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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128550/neural-correlates-of-quantity-processing-of-chinese-numeral-classifiers
#1
One-Soon Her, Ying-Chun Chen, Nai-Shing Yen
Linguistic analysis suggests that numeral classifiers carry quantity information. However, previous neuroimaging studies have shown that classifiers did not elicit higher activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), associated with representation of numerical magnitude, than tool nouns did. This study aimed to control the semantic attributes of classifiers and reexamine the underlying neural correlates. Participants performed a semantic distance comparison task in which they judged which one of the two items was semantically closer to the target...
November 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109966/mixed-emotions-in-the-predictive-brain
#2
Katie Hoemann, Maria Gendron, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Understanding complex or mixed emotions first requires an exploration of the human nervous system underlying emotions, and indeed all experience. We review current research in neuroscience, which describes the brain as a predictive, internal model of the world that flexibly combines features from past experience to construct emotions. We argue that "mixed emotions" result when these features of past experience correspond to multiple emotion categories. Integrating event perception and cognitive linguistic theories, we propose that "mixed emotions" are perceived as an episode of distinct, linked emotional events due to attentional shifts which update the predicted model of experience...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106029/development-content-validity-and-cross-cultural-adaptation-of-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-for-real-time-symptom-assessment-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#3
L Vork, D Keszthelyi, Z Mujagic, J W Kruimel, C Leue, I Pontén, H Törnblom, M Simrén, A Albu-Soda, Q Aziz, M Corsetti, L Holvoet, J Tack, S S Rao, J van Os, E G Quetglas, D A Drossman, A A M Masclee
BACKGROUND: End-of-day questionnaires, which are considered the gold standard for assessing abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are influenced by recall and ecological bias. The experience sampling method (ESM) is characterized by random and repeated assessments in the natural state and environment of a subject, and herewith overcomes these limitations. This report describes the development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) based on the ESM principle, taking into account content validity and cross-cultural adaptation...
November 6, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105247/increased-functional-connectivity-in-the-ventral-and-dorsal-streams-during-retrieval-of-novel-words-in-professional-musicians
#4
Eva Dittinger, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Lutz Jäncke, Mireille Besson, Stefan Elmer
Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations...
November 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105128/do-adapted-vignettes-improve-medical-decision-making-capacity-for%C3%A2-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Liv Thalén, Katarina Heimann Mühlenbock, Ove Almkvist, Maria Eriksdotter, Erik Sundström, Ing-Mari Tallberg
Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) is known to decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The vignette method uses hypothetical information as a prerequisite for measuring the capacity to make well-informed decisions to clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate if adapted vignettes can help individuals with mild AD to assimilate information, make decisions and express them in an understandable way, compared to corresponding decisions based on linguistically more demanding vignettes, as measured by the Swedish Linguistic Instrument for Medical Decision-making (LIMD)...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092591/continued-search-for-better-prediction-of-aided-speech-understanding-in-multi-talker-environments
#6
Jing Xia, Sridhar Kalluri, Christophe Micheyl, Ervin Hafter
To better understand issues of hearing-aid benefit during natural listening, this study examined the added demand placed by the goal of understanding speech over the more typically studied goal of simply recognizing speech sounds. The study compared hearing-aid benefit in two conditions, and examined factors that might account for the observed benefits. In the phonetic condition, listeners needed only identify the correct sound to make a correct response. In the semantic condition, listeners had to understand what they had heard to respond correctly, because the answer did not include any keywords from the spoken speech...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078104/modeling-individual-variation-in-early-literacy-skills-in-kindergarten-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#7
Arjan van Tilborg, Eliane Segers, Hans van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
In the present study, we investigated (i) to what extent the early literacy skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and word decoding) along with cognitive (nonverbal reasoning, attention, phonological short-term memory, sequential memory, executive functioning) and linguistic (auditory discrimination, rapid naming, articulation, vocabulary) precursor measures of 53 six-year old children with intellectual disabilities (ID) differ from a group of 74 peers with normal language acquisition (NLA) and (ii) whether the individual variation of early literacy skills in the two groups to the same extent can be explained from the precursor measures...
October 24, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067328/predicting-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-spontaneous-spoken-utterances
#8
Meysam Asgari, Jeffrey Kaye, Hiroko Dodge
INTRODUCTION: Trials in Alzheimer's disease are increasingly focusing on prevention in asymptomatic individuals. We hypothesized that indicators of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be present in the content of spoken language in older adults and be useful in distinguishing those with MCI from those who are cognitively intact. To test this hypothesis, we performed linguistic analyses of spoken words in participants with MCI and those with intact cognition participating in a clinical trial...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062472/cross-linguistic-phonotactic-competition-and-cognitive-control-in-bilinguals
#9
Max R Freeman, Henrike K Blumenfeld, Viorica Marian
The current study examines the relation between cognitive control and linguistic competition resolution at the sublexical level in bilinguals. Twenty-one Spanish-English bilinguals and 23 English monolinguals completed a non-linguistic Stroop task (indexing inhibitory control) and a linguistic priming/lexical decision task (indexing Spanish phonotactic constraint competition during English comprehension). More efficient Stroop performance (i.e., a smaller Stroop effect) in bilinguals was associated with decreased competition from Spanish phonotactic constraints during English comprehension...
2017: Journal of Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060309/the-contribution-of-different-frequency-bands-in-class-separability-of-covert-speech-tasks-for-bcis
#10
Amir Jahangiri, Francisco Sepulveda
Several recent studies demonstrate the possibility of using user initiated covert speech mental tasks in brain computer interfaces with varying degrees of success, but details of the best frequency features had not been investigated. In this work, ten volunteers in the age range of 22-70 years participated in the experiment. Eight of them were neurologically healthy, one user was dyslexic, and another was autistic. The four words "back", "forward", "left", and "right" were shortened into "BA", "FO", "LE", and "RY", which are phonetically dissimilar and cognitively relevant directional commands...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052802/the-development-of-episodic-future-thinking-in-middle-childhood
#11
F Ferretti, A Chiera, S Nicchiarelli, I Adornetti, R Magni, S Vicari, G Valeri, A Marini
The ability to imagine future events (episodic future thinking-EFT) emerges in preschoolers and further improves during middle childhood and adolescence. In the present study, we focused on the possible cognitive factors that affect EFT and its development. We assessed the ability to mentally project forward in time of a large cohort of 135 6- to 11-year-old children through a task with minimal narrative demands (the Picture Book Trip task adapted from Atance and Meltzoff in Cogn Dev 20(3):341-361. doi:10.1016/j...
October 20, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052241/symbol-grounding-without-direct-experience-do-words-inherit-sensorimotor-activation-from-purely-linguistic-context
#12
Fritz Günther, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Theories of embodied cognition assume that concepts are grounded in non-linguistic, sensorimotor experience. In support of this assumption, previous studies have shown that upwards response movements are faster than downwards movements after participants have been presented with words whose referents are typically located in the upper vertical space (and vice versa for downwards responses). This is taken as evidence that processing these words reactivates sensorimotor experiential traces. This congruency effect was also found for novel words, after participants learned these words as labels for novel objects that they encountered either in their upper or lower visual field...
October 19, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045888/to-plan-or-not-to-plan-does-planning-for-production-remove-facilitation-from-associative-priming
#13
Suzanne R Jongman, Antje S Meyer
Theories of conversation propose that in order to have smooth transitions from one turn to the next, speakers already plan their response while listening to their interlocutor. Moreover, it has been argued that speakers align their linguistic representations (i.e. prime each other), thereby reducing the processing costs associated with concurrent listening and speaking. In two experiments, we assessed how identity and associative priming from spoken words onto picture naming were affected by a concurrent speech planning task...
October 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045599/a-modulatory-effect-of-brief-passive-exposure-to-non-linguistic-sounds-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-relevance-to-cognitive-performance
#14
Maki S Koyama, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Cynthia P Roesler, Michael P Milham, April A Benasich
A growing literature on resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) has explored the impact of preceding sensory experience on intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). However, it remains largely unknown how passive exposure to irrelevant auditory stimuli, which is a constant in everyday life, reconfigures iFC. Here, we directly compared pre- and post-exposure R-fMRI scans to examine: 1) modulatory effects of brief passive exposure to repeating non-linguistic sounds on subsequent iFC, and 2) associations between iFC modulations and cognitive abilities...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039275/visuospatial-functioning-in-the-primary-progressive-aphasias
#15
Christa L Watson, Katherine Possin, I Elaine Allen, H Isabel Hubbard, Marita Meyer, Ariane E Welch, Gil D Rabinovici, Howard Rosen, Katherine P Rankin, Zachary Miller, Miguel A Santos-Santos, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify whether the three main primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants would show differential profiles on measures of visuospatial cognition. We hypothesized that the logopenic variant would have the most difficulty across tasks requiring visuospatial and visual memory abilities. METHODS: PPA patients (n=156), diagnosed using current criteria, and controls were tested on a battery of tests tapping different aspects of visuospatial cognition...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033804/second-language-word-learning-through-repetition-and-imitation-functional-networks-as-a-function-of-learning-phase-and-language-distance
#16
Ladan Ghazi-Saidi, Ana Ines Ansaldo
Introduction and Aim: Repetition and imitation are among the oldest second language (L2) teaching approaches and are frequently used in the context of L2 learning and language therapy, despite some heavy criticism. Current neuroimaging techniques allow the neural mechanisms underlying repetition and imitation to be examined. This fMRI study examines the influence of verbal repetition and imitation on network configuration. Integration changes within and between the cognitive control and language networks were studied, in a pair of linguistically close languages (Spanish and French), and compared to our previous work on a distant language pair (Ghazi-Saidi et al...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031740/eyetracking-metrics-reveal-impaired-spatial-anticipation-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
Silvia Primativo, Camilla Clark, Keir X X Yong, Nicholas C Firth, Jennifer Nicholas, Daniel Alexander, Jason D Warren, Jonathan D Rohrer, Sebastian J Crutch
Eyetracking technology has had limited application in the dementia field to date, with most studies attempting to discriminate syndrome subgroups on the basis of basic oculomotor functions rather than higher-order cognitive abilities. Eyetracking-based tasks may also offer opportunities to reduce or ameliorate problems associated with standard paper-and-pencil cognitive tests such as the complexity and linguistic demands of verbal test instructions, and the problems of tiredness and attention associated with lengthy tasks that generate few data points at a slow rate...
October 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028583/influence-of-semantic-consistency-and-perceptual-features-on-visual-attention-during-scene-viewing-in-toddlers
#18
Andrea Helo, Sandrien van Ommen, Sebastian Pannasch, Lucile Danteny-Dordoigne, Pia Rämä
Conceptual representations of everyday scenes are built in interaction with visual environment and these representations guide our visual attention. Perceptual features and object-scene semantic consistency have been found to attract our attention during scene exploration. The present study examined how visual attention in 24-month-old toddlers is attracted by semantic violations and how perceptual features (i. e. saliency, centre distance, clutter and object size) and linguistic properties (i. e. object label frequency and label length) affect gaze distribution...
October 10, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027506/coprolalia-in-aphasic-patients-with-stroke-a-longitudinal-observation-from-the-blas2t-database
#19
Fazlallah Afshangian, Mohammad Nami, Amin Abolhasani Foroughi, Amir Rahimi, Ryan Husak, Franco Fabbro, Barbara Tomasino, Christine Kremer
The BLAS2T (bilingual aphasia in stroke-study team) initiative has been a multi-center attempt to investigate longitudinal changes in language function in a cohort of stroke subjects. This report discusses linguistic performance in four cases from the BLAS2T database who demonstrated coprolalia as an irresistible urge to say obscene words.  Coprolalia was found to partly resolve in a 30-day follow-up in three cases. Recognition of coprolalia and language recovery patterns in bilingual aphasic patients with stroke would potentially lead to their even better individualized care and neurolinguistic/cognitive rehabilitation...
October 13, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024916/can-monolinguals-be-like-bilinguals-evidence-from-dialect-switching
#20
Neil W Kirk, Vera Kempe, Kenneth C Scott-Brown, Andrea Philipp, Mathieu Declerck
Bilinguals rely on cognitive control mechanisms like selective activation and inhibition of lexical entries to prevent intrusions from the non-target language. We present cross-linguistic evidence that these mechanisms also operate in bidialectals. Thirty-two native German speakers who sometimes use the Öcher Platt dialect, and thirty-two native English speakers who sometimes use the Dundonian Scots dialect completed a dialect-switching task. Naming latencies were higher for switch than for non-switch trials, and lower for cognate compared to non-cognate nouns...
October 9, 2017: Cognition
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