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Causal Loops

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149413/tctp-has-a-crucial-role-in-the-different-stages-of-prostate-cancer-malignant-progression
#1
Virginie Baylot, Sara Karaki, Palma Rocchi
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the western world after lung cancer. Many patients are not candidates for resection given the advanced stage of their cancer. The primary treatment for advanced PC is the castration therapy which supresses the production of androgens, hormone that promotes PC growth. Despite the efficiency of the castration therapy, most patients develop castration resistant disease which remains uncurable. Clearly, novel approaches are required to effectively treat castration resistant PC (CRPC)...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122402/altered-corticostriatal-pathway-in-first-episode-paranoid-schizophrenia-resting-state-functional-and-causal-connectivity-analyses
#2
Huan Huang, Chang Shu, Jun Chen, Jilin Zou, Cheng Chen, Shihao Wu, Ling Xiao, Zhongchun Liu, Huiling Wang, Yuan Zhou, Gaohua Wang, Tianzi Jiang
Neuroimaging studies suggest the abnormal structure and function of basal ganglion may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, little is investigated about the both aberrant functional and causal connectivity of striatum in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia (FEPS). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to characterize the functional connectivity (FC) and casual connectivity within the corticostriatal circuit in 31 patients with FEPS and 33 healthy controls. Degree centrality (DC) was used to explore the regions influenced in schizophrenia at the whole-brain level...
August 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121052/a-causal-mediation-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-retina
#3
Maha Soliman, Kalina Andreeva, Olfa Nasraoui, Nigel G F Cooper
The goal of this study is to develop a model that explains the relationship between microRNAs, transcription factors, and their co-target genes. This relationship was previously reported in gene regulatory loops associated with 24 hour (24h) and 7 day (7d) time periods following ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat's retina. Using a model system of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, we propose that microRNAs first influence transcription factors, which in turn act as mediators to influence transcription of genes via triadic regulatory loops...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119508/endogenous-molecular-cellular-network-cancer-theory-a-systems-biology-approach
#4
Gaowei Wang, Ruoshi Yuan, Xiaomei Zhu, Ping Ao
In light of ever apparent limitation of the current dominant cancer mutation theory, a quantitative hypothesis for cancer genesis and progression, endogenous molecular-cellular network hypothesis has been proposed from the systems biology perspective, now for more than 10 years. It was intended to include both the genetic and epigenetic causes to understand cancer. Its development enters the stage of meaningful interaction with experimental and clinical data and the limitation of the traditional cancer mutation theory becomes more evident...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114227/non-linear-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-interaction-in-response-to-lower-body-negative-pressure
#5
Ajay K Verma, Da Xu, Amanmeet Garg, Anita T Cote, Nandu Goswami, Andrew P Blaber, Kouhyar Tavakolian
Early detection of hemorrhage remains an open problem. In this regard, blood pressure has been an ineffective measure of blood loss due to numerous compensatory mechanisms sustaining arterial blood pressure homeostasis. Here, we investigate the feasibility of causality detection in the heart rate and blood pressure interaction, a closed-loop control system, for early detection of hemorrhage. The hemorrhage was simulated via graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) from 0 to -40 mmHg. The research hypothesis was that a significant elevation of causal control in the direction of blood pressure to heart rate (i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060519/evaluation-of-filtering-techniques-to-extract-movement-intention-information-from-low-frequency-eeg-activity
#6
Carlos Bibian, Eduardo Lopez-Larraz, Nerea Irastorza-Landa, Niels Birbaumer, Ander Ramos-Murguialday
Low-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activity provides relevant information for decoding movement commands in healthy subjects and paralyzed patients. Brainmachine interfaces (BMI) exploiting these signals have been developed to provide closed-loop feedback and induce neuroplasticity. Several offline and online studies have already demonstrated that discriminable information related to movement can be decoded from low-frequency EEG activity. However, there is still not a well-established procedure to guarantee that this activity is optimally filtered from the background noise...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058221/systems-health-a-transition-from-disease-management-toward-health-promotion
#7
Li Shen, Benchen Ye, Huimin Sun, Yuxin Lin, Herman van Wietmarschen, Bairong Shen
To date, most of the chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, are the leading cause of death. Current strategies toward disease treatment, e.g., risk prediction and target therapy, still have limitations for precision medicine due to the dynamic and complex nature of health. Interactions among genetics, lifestyle, and surrounding environments have nonnegligible effects on disease evolution. Thus a transition in health-care area is urgently needed to address the hysteresis of diagnosis and stabilize the increasing health-care costs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056226/a-dementia-associated-risk-variant-near-tmem106b-alters-chromatin-architecture-and-gene-expression
#8
Michael D Gallagher, Marijan Posavi, Peng Huang, Travis L Unger, Yosef Berlyand, Analise L Gruenewald, Alessandra Chesi, Elisabetta Manduchi, Andrew D Wells, Struan F A Grant, Gerd A Blobel, Christopher D Brown, Alice S Chen-Plotkin
Neurodegenerative diseases pose an extraordinary threat to the world's aging population, yet no disease-modifying therapies are available. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of risk loci for neurodegeneration, the mechanisms by which these loci influence disease risk are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the association between common genetic variants at the 7p21 locus and risk of the neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We showed that variants associated with disease risk correlate with increased expression of the 7p21 gene TMEM106B and no other genes; co-localization analyses implicated a common causal variant underlying both association with disease and association with TMEM106B expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines and human brain...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049594/the-perceptual-dimensions-of-natural-dynamic-flow
#9
Yaniv Morgenstern, Daniel J Kersten
We measured perceptual judgments of category, material attributes, affordances, and similarity to investigate the perceptual dimensions underlying the visual representation of a broad class of natural dynamic flows (sea waves, smoke, and windblown foliage). The dynamic flows were looped 3-s movies windowed with circular apertures of two sizes to manipulate the level of spatial context. In low levels of spatial context (smaller apertures), human observers' judgments of material attributes and affordances were inaccurate, with estimates biased toward assumptions that the flows resulted from objects that were rigid, "pick-up-able," and not penetrable...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044165/in-vivo-neuromechanics-decoding-causal-motor-neuron-behavior-with-resulting-musculoskeletal-function
#10
Massimo Sartori, Utku Ş Yavuz, Dario Farina
Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. This currently represents the major challenge to the understanding of human movement. We address this challenge by proposing a paradigm for investigating spinal motor neuron contribution to skeletal joint mechanical function in the intact human in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029075/improving-health-systems-performance-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-system-dynamics-model-of-the-pay-for-performance-initiative-in-afghanistan
#11
O Alonge, S Lin, T Igusa, D H Peters
System dynamics methods were used to explore effective implementation pathways for improving health systems performance through pay-for-performance (P4P) schemes. A causal loop diagram was developed to delineate primary causal relationships for service delivery within primary health facilities. A quantitative stock-and-flow model was developed next. The stock-and-flow model was then used to simulate the impact of various P4P implementation scenarios on quality and volume of services. Data from the Afghanistan national facility survey in 2012 was used to calibrate the model...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017541/cardiovascular-flukes-trematoda-spirorchiidae-in-caretta-caretta-linnaeus-1758-from-the-mediterranean-sea
#12
Erica Marchiori, Enrico Negrisolo, Rudi Cassini, Luisa Garofalo, Lisa Poppi, Cinzia Tessarin, Federica Marcer
BACKGROUND: The northern Adriatic Sea represents one of the most important neritic foraging grounds for the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta L. in the Mediterranean Sea. Four genera of blood flukes with variable prevalence and pathogenic impact have been reported worldwide in this species. Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Amphiorchis Price, 1934 are the only two genera reported in Mediterranean waters; however, updated data describing spirorchiidiasis in the central and eastern Mediterranean and infection prevalence are still lacking...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895153/characterization-of-an-antimicrobial-and-phytotoxic-ribonuclease-secreted-by-the-fungal-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#13
Graeme J Kettles, Carlos Bayon, Caroline A Sparks, Gail Canning, Kostya Kanyuka, Jason J Rudd
The fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB) disease of wheat leaves. Zymoseptoria tritici secretes many functionally uncharacterized effector proteins during infection. Here, we characterized a secreted ribonuclease (Zt6) with an unusual biphasic expression pattern. Transient expression systems were used to characterize Zt6, and mutants thereof, in both host and non-host plants. Cell-free protein expression systems monitored the impact of Zt6 protein on functional ribosomes, and in vitro assays of cells treated with recombinant Zt6 determined toxicity against bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi...
September 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882166/social-determinants-of-common-metabolic-risk-factors-high-blood-pressure-high-blood-sugar-high-body-mass-index-and-high-waist-hip-ratio-of-major-non-communicable-diseases-in-south-asia-region-a-systematic-review-protocol
#14
Sudesh Raj Sharma, Shiva Raj Mishra, Kusum Wagle, Rachel Page, Anna Matheson, Danielle Lambrick, James Faulkner, David Lounsbury, Abhinav Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of non-communicable diseases has been increasing at a greater pace in developing countries and, in particular, the South Asia region. Various behavioral, social and environmental factors present in this region perpetuate common metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases. This study will identify social determinants of common metabolic risk factors of major non-communicable diseases in the context of the South Asian region and map their causal pathway. METHODS: A systematic review of selected articles will be carried out following Cochrane guidelines...
September 7, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869518/combining-theory-driven-evaluation-and-causal-loop-diagramming-for-opening-the-black-box-of-an-intervention-in-the-health-sector-a-case-of-performance-based-financing-in-western-uganda
#15
Dimitri Renmans, Nathalie Holvoet, Bart Criel
Increased attention on "complexity" in health systems evaluation has resulted in many different methodological responses. Theory-driven evaluations and systems thinking are two such responses that aim for better understanding of the mechanisms underlying given outcomes. Here, we studied the implementation of a performance-based financing intervention by the Belgian Technical Cooperation in Western Uganda to illustrate a methodological strategy of combining these two approaches. We utilized a systems dynamics tool called causal loop diagramming (CLD) to generate hypotheses feeding into a theory-driven evaluation...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857169/structure-function-analysis-of-the-fusarium-oxysporum-avr2-effector-allows-uncoupling-of-its-immune-suppressing-activity-from-recognition
#16
Xiaotang Di, Lingxue Cao, Richard K Hughes, Nico Tintor, Mark J Banfield, Frank L W Takken
Plant pathogens employ effector proteins to manipulate their hosts. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), the causal agent of tomato wilt disease, produces effector protein Avr2. Besides being a virulence factor, Avr2 triggers immunity in I-2 carrying tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Fol strains that evade I-2 recognition carry point mutations in Avr2 (e.g. Avr2(R45H) ), but retain full virulence. Here we investigate the virulence function of Avr2 and determine its crystal structure. Transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis expressing either wild-type ΔspAvr2 (deleted signal-peptide) or the ΔspAvr2(R45H) variant become hypersusceptible to fungal, and even bacterial infections, suggesting that Avr2 targets a conserved defense mechanism...
November 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851398/exploring-the-dynamics-of-food-related-policymaking-processes-and-evidence-use-in-fiji-using-systems-thinking
#17
Gade Waqa, Marj Moodie, Wendy Snowdon, Catherine Latu, Jeremaia Coriakula, Steven Allender, Colin Bell
BACKGROUND: Obesity and non-communicable diseases are significant public health issues globally and particularly in the Pacific. Poor diet is a major contributor to this issue and policy change is a powerful lever to improve food security and diet quality. This study aims to apply systems thinking to identify the causes and consequences of poor evidence use in food-related policymaking in selected government ministries in Fiji and to illicit strategies to strengthen the use of evidence in policymaking...
August 29, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792900/dynamic-video-stitching-via-shakiness-removing
#18
Yongwei Nie, Tan Su, Zhensong Zhang, Hanqiu Sun, Guiqing Li
Stitching videos captured by hand-held mobile cameras can essentially enhance entertainment experience of ordinary users. However, such videos usually contain heavy shakiness and large parallax, which are challenging to stitch. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of video stitching and stabilization for videos captured by mobile devices. The main component of our method is a unified video stitching and stabilization optimization that computes stitching and stabilization simultaneously rather than does each one individually...
2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728677/dynamically-timed-stimulation-of-corticolimbic-circuitry-activates-a-stress-compensatory-pathway
#19
David Carlson, Lisa K David, Neil M Gallagher, Mai-Anh T Vu, Matthew Shirley, Rainbo Hultman, Joyce Wang, Caley Burrus, Colleen A McClung, Sunil Kumar, Lawrence Carin, Stephen D Mague, Kafui Dzirasa
BACKGROUND: The prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in regulating emotional behaviors, and dysfunction of prefrontal cortex-dependent networks has been broadly implicated in mediating stress-induced behavioral disorders including major depressive disorder. METHODS: Here we acquired multicircuit in vivo activity from eight cortical and limbic brain regions as mice were subjected to the tail suspension test (TST) and an open field test. We used a linear decoder to determine whether cellular responses across each of the cortical and limbic areas signal movement during the TST and open field test...
June 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696338/black-holes-in-loop-quantum-gravity
#20
Alejandro Perez
This is a review of results on black hole physics in the context of loop quantum gravity. The key feature underlying these results is the discreteness of geometric quantities at the Planck scale predicted by this approach to quantum gravity. Quantum discreteness follows directly from the canonical quantization prescription when applied to the action of general relativity that is suitable for the coupling of gravity with gauge fields, and especially with fermions. Planckian discreteness and causal considerations provide the basic structure for the understanding of the thermal properties of black holes close to equilibrium...
December 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
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