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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807487/exploring-how-prison-based-drug-rehabilitation-programming-shapes-racial-disparities-in-substance-use-disorder-recovery
#1
Erin M Kerrison
Prison-based therapeutic community (TC) programming is derived from the perspective that drug addiction is primarily symptomatic of cognitive dysfunction, poor emotional management, and underdeveloped self-reliance skills, and can be addressed in a collaborative space where a strong ideological commitment to moral reform and personal responsibility is required of its members. In this space, evidence of rehabilitation is largely centered on the client's relationship to language and the public adoption of a "broken self" narrative...
August 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803212/data-driven-classification-of-patients-with-primary-progressive-aphasia
#2
Paul Hoffman, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Karalyn Patterson, Peter J Nestor
Current diagnostic criteria classify primary progressive aphasia into three variants-semantic (sv), nonfluent (nfv) and logopenic (lv) PPA-though the adequacy of this scheme is debated. This study took a data-driven approach, applying k-means clustering to data from 43 PPA patients. The algorithm grouped patients based on similarities in language, semantic and non-linguistic cognitive scores. The optimum solution consisted of three groups. One group, almost exclusively those diagnosed as svPPA, displayed a selective semantic impairment...
August 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792228/what-do-you-say-before-you-relapse-how-language-use-in-a-peer-to-peer-online-discussion-forum-predicts-risky-drinking-among-those-in-recovery
#3
Rachel Kornfield, Catalina L Toma, Dhavan V Shah, Tae Joon Moon, David H Gustafson
Increasingly, individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) seek and provide support for relapse prevention in text-based online environments such as discussion forums. This paper investigates whether language use within a peer-to-peer discussion forum can predict future relapse among individuals treated for AUD. A total of 104 AUD sufferers who had completed residential treatment participated in a mobile phone-based relapse-prevention program, where they communicated via an online forum over the course of a year...
August 9, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782967/the-effect-of-background-noise-on-the-word-activation-process-in-nonnative-spoken-word-recognition
#4
Odette Scharenborg, Juul M J Coumans, Roeland van Hout
This article investigates 2 questions: (1) does the presence of background noise lead to a differential increase in the number of simultaneously activated candidate words in native and nonnative listening? And (2) do individual differences in listeners' cognitive and linguistic abilities explain the differential effect of background noise on (non-)native speech recognition? English and Dutch students participated in an English word recognition experiment, in which either a word's onset or offset was masked by noise...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766998/linguistic-analysis-as-a-method-for-assessing-symptoms-after-sexual-trauma-among-female-adolescent-psychiatric-inpatients
#5
Kaisa Marshall, Amanda Venta, Craig Henderson, Maria Barker, Carla Sharp
Using a sample of female psychiatric inpatient adolescents, the current study aimed to extend this literature to an adolescent sample for the first time by examining if linguistic markers and their subcategories (cognitive process words, pronoun use, and somatosensory detail) in a trauma account are related to trauma symptomology and recovery during inpatient care. Results indicated that greater use of body words and fewer insight words were related to increased trauma symptoms at admission. In addition, use of fewer cognitive process words at admission predicted greater symptom change at discharge, extending previous research findings to an adolescent sample...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766185/when-your-mind-skips-what-your-eyes-fixate-how-forced-fixations-lead-to-comprehension-illusions-in-reading
#6
Elizabeth R Schotter, Mallorie Leinenger, Titus von der Malsburg
The phenomenon of forced fixations suggests that readers sometimes fixate a word (due to oculomotor constraints) even though they intended to skip it (due to parafoveal cognitive-linguistic processing). We investigate whether this leads readers to look directly at a word but not pay attention to it. We used a gaze-contingent boundary paradigm to dissociate parafoveal and foveal information (e.g., the word phone changed to scarf once the reader's eyes moved to it) and asked questions about the sentence to determine which one the reader encoded...
August 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764852/parkinson-s-disease-compromises-the-appraisal-of-action-meanings-evoked-by-naturalistic-texts
#7
Adolfo M García, Yamile Bocanegra, Elena Herrera, Leonardo Moreno, Jairo Carmona, Ana Baena, Francisco Lopera, David Pineda, Margherita Melloni, Agustina Legaz, Edinson Muñoz, Lucas Sedeño, Sandra Baez, Agustín Ibáñez
The linguistic profile of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by difficulties in processing units which denote bodily movements. However, the available evidence has low ecological validity, as it stems from atomistic tasks which are never encountered in real life. Here, we assessed whether such deficits also occur for meanings evoked by context-rich narratives, considering patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively) and matched controls for each group. Participants read two naturalistic stories (an action text and a neutral text) and responded to questions tapping the appraisal of verb-related and circumstantial information...
July 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757094/ddm-at-work-reply-to-comments-on-dependency-distance-a-new-perspective-on-syntactic-patterns-in-natural-languages
#8
Chunshan Xu, Junying Liang, Haitao Liu
We provide responses to the commentaries in this volume to evaluate, clarify and extend some of the arguments in Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages. Evidences show that DDM (dependency distance minimization) is an important linguistic universal, biologically or cognitively motivated, in shaping the language system. As a general tendency, DDM works quite well in theoretical argumentations as well as practical applications. However, this does not mean that DDM is the only linguistic universal that works: it is highly possible that other factors, which might be biologically, physically, socially or culturally motivated, work as well to jointly mold languages...
July 19, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753438/bilingual-language-intrusions-and-other-speech-errors-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Tamar H Gollan, Alena Stasenko, Chuchu Li, David P Salmon
The current study investigated how Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects production of speech errors in reading-aloud. Twelve Spanish-English bilinguals with AD and 19 matched controls read-aloud 8 paragraphs in four conditions (a) English-only, (b) Spanish-only, (c) English-mixed (mostly English with 6 Spanish words), and (d) Spanish-mixed (mostly Spanish with 6 English words). Reading elicited language intrusions (e.g., saying la instead of the), and several types of within-language errors (e.g., saying their instead of the)...
July 25, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751875/evoking-and-measuring-identification-with-narrative-characters-a-linguistic-cues-framework
#10
Kobie van Krieken, Hans Hoeken, José Sanders
Current research on identification with narrative characters poses two problems. First, although identification is seen as a dynamic process of which the intensity varies during reading, it is usually measured by means of post-reading questionnaires containing self-report items. Second, it is not clear which linguistic characteristics evoke identification. The present paper proposes that an interdisciplinary framework allows for more precise manipulations and measurements of identification, which will ultimately advance our understanding of the antecedents and nature of this process...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751795/gender-moderates-association-between-emotional-behavioral-problems-and-text-comprehension-in-children-with-both-reading-difficulties-and-adhd
#11
Quintino R Mano, Kristen E Jastrowski Mano, Carolyn A Denton, Jeffery N Epstein, Leanne Tamm
Evidence suggests that higher order linguistic functioning such as text comprehension is particularly vulnerable to emotional modulation. Gender has been identified as an important moderating variable in emotional expression such that girls tend toward internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety) whereas boys tend toward externalizing emotions (e.g., anger, combativeness), which may influence the relationship between emotion and text comprehension. The present study examined whether gender moderates the relationship between emotional-behavioral problems and text comprehension among children (n = 187; boys= 115, girls = 72) with both word reading difficulties (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a sample widely acknowledged to be at increased risk for developing emotional-behavioral problems such as anxiety, poor academic self-concept, and delinquency...
May 2017: Psychology in the Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749828/therapists-metacognitive-monitoring-of-the-psychotherapeutic-process-with-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#12
Marianne E Bourke, Brin F S Grenyer
BACKGROUND: Therapy for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is challenging, in part, because of the impact of BPD on the therapeutic relationship. The therapist's metacognitive capacity within therapy may be perturbed due to the complexity of verbal and nonverbal affect and cognition in the therapeutic interchange; however, research on this issue is lacking. METHODS: Therapists (N=20 clinical psychologists) were asked to discuss the treatment process when working with their patients with BPD (N=40) and their patients with major depressive disorder (N=40)...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745018/a-comparison-between-linguistic-skills-and-socio-communicative-abilities-in-williams-syndrome
#13
P Alfieri, D Menghini, L Marotta, L De Peppo, L Ravà, F Salvaguardia, C Varuzza, S Vicari
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) show a disharmonic linguistic profile with a clear pattern of strengths and weaknesses. Despite their sociable nature, atypical socio-communicative abilities and deficits in communication and relationship with others have been found. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether linguistic skills (LS) were in line with the pragmatic and social use of language and the cognitive development of 32 individuals with WS (18 boys and 14 girls) with a mean chronological age of 12...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744953/a-three-year-longitudinal-study-of-reading-and-spelling-difficulty-in-chinese-developmental-dyslexia-the-matter-of-morphological-awareness
#14
Xiuhong Tong, Catherine McBride, Jason Chor Ming Lo, Hua Shu
In the present study, we used a three-time point longitudinal design to investigate the associations of morphological awareness to word reading and spelling in a small group of those with and without dyslexia taken from a larger sample of 164 Hong Kong Chinese children who remained in a longitudinal study across ages 6, 7 and 8. Among those 164 children, 15 had been diagnosed as having dyslexia by professional psychologists, and 15 other children manifested average reading ability and had been randomly selected from the sample for comparison...
July 25, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744914/linguistic-constraints-on-statistical-word-segmentation-the-role-of-consonants-in-arabic-and-english
#15
Itamar Kastner, Frans Adriaans
Statistical learning is often taken to lie at the heart of many cognitive tasks, including the acquisition of language. One particular task in which probabilistic models have achieved considerable success is the segmentation of speech into words. However, these models have mostly been tested against English data, and as a result little is known about how a statistical learning mechanism copes with input regularities that arise from the structural properties of different languages. This study focuses on statistical word segmentation in Arabic, a Semitic language in which words are built around consonantal roots...
July 26, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740475/the-cognitive-information-effect-of-televised-news
#16
REVIEW
George Lăzăroiu, Aurel Pera, Ramona O Ştefănescu-Mihăilă, Sofia Bratu, Nela Mircică
The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings which prove that the biased perceptions of viewers may provide an inaccurate image of the informational validity of televised news. The news may generate distorted recollections of what occurred in particular reported events if displayed routines influence viewers not to pay attention to the essential features of a narrative. Elaborating on Fiske and Hartley (2010), Zelizer (2010), and Gunter (2015), we indicate that the character of the news setting has altered and individuals' news consumption routines have changed in adapting to media advancements...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736607/typical-versus-delayed-speech-onset-influences-verbal-reporting-of-autistic-interests
#17
Liliane Chiodo, Steve Majerus, Laurent Mottron
BACKGROUND: The distinction between autism and Asperger syndrome has been abandoned in the DSM-5. However, this clinical categorization largely overlaps with the presence or absence of a speech onset delay which is associated with clinical, cognitive, and neural differences. It is unknown whether these different speech development pathways and associated cognitive differences are involved in the heterogeneity of the restricted interests that characterize autistic adults. METHOD: This study tested the hypothesis that speech onset delay, or conversely, early mastery of speech, orients the nature and verbal reporting of adult autistic interests...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736538/agents-and-patients-in-physical-settings-linguistic-cues-affect-the-assignment-of-causality-in-german-and-tongan
#18
Andrea Bender, Sieghard Beller
Linguistic cues may be considered a potent tool for focusing attention on causes or effects. In this paper, we explore how different cues affect causal assignments in German and Tongan. From a larger screening study, two parts are reported here: Part 1 dealt with syntactic variations, including word order (agent vs. patient in first/subject position) and case marking (e.g., as ergative vs. non-ergative in Tongan) depending on verb type (transitive vs. intransitive). For two physical settings (wood floating on water and a man breaking a glass), participants assigned causality to the two entities involved...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#19
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732484/characteristic-differences-in-the-mini-mental-state-examination-used-in-asian-countries
#20
Yong S Shim, Dong Won Yang, Hee-Jin Kim, Young Ho Park, SangYun Kim
BACKGROUND: The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was adapted by individual countries according to their languages and cultures, though it has not been systematically compared. The objective of this study was to compare the linguistic and cultural variations of the MMSE used in various Asian countries. With this, we can analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the MMSE and consider using a common version in future international clinical studies in Asia. METHODS: We collected the MMSEs used in 11 Asian nations...
July 21, 2017: BMC Neurology
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