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Gen Pan, Yuqiang Liu, Linshan Ji, Xiao Zhang, Jun He, Jie Huang, Zeyu Qiu, Daoming Liu, Zhiguang Sun, Tingting Xu, Linglong Liu, Chunming Wang, Ling Jiang, Xianian Cheng, Jianmin Wan
Elucidation of the interactions between plants and insects will facilitate better insect control in crops. Brassinosteroids (BRs) play a vital role in plant growth, developmental process and pathogens infection, but the role of BR in interactions between plants and insects remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized a negative role of BR in rice defense against brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and explored its underlying mechanism. We found that BPH infestation suppressed the BR pathway while activated the SA and JA pathways successively...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tatiana Yurchenko, Tereza Ševčíková, Pavel Přibyl, Khalid El Karkouri, Vladimír Klimeš, Raquel Amaral, Veronika Zbránková, Eunsoo Kim, Didier Raoult, Lilia M A Santos, Marek Eliáš
Rickettsiales are obligate intracellular bacteria originally found in metazoans, but more recently recognized as widespread endosymbionts of various protists. One genus was detected also in several green algae, but reports on rickettsialean endosymbionts in other algal groups are lacking. Here we show that several distantly related eustigmatophytes (coccoid algae belonging to Ochrophyta, Stramenopiles) are infected by Candidatus Phycorickettsia gen. nov., a new member of the family Rickettsiaceae. The genome sequence of Ca...
June 7, 2018: ISME Journal
Katsutoshi Imamura, Akiko Takaya, Yo-Ichi Ishida, Yayoi Fukuoka, Toshiki Taya, Ryo Nakaki, Miho Kakeda, Naoto Imamachi, Aiko Sato, Toshimichi Yamada, Rena Onoguchi-Mizutani, Gen Akizuki, Tanzina Tanu, Kazuyuki Tao, Sotaro Miyao, Yutaka Suzuki, Masami Nagahama, Tomoko Yamamoto, Torben Heick Jensen, Nobuyoshi Akimitsu
Cytoplasmic mRNA degradation controls gene expression to help eliminate pathogens during infection. However, it has remained unclear whether such regulation also extends to nuclear RNA decay. Here, we show that 145 unstable nuclear RNAs, including enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) such as NEAT1v2, are stabilized upon Salmonella infection in HeLa cells. In uninfected cells, the RNA exosome, aided by the Nuclear EXosome Targeting (NEXT) complex, degrades these labile transcripts. Upon infection, the levels of the exosome/NEXT components, RRP6 and MTR4, dramatically decrease, resulting in transcript stabilization...
June 7, 2018: EMBO Journal
Jocelyn Ronda, Charlotte A Gaydos, Jamie Perin, Lisa Tabacco, Jenell Coleman, Maria Trent
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) but there are limited strategies to identify individuals at risk of MG. Previously a sex risk quiz was used to predict STIs including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), and/or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). The original quiz categorized individuals ≤25 years old as at risk of STIs, but the Centers for Disease Control identifies females <25 years old as at risk of STIs. In this study, the quiz was changed to categorize females <25 years old as high risk...
June 4, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Corinne Ruppen, Thomas Mercier, Denis Grandgirard, Stephen L Leib, Cristina El Haj, Oscar Murillo, Laurent Decosterd, Parham Sendi
The rate of invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections is steadily increasing, particularly in older persons and in adults with diabetes and other comorbidities. This population includes persons with a foreign body (e.g., who have undergone arthroplasty). In a rat tissue cage model, we evaluated the efficacy of adjunctive gentamicin (GEN) administered systemically (5 mg/kg body weight) every 24 h, or locally (12.5 mg/L tissue cage concentration) every 24 or 72 h, in combination with penicillin (PEN) administered systemically (250,000 IU/kg body weight three times per day)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carlos Hermosilla, J Hirzmann, L M R Silva, J M Brotons, M Cerdà, E Prenger-Berninghoff, C Ewers, A Taubert
Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are the largest toothed whales and only living member of family Physeteridae. Present survey represents first report on cultivable faecal microbes and gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans infecting free-ranging sperm whales inhabiting Mediterranean Sea waters surrounding Balearic Archipelago, Spain. Twenty-five individual sperm whale scat samples, including one calf, were collected without disturbance of animals during the summer of 2016. Parasitological diagnostic methods, such as sodium acetate acetic formalin (SAF) method, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears, Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs and an Anisakis-specific PCR were applied for further identification...
June 1, 2018: Parasitology Research
Sabia Qureshi, Hari Mohan Saxena, Nikhat Imam, Zahid Kashoo, Muddasir Sharief Banday, Aftab Alam, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat, Basharat Bhat
Currently used alum precipitated and oil adjuvant vaccines against HS caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2, have side effects and short lived immunity, leading to regular catastrophic outbreaks in bovines in Asian subcontinent. The need for the development of an improved vaccine with longer immunity and the ability to differentiate between vaccinated and infected is essential. Pasteurella phage isolated in present study belongs to family Siphoviridae. PMP-GAD-IND phage exhibited lytic activity against vaccine strain (P52) as well as several field strains of P...
May 29, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Qi Sun, Gen Li, Wei Ge, Guanghua Lu, Ming Cai, Shaohua Li
Objective: To discuss the effectiveness of intramedullary nail fixation with selective cable wiring in the treatment of ipsilateral femoral neck fracture and subtrochanteric fracture. Methods: Between June 2012 and December 2015, a total of 19 patients with ipsilateral femoral neck fracture and subtrochanteric fracture underwent closed reduction of femoral neck fracture and intramedullary nail fixation combined with selective cable wiring. There were 5 males and 14 females with a median age of 52 years (range, 35-77 years)...
September 1, 2017: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Mars Stone, John Bainbridge, Ana M Sanchez, Sheila M Keating, Andrea Pappas, Wes Rountree, Chris Todd, Sonia Bakkour, Mark Manak, Sheila A Peel, Robert W Coombs, Eric M Ramos, M Kathleen Shriver, Paul Contestable, Sangeetha Vijaysri Nair, David H Wilson, Martin Stengelin, Gary Murphy, Indira Hewlett, Thomas N Denny, Michael P Busch
BACKGROUND: Detection of acute HIV infection is critical for HIV public health and diagnostics. Clinical 4th generation antigen-antibody (Ag/Ab) combination (combo) and p24 Ag immunoassays have enhanced detection of acute infection compared to Ab alone assays, but require ongoing evaluation with currently circulating diverse subtypes. Genetically and geographically diverse HIV clinical isolates were used to assess clinical HIV diagnostic, blood screening and next generation assays. METHODS: Blinded 300 member panels of 20 serially diluted well-characterized antibody negative HIV isolates were distributed to manufacturers and end-user labs to assess relative analytic sensitivity of currently approved and pre-approved clinical HIV 4th generation Ag/Ab combo or p24 Ag alone immunoassays across diverse subtypes...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Shun-Xian Zhang, Yong-Ming Zhou, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Rita Tinoco-Torres, Emmanuel Serrano, Shi-Zhu Li, Shao-Hong Chen, Lin Ai, Jun-Hu Chen, Shang Xia, Yan Lu, Shan Lv, Xue-Jiao Teng, Wen Xu, Wen-Peng Gu, Si-Tang Gong, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Lan-Lan Geng, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial diarrhea is one of the most common causes for medical consultations, mortality and morbidity in the world. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are major intestinal pathogens in developing countries, and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has greatly contributed to resistant strains. Hence, the aim of the present study is to identify the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the molecular characteristics of DEC and NTS in southwest, China...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Masafumi Shibata, Gen Takagi, Mitsuhiro Kudo, Jiro Kurita, Yoko Kawamoto, Yasuo Miyagi, Mikimoto Kanazashi, Takashi Sakatani, Zenya Naito, Yasuhiko Tabata, Masaaki Miyamoto, Takashi Nitta
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains numerous growth factors and promotes bone fracture healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the controlled release of PRP from biodegradable gelatin hydrogel for promoting healing in a rabbit ischemic sternal model. PRP was prepared from the whole blood of a Japanese white rabbit. Sixteen rabbits were randomized into four groups (each n = 4) and all underwent median sternotomy and bilateral internal thoracic artery removal. Before the sternum was closed, the following solutions were applied between the sternum incisions in three of the groups: 30 mg of gelatin hydrogel incorporating 300 μL of phosphate-buffered saline, 300 μL of a solution form of PRP, or 30 mg of gelatin hydrogel incorporating 300 μL of PRP (PRP+Gel)...
May 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Silke Van den Wyngaert, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Kensuke Seto, Maiko Kagami, Hans-Peter Grossart
Chytrids are zoosporic fungi that play an important, but yet understudied, ecological role in aquatic ecosystems. Many chytrid species have been morphologically described as parasites on phytoplankton. However, the majority of them have rarely been isolated and lack DNA sequence data. In this study we isolated and cultivated three parasitic chytrids, infecting a common volvocacean host species, Yamagishiella unicocca. In order to identify the chytrids, we characterized morphology and life cycle, and analyzed phylogenetic relationships based on 18S and 28S rDNA genes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Tomasz Jagielski, Katarzyna Niedźwiecka, Katarzyna Roeske, Mariusz Dyląg
Protothecosis is an unusual infection of both humans and animals caused by opportunistically pathogenic microalgae of the genus Prototheca . Until now, no standardized treatment protocols exist for the protothecal disease, boosted by a remarkable resistance of Prototheca spp. to a wide array of antimicrobial agents currently available in clinical use. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new effective drugs against Prototheca algae. In this study, the anti- Prototheca activity of 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), either alone or in combination with amphotericin B (AMB) was assessed in vitro , as well as the cytotoxicity of 3BP toward the bovine mammary epithelial cells and murine skin fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Daisuke Himeji, Sachika Hara, Takeshi Kawaguchi, Gen-Ichi Tanaka
A 75-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of a low-grade fever, dry cough, and chest abnormal shadow. Chest computed tomography revealed a nodule with a cavity in the right upper lobe. Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) of the lesion suggested that the lesion was benign. Actinomyces graevenitzii was cultured from the specimen obtained by bronchoscopy using endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath technique and was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
Frantisek Moravec, Diane P Barton
The following six species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) were recorded from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia in 2015 and 2016: Philometra arafurensis sp. n. and Philometra papillicaudata sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the emperor red snapper Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier); Philometra mawsonae sp. n. and Dentiphilometra malabarici sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider); Philometra sp...
April 16, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
Kenji Nishikori, Davin H E Setiamarga, Takahiro Tanji, Eisuke Kuroda, Hirohisa Shiraishi, Ayako Ohashi-Kobayashi
Here, we describe a new microsporidium Percutemincola moriokae gen. nov., sp. nov., which was discovered in the intestinal and hypodermal cells of a wild strain of the nematode Oscheius tipulae that inhabits in the soil of Morioka, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The spores of Pe. moriokae had an average size of 1.0 × 3.8 µm and 1.3 × 3.2 µm in the intestine and hypodermis, respectively, and electron microscopy revealed that they exhibited distinguishing features with morphological diversity in the hypodermis...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
Huifeng Fan, Li Huang, Diyuan Yang, Yunting Lin, Gen Lu, Yaping Xie, Jialu Yu, Dongwei Zhang
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes (HIES) are rare primary immunodeficiency diseases characterized by markedly elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, recurrent pneumonia, and chronic eczema. To date, information about pediatric HIES is limited. We aimed to evaluate the spectrum of clinical and immunological features in pediatric patients with HIES in China.We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 4 pediatric patients with HIES followed at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from May 2013 to September 2017...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maria Trent, Jenell S Coleman, Justin Hardick, Jamie Perin, Lisa Tabacco, Steven Huettner, Jocelyn Ronda, Rebecca Felter-Wernsdorfer, Charlotte A Gaydos
OBJECTIVE: Research exploring the clinical and sexual risk correlates is essential to define universal standards for screening and management for Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). The objective of this study is to determine the baseline prevalence of MG and associated clinical risks using cross-sectional data. METHODS: Adolescent and young adult women 13-29 years were recruited during clinical visits during which biological specimens were collected for Neisseriagonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing to provide vaginal specimens for MG and Trichomonasvaginalis (TV) testing...
March 29, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Dan-Dan Wei, La-Gen Wan, Yang Liu
We report here the draft genome sequence of an NDM-1- and KPC-2-coproducing hypervirulent carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, isolated from a 58-year-old male in the People's Republic of China with a burn injury.
March 29, 2018: Genome Announcements
Gen Kuroyanagi, Hiroyuki Yoshihara, Naohiro Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Kunio Yamada, Yukio Yoshida, Takanobu Otsuka, Naoya Takada
Forged composites of raw particulate unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (F-u-HA/PLLA) devices possess high mechanical strength, bioactivity, and radio-opacity. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of F-u-HA/PLLA screws in the treatment of lateral tibial condylar fractures. From January 2005 to December 2010, a total of 7 patients with displaced closed lateral tibial condylar fractures (Schatzker type II) were treated using F-u-HA/PLLA screws. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using 2 or 3 F-u-HA/PLLA screws...
May 1, 2018: Orthopedics
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