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Causal Loops

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#1
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
May 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402698/hypervirulence-and-hypermucoviscosity-two-different-but-complementary-klebsiella-spp-phenotypes
#2
Juan Carlos Catalán-Nájera, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Humberto Barrios-Camacho
Since the hypermucoviscous variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae were first reported, many cases of primary liver abscesses and other invasive infections caused by this pathogen have been described worldwide. Hypermucoviscosity is a phenotypic feature characterized by the formation of a viscous filament ≥5 mm when a bacterial colony is stretched by a bacteriological loop; this is the so-called positive string test. Hypermucoviscosity appears to be associated with this unusual and aggressive type of infection, and therefore, the causal strains are considered hypervirulent...
April 12, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371798/mutual-regulation-of-tumour-vessel-normalization-and-immunostimulatory-reprogramming
#3
Lin Tian, Amit Goldstein, Hai Wang, Hin Ching Lo, Ik Sun Kim, Thomas Welte, Kuanwei Sheng, Lacey E Dobrolecki, Xiaomei Zhang, Nagireddy Putluri, Thuy L Phung, Sendurai A Mani, Fabio Stossi, Arun Sreekumar, Michael A Mancini, William K Decker, Chenghang Zong, Michael T Lewis, Xiang H-F Zhang
Blockade of angiogenesis can retard tumour growth, but may also paradoxically increase metastasis. This paradox may be resolved by vessel normalization, which involves increased pericyte coverage, improved tumour vessel perfusion, reduced vascular permeability, and consequently mitigated hypoxia. Although these processes alter tumour progression, their regulation is poorly understood. Here we show that type 1 T helper (TH1) cells play a crucial role in vessel normalization. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that gene expression features related to vessel normalization correlate with immunostimulatory pathways, especially T lymphocyte infiltration or activity...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351488/investigating-the-effect-of-external-trauma-through-a-dynamic-system-modeling-approach-for-clustering-causality-in-diabetic-foot-ulcer-development
#4
Parisa Salimi, Mohsen Hamedi, Nima Jamshidi, Milad Vismeh
Diabetes and its associated complications are realized as one of the most challenging medical conditions threatening more than 29 million people only in the USA. The forecasts suggest a suffering of more than half a billion worldwide by 2030. Amid all diabetic complications, diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) has attracted much scientific investigations to lead to a better management of this disease. In this paper, a system thinking methodology is adopted to investigate the dynamic nature of the ulceration. The causal loop diagram as a tool is utilized to illustrate the well-researched relations and interrelations between causes of the DFU...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350043/hand1-loss-of-function-mutation-contributes-to-congenital-double-outlet-right-ventricle
#5
Li Li, Juan Wang, Xing-Yuan Liu, Hua Liu, Hong-Yu Shi, Xiao-Xiao Yang, Ning Li, Yan-Jie Li, Ri-Tai Huang, Song Xue, Xing-Biao Qiu, Yi-Qing Yang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs), a wide variety of developmental abnormalities in the structures of the heart and the great thoracic blood vessels, are the most common form of birth defect in humans worldwide. CHDs are accountable for substantial morbidity and are still the leading cause of birth defect‑related deaths. Recent studies have demonstrated the pivotal roles of genetic defects in the pathogenesis of CHDs, and a great number of genetic mutations have been associated with CHDs. Nevertheless, CHDs are a genetically heterogeneous disorder and the genetic basis underlying CHDs in an overwhelming majority of cases remains unclear...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345674/skeletal-muscle-pump-drives-control-of-cardiovascular-and-postural-systems
#6
Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Da Xu, Michelle Bruner, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Andrew P Blaber, Kouhyar Tavakolian
The causal interaction between cardio-postural-musculoskeletal systems is critical in maintaining postural stability under orthostatic challenge. The absence or reduction of such interactions could lead to fainting and falls often experienced by elderly individuals. The causal relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), calf electromyography (EMG), and resultant center of pressure (COPr) can quantify the behavior of cardio-postural control loop. Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a non-linear approach to establish causality, thus, expected to decipher nonlinear causal cardio-postural-musculoskeletal interactions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327421/adult-intussusceptions-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-management
#7
H Maghrebi, A Makni, R Rhaiem, S Atri, M Ayadi, M Jrad, M Jouini, M Kacem, Z Bensafta
BACKGROUND: Adult intussusception is a rare clinical entity. It is an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction in adult. It often presents with nonspecific symptoms and preoperative diagnosis remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical entity and surgical approach of adult intussusception. METHODS: We have conducted a retrospective descriptive study starting from 2006 until 2014. We reviewed data for all patients that had been admitted to our department for intestinal intussusception...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258544/effect-of-loss-of-heart-rate-variability-on-t-wave-heterogeneity-and-qt-variability-in-heart-failure-patients-implications-in-ventricular-arrhythmogenesis
#8
Sachin Nayyar, Muhammad A Hasan, Kurt C Roberts-Thomson, Thomas Sullivan, Mathias Baumert
Heart rate variability (HRV) modulates dynamics of ventricular repolarization. A diminishing value of HRV is associated with increased vulnerability to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, however the causal relationship is not well-defined. We evaluated if fixed-rate atrial pacing that abolishes the effect of physiological HRV, will alter ventricular repolarization wavefronts and is relevant to ventricular arrhythmogenesis. The study was performed in 16 subjects: 8 heart failure patients with spontaneous ventricular tachycardia [HFVT], and 8 subjects with structurally normal hearts (H Norm)...
March 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254455/early-processing-in-primary-visual-cortex-is-necessary-for-conscious-and-unconscious-vision-while-late-processing-is-necessary-only-for-conscious-vision-in-neurologically-healthy-humans
#9
Mikko Hurme, Mika Koivisto, Antti Revonsuo, Henry Railo
The neural mechanisms underlying conscious and unconscious visual processes remain controversial. Blindsight patients may process visual stimuli unconsciously despite their V1 lesion, promoting anatomical models, which suggest that pathways bypassing the V1 support unconscious vision. On the other hand, physiological models argue that the major geniculostriate pathway via V1 is involved in both unconscious and conscious vision, but in different time windows and in different types of neural activity. According to physiological models, feedforward activity via V1 to higher areas mediates unconscious processes whereas feedback loops of recurrent activity from higher areas back to V1 support conscious vision...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198522/cardiovascular-drug-utilization-post-implant-is-related-to-clinical-outcome-in-heart-failure-patients-receiving-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#10
Zoltan Bakos, Christian Reitan, Anna Werther-Evaldsson, Anders Roijer, Pyotr PLatonov, Rasmus Borgquist
BACKGROUND: In select patients with heart failure, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the most common complementary treatment besides medical treatment. We aimed to assess the association between post CRT-implant changes in cardiovascular medication and cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalization. METHODS: 211 patients on optimal medical therapy eligible for CRT were retrospectively included in this study (72 ± 7 years, 80% male, 66% left bundle branch block [LBBB], 48% dilated cardiomyopathy [DCMP]) and investigated at baseline and after 6 months ...
February 15, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192794/the-genetic-causes-of-nonsyndromic-congenital-retinal-detachment-a-genetic-and-phenotypic-study-of-pakistani-families
#11
Vafa Keser, Ayesha Khan, Sorath Siddiqui, Irma Lopez, Huanan Ren, Raheel Qamar, Javad Nadaf, Jacek Majewski, Rui Chen, Robert K Koenekoop
Purpose: To evaluate consanguineous pedigrees from Pakistan with a clinical diagnosis of nonsyndromic congenital retinal nonattachment (NCRNA) and identify genes responsible for the disease as currently only one NCRNA gene is known (atonal basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 7: ATOH7). Methods: We implemented a three-step genotyping platform: single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping to identify loss of heterozygosity regions in patients, Retinal Information Network panel screening for mutations in currently known retinal genes...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185595/exploring-pathways-for-building-trust-in-vaccination-and-strengthening-health-system-resilience
#12
Sachiko Ozawa, Ligia Paina, Mary Qiu
BACKGROUND: Trust is critical to generate and maintain demand for vaccines in low and middle income countries. However, there is little documentation on how health system insufficiencies affect trust in vaccination and the process of re-building trust once it has been compromised. We reflect on how disruptions to immunizations systems can affect trust in vaccination and can compromise vaccine utilization. We then explore key pathways for overcoming system vulnerabilities in order to restore trust, to strengthen the resilience of health systems and communities, and to promote vaccine utilization...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169219/open-ephys-an-open-source-plugin-based-platform-for-multichannel-electrophysiology
#13
Joshua Handman Siegle, Aarón Cuevas López, Yogi Patel, Kirill Abramov, Shay Ohayon, Jakob Voigts
OBJECTIVE: Closed-loop experiments, in which causal interventions are conditioned on the state of the system under investigation, have become increasingly common in neuroscience. Such experiments can have a high degree of explanatory power, but they require a precise implementation that can be difficult to replicate across laboratories. We sought to overcome this limitation by building open-source software that makes it easier to develop and share algorithms for closed-loop control. APPROACH: We created the Open Ephys GUI, an open-source platform for multichannel electrophysiology experiments...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158040/simple-delay-limited-sideband-locking-with-heterodyne-readout
#14
Christoph Reinhardt, Tina Müller, Jack C Sankey
We present a robust sideband laser locking technique ideally suited for applications requiring low probe power and heterodyne readout. By feeding back to a high-bandwidth voltage-controlled oscillator, we lock a first-order phase-modulation sideband to a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity in ambient conditions, achieving a closed-loop bandwidth of 3.5 MHz (with a single integrator) limited fundamentally by the signal delay. The measured transfer function of the closed loop agrees with a simple model based on ideal system components, and from this we suggest a modified design that should achieve a bandwidth exceeding 6 MHz with a near-causally limited feedback gain as high as 4 × 10<sup>7</sup> at 1 kHz...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123038/intron-1-gata-site-enhances-alas2-expression-indispensably-during-erythroid-differentiation
#15
Yingchi Zhang, Jingliao Zhang, Wenbin An, Yang Wan, Shihui Ma, Jie Yin, Xichuan Li, Jie Gao, Weiping Yuan, Ye Guo, James Douglas Engel, Lihong Shi, Tao Cheng, Xiaofan Zhu
The first intronic mutations in the intron 1 GATA site (int-1-GATA) of 5-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2) have been identified in X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) pedigrees, strongly suggesting it could be causal mutations of XLSA. However, the function of this int-1-GATA site during in vivo development remains largely unknown. Here, we generated mice lacking a 13 bp fragment, including this int-1-GATA site (T AGATAA: AGCCCC) and found that hemizygous deletion led to an embryonic lethal phenotype due to severe anemia resulting from a lack of ALAS2 expression, indicating that this non-coding sequence is indispensable for ALAS2 expression in vivo Further analyses revealed that this int-1-GATA site anchored the GATA site in intron 8 (int-8-GATA) and the proximal promoter, forming a long-range loop to enhance ALAS2 expression by an enhancer complex including GATA1, TAL1, LMO2, LDB1 and Pol II at least, in erythroid cells...
January 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112363/hand1-loss-of-function-mutation-contributes-to-congenital-double-outlet-right-ventricle
#16
Li Li, Juan Wang, Xing-Yuan Liu, Hua Liu, Hong-Yu Shi, Xiao-Xiao Yang, Ning Li, Yan-Jie Li, Ri-Tai Huang, Song Xue, Xing-Biao Qiu, Yi-Qing Yang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs), a wide variety of developmental abnormalities in the structures of the heart and the great thoracic blood vessels, are the most common form of birth defect in humans worldwide. CHDs are accountable for substantial morbidity and are still the leading cause of birth defect‑related deaths. Recent studies have demonstrated the pivotal roles of genetic defects in the pathogenesis of CHDs, and a great number of genetic mutations have been associated with CHDs. Nevertheless, CHDs are a genetically heterogeneous disorder and the genetic basis underlying CHDs in an overwhelming majority of cases remains unclear...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997825/slit-robo-repulsive-signaling-extrudes-tumorigenic-cells-from-epithelia
#17
John Vaughen, Tatsushi Igaki
Cells dynamically interact throughout animal development to coordinate growth and deter disease. For example, cell-cell competition weeds out aberrant cells to enforce homeostasis. In Drosophila, tumorigenic cells mutant for the cell polarity gene scribble (scrib) are actively eliminated from epithelia when surrounded by wild-type cells. While scrib cell elimination depends critically on JNK signaling, JNK-dependent cell death cannot sufficiently explain scrib cell extirpation. Thus, how JNK executed cell elimination remained elusive...
December 19, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967156/random-holographic-large-worlds-with-emergent-dimensions
#18
Carlo A Trugenberger
I propose a random network model governed by a Gaussian weight corresponding to Ising link antiferromagnetism as a model for emergent quantum space-time. In this model, discrete space is fundamental, not a regularization; its spectral dimension d_{s} is not a model input but is, rather, completely determined by the antiferromagnetic coupling constant. Perturbative terms suppressing triangles and favoring squares lead to locally Euclidean ground states that are Ricci flat "large worlds" with power-law extension...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957850/comparative-toxicogenomic-responses-to-the-flame-retardant-mitp-in-developing-zebrafish
#19
Derik E Haggard, Siba R Das, Robert L Tanguay
Monosubstituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate (mITP) is a major component of Firemaster 550, an additive flame retardant mixture commonly used in polyurethane foams. Developmental toxicity studies in zebrafish established mITP as the most toxic component of FM 550, which causes pericardial edema and heart looping failure. Mechanistic studies showed that mITP is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand; however, the cardiotoxic effects of mITP were independent of the AhR. We performed comparative whole genome transcriptomics in wild-type and ahr2(hu3335) zebrafish, which lack functional ahr2, to identify transcriptional signatures causally involved in the mechanism of mITP-induced cardiotoxicity...
February 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956748/association-of-rare-missense-variants-in-the-second-intracellular-loop-of-nav1-7-sodium-channels-with-familial-autism
#20
M Rubinstein, A Patowary, I B Stanaway, E McCord, R R Nesbitt, M Archer, T Scheuer, D Nickerson, W H Raskind, E M Wijsman, R Bernier, W A Catterall, Z Brkanac
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder often accompanied by intellectual disability, language impairment and medical co-morbidities. The heritability of autism is high and multiple genes have been implicated as causal. However, most of these genes have been identified in de novo cases. To further the understanding of familial autism, we performed whole-exome sequencing on five families in which second- and third-degree relatives were affected. By focusing on novel and protein-altering variants, we identified a small set of candidate genes...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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