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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427021/risk-factors-for-learning-problems-in-youth-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#1
Julia Doss, Rochelle Caplan, Prabha Siddarth, Brenda Bursch, Tatiana Falcone, Marcy Forgey, Kyle Hinman, W Curt LaFrance, Rebecca Laptook, Richard Shaw, Deborah Weisbrot, Matthew Willis, Sigita Plioplys
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the risk factors for learning problems (LP) in pediatric psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and their specificity by comparing psychopathology, medical, cognitive/linguistic/achievement, bullying history, and parent education variables between subjects with PNES with and without LP and between subjects with PNES and siblings with LP. METHODS: 55 subjects with PNES and 35 siblings, aged 8-18years, underwent cognitive, linguistic, and achievement testing, and completed somatization and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425776/development-of-the-aboriginal-communication-assessment-after-brain-injury-acaabi-a-screening-tool-for-identifying-acquired-communication-disorders-in-aboriginal-australians
#2
Elizabeth M Armstrong, Natalie Ciccone, Deborah Hersh, Judith Katzenellebogen, Juli Coffin, Sandra Thompson, Leon Flicker, Colleen Hayward, Deborah Woods, Meaghan McAllister
PURPOSE: Acquired communication disorders (ACD), following stroke and traumatic brain injury, may not be correctly identified in Aboriginal Australians due to a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Within this paper we explore key issues that were considered in the development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI) - a screening tool designed to assess the presence of ACD in Aboriginal populations. METHOD: A literature review and consultation with key stakeholders were undertaken to explore directions needed to develop a new tool, based on existing tools and recommendations for future developments...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414029/how-well-does-capture%C3%A2-translate-an-exploratory-analysis-of-a-copd-case-finding-method-for-spanish-speaking-patients
#3
Wilson A Quezada, Beth A Whippo, Patricia A Jellen, Nancy K Leidy, David Mannino, Katherine J Kim, MeiLan K Han, Julia F Houfek, Barry Make, Karen G Malley, Catherine A Meldrum, Stephen Rennard, Barbara P Yawn, Fernando Martinez, Byron M Thomashow
BACKGROUND: This study tested the properties of a Spanish translation of CAPTURE™ (COPD Assessment in Primary Care To Identify Undiagnosed Respiratory Disease and Exacerbation Risk) with selective use of peak expiratory flow (PEF). METHODS: Analyses of data from the Spanish-speaking cohort of the cross-sectional, case-control study used to develop CAPTURE. Translation procedures included forward and backward translation, reconciliation, and cognitive interviewing to assure linguistic and cultural equivalence...
April 13, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408788/apathy-and-reduced-speed-of-processing-underlie-decline-in-verbal-fluency-following-dbs
#4
Jennifer A Foley, Tom Foltynie, Ludvic Zrinzo, Jonathan A Hyam, Patricia Limousin, Lisa Cipolotti
Objective. Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD). The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406332/development-of-an-eye-tracking-method-to-assess-mental-set-switching-in-people-with-aphasia
#5
Sabine Heuer, Melissa Lu Pinke
BACKGROUND: Deficits in cognitive flexibility contribute to impaired functional communication in people with aphasia. Understanding the relationship between functional communication and cognitive flexibility in people with neurologic communication disorders is important. However, traditional methods to assess mental set switching pose significant linguistic, cognitive and motoric response confounds. Eye-tracking methods have great potential to address these challenges. AIMS: The goal of this study was to develop and validate an eye-tracking method to index mental set switching in individuals without neurological impairment based upon performance on a nonlinguistic switching task...
April 13, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405906/cross-linguistic-transfer-in-bilinguals-reading-in-two-alphabetic-orthographies-the-grain-size-accommodation-hypothesis
#6
REVIEW
Marie Lallier, Manuel Carreiras
Reading acquisition is one of the most complex and demanding learning processes faced by children in their first years of schooling. If reading acquisition is challenging in one language, how is it when reading is acquired simultaneously in two languages? What is the impact of bilingualism on the development of literacy? We review behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from alphabetic writing systems suggesting that early bilingualism modulates reading development. Particularly, we show that cross-linguistic variations and cross-linguistic transfer affect bilingual reading strategies as well as their cognitive underpinnings...
April 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398574/can-rdoc-help-find-order-in-thought-disorder
#7
Alex S Cohen, Thanh P Le, Taylor L Fedechko, Brita Elvevåg
Thought disorder is a pernicious and nonspecific aspect of numerous serious mental illnesses (SMIs) and related conditions. Despite decades of empirical research on thought disorder, our present understanding of it is poor, our clinical assessments focus on a limited set of extreme behaviors, and treatments are palliative at best. Applying a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework to thought disorder research offers advantages to explicate its phenotype; isolate its mechanisms; and develop more effective assessments, treatments, and potential cures...
May 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397185/validation-of-the-italian-quality-of-life-in-short-stature-youth-qolissy-questionnaire
#8
J Quitmann, A Giammarco, M Maghnie, F Napoli, I Di Giovanni, C Carducci, A Mohn, M Bullinger, R Sommer
PURPOSE: The Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire is a disease-specific instrument developed to assess health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in children with short stature. While the original instrument was simultaneously developed in five European countries, this study describes the results of the Italian QoLISSY translation, cultural adaptation, and validation. METHODS: Focus group discussions and a cognitive debriefing process with children (N = 12) diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency or idiopathic short stature and one parent each, as well as parents of younger children (N = 20) were conducted to examine the linguistic and content validity of the Italian version...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396096/what-does-semantic-tiling-of-the-cortex-tell-us-about-semantics
#9
Lawrence W Barsalou
Recent use of voxel-wise modeling in cognitive neuroscience suggests that semantic maps tile the cortex. Although this impressive research establishes distributed cortical areas active during the conceptual processing that underlies semantics, it tells us little about the nature of this processing. While mapping concepts between Marr's computational and implementation levels to support neural encoding and decoding, this approach ignores Marr's algorithmic level, central for understanding the mechanisms that implement cognition, in general, and conceptual processing, in particular...
April 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394938/words-from-spontaneous-conversational-speech-can-be-recognized-with-human-like-accuracy-by-an-error-driven-learning-algorithm-that-discriminates-between-meanings-straight-from-smart-acoustic-features-bypassing-the-phoneme-as-recognition-unit
#10
Denis Arnold, Fabian Tomaschek, Konstantin Sering, Florence Lopez, R Harald Baayen
Sound units play a pivotal role in cognitive models of auditory comprehension. The general consensus is that during perception listeners break down speech into auditory words and subsequently phones. Indeed, cognitive speech recognition is typically taken to be computationally intractable without phones. Here we present a computational model trained on 20 hours of conversational speech that recognizes word meanings within the range of human performance (model 25%, native speakers 20-44%), without making use of phone or word form representations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392082/neglect-as-a-violation-of-species-expectant-experience-neurodevelopmental-consequences
#11
REVIEW
Katie A McLaughlin, Margaret A Sheridan, Charles A Nelson
The human brain requires a wide variety of experiences and environmental inputs in order to develop normally. Children who are neglected by caregivers or raised in institutional environments are deprived of numerous types of species-expectant environmental experiences. In this review, we articulate a model of how the absence of cognitive stimulation and sensory, motor, linguistic, and social experiences common among children raised in deprived early environments constrains early forms of learning, producing long-term deficits in complex cognitive function and associative learning...
February 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391032/readers-select-a-comprehension-mode-independent-of-pronoun-evidence-from-fmri-during-narrative-comprehension
#12
Franziska Hartung, Peter Hagoort, Roel M Willems
Perspective is a crucial feature for communicating about events. Yet it is unclear how linguistically encoded perspective relates to cognitive perspective taking. Here, we tested the effect of perspective taking with short literary stories. Participants listened to stories with 1st or 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist, while undergoing fMRI. When comparing action events with 1st and 3rd person pronouns, we found no evidence for a neural dissociation depending on the pronoun. A split sample approach based on the self-reported experience of perspective taking revealed 3 comprehension preferences...
April 6, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388219/inter-individual-variability-in-discourse-informativeness-in-elderly-populations
#13
Aurélie Pistono, Jérémie Pariente, Catherine Bézy, Josette Pastor, Thi Mai Tran, Antoine Renard, Marion Fossard, Jean-Luc Nespoulous, Mélanie Jucla
An increasing number of studies focus on discourse production in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and underline its clinical usefulness. However, if this is to be used as a clinical tool, one needs to consider how normal discourse varies within cognitively unimpaired elderly populations. In the current study, the aim has been to investigate discourse macrolinguistic variability. For this, 123 participants aged between 55 and 84 were recruited. A cluster analysis of their discourse macrolinguistic features was conducted...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384805/speech-recognition-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants-the-effects-of-working-memory-phonological-sensitivity-and-aging
#14
Aaron C Moberly, Michael S Harris, Lauren Boyce, Susan Nittrouer
Purpose: Models of speech recognition suggest that "top-down" linguistic and cognitive functions, such as use of phonotactic constraints and working memory, facilitate recognition under conditions of degradation, such as in noise. The question addressed in this study was what happens to these functions when a listener who has experienced years of hearing loss obtains a cochlear implant. Method: Thirty adults with cochlear implants and 30 age-matched controls with age-normal hearing underwent testing of verbal working memory using digit span and serial recall of words...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383969/working-memory-mediates-the-effects-of-gestational-age-at-birth-on-expressive-language-development-in-children
#15
Valentina Riva, Chiara Cantiani, Ginette Dionne, Andrea Marini, Sara Mascheretti, Massimo Molteni, Cecilia Marino
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the role of temporary memory, measured by phonological short-term memory (pSTM) and verbal working memory (vWM), as a mediator of the effect of 3 putative risk factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, home literacy environment, birth gestational age) upon expressive and receptive language. METHOD: A community-based sample of 646 Italian children aged 6-11 years was assessed with a comprehensive battery of language and cognitive tests. A mediation analysis was used to examine whether memory mediates environmental/biological effects on language...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376857/receptive-and-expressive-english-language-assessments-used-for-young-children-a-scoping-review-protocol
#16
Laureen J McIntyre, Laurie-Ann M Hellsten, Julia Bidonde, Catherine Boden, Carolyn Doi
BACKGROUND: The majority of a child's language development occurs in the first 5 years of life when brain development is most rapid. There are significant long-term benefits to supporting all children's language and literacy development such as maximizing their developmental potential (i.e., cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional), when children are experiencing a critical period of development (i.e., early childhood to 9 years of age). A variety of people play a significant role in supporting children's language development, including parents, guardians, family members, educators, and/or speech-language pathologists...
April 4, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376209/linguistic-strategies-for-improving-informed-consent-in-clinical-trials-among-low-health-literacy-patients
#17
Janice L Krieger, Jordan M Neil, Yulia A Strekalova, Melanie A Sarge
Background: Improving informed consent to participate in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is a key challenge in cancer communication. The current study examines strategies for enhancing randomization comprehension among patients with diverse levels of health literacy and identifies cognitive and affective predictors of intentions to participate in cancer RCTs. Methods: Using a post-test-only experimental design, cancer patients (n = 500) were randomly assigned to receive one of three message conditions for explaining randomization (ie, plain language condition, gambling metaphor, benign metaphor) or a control message...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372548/the-swedish-translation-and-cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-functional-assessment-of-chronic-illness-therapy-cervical-dysplasia-facit-cd-linguistic-validity-and-reliability-of-the-swedish-version
#18
Marie Rask, Marie Oscarsson, Neil Ludwig, Katarina Swahnberg
BACKGROUND: Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition, which has been shown to create anxiety in women. To be able to investigate these women's health-related quality of life, a disease-specific instrument is required. There does not seem to be a Swedish version of an instrument to screen for this specific disease. Therefore, this study aims to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) into a Swedish context and evaluate its linguistic validity and reliability...
April 4, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370288/a-core-avenue-for-transcultural-research-on-dementia-on-the-cross-linguistic-generalization-of-language-related-effects-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Noelia Calvo, Agustín Ibáñez, Edinson Muñoz, Adolfo M García
OBJECTIVE: Language is a key source of cross-cultural variability, which may have both subtle and major effects on neurocognition. However, this issue has been largely overlooked in two flourishing lines of research assessing the relationship between language-related neural systems and dementia. This paper assesses the limitations of the evidence on (i) the neuroprotective effects of bilingualism in Alzheimer's disease and (ii) specific language deficits as markers of Parkinson's disease...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362136/analogical-reasoning-in-children-with-specific-language-impairment-evidence-from-a-scene-analogy-task
#20
Magali Krzemien, Boutheina Jemel, Christelle Maillart
Analogical reasoning is a human ability that maps systems of relations. It develops along with relational knowledge, working memory and executive functions such as inhibition. It also maintains a mutual influence on language development. Some authors have taken a greater interest in the analogical reasoning ability of children with language disorders, specifically those with specific language impairment (SLI). These children apparently have weaker analogical reasoning abilities than their aged-matched peers without language disorders...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
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