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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646561/pathways-to-arithmetic-fact-retrieval-and-percentage-calculation-in-adolescents
#1
Ulf Träff, Kenny Skagerlund, Linda Olsson, Rickard Östergren
BACKGROUND: Developing sufficient mathematical skills is a prerequisite to function adequately in society today. Given this, an important task is to increase our understanding regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying young people's acquisition of early number skills and formal mathematical knowledge. AIMS: The purpose was to examine whether the pathways to mathematics model provides a valid account of the cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic-number processing and mathematics in adolescents...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645961/cognitive-screening-and-behavioural-observation-of-functional-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#2
Eva Norlin Bagge, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of a neuropsychological screening instrument and two observation scales of everyday behaviour to describe cognitive and functional capacity of patients with multiepisode schizophrenia and considerable care needs, who frequently refuse to participate in cognitive testing or performance-based functional measurement. SETTING: One psychiatric unit specialised in severe mental illness at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641120/the-cognitive-bases-of-the-development-of-past-and-future-episodic-cognition-in-preschoolers
#3
Gülten Ünal, Annette Hohenberger
The aim of this study was to use a minimalist framework to examine the joint development of past and future episodic cognition and their underlying cognitive abilities in 3- to 5-year-old Turkish preschoolers. Participants engaged in two main tasks, a what-where-when (www) task to measure episodic memory and a future prediction task to measure episodic future thinking. Three additional tasks were used for predicting children's performance in the two main tasks: a temporal language task, an executive function task, and a spatial working memory task...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638355/motion-event-similarity-judgments-in-one-or-two-languages-an-exploration-of-monolingual-speakers-of-english-and-chinese-vs-l2-learners-of-english
#4
Yinglin Ji
Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635107/new-space-time-metaphors-foster-new-nonlinguistic-representations
#5
Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like "breakfast is above dinner" or "breakfast is below dinner" (depending on condition). In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left-right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a lifetime of visuospatial experience reading and writing text from left to right...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631183/comprehension-of-idioms-in-turkish-aphasic-participants
#6
Burcu Aydin, Muzaffer Barin, Oktay Yagiz
Brain damaged participants offer an opportunity to evaluate the cognitive and linguistic processes and make assumptions about how the brain works. Cognitive linguists have been investigating the underlying mechanisms of idiom comprehension to unravel the ongoing debate on hemispheric specialization in figurative language comprehension. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the comprehension of idiomatic expressions in left brain damaged (LBD) aphasic, right brain damaged (RBD) and healthy control participants...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626432/visible-social-interactions-do-not-support-the-development-of-false-belief-understanding-in-the-absence-of-linguistic-input-evidence-from-deaf-adult-homesigners
#7
Deanna L Gagne, Marie Coppola
Congenitally deaf individuals exhibit enhanced visuospatial abilities relative to normally hearing individuals. An early example is the increased sensitivity of deaf signers to stimuli in the visual periphery (Neville and Lawson, 1987a). While these enhancements are robust and extend across a number of visual and spatial skills, they seem not to extend to other domains which could potentially build on these enhancements. For example, congenitally deaf children, in the absence of adequate language exposure and acquisition, do not develop typical social cognition skills as measured by traditional Theory of Mind tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626013/sleep-disrupts-high-level-speech-parsing-despite-significant-basic-auditory-processing
#8
Shiri Makov, Omer Sharon, Nai Ding, Michal Ben-Shachar, Yuval Nir, Elana Zion Golumbic
The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli, such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed, using non-invasive brain recordings. Those were so far tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels, using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that can online monitor the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625346/the-role-of-the-motor-system-in-action-naming-in-patients-with-neurodegenerative-extrapyramidal-syndromes
#9
REVIEW
Maria Cotelli, Rosa Manenti, Michela Brambilla, Barbara Borroni
Previous studies of patients with brain damage have suggested a close relationship between aphasia and movement disorders. Neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes associated with cognitive impairment provide an interesting model for studying the neural substrates of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this review, we focused on studies investigating language production abilities in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). According to some reports, these patients exhibit a reduction in performance in both action and object naming or verb production compared to healthy individuals...
May 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622615/domain-general-neural-correlates-of-dependency-formation-using-complex-tones-to-simulate-language
#10
Ingmar Brilmayer, Jona Sassenhagen, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Matthias Schlesewsky
There is an ongoing debate whether the P600 event-related potential component following syntactic anomalies reflects syntactic processes per se, or if it is an instance of the P300, a domain-general ERP component associated with attention and cognitive reorientation. A direct comparison of both components is challenging because of the huge discrepancy in experimental designs and stimulus choice between language and 'classic' P300 experiments. In the present study, we develop a new approach to mimic the interplay of sequential position as well as categorical and relational information in natural language syntax (word category and agreement) in a non-linguistic target detection paradigm using musical instruments...
May 30, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619530/neural-networks-underlying-language-and-social-cognition-during-self-other-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Rajesh K Kana, Emma B Sartin, Carl Stevens, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Christopher Klein, Mark R Klinger, Laura Grofer Klinger
The social communication impairments defining autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be built upon core deficits in perspective-taking, language processing, and self-other representation. Self-referential processing entails the ability to incorporate self-awareness, self-judgment, and self-memory in information processing. Very few studies have examined the neural bases of integrating self-other representation and semantic processing in individuals with ASD. The main objective of this functional MRI study is to examine the role of language and social brain networks in self-other processing in young adults with ASD...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609206/predicting-recidivism-among-internet-child-sex-sting-offenders-using-psychological-language-analysis
#12
Michelle Drouin, Ryan L Boyd, Miriam Greidanus Romaneli
In this study, we examined the extent to which computerized linguistic analysis of natural language data from chat transcripts of Internet child sex stings predicted recidivism among 334 convicted offenders. Using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program, we found that reoffenders (including simultaneous and previous offenders) differed significantly from nonreoffenders in measures of clout (a composite measure of social dominance) and percentage of words used in the following linguistic categories: cognitive processes, personal pronoun use, insight, time, and ingestion...
June 13, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603492/magnetoencephalographic-imaging-of-auditory-and-somatosensory-cortical-responses-in-children-with-autism-and-sensory-processing-dysfunction
#13
Carly Demopoulos, Nina Yu, Jennifer Tripp, Nayara Mota, Anne N Brandes-Aitken, Shivani S Desai, Susanna S Hill, Ashley D Antovich, Julia Harris, Susanne Honma, Danielle Mizuiri, Srikantan S Nagarajan, Elysa J Marco
This study compared magnetoencephalographic (MEG) imaging-derived indices of auditory and somatosensory cortical processing in children aged 8-12 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 18), those with sensory processing dysfunction (SPD; N = 13) who do not meet ASD criteria, and typically developing control (TDC; N = 19) participants. The magnitude of responses to both auditory and tactile stimulation was comparable across all three groups; however, the M200 latency response from the left auditory cortex was significantly delayed in the ASD group relative to both the TDC and SPD groups, whereas the somatosensory response of the ASD group was only delayed relative to TDC participants...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586825/typical-toddlers-participation-in-just-in-time-programming-of-vocabulary-for-visual-scene-display-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-apps-on-mobile-technology-a-descriptive-study
#14
Christine Holyfield, Kathryn Drager, Janice Light, Jessica Gosnell Caron
Purpose: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) promotes communicative participation and language development for young children with complex communication needs. However, the motor, linguistic, and cognitive demands of many AAC technologies restrict young children's operational use of and influence over these technologies. The purpose of the current study is to better understand young children's participation in programming vocabulary "just in time" on an AAC application with minimized demands...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584214/study-on-language-rehabilitation-for-aphasia
#15
REVIEW
Zeng-Zhi Yu, Shu-Jun Jiang, Zi-Shan Jia, Hong-Yu Xiao, Mei-Qi Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to update our clinical recommendations for evidence-based language rehabilitation of people with aphasia, based on a systematic review of the literature from 1999 to 2015. DATA SOURCES: Articles referred to in this systematic review of the Medline and PubMed published in English language literatures were from 1998 to 2015. The terms used in the literature searches were aphasia and evidenced-based. STUDY SELECTION: The task force initially identified citations for 51 published articles...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572606/automated-screening-for-fragile-x-premutation-carriers-based-on-linguistic-and-cognitive-computational-phenotypes
#16
Arezoo Movaghar, Marsha Mailick, Audra Sterling, Jan Greenberg, Krishanu Saha
Millions of people globally are at high risk for neurodegenerative disorders, infertility or having children with a disability as a result of the Fragile X (FX) premutation, a genetic abnormality in FMR1 that is underdiagnosed. Despite the high prevalence of the FX premutation and its effect on public health and family planning, most FX premutation carriers are unaware of their condition. Since genetic testing for the premutation is resource intensive, it is not practical to screen individuals for FX premutation status using genetic testing...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555104/tdcs-over-the-motor-cortex-shows-differential-effects-on-action-and-object-words-in-associative-word-learning-in-healthy-aging
#17
Meret Branscheidt, Julia Hoppe, Nils Freundlieb, Pienie Zwitserlood, Gianpiero Liuzzi
Healthy aging is accompanied by a continuous decline in cognitive functions. For example, the ability to learn languages decreases with age, while the neurobiological underpinnings for the decline in learning abilities are not known exactly. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in combination with appropriate experimental paradigms, is a well-established technique to investigate the mechanisms of learning. Based on previous results in young adults, we tested the suitability of an associative learning paradigm for the acquisition of action- and object-related words in a cohort of older participants...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553240/the-role-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system-in-supporting-communication-in-a-digital-world
#18
REVIEW
Kelly Dickerson, Peter Gerhardstein, Alecia Moser
Humans use both verbal and non-verbal communication to interact with others and their environment and increasingly these interactions are occurring in a digital medium. Whether live or digital, learning to communicate requires overcoming the correspondence problem: There is no direct mapping, or correspondence between perceived and self-produced signals. Reconciliation of the differences between perceived and produced actions, including linguistic actions, is difficult and requires integration across multiple modalities and neuro-cognitive networks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547538/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-multilingualism-on-novel-language-learning-an-integrative-review
#19
Zoya Hirosh, Tamar Degani
Accumulated recent research suggests that prior knowledge of multiple languages leads to advantages in learning additional languages. In the current article, we review studies examining potential differences between monolingual and multilingual speakers in novel language learning in an effort to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such differences. We examine the multilingual advantage in children and adults, across a wide array of languages and learner populations. The majority of this literature focused on vocabulary learning, but studies that address phonology, grammar, and literacy learning are also discussed to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which multilingualism affects novel language learning...
May 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546307/the-right-lateral-cerebellum-represents-linguistic-predictability
#20
Elise Lesage, Peter C Hansen, R Chris Miall
Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content.We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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