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Brian litt

Ankit N Khambhati, Kathryn A Davis, Timothy H Lucas, Brian Litt, Danielle S Bassett
In ∼20 million people with drug-resistant epilepsy, focal seizures originating in dysfunctional brain networks will often evolve and spread to surrounding tissue, disrupting function in otherwise normal brain regions. To identify network control mechanisms that regulate seizure spread, we developed a novel tool for pinpointing brain regions that facilitate synchronization in the epileptic network. Our method measures the impact of virtually resecting putative control regions on synchronization in a validated model of the human epileptic network...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
Benjamin H Brinkmann, Edward E Patterson, Charles Vite, Vincent M Vasoli, Daniel Crepeau, Matt Stead, J Jeffry Howbert, Vladimir Cherkassky, Joost B Wagenaar, Brian Litt, Gregory A Worrell
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133900.].
2016: PloS One
Brian C O'Meara, Stacey D Smith, W Scott Armbruster, Lawrence D Harder, Christopher R Hardy, Lena C Hileman, Larry Hufford, Amy Litt, Susana Magallón, Stephen A Smith, Peter F Stevens, Charles B Fenster, Pamela K Diggle
Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction) and non-equilibrium dynamics on the evolutionary history of angiosperms, a clade well known for the abundance of some trait combinations and the rarity of others...
May 11, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Lohith G Kini, James C Gee, Brian Litt
Epilepsy affects 65 million people worldwide, a third of whom have seizures that are resistant to anti-epileptic medications. Some of these patients may be amenable to surgical therapy or treatment with implantable devices, but this usually requires delineation of discrete structural or functional lesion(s), which is challenging in a large percentage of these patients. Advances in neuroimaging and machine learning allow semi-automated detection of malformations of cortical development (MCDs), a common cause of drug resistant epilepsy...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Steven Baldassano, Drausin Wulsin, Hoameng Ung, Tyler Blevins, Mesha-Gay Brown, Emily Fox, Brian Litt
OBJECTIVE: Recently the FDA approved the first responsive, closed-loop intracranial device to treat epilepsy. Because these devices must respond within seconds of seizure onset and not miss events, they are tuned to have high sensitivity, leading to frequent false positive stimulations and decreased battery life. In this work, we propose a more robust seizure detection model. APPROACH: We use a Bayesian nonparametric Markov switching process to parse intracranial EEG (iEEG) data into distinct dynamic event states...
June 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Ki Jun Yu, Duygu Kuzum, Suk-Won Hwang, Bong Hoon Kim, Halvor Juul, Nam Heon Kim, Sang Min Won, Ken Chiang, Michael Trumpis, Andrew G Richardson, Huanyu Cheng, Hui Fang, Marissa Thompson, Hank Bink, Delia Talos, Kyung Jin Seo, Hee Nam Lee, Seung-Kyun Kang, Jae-Hwan Kim, Jung Yup Lee, Younggang Huang, Frances E Jensen, Marc A Dichter, Timothy H Lucas, Jonathan Viventi, Brian Litt, John A Rogers
Bioresorbable silicon electronics technology offers unprecedented opportunities to deploy advanced implantable monitoring systems that eliminate risks, cost and discomfort associated with surgical extraction. Applications include postoperative monitoring and transient physiologic recording after percutaneous or minimally invasive placement of vascular, cardiac, orthopaedic, neural or other devices. We present an embodiment of these materials in both passive and actively addressed arrays of bioresorbable silicon electrodes with multiplexing capabilities, which record in vivo electrophysiological signals from the cortical surface and the subgaleal space...
July 2016: Nature Materials
Benjamin H Brinkmann, Joost Wagenaar, Drew Abbot, Phillip Adkins, Simone C Bosshard, Min Chen, Quang M Tieng, Jialune He, F J Muñoz-Almaraz, Paloma Botella-Rocamora, Juan Pardo, Francisco Zamora-Martinez, Michael Hills, Wei Wu, Iryna Korshunova, Will Cukierski, Charles Vite, Edward E Patterson, Brian Litt, Gregory A Worrell
SEE MORMANN AND ANDRZEJAK DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW091 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : Accurate forecasting of epileptic seizures has the potential to transform clinical epilepsy care. However, progress toward reliable seizure forecasting has been hampered by lack of open access to long duration recordings with an adequate number of seizures for investigators to rigorously compare algorithms and results. A seizure forecasting competition was conducted on using open access chronic ambulatory intracranial electroencephalography from five canines with naturally occurring epilepsy and two humans undergoing prolonged wide bandwidth intracranial electroencephalographic monitoring...
June 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ann C Vanleer, Justin A Blanco, Joost B Wagenaar, Jonathan Viventi, Diego Contreras, Brian Litt
OBJECTIVE: Current mapping of epileptic networks in patients prior to epilepsy surgery utilizes electrode arrays with sparse spatial sampling (∼1.0 cm inter-electrode spacing). Recent research demonstrates that sub-millimeter, cortical-column-scale domains have a role in seizure generation that may be clinically significant. We use high-resolution, active, flexible surface electrode arrays with 500 μm inter-electrode spacing to explore epileptiform local field potential (LFP) spike propagation patterns in two dimensions recorded from subdural micro-electrocorticographic signals in vivo in cat...
April 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Ankit N Khambhati, Kathryn A Davis, Brian S Oommen, Stephanie H Chen, Timothy H Lucas, Brian Litt, Danielle S Bassett
The epileptic network is characterized by pathologic, seizure-generating 'foci' embedded in a web of structural and functional connections. Clinically, seizure foci are considered optimal targets for surgery. However, poor surgical outcome suggests a complex relationship between foci and the surrounding network that drives seizure dynamics. We developed a novel technique to objectively track seizure states from dynamic functional networks constructed from intracranial recordings. Each dynamical state captures unique patterns of network connections that indicate synchronized and desynchronized hubs of neural populations...
December 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Kathryn A Davis, Hoameng Ung, Drausin Wulsin, Joost Wagenaar, Emily Fox, Ned Patterson, Charles Vite, Gregory Worrell, Brian Litt
OBJECTIVE: Brain regions are localized for resection during epilepsy surgery based on rare seizures observed during a short period of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) monitoring. Interictal epileptiform bursts, which are more prevalent than seizures, may provide complementary information to aid in epilepsy evaluation. In this study, we leverage a long-term iEEG dataset from canines with naturally occurring epilepsy to investigate interictal bursts and their electrographic relationship to seizures...
January 2016: Epilepsia
Kathryn Adamiak Davis, Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga, Sandhitsu Das, Stephanie H Chen, Peter N Hadar, John R Pollard, Timothy H Lucas, Russell T Shinohara, Brian Litt, Hari Hariharan, Mark A Elliott, John A Detre, Ravinder Reddy
When neuroimaging reveals a brain lesion, drug-resistant epilepsy patients show better outcomes after resective surgery than do the one-third of drug-resistant epilepsy patients who have normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We applied a glutamate imaging method, GluCEST (glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer), to patients with nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy based on conventional MRI. GluCEST correctly lateralized the temporal lobe seizure focus on visual and quantitative analyses in all patients...
October 14, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
H Isaac Chen, Leif-Erik Bohman, Lyndsey Emery, Maria Martinez-Lage, Andrew G Richardson, Kathryn A Davis, John R Pollard, Brian Litt, Roberta E Gausas, Timothy H Lucas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transorbital approaches traditionally have focused on skull base and cavernous sinus lesions medial to the globe. Lateral orbital approaches to the temporal lobe have not been widely explored despite several theoretical advantages compared to open craniotomy. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of the lateral transorbital technique in cadaveric specimens with endoscopic visualization. We describe our initial clinical experience with the endoscope-assisted lateral transorbital approach to lesions in the temporal lobe...
2015: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
Benjamin H Brinkmann, Edward E Patterson, Charles Vite, Vincent M Vasoli, Daniel Crepeau, Matt Stead, J Jeffry Howbert, Vladimir Cherkassky, Joost B Wagenaar, Brian Litt, Gregory A Worrell
Management of drug resistant focal epilepsy would be greatly assisted by a reliable warning system capable of alerting patients prior to seizures to allow the patient to adjust activities or medication. Such a system requires successful identification of a preictal, or seizure-prone state. Identification of preictal states in continuous long- duration intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings of dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy was investigated using a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm...
2015: PloS One
Joost B Wagenaar, Gregory A Worrell, Zachary Ives, Matthias Dümpelmann, Dümpelmann Matthias, Brian Litt, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
Technological advances are dramatically advancing translational research in Epilepsy. Neurophysiology, imaging, and metadata are now recorded digitally in most centers, enabling quantitative analysis. Basic and translational research opportunities to use these data are exploding, but academic and funding cultures prevent this potential from being realized. Research on epileptogenic networks, antiepileptic devices, and biomarkers could progress rapidly if collaborative efforts to digest this "big neuro data" could be organized...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Brian Litt
New technologies to probe the nervous system are propelling innovation and discovery at blinding speed, but are our trainees prepared to maximize this power? The growing role of engineering in research, such as materials, computing, electronics, and devices, compels us to rethink neuroscience education. Core technology requirements, cross-disciplinary education, open-source resources, and experiential learning are new ways we can efficiently equip future leaders to make the next disruptive discoveries.
April 8, 2015: Neuron
Christopher Banerjee, Brian Snelling, Michael H Berger, Ashish Shah, Michael E Ivan, Ricardo J Komotar
INTRODUCTION: The use of magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (MR-LITT) as a minimally invasive method of treating intra-cranial pathology is a rapidly growing field. The use of MR-LITT in neurooncology has shown promising results; however, there has been no review to date of the current literature. METHODS: A review of the published literature regarding MR-LITT in neurooncology was performed. Studies on PubMed were included if at least one patient with a cerebral tumour or radiation necrosis was treated using quantitative MR thermography-guided LITT, as well as if either safety or outcomes were discussed...
April 2015: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Weixuan Chen, Xilin Liu, Brian Litt
One of the most interesting applications of brain computer interfaces (BCIs) is movement prediction. With the development of invasive recording techniques and decoding algorithms in the past ten years, many single neuron-based and electrocorticography (ECoG)-based studies have been able to decode trajectories of limb movements. As the output variables are continuous in these studies, a regression model is commonly used. However, the decoding of limb movements is not a pure regression problem, because the trajectories can be apparently classified into a motion state and a resting state, which result in a binary property overlooked by previous studies...
2014: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Allan A Azarion, Jue Wu, Allison Pearce, Veena T Krish, Joost Wagenaar, Weixuan Chen, Yuanjie Zheng, Hongzhi Wang, Timothy H Lucas, Brian Litt, James C Gee, Kathryn A Davis
OBJECTIVE: Visualizing implanted subdural electrodes in three-dimensional (3D) space can greatly aid in planning, executing, and validating resection in epilepsy surgery. Coregistration software is available, but cost, complexity, insufficient accuracy, or validation limit adoption. We present a fully automated open-source application, based on a novel method using postimplant computerized tomography (CT) and postimplant magnetic resonance (MR) images, for accurately visualizing intracranial electrodes in 3D space...
December 2014: Epilepsia
Duygu Kuzum, Hajime Takano, Euijae Shim, Jason C Reed, Halvor Juul, Andrew G Richardson, Julius de Vries, Hank Bink, Marc A Dichter, Timothy H Lucas, Douglas A Coulter, Ertugrul Cubukcu, Brian Litt
Calcium imaging is a versatile experimental approach capable of resolving single neurons with single-cell spatial resolution in the brain. Electrophysiological recordings provide high temporal, but limited spatial resolution, because of the geometrical inaccessibility of the brain. An approach that integrates the advantages of both techniques could provide new insights into functions of neural circuits. Here, we report a transparent, flexible neural electrode technology based on graphene, which enables simultaneous optical imaging and electrophysiological recording...
2014: Nature Communications
Drausin F Wulsin, Emily B Fox, Brian Litt
Patients with epilepsy can manifest short, sub-clinical epileptic "bursts" in addition to full-blown clinical seizures. We believe the relationship between these two classes of events-something not previously studied quantitatively-could yield important insights into the nature and intrinsic dynamics of seizures. A goal of our work is to parse these complex epileptic events into distinct dynamic regimes. A challenge posed by the intracranial EEG (iEEG) data we study is the fact that the number and placement of electrodes can vary between patients...
November 1, 2014: Artificial Intelligence
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