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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192299/machine-learning-to-detect-signatures-of-disease-in-liquid-biopsies-a-user-s-guide
#1
Jina Ko, Steven N Baldassano, Po-Ling Loh, Konrad Kording, Brian Litt, David Issadore
New technologies that measure sparse molecular biomarkers from easily accessible bodily fluids (e.g. blood, urine, and saliva) are revolutionizing disease diagnostics and precision medicine. Microchip devices can measure more disease biomarkers with better sensitivity and specificity each year, but clinical interpretation of these biomarkers remains a challenge. Single biomarkers in 'liquid biopsy' often cannot accurately predict the state of a disease due to heterogeneity in phenotype and disease expression across individuals...
December 1, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178798/dissolution-of-monocrystalline-silicon-nanomembranes-and-their-use-as-encapsulation-layers-and-electrical-interfaces-in-water-soluble-electronics
#2
Yoon Kyeung Lee, Ki Jun Yu, Enming Song, Amir Barati Farimani, Flavia Vitale, Zhaoqian Xie, Younghee Yoon, Yerim Kim, Andrew Richardson, Haiwen Luan, Yixin Wu, Xu Xie, Timothy H Lucas, Kaitlyn Crawford, Yongfeng Mei, Xue Feng, Yonggang Huang, Brian Litt, Narayana R Aluru, Lan Yin, John A Rogers
The chemistry that governs the dissolution of device-grade, monocrystalline silicon nanomembranes into benign end products by hydrolysis serves as the foundation for fully eco/biodegradable classes of high performance electronics. This paper examines these processes in aqueous solutions with chemical compositions relevant to ground water and biofluids. The results show that the presence of Si(OH)4 and proteins in these solutions can slow the rates of dissolution and that ion specific effects associated with Ca2+ can significantly increase these rates...
November 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159960/mapping-the-structural-and-functional-network-architecture-of-the-medial-temporal-lobe-using-7t-mri
#3
Preya Shah, Danielle S Bassett, Laura E M Wisse, John A Detre, Joel M Stein, Paul A Yushkevich, Russell T Shinohara, John B Pluta, Elijah Valenciano, Molly Daffner, David A Wolk, Mark A Elliott, Brian Litt, Kathryn A Davis, Sandhitsu R Das
Medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions play integral roles in memory function and are differentially affected in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The ability to structurally and functionally characterize these subregions may be important to understanding MTL physiology and diagnosing diseases involving the MTL. In this study, we characterized network architecture of the MTL in healthy subjects (n = 31) using both resting state functional MRI and MTL-focused T2-weighted structural MRI at 7 tesla...
November 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105070/standards-for-data-acquisition-and-software-based-analysis-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-electroencephalography-recordings-from-animals-a-task1-wg5-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task-force-of-the-ilae
#4
Jason T Moyer, Vadym Gnatkovsky, Tomonori Ono, Jakub Otáhal, Joost Wagenaar, William C Stacey, Jeffrey Noebels, Akio Ikeda, Kevin Staley, Marco de Curtis, Brian Litt, Aristea S Galanopoulou
Electroencephalography (EEG)-the direct recording of the electrical activity of populations of neurons-is a tremendously important tool for diagnosing, treating, and researching epilepsy. Although standard procedures for recording and analyzing human EEG exist and are broadly accepted, there are no such standards for research in animal models of seizures and epilepsy-recording montages, acquisition systems, and processing algorithms may differ substantially among investigators and laboratories. The lack of standard procedures for acquiring and analyzing EEG from animal models of epilepsy hinders the interpretation of experimental results and reduces the ability of the scientific community to efficiently translate new experimental findings into clinical practice...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910473/optimization-of-simulation-and-moulage-in-military-related-medical-training
#5
Christopher Petersen, Stephen C Rush, Isabelle Gallo, Bryan Dalere, Brian Staak, Litt Moore, Win Kerr, Matthew Chandler, Will Smith
Preparation of Special Operations Forces (SOF) Medics as first responders for the battle space and austere environments is critical to optimize survival and quality of life for our Operators who may sustain serious and complex wounding patterns and illnesses. In the absence of constant clinical exposure for these medics, it is necessary to maximize all available training opportunities. The incorporation of scenario-based training helps weave together teamwork and the ability to practice treatment protocols in a tactical, controlled training environment to reproduce, to some degree, the environment in and stressors under which care will need to be delivered...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862995/intracranial-eeg-fluctuates-over-months-after-implanting-electrodes-in-human-brain
#6
Hoameng Ung, Steven N Baldassano, Hank Bink, Abba M Krieger, Shawniqua Williams, Flavia Vitale, Chengyuan Wu, Dean Freestone, Ewan Nurse, Kent Leyde, Kathryn A Davis, Mark Cook, Brian Litt
OBJECTIVE: Implanting subdural and penetrating electrodes in the brain causes acute trauma and inflammation that affect intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings. This behavior and its potential impact on clinical decision-making and algorithms for implanted devices have not been assessed in detail. In this study we aim to characterize the temporal and spatial variability of continuous, prolonged human iEEG recordings. APPROACH: Intracranial electroencephalography from 15 patients with drug-refractory epilepsy, each implanted with 16 subdural electrodes and continuously monitored for an average of 18 months, was included in this study...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728045/postdiagnosis-neurological-care-for-patients-with-psychogenic-nonepileptic-spells-pnes
#7
Chloe E Hill, Hannah Schwartz, Nabila Dahodwala, Brian Litt, Kathryn A Davis
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated continuity of neurological care for patients discharged from the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) with a diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES). Because PNES are seizure-like episodes that cannot be explained by abnormal electrical brain activity, they are challenging for patients to understand and accept. Consequently, after diagnosis, patients commonly fail to start recommended psychotherapy and instead pursue redundant medical care. As consistent relationships with healthcare providers may help, we instituted standard follow-up for patients diagnosed with PNES...
September 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681473/timing-is-everything-where-status-epilepticus-treatment-fails
#8
REVIEW
Chloe E Hill, Alomi O Parikh, Colin Ellis, Jennifer S Myers, Brian Litt
Status epilepticus is an emergency; however, prompt treatment of patients with status epilepticus is challenging. Clinical trials, such as the ESETT (Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial), compare effectiveness of antiepileptic medications, and rigorous examination of effectiveness of care delivery is similarly warranted. We reviewed the medical literature on observed deviations from guidelines, clinical significance, and initiatives to improve timely treatment. We found pervasive, substantial gaps between recommended and "real-world" practice with regard to timing, dosing, and sequence of antiepileptic therapy...
August 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666338/interictal-epileptiform-activity-outside-the-seizure-onset-zone-impacts-cognition
#9
Hoameng Ung, Christian Cazares, Ameya Nanivadekar, Lohith Kini, Joost Wagenaar, Danielle Becker, Abba Krieger, Timothy Lucas, Brian Litt, Kathryn A Davis
See Kleen and Kirsch (doi:10.1093/awx178) for a scientific commentary on this article.Cognitive deficits are common among epilepsy patients. In these patients, interictal epileptiform discharges, also termed spikes, are seen routinely on electroencephalography and believed to be associated with transient cognitive impairments. In this study, we investigated the effect of spikes on memory encoding and retrieval, taking into account the spatial distribution of spikes in relation to the seizure onset zone as well as anatomical regions of the brain...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459961/crowdsourcing-seizure-detection-algorithm-development-and-validation-on-human-implanted-device-recordings
#10
Steven N Baldassano, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Hoameng Ung, Tyler Blevins, Erin C Conrad, Kent Leyde, Mark J Cook, Ankit N Khambhati, Joost B Wagenaar, Gregory A Worrell, Brian Litt
There exist significant clinical and basic research needs for accurate, automated seizure detection algorithms. These algorithms have translational potential in responsive neurostimulation devices and in automatic parsing of continuous intracranial electroencephalography data. An important barrier to developing accurate, validated algorithms for seizure detection is limited access to high-quality, expertly annotated seizure data from prolonged recordings. To overcome this, we hosted a kaggle.com competition to crowdsource the development of seizure detection algorithms using intracranial electroencephalography from canines and humans with epilepsy...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409062/improved-availability-and-quality-of-care-with-epilepsy-nurse-practitioners
#11
Chloe E Hill, Bethany Thomas, Kimberly Sansalone, Kathryn A Davis, Judy A Shea, Brian Litt, Nabila Dahodwala
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the quality of care delivered by nurse practitioner (NP)-physician teams employed to expand clinic appointment availability for patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of patients with epilepsy presenting to the Penn Epilepsy Center for a new patient appointment in 2014. During this time, patients were seen either by an NP-physician team care model or a more traditional physician-only care model...
April 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362211/laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-palliative-ablation-of-a-chordoma-metastasis-to-the-spine-case-report
#12
Brian J Williams, Patrick J Karas, Ganesh Rao, Laurence D Rhines, Claudio E Tatsui
The authors present the first report of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) ablation of a recurrent chordoma metastasis to the cervical spine. This patient was a 75-year-old woman who was diagnosed and treated for a sacral chordoma, and then developed metastases to the lung and upper thoracic spine. Unfortunately she experienced symptomatic recurrence at the C-7 spinous process. She underwent an uncomplicated LITT to the lesion. The patient convalesced without incident and was discharged on postoperative Day 1...
June 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327935/science-in-the-cloud-sic-a-use-case-in-mri-connectomics
#13
Gregory Kiar, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Dean Kleissas, William Gray Roncal, Brian Litt, Brian Wandell, Russel A Poldrack, Martin Wiener, R Jacob Vogelstein, Randal Burns, Joshua T Vogelstein
Modern technologies are enabling scientists to collect extraordinary amounts of complex and sophisticated data across a huge range of scales like never before. With this onslaught of data, we can allow the focal point to shift from data collection to data analysis. Unfortunately, lack of standardized sharing mechanisms and practices often make reproducing or extending scientific results very difficult. With the creation of data organization structures and tools that drastically improve code portability, we now have the opportunity to design such a framework for communicating extensible scientific discoveries...
May 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303256/recurring-functional-interactions-predict-network-architecture-of-interictal-and-ictal-states-in-neocortical-epilepsy
#14
Ankit N Khambhati, Danielle S Bassett, Brian S Oommen, Stephanie H Chen, Timothy H Lucas, Kathryn A Davis, Brian Litt
Human epilepsy patients suffer from spontaneous seizures, which originate in brain regions that also subserve normal function. Prior studies demonstrate focal, neocortical epilepsy is associated with dysfunction, several hours before seizures. How does the epileptic network perpetuate dysfunction during baseline periods? To address this question, we developed an unsupervised machine learning technique to disentangle patterns of functional interactions between brain regions, or subgraphs, from dynamic functional networks constructed from approximately 100 h of intracranial recordings in each of 22 neocortical epilepsy patients...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896038/focal-seizures-induced-by-intracranial-electroencephalogram-grids
#15
Eric Hudgins, Mesha-Gay Brown, Brian Litt, Kathryn Davis, Andrew G Richardson, Timothy Lucas
Here we present a unique, but important seizure variant directly related to placement of subdural grids. Two distinct epileptogenic zones were identified, one which correlated with the patient's baseline seizures and a separate zone associated with atypical semiology and localization. Inspection of this zone at surgery revealed cortical deformation from the grid itself. The patient underwent successful surgical resection of the primary epileptogenic zone, but not that of the atypical zone. She remains seizure free at two years following surgery...
October 15, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883904/enabling-an-open-data-ecosystem-for-the-neurosciences
#16
Martin Wiener, Friedrich T Sommer, Zachary G Ives, Russell A Poldrack, Brian Litt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861321/laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-technology-physics-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-thermometry-and-technical-considerations-for-proper-catheter-placement-during-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Nitesh V Patel, Matthew Mian, R Jason Stafford, Brian V Nahed, Jon T Willie, Robert E Gross, Shabbar F Danish
Laser-induced thermal therapy has become a powerful tool in the neurosurgical armamentarium. The physics of laser therapy are complex, but a sound understanding of this topic is clinically relevant, as many centers have incorporated it into their treatment algorithm, and educated patients are demanding consideration of its use for their disease. Laser ablation has been used for a wide array of intracranial lesions. Laser catheter placement is guided by stereotactic planning; however, as the procedure has popularized, the number of ways in which the catheter can be inserted has also increased...
December 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810004/enabling-an-open-data-ecosystem-for-the-neurosciences
#18
Martin Wiener, Friedrich T Sommer, Zachary G Ives, Russell A Poldrack, Brian Litt
As the pace and complexity of neuroscience data grow, an open data ecosystem must develop and grow with it to allow neuroscientists the ability to reach for new heights of discovery. However, the problems and complexities of neuroscience data sharing must first be addressed. Among the challenges facing data sharing in neuroscience, the problem of incentives, discoverability, and sustainability may be the most pressing. We here describe these problems and provide potential future solutions to help cultivate an ecosystem for data sharing...
November 2, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807850/temporal-behavior-of-seizures-and-interictal-bursts-in-prolonged-intracranial-recordings-from-epileptic-canines
#19
Hoameng Ung, Kathryn A Davis, Drausin Wulsin, Joost Wagenaar, Emily Fox, John J McDonnell, Ned Patterson, Charles H Vite, Gregory Worrell, Brian Litt
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder, but seizure recordings are usually obtained in the acute setting. The chronic behavior of seizures and the interictal bursts that sometimes initiate them is unknown. We investigate the variability of these electrographic patterns over an extended period of time using chronic intracranial recordings in canine epilepsy. METHODS: Continuous, yearlong intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings from four dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were analyzed for seizures and interictal bursts...
December 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568515/virtual-cortical-resection-reveals-push-pull-network-control-preceding-seizure-evolution
#20
Ankit N Khambhati, Kathryn A Davis, Timothy H Lucas, Brian Litt, Danielle S Bassett
In ∼20 million people with drug-resistant epilepsy, focal seizures originating in dysfunctional brain networks will often evolve and spread to surrounding tissue, disrupting function in otherwise normal brain regions. To identify network control mechanisms that regulate seizure spread, we developed a novel tool for pinpointing brain regions that facilitate synchronization in the epileptic network. Our method measures the impact of virtually resecting putative control regions on synchronization in a validated model of the human epileptic network...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
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