory infections...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208030/experimental-therapeutic-assays-of-tephrosia-vogelii-against-leishmania-major-infection-in-murine-model-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Sylvia Naliaka Marango, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Judith Alice Makwali, Bernard Ngoitsi Jumba, Joseph K Choge, Eric Onyango Adino, Christopher O Anjili
BACKGROUND: Conventional targeted leishmanicidal chemotherapy has persistently remained prohibitive for most economically deprived communities due to costs, associated time to accessing health services and duration for successful treatment programme. Alternatives are bound to be incorporated in rational management of leishmaniasis by choice or default due to accessibility and cultural beliefs. Therefore, there is need to rigorously investigate and appraise the activity of medicinal compounds that may have anti-leishmanicidal activity especially in the context of products that are already being utilized by the populations for other ailments but have limited information on their therapeutic value and possible cytoxicity...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193684/identification-of-a-novel-compound-targeting-the-nuclear-export-of-influenza-a-virus-nucleoprotein
#5
Feng Huang, Jingliang Chen, Junsong Zhang, Likai Tan, Gui Lu, Yongjie Luo, Ting Pan, Juanran Liang, Qianwen Li, Baohong Luo, Hui Zhang, Gen Lu
Although antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of influenza infection, it is an urgent requirement to develop new antiviral drugs regarding the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. The nucleoprotein (NP) is conserved among all influenza A viruses (IAVs) and has no cellular equivalent. Therefore, NP is an ideal target for the development of new IAV inhibitors. In this study, we identified a novel anti-influenza compound, ZBMD-1, from a library of 20,000 compounds using cell-based influenza A infection assays...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161485/aedes-albopictus-skuse-1894-infected-with-the-american-asian-genotype-of-dengue-type-2-virus-in-medell%C3%A3-n-suggests-its-possible-role-as-vector-of-dengue-fever-in-colombia
#6
Andrés Gómez-Palacio, Juan Suaza-Vasco, Sandra Castaño, Omar Triana, Sandra Uribe
INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are recognized vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika arboviruses in several countries worldwide. In Colombia, Ae. albopictus geographical distribution has increased to include highly populated cities such as Cali and Medellín. Although this species has been frequently found in urban and semi-urban zones in the country, its role as vector of the dengue fever is poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To identify the presence of Ae...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158272/combination-antibiotic-exposure-selectively-alters-the-development-of-vancomycin-intermediate-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Xuting Zheng, Andrew D Berti, Sue McCrone, Melanie Roch, Adriana E Rosato, Warren E Rose, Baiyi Chen
Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) treated with vancomycin (VAN) is associated with reduced VAN susceptibility and treatment failure. VAN combination therapy is one strategy to improve response, but comprehensive assessments of combinations to prevent resistance are limited. This study identifies optimal combinations to prevent the emergence of VAN-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). Two standard MRSA and two heterogeneous VISA (hVISA) strains were exposed for 28 days in vitro to VAN alone, VAN with cefazolin (CFZ), fosfomycin (FOF), gentamicin (GEN), meropenem (MEM), rifampin (RIF), piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT)...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119303/evolution-of-drug-resistant-mutations-in-hbv-genomes-in-patients-with-treatment-failure-during-the-past-seven-years-2010-2016
#8
Hong-Yu Zhang, Long-Gen Liu, Chun-Yan Ye, Chun-Hua Chen, Shuang-Xiong Hang, Zhen Zhu, Hong-Yu Shen, Ze-Yu Huang, Wen-Yi Chen, Yuan Xue
The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of drug-resistant HBV mutants in patients with treatment failure during the past seven years (2010-2016). 4055 HBV-infected patients who underwent HBV polymerase gene mutation test from 2010 to 2016 were enrolled. The nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) resistance mutation positions, including rtL180, rtA181, rtT184, rtS202, rtM204, rtI233, rtN236, rtI169, rtV173, and rtM250 were analyzed. Genotypic resistance mutations were detected in 30.8% (1248/4055) of the patients with treatment failure...
November 8, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074030/reliable-rapid-assay-for-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-emergency-department
#9
Sean P Wilson, Taher Vohra, Jared Goldberg, Christopher Price, Sean Calo, Meredith Mahan, Joseph Miller
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are common sexually transmitted infections seen in the emergency department (ED). Due to an inability to reliably make accurate diagnosis by physical examination, concern for unreliable follow-up, and current delays in diagnostic nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), presumptive treatment active against CT and NG, as described by Centers for Disease Control clinical practice guidelines, is often performed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a rapid, urine NAAT performed in the ED is noninferior in its diagnostic sensitivity compared with a traditional, swab NAAT assay...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072573/neoandracantha-peruensis-n-gen-n-sp-acanthocephala-polymorphidae-described-from-cystacanths-infecting-the-ghost-crab-ocypode-gaudichaudii-on-the-peruvian-coast
#10
Omar M Amin, Richard A Heckmann
The cystacanths of Neoandracantha peruensis n. gen. n. sp. are described from the ghost crab Ocypode gaudichaudii collected from the Pacific coast of Peru. While it is uncommon to describe acanthocephalan taxa from immature stages, the presence of clear-cut distinguishing features separating the present material from its nearest congeneric taxa, and the absence of adults, justifies the erection N. peruensis. The new genus is distinguished by having three separate fields of trunk spines. Specimens of N. peruensis have a slender trunk with two anterior swellings, 3 separate fields of spines on the foretrunk swelling, and no genital spines on the hindtrunk...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056256/glibenclamide-inhibits-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-in-human-trophoblasts
#11
Kazuhiro Tamura, Gen Ishikawa, Mikihiro Yoshie, Wakana Ohneda, Akihito Nakai, Toshiyuki Takeshita, Eiichi Tachikawa
Infection-associated pregnancy complications cause premature delivery. Caspase-1 is involved in the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β, which is activated by the NLRP3 inflammasome. To characterize the significance of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in the placenta, the effects of activators and inhibitors on NLRP3-related molecules were examined using isolated primary trophoblasts. Caspase-1 and IL-1β mRNA expression was markedly increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor (TLR)4 ligand...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055858/deletion-of-the-transcriptional-regulator-gntr-down-regulated-the-expression-of-genes-related-to-virulence-and-conferred-protection-against-wild-type-brucella-challenge-in-balb-c-mice
#12
Zhi-Qiang Li, Jin-Liang Zhang, Li Xi, Guang-Li Yang, Shu-Li Wang, Xiao-Gen Zhang, Jun-Bo Zhang, Hui Zhang
Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella spp., is a zoonotic infectious disease that can cause great hazard to public health and safety. The virulence of Brucella is essential for survive and multiply in host macrophages. GntR is a transcriptional regulator in Brucella that is required for virulence in macrophages and mice, and involved in resistance to stress responses. To determine the expression levels of target genes of GntR, we detected the expression levels of the GntR target genes in Brucella infected BALB/c mice...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046443/prion-protein-devoid-of-the-octapeptide-repeat-region-delays-bse-pathogenesis-in-mice
#13
Hideyuki Hara, Hironori Miyata, Nandita Rani Das, Junji Chida, Tatenobu Yoshimochi, Keiji Uchiyama, Hitomi Watanabe, Gen Kondoh, Takashi Yokoyama, Suehiro Sakaguchi
Conformational conversion of the cellular isoform of prion protein PrP(C), into the abnormally folded, amyloidogenic isoform, PrP(Sc), is a key pathogenic event in prion diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in animals. We previously reported that the octapeptide repeat (OR) region could be dispensable for converting PrP(C) into PrP(Sc) after infection with RML prions. We demonstrated that mice transgenically expressing mouse PrP with deletion of the OR region on the PrP-knockout background, designated Tg(PrPΔOR)/Prnp(0/0) mice, did not reduce susceptibility to RML scrapie prions, with abundant accumulation of PrP(Sc)ΔOR in their brains...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039494/internal-driving-factors-leading-to-extrahepatic-manifestation-of-the-hepatitis%C3%A2-c-virus-infection
#14
Zhou-Yi Wu, Jian-Rui Li, Meng-Hao Huang, Jun-Jun Cheng, Hu Li, Jin-Hua Chen, Xiao-Qin Lv, Zong-Gen Peng, Jian-Dong Jiang
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with various extrahepatic manifestations, which are correlated with poor outcomes, and thus increase the morbidity and mortality of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Therefore, understanding the internal linkages between systemic manifestations and HCV infection is helpful for treatment of CHC. Yet, the mechanism by which the virus evokes the systemic diseases remains to be elucidated. In the present study, using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and signaling pathway impact analysis (SPIA), a comprehensive analysis of microarray data of mRNAs was conducted in HCV-infected and -uninfected Huh7...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038059/first-isolation-and-characterization-of-the-pathogenic-aeromonas-veronii-bv-veronii-associated-with-ulcerative-syndrome-in-the-indigenous-pelophylax-ridibundus-of-al-ahsaa-saudi-arabia
#15
Ashraf Y Z Khalifa, Gamal Bekhet
Virulent microbial pathogen infections are the main cause for amphibian decline worldwide. In the present study, a bacterial strain named RDL-2, which was isolated from the skin of infected Pelophylax ridibundus larvae, was cultured and then phenotypically and biochemically characterized using scanning electron microscopic observations and the API20E strip and Biolog Gen III MicroPlate system. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain was also obtained and used in strain identification and phylogenetic analysis...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990692/functional-results-of-free-tissue-transfer-for-complex-heel-calcaneal-defects
#16
Chang-Yi Chou, Hao-Yu Chiao, Chi-Yu Wang, Yu-Shan Sun, Chin-Ta Lin, Niann-Tzyy Dai, Shyi-Gen Chen, Shun-Cheng Chang
BACKGROUND: Loss of soft tissue in heel-calcaneal region is frequently caused by trauma, infection, or tumors. Limited availability of similar tissue becomes challenging, therefore, the use of free tissue transfer offers a solution. Our aim is to describe long term functional outcome of different free tissue transfers for these defects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 24 consecutive cases of the heel-calcaneal defect between January 2009 and December 2014...
October 9, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970818/evolutionary-trends-of-perkinsozoa-alveolata-characters-based-on-observations-of-two-new-genera-of-parasitoids-of-dinoflagellates-dinovorax-gen-nov-and-snorkelia-gen-nov
#17
Albert Reñé, Elisabet Alacid, Isabel Ferrera, Esther Garcés
Parasites are one of the ecologically most relevant groups of marine food webs, but their taxonomic and biological complexity hampers the assessment of their diversity and evolutionary trends. Moreover, the within-host processes that govern parasitoid infection, development and reproduction are often unknown. In this study, we describe a new species of a perkinsozoan endoparasitoid that infects the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus, by including observations of its morphology, ultrastructure, life-cycle development and phylogeny...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957692/4-3h-quinazolone-regulates-innate-immune-signaling-upon-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-by-moderately-inhibiting-the-rig-1-pathway-in-raw264-7-cell
#18
Liwei He, Fangtian Fan, Xianbang Hou, Hongyan Wu, Juan Wang, Huiqin Xu, Yun Sun
The root of Isatis indigotica, also known as Ban-Lan-Gen (BLG), is commonly used for prevention and early treatment of respiratory virus infection, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. In the early stage of infection, the innate immune system is activated by virus, and related immune cells such as macrophages secrete large amounts of cytokines including IFNs and ILs. On the one hand, these cytokines can remove virus. On the other hand, they dominantly mediate the inflammatory injury caused by viral infection...
September 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941182/enhanced-wound-healing-performance-of%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-phyto-polysaccharide-enriched-dressing%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-preclinical-small-and-large-animal-study
#19
Chih-Hsin Wang, Shu-Jen Chang, Yuan-Sheng Tzeng, Yu-Jen Shih, Chang Adrienne, Shyi-Gen Chen, Tim-Mo Chen, Niann-Tzyy Dai, Juin-Hong Cherng
Alginate is a natural rich anionic polysaccharide (APS), commonly available as calcium alginate (CAPS). It can maintain a physiologically moist microenvironment, which minimises bacterial infection and facilitates wound healing at a wound site. Patients with burn injuries suffer from pain and an inflammatory response. In this study, we evaluated the CAPS dressing and traditional dressing containing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) for wound healing and scar tissue formation in a burn model of rat and swine. In our pilot study of a burn rat model to evaluate inflammatory response and wound healing, we found that the monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were up-regulated in the CAPS treatment group...
September 21, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904942/a-simple-but-accurate-method-for-evaluating-drug-resistance-in-infectious-hcvcc-system
#20
Jian-Rui Li, Wen-Jing Li, Jun-Jun Cheng, Meng-Hao Huang, Zhou-Yi Wu, Chen-Chen Jiang, Hu Li, Jin-Hua Chen, Xiao-Qin Lv, Biao Dong, Jian-Dong Jiang, Zong-Gen Peng
Use of direct-acting antivirals sometimes causes viral drug resistance, resulting in inefficiency in treated patients in real-world practice. Therefore, how to rapidly and accurately evaluate drug resistance is an urgent problem to be solved for rational use and development of antivirals in the future. Here, we aim to develop a new method by which we can evaluate easily but effectively whether a drug will still be efficient in the future treatment in infectious hepatitis C virus cell culture system. HCV-infected Huh7...
2017: BioMed Research International
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