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cognitive linguistics

Huihui Sun, Naijun Wan, Xinli Wang, Liang Chang, Dazhi Cheng
18p deletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disease caused by deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18. By using cytogenetic and SNP array analysis, we identified a girl with 18p deletion syndrome exhibiting craniofacial anomalies, intellectual disability, and short stature. G-banding analysis of metaphase cells revealed an abnormal karyotype 46,XX,del(18)(p10). Further, SNP array detected a 15.3-Mb deletion at 18p11.21p11.32 (chr18:12842-15375878) including 61 OMIM genes. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis showed that clinical manifestations of the patient were correlated with LAMA1, TWSG1, and GNAL deletions...
March 16, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Valentina Morsan, Carlo Fantoni, Maria Anna Tallandini
AIM: To verify whether it is appropriate to use age correction for infants born preterm in all the developmental domains (cognitive, linguistic, and motor) considered by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). METHOD: Seventy-three infants born preterm (26-35wks) without major neurological sequelae and 67 infants born at term were assessed at 12 months (corrected age for infants born preterm). The performance of the infants born preterm was assessed with two different evaluations: scores based on uncorrected age and scores based on corrected age...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Cláudia Lopes Carvalho, Ariella Fornachari Ribeiro Belan, Leila Regina de Castro, Márcia Radanovic
PURPOSE: To characterize the linguistic profile of adults and elderly with Down Syndrome (DS) using the Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia (ABCD). METHODS: Thirty adult individuals with DS were evaluated through the MoCA cognitive battery, four functional scales (Pfeffer, Lawton-IADL, Katz-IADL and IQCODE) and the ABCD battery, which evaluates Mental State, Episodic Memory, Linguistic Expression, Linguistic Comprehension and Visuospatial Construction...
March 12, 2018: CoDAS
Burkhard Pleger, Dagmar Timmann
Lesion studies emphasize the role of the human cerebellum in a variety of cognitive processes. To date, most evidence comes from studies investigating language-related functions, such as verbal short-term/working memory, word generation, or linguistic/semantic predictions. This review summarizes brain imaging, non-invasive cerebellar stimulation and lesion studies in this field. Converging evidence suggests a cerebellar role in error processing and memory encoding although findings are partly contradictory...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Chia-Ying Chu, Utako Minai
Previous studies have shown that young children often fail to comprehend demonstratives correctly when they are uttered by a speaker whose perspective is different from children's own, and instead tend to interpret them with respect to their own perspective (e.g., Webb and Abrahamson in J Child Lang 3(3):349-367, 1976); Clark and Sengul in J Child Lang 5(3):457-475, 1978). In the current study, we examined children's comprehension of demonstratives in English (this and that) and Mandarin Chinese (zhe and na) in order to test the hypothesis that children's non-adult-like demonstrative comprehension is related to their still-developing non-linguistic cognitive abilities supporting perspective-taking, including Theory of Mind and Executive Function...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Ricardo F Allegri, Pablo Bagnatti
The first step from the neuropsychology in Argentina was in 1883 with the thesis of Antonio Piñeiro about the brain localization of the language and vision disorders, only few years after Broca. The aim of this work has been to describe the development of the neuropsychology in Argentina and its relation with the psychology, neurology and psychiatry. The first period was into the neurology with its French school in?uence. In 1907, Jose Ingeniero published in French his book about "amusia", Cristofredo Jakob the "folia neurobiologica" where he described the organization of the human brain, Vicente Dimitri in 1933 his book "aphasia" and Bernardo de Quiros in 1959 his works about dyslexia...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Christine Cuskley, Vittorio Loreto, Simon Kirby
A well-trod debate at the nexus of cognitive science and linguistics, the so-called past tense debate, has examined how rules and exceptions are individually acquired (McClelland & Patterson, ; Pinker & Ullman, ). However, this debate focuses primarily on individual mechanisms in learning, saying little about how rules and exceptions function from a sociolinguistic perspective. To remedy this, we use agent-based models to examine how rules and exceptions function across populations. We expand on earlier work by considering how repeated interaction and cultural transmission across speakers affects the dynamics of rules and exceptions in language, measuring linguistic outcomes within a social system rather than focusing individual learning outcomes...
March 8, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
M Palau-Baduell, B Salvado-Salvado, M A Idiazabal-Alecha, A Fernandez-Teruel, T Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The perisylvian areas, located around the Sylvian fissure, are constituted by frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. These are connected forming specialized neural networks and play a primary role in the development of linguistic skills and social cognition. These areas are a possible neuronal substrate of cognitive and behavioral impairments in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). AIM: To locate and quantify epileptiform activity sources through magnetoencephalography in frontal perisylvian areas in children with idiopathic ASD...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Shigeru Miyagawa, Cora Lesure, Vitor A Nóbrega
Early modern humans developed mental capabilities that were immeasurably greater than those of non-human primates. We see this in the rapid innovation in tool making, the development of complex language, and the creation of sophisticated art forms, none of which we find in our closest relatives. While we can readily observe the results of this high-order cognitive capacity, it is difficult to see how it could have developed. We take up the topic of cave art and archeoacoustics, particularly the discovery that cave art is often closely connected to the acoustic properties of the cave chambers in which it is found...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Angelika Kunkel, Ruth Filik, Ian Grant Mackenzie, Hartmut Leuthold
Recently, we showed that when participants passively read about moral transgressions (e.g., adultery), they implicitly engage in the evaluative (good-bad) categorization of incoming information, as indicated by a larger event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity to immoral than to moral scenarios (Leuthold, Kunkel, Mackenzie, & Filik in Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 1021-1029, 2015). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies indicated that explicit moral tasks prioritize the semantic-cognitive analysis of incoming information but that implicit tasks, as used in Leuthold et al...
March 6, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Dominic W Massaro
Extensive experience in written language might provide children the opportunity to learn to read in the same manner they learn spoken language. One potential type of written language immersion is reading aloud to children, which is additionally valuable because the vocabulary in picture books is richer and more extensive than that found in child-directed speech. This study continues a comparison between these 2 communication media by evaluating their relative linguistic and cognitive complexity. Although reading grade level has been used only to assess the complexity of written language, it was also applied to both child-directed and adult-directed speech...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Pilar Sellés, Vicenta Ávila, Tomás Martínez, Liz Ysla
This paper deals with the skills related to the early reading acquisition in two countries that share language. Traditionally on reading readiness research there is a great interest to find out what factors affect early reading ability, but differ from other academic skills that affect general school learnings. Furthermore, it is also known how the influence of pre-reading variables in two countries with the same language, affect the development of the reading. On the other hand, several studies have examined what skills are related to reading readiness (phonological awareness, alphabetic awareness, naming speed, linguistic skills, metalinguistic knowledge and basic cognitive processes), but there are no studies showing whether countries can also influence the development of these skills...
2018: PloS One
Jessica Brown, Amber Thiessen
Purpose: Visuographic supports in the form of images are utilized during assessment and treatment for individuals with aphasia to supplement speech, language, and cognitive losses limiting communication. Clinicians rely on prior experience and intuition to make decisions regarding image-based support design and selection (e.g., augmentative and alternative communication strategies). Researchers have begun to focus on the relationship between the images and the benefits they provide for adults with aphasia...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jessica A Obermeyer, Lisa A Edmonds
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the preliminary efficacy of Attentive Reading and Constrained Summarization-Written (ARCS-W) in people with mild aphasia. ARCS-W adapts an existing treatment, ARCS (Rogalski & Edmonds, 2008), to address discourse level writing in mild aphasia. ARCS-W focuses on the cognitive and linguistic skills required for discourse production. Method: This study was a within-subject pre-postdesign. Three people with mild aphasia participated...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jessica R Petok, Catherine E Myers, Judy Pa, Zachary Hobel, David M Wharton, Luis D Medina, Maria Casado, Giovanni Coppola, Mark A Gluck, John M Ringman
Fast, inexpensive, and noninvasive identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) before clinical symptoms emerge would augment our ability to intervene early in the disease. Individuals with fully penetrant genetic mutations causing autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) are essentially certain to develop the disease, providing a unique opportunity to examine biomarkers during the preclinical stage. Using a generalization task that has previously shown to be sensitive to medial temporal lobe pathology, we compared preclinical individuals carrying ADAD mutations to noncarrying kin to determine whether generalization (the ability to transfer previous learning to novel but familiar recombinations) is vulnerable early, before overt cognitive decline...
February 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Arianna Bello, Daniela Onofrio, Lorena Remi, Cristina Caselli
This study analyzed the communicative, linguistic and symbolic skills in Italian Late Talking (LT) toddlers. Thirty-five participants were identified through a language-screening program at 29 months by using the Italian version of MB-CDI W&S Short Form. Cognitive, communicative and linguistic skills were evaluated 5 later, with indirect and direct tools. The MB-CDI WS Short Form revealed, in LT children, weakness in gesture production, decontextualized comprehension, verbal imitation, symbolic play, and phonological accuracy...
February 23, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Gloria Pino Escobar, Marina Kalashnikova, Paola Escudero
The role of early bilingual experience in the development of skills in the general cognitive and linguistic domains remains poorly understood. This study investigated the link between these two domains by assessing inhibitory control processes in school-aged monolingual and bilingual children with similar English receptive vocabulary size. The participants, 8-year-old monolinguals and bilinguals, completed two Verbal Fluency Tasks (VFTs), letter and category, and two measures of inhibitory control. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on the VFTs, but performance was similar on the inhibitory control measures approaching ceiling for both monolingual and bilingual children...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Flavio Marti, Antonella Paladini, Giustino Varrassi, Roberto Latina
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents' pain experiences are complex and multidimensional, and evaluating pain only from a sensory and affective point of view may be in many instances limiting and inadequate; this is the reason why it is of paramount importance to identify the tools which can better assess the pain experienced by young patients. A person-oriented approach is highly encouraged, as it may better investigate the cognitive and behavioral development typical of this age group. The aim of this review paper is to describe the available tools which are able to adequately assess pain intensity in adolescents, in particular those validated in Italian...
February 22, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Caroline Floccia, Thomas D Sambrook, Claire Delle Luche, Rosa Kwok, Jeremy Goslin, Laurence White, Allegra Cattani, Emily Sullivan, Kirsten Abbot-Smith, Andrea Krott, Debbie Mills, Caroline Rowland, Judit Gervain, Kim Plunkett
The majority of the world's children grow up learning two or more languages. The study of early bilingualism is central to current psycholinguistics, offering insights into issues such as transfer and interference in development. From an applied perspective, it poses a universal challenge to language assessment practices throughout childhood, as typically developing bilingual children usually underperform relative to monolingual norms when assessed in one language only. We measured vocabulary with Communicative Development Inventories for 372 24-month-old toddlers learning British English and one Additional Language out of a diverse set of 13 (Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hindi-Urdu, Italian, Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, and Welsh)...
March 2018: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
Christos Salis, Laura Murray, Katrina Bakas
Purpose: Recent research has highlighted the clinical relevance of understanding the nature of short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) deficits in persons with aphasia and the way these deficits affect linguistic processing and functional communication in activities of daily living. The psychometric properties of tests commonly used to identify STM/WM problems in individuals with aphasia, however, have been questioned. No previous study has sought to investigate assessment practices and attitudes by speech-language pathologists involved in aphasia management...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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