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cognitive linguistics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329852/overcoming-elderspeak-a-qualitative-study-of-three-alternatives
#1
Anna I Corwin
Purpose: This study identifies genres of communication that avoid the features of elderspeak and successfully engage cognitively or physically affected older adults in rich communicative interaction. Design and Methods: The study examined 100 hr of audio- and video-recorded interaction between older Catholic nuns and their caregivers. The data were collected as part of a 7-year study on the linguistic and communicative factors that contribute to successful aging in a Catholic convent infirmary...
March 14, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327213/are-stereotypes-accurate-a-perspective-from-the-cognitive-science-of-concepts
#2
Lin Bian, Andrei Cimpian
In his 2012 book, Jussim suggests that people's beliefs about various groups (i.e., their stereotypes) are largely accurate. We unpack this claim using the distinction between generic and statistical beliefs - a distinction supported by extensive evidence in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and philosophy. Regardless of whether one understands stereotypes as generic or statistical beliefs about groups, skepticism remains about the rationality of social judgments.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326995/multipic-a-standardized-set-of-750-drawings-with-norms-for-six-european-languages
#3
Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Davide Crepaldi, Antje S Meyer, Boris New, Christos Pliatsikas, Eva Smolka, Marc Brysbaert
Numerous studies in psychology, cognitive neuroscience and psycholinguistics have used pictures of objects as stimulus materials. Currently, authors engaged in cross-linguistic work or wishing to run parallel studies at multiple sites where different languages are spoken must rely on rather small sets of black-and-white or colored line drawings. These sets are increasingly experienced as being too limited. Therefore, we constructed a new set of 750 colored pictures of concrete concepts. This set, MultiPic, constitutes a new valuable tool for cognitive scientists investigating language, visual perception, memory and/or attention in monolingual or multilingual populations...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326986/the-role-of-predictability-in-intonational-variability
#4
Rory Turnbull
Predictability is known to affect many properties of speech production. In particular, it has been observed that highly predictable elements (words, syllables) are produced with less phonetic prominence (shorter duration, less peripheral vowels) than less predictable elements. This tendency has been proposed to be a general property of language. This paper examines whether predictability is correlated with fundamental frequency (F0) production, through analysis of experimental corpora of American English. Predictability was variously defined as discourse mention, utterance probability, and semantic focus...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322130/motor-recovery-in-post-stroke-patients-with-aphasia-the-role-of-specific-linguistic-abilities
#5
Valeria Ginex, Laura Veronelli, Nicola Vanacore, Eleonora Lacorte, Alessia Monti, Massimo Corbo
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is a serious consequence of stroke but aphasics patients have been routinely excluded from participation in some areas of stroke research. OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of specific linguistic and non-verbal cognitive abilities on the short-term motor recovery of patients with aphasia due to first-ever stroke to the left hemisphere after an intensive rehabilitation treatment. METHODS: 48 post-acute aphasic patients, who underwent physiotherapy and speech language therapy, were enrolled for this retrospective cohort-study...
March 21, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314160/difference-in-imaging-biomarkers-of-neurodegeneration-between-early-and-late-onset-amnestic-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Anne-Laure Aziz, Bernard Giusiano, Sven Joubert, Lauréline Duprat, Mira Didic, Claude Gueriot, Lejla Koric, José Boucraut, Olivier Felician, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Eric Guedj, Mathieu Ceccaldi
Neuroimaging biomarkers differ between patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Whether these changes reflect cognitive heterogeneity or differences in disease severity is still unknown. This study aimed at investigating changes in neuroimaging biomarkers, according to the age of onset of the disease, in mild amnestic Alzheimer's disease patients with positive amyloid biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid. Both patient groups were impaired on tasks assessing verbal and visual recognition memory...
February 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290234/preliminary-validation-study-of-the-russian-birmingham-cognitive-screen
#7
E Kuzmina, G W Humphreys, M J Riddoch, A A Skvortsov, B S Weekes
INTRODUCTION: The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) is designed for use with individuals who have acquired language impairment following stroke. Our goal was to develop a Russian version of the BCoS (Rus-BCoS) by translating the battery following cultural and linguistic adaptations and establishing preliminary data on its psychometric properties. METHOD: Fifty patients with left-hemisphere stroke were recruited, of whom 98% were diagnosed with mild to moderate aphasia...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289887/bilingual-comparison-of-mandarin-and-english-cognitive-bias-tasks
#8
Louise Smith, Wing Gi Leung, Bryony Crane, Brian Parkinson, Timothea Toulopoulou, Jenny Yiend
Most research into cognitive biases has used Western samples, despite potential East-West socio-cultural differences. One reason is the lack of appropriate measures for non-Westerners. This study is about cross-linguistic equivalence which needs to be established before assessing cross-cultural differences in future research. We developed parallel Mandarin and English measures of interpretation bias and attention bias using back-translation and decentering procedures. We assessed task equivalence by administering both sets of measures to 47 bilingual Mandarin-English speakers...
March 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284447/cognitive-disorders-in-children-s-hydrocephalus
#9
REVIEW
Dorota Zielińska, Anna Rajtar-Zembaty, Anna Starowicz-Filip
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hydrocephalus is defined as an increase of volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricular system of the brain. It develops as a result of cerebrospinal fluid flow disorder due to dysfunctions of absorption or, less frequently, as a result of the increase of its production. Hydrocephalus may lead to various cognitive dysfunctions in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to determine cognitive functioning in children with hydrocephalus, the authors reviewed available literature while investigating this subject...
February 24, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277556/a-psychometric-study-of-the-bayley-scales-of-infant-and-toddler-development-in-persian-language-children
#10
Nadia Azari, Farin Soleimani, Roshanak Vameghi, Firoozeh Sajedi, Soheila Shahshahani, Hossein Karimi, Adis Kraskian, Amin Shahrokhi, Robab Teymouri, Masoud Gharib
OBJECTIVE: Bayley Scales of infant & toddler development is a well-known diagnostic developmental assessment tool for children aged 1-42 months. Our aim was investigating the validity & reliability of this scale in Persian speaking children. MATERIALS & METHODS: The method was descriptive-analytic. Translation- back translation and cultural adaptation was done. Content & face validity of translated scale was determined by experts' opinions. Overall, 403 children aged 1 to 42 months were recruited from health centers of Tehran, during years of 2013-2014 for developmental assessment in cognitive, communicative (receptive & expressive) and motor (fine & gross) domains...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277283/toward-a-functional-neuroanatomy-of-semantic-aphasia-a-history-and-ten-new-cases
#11
Olga Dragoy, Yulia Akinina, Nina Dronkers
Almost 70 years ago, Alexander Luria incorporated semantic aphasia among his aphasia classifications by demonstrating that deficits in linking the logical relationships of words in a sentence could co-occur with non-linguistic disorders of calculation, spatial gnosis and praxis deficits. In line with his comprehensive approach to the assessment of language and other cognitive functions, he argued that deficits in understanding semantically reversible sentences and prepositional phrases, for example, were in line with a single neuropsychological factor of impaired spatial analysis and synthesis, since understanding such grammatical relationships would also draw on their spatial relationships...
October 6, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277212/the-effect-of-signal-to-noise-ratio-on-linguistic-processing-in-a-semantic-judgment-task-an-aging-study
#12
Nicholas Stanley, Tara Davis, Julie Estis
BACKGROUND: Aging effects on speech understanding in noise have primarily been assessed through speech recognition tasks. Recognition tasks, which focus on bottom-up, perceptual aspects of speech understanding, intentionally limit linguistic and cognitive factors by asking participants to only repeat what they have heard. On the other hand, linguistic processing tasks require bottom-up and top-down (linguistic, cognitive) processing skills and are, therefore, more reflective of speech understanding abilities used in everyday communication...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276861/screening-for-dementia-in-arabic-normative-data-from-an-elderly-lebanese-sample
#13
Fadi Abou-Mrad, Gordon Chelune, Edward Zamrini, Lubna Tarabey, Maryse Hayek, Patricia Fadel
OBJECTIVE: Prevention and treatment of dementia is a global concern that requires involvement of international samples. The purpose of this study is to develop culturally sensitive norms based on normal older Lebanese adults using multiple cognitive screening measures translated into Arabic for regional use. METHODS: Participants were 164 community dwelling older Lebanese adults without cognitive complaints. They were administered the following cognitive measures in Arabic: Alzheimer's Disease 8-item questionnaire, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini Mental Status Exam, Modified Mini Mental Status, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Lebanese Digit Span, Cross-Linguistic Naming Test, and phonemic and semantic fluency tests...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274259/development-of-the-us-english-version-of-the-phenylketonuria-quality-of-life-pku-qol-questionnaire
#14
Elaina Jurecki, Amy Cunningham, Vanessa Birardi, Grégory Gagol, Catherine Acquadro
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a defect in the metabolism of phenylalanine (PHE) resulting in elevated blood and brain PHE levels, and leading to cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial problems. The phenylketonuria - quality of life (PKU-QOL) questionnaire was the first self-administered disease-specific instrument developed to assess the impact of PKU and its treatment on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients and their caregivers...
March 9, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272418/emergence-of-linguistic-laws-in-human-voice
#15
Iván González Torre, Bartolo Luque, Lucas Lacasa, Jordi Luque, Antoni Hernández-Fernández
Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271949/cogita-network-has-constructed-a-glossary-of-diagnostic-reasoning-terms
#16
Marie Barais, Johannes Hauswaldt, Geert-Jan Dinant, Margje van de Wiel, C F Erik Stolper, Paul Van Royen
The role of gut feelings in diagnostic reasoning is recognized by most GPs throughout Europe, and probably throughout the world. Studies on this topic have emerged from different countries but there is the risk that authors will use different terms for similar concepts. The European Expert Group on Cognitive and Interactive Processes in Diagnosis and Management in General Practice, COGITA for short, was founded in 2008 to conduct cross-border research in the area of non-analytical diagnostic reasoning. Academic GPs, PhD students, psychologists, linguists and students meet once a year to share their experiences, exchange results and initiate new studies on the topic...
December 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268122/the-right-hemisphere-is-highlighted-in-connected-natural-speech-production-and-perception
#17
Anna Maria Alexandrou, Timo Saarinen, Sasu Mäkelä, Jan Kujala, Riitta Salmelin
Current understanding of the cortical mechanisms of speech perception and production stems mostly from studies that focus on single words or sentences. However, it has been suggested that processing of real-life connected speech may rely on additional cortical mechanisms. In the present study, we examined the neural substrates of natural speech production and perception with magnetoencephalography by modulating three central features related to speech: amount of linguistic content, speaking rate and social relevance...
March 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261907/significant-change-events-in-psychodynamic-psychotherapy-is-cognition-or-emotion-more-important
#18
Kye L McCarthy, Peter Caputi, Brin F S Grenyer
OBJECTIVE: Significant change events are helpful moments within a psychotherapy session that have been shown in previous research to relate strongly to outcome. They are special moments and therefore provide rich data for research into understanding therapeutic process. This study investigated clinical and linguistic features of these helpful moments using and comparing both human ratings and computerized text analysis strategies. METHOD: Significant change events versus non-event passages were studied within 1195 word blocks of transcribed psychotherapy for 20 participants with diagnoses of comorbid depression and personality disorder...
March 6, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253256/a-mechanism-for-the-cortical-computation-of-hierarchical-linguistic-structure
#19
Andrea E Martin, Leonidas A A Doumas
Biological systems often detect species-specific signals in the environment. In humans, speech and language are species-specific signals of fundamental biological importance. To detect the linguistic signal, human brains must form hierarchical representations from a sequence of perceptual inputs distributed in time. What mechanism underlies this ability? One hypothesis is that the brain repurposed an available neurobiological mechanism when hierarchical linguistic representation became an efficient solution to a computational problem posed to the organism...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241193/lipreading-ability-and-its-cognitive-correlates-in-typically-developing-children-and-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#20
Jenni Heikkilä, Eila Lonka, Sanna Ahola, Auli Meronen, Kaisa Tiippana
Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive battery of standardized cognitive and linguistic tests. Results: Children with SLI were poorer lipreaders than their typically developing peers...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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