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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646149/crucial-role-of-4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose-uronate-reductase-for-alginate-utilization-revealed-by-adaptive-evolution-in-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Fumiya Matsuoka, Makoto Hirayama, Takayuki Kashihara, Hideki Tanaka, Wataru Hashimoto, Kousaku Murata, Shigeyuki Kawai
In brown macroalgae, alginate and D-mannitol are promising carbohydrates for biorefinery. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a microbial cell factory, but this budding yeast is unable to utilize either alginate or D-mannitol. Alginate can be depolymerized by both endo-type and exo-type alginate lyases, yielding a monouronate, 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate (DEH), a key intermediate in the metabolism of alginate. Here, we constructed engineered two S. cerevisiae strains that are able to utilize both DEH and D-mannitol on two different strain backgrounds, and we also improved their aerobic growth in a DEH liquid medium through adaptive evolution...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622530/brain-network-dynamics-in-the-human-articulatory-loop
#2
Masaaki Nishida, Anna Korzeniewska, Nathan E Crone, Goichiro Toyoda, Yasuo Nakai, Noa Ofen, Erik C Brown, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: The articulatory loop is a fundamental component of language function, involved in the short-term buffer of auditory information followed by its vocal reproduction. We characterized the network dynamics of the human articulatory loop, using invasive recording and stimulation. METHODS: We measured high-gamma activity70-110 Hz recorded intracranially when patients with epilepsy either only listened to, or listened to and then reproduced two successive tones by humming...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619664/nailfold-capillaroscopic-changes-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-systemic-sclerosis-related-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#3
A Corrado, M Correale, N Mansueto, I Monaco, A Carriero, A Mele, R Colia, M Di Biase, F P Cantatore
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) represents one of the main clinical expressions of the vascular changes in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Lung microvascular changes can play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic PAH (IPAH) also. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of capillaroscopic abnormalities in patients with IPAH and to evaluate the differences in capillary nailfold changes between patients with IPAH and patients with SSc with and without PAH. METHODS: 39 SSc patients (19 with PAH - SSc-PAH and 20 without - SSc-noPAH), 21 subjects with IPAH and 20 healthy subjects were recruited...
June 12, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605971/impaired-baroreflex-function-during-orthostatic-challenge-in-patients-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Katarina Ondrusova, Jana Svacinova, Michal Javorka, Jan Novak, Marie Novakova, Zuzana Novakova
The level of spinal cord injury (SCI) affects baroreflex regulation of blood pressure (BP). While a parasympathetic cardiac chronotropic effect is preserved, baroreflex response could be impaired by sympathetic dysfunction under the SCI level. This study was aimed to evaluate the baroreflex function in SCI patients by the analysis of causal interaction between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inter-beat intervals (IBI). BP was continuously recorded in 13 cervical SCI patients (CSCI), 9 thoracic SCI (ThSCI) and 13 able-bodied controls (Con) during two phases: sitting (PS) and orthostatic challenge (PO)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593374/chromatin-loops-and-causality-loops-the-influence-of-rna-upon-spatial-nuclear-architecture
#5
REVIEW
Iain A Sawyer, Miroslav Dundr
An intrinsic and essential trait exhibited by cells is the properly coordinated and integrated regulation of an astoundingly large number of simultaneous molecular decisions and reactions to maintain biochemical homeostasis. This is especially true inside the cell nucleus, where the recognition of DNA and RNA by a vast range of nucleic acid-interacting proteins organizes gene expression patterns. However, this dynamic system is not regulated by simple "on" or "off" signals. Instead, transcription factor and RNA polymerase recruitment to DNA are influenced by the local chromatin and epigenetic environment, a gene's relative position within the nucleus and the action of noncoding RNAs...
June 7, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578130/optimal-use-of-eeg-recordings-to-target-active-brain-areas-with-transcranial-electrical-stimulation
#6
Jacek P Dmochowski, Laurent Koessler, Anthony M Norcia, Marom Bikson, Lucas C Parra
To demonstrate causal relationships between brain and behavior, investigators would like to guide brain stimulation using measurements of neural activity. Particularly promising in this context are electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), as they are linked by a reciprocity principle which, despite being known for decades, has not led to a formalism for relating EEG recordings to optimal stimulation parameters. Here we derive a closed-form expression for the TES configuration that optimally stimulates (i...
May 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#7
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
May 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402698/hypervirulence-and-hypermucoviscosity-two-different-but-complementary-klebsiella-spp-phenotypes
#8
Juan Carlos Catalán-Nájera, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Humberto Barrios-Camacho
Since the hypermucoviscous variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae were first reported, many cases of primary liver abscesses and other invasive infections caused by this pathogen have been described worldwide. Hypermucoviscosity is a phenotypic feature characterized by the formation of a viscous filament ≥5 mm when a bacterial colony is stretched by a bacteriological loop; this is the so-called positive string test. Hypermucoviscosity appears to be associated with this unusual and aggressive type of infection, and therefore, the causal strains are considered hypervirulent...
April 12, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371798/mutual-regulation-of-tumour-vessel-normalization-and-immunostimulatory-reprogramming
#9
Lin Tian, Amit Goldstein, Hai Wang, Hin Ching Lo, Ik Sun Kim, Thomas Welte, Kuanwei Sheng, Lacey E Dobrolecki, Xiaomei Zhang, Nagireddy Putluri, Thuy L Phung, Sendurai A Mani, Fabio Stossi, Arun Sreekumar, Michael A Mancini, William K Decker, Chenghang Zong, Michael T Lewis, Xiang H-F Zhang
Blockade of angiogenesis can retard tumour growth, but may also paradoxically increase metastasis. This paradox may be resolved by vessel normalization, which involves increased pericyte coverage, improved tumour vessel perfusion, reduced vascular permeability, and consequently mitigated hypoxia. Although these processes alter tumour progression, their regulation is poorly understood. Here we show that type 1 T helper (TH1) cells play a crucial role in vessel normalization. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that gene expression features related to vessel normalization correlate with immunostimulatory pathways, especially T lymphocyte infiltration or activity...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351488/investigating-the-effect-of-external-trauma-through-a-dynamic-system-modeling-approach-for-clustering-causality-in-diabetic-foot-ulcer-development
#10
Parisa Salimi, Mohsen Hamedi, Nima Jamshidi, Milad Vismeh
Diabetes and its associated complications are realized as one of the most challenging medical conditions threatening more than 29 million people only in the USA. The forecasts suggest a suffering of more than half a billion worldwide by 2030. Amid all diabetic complications, diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) has attracted much scientific investigations to lead to a better management of this disease. In this paper, a system thinking methodology is adopted to investigate the dynamic nature of the ulceration. The causal loop diagram as a tool is utilized to illustrate the well-researched relations and interrelations between causes of the DFU...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350043/hand1-loss-of-function-mutation-contributes-to-congenital-double-outlet-right-ventricle
#11
Li Li, Juan Wang, Xing-Yuan Liu, Hua Liu, Hong-Yu Shi, Xiao-Xiao Yang, Ning Li, Yan-Jie Li, Ri-Tai Huang, Song Xue, Xing-Biao Qiu, Yi-Qing Yang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs), a wide variety of developmental abnormalities in the structures of the heart and the great thoracic blood vessels, are the most common form of birth defect in humans worldwide. CHDs are accountable for substantial morbidity and are still the leading cause of birth defect‑related deaths. Recent studies have demonstrated the pivotal roles of genetic defects in the pathogenesis of CHDs, and a great number of genetic mutations have been associated with CHDs. Nevertheless, CHDs are a genetically heterogeneous disorder and the genetic basis underlying CHDs in an overwhelming majority of cases remains unclear...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345674/skeletal-muscle-pump-drives-control-of-cardiovascular-and-postural-systems
#12
Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Da Xu, Michelle Bruner, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Andrew P Blaber, Kouhyar Tavakolian
The causal interaction between cardio-postural-musculoskeletal systems is critical in maintaining postural stability under orthostatic challenge. The absence or reduction of such interactions could lead to fainting and falls often experienced by elderly individuals. The causal relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), calf electromyography (EMG), and resultant center of pressure (COPr) can quantify the behavior of cardio-postural control loop. Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a non-linear approach to establish causality, thus, expected to decipher nonlinear causal cardio-postural-musculoskeletal interactions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327421/adult-intussusceptions-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-management
#13
H Maghrebi, A Makni, R Rhaiem, S Atri, M Ayadi, M Jrad, M Jouini, M Kacem, Z Bensafta
BACKGROUND: Adult intussusception is a rare clinical entity. It is an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction in adult. It often presents with nonspecific symptoms and preoperative diagnosis remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical entity and surgical approach of adult intussusception. METHODS: We have conducted a retrospective descriptive study starting from 2006 until 2014. We reviewed data for all patients that had been admitted to our department for intestinal intussusception...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258544/effect-of-loss-of-heart-rate-variability-on-t-wave-heterogeneity-and-qt-variability-in-heart-failure-patients-implications-in-ventricular-arrhythmogenesis
#14
Sachin Nayyar, Muhammad A Hasan, Kurt C Roberts-Thomson, Thomas Sullivan, Mathias Baumert
Heart rate variability (HRV) modulates dynamics of ventricular repolarization. A diminishing value of HRV is associated with increased vulnerability to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, however the causal relationship is not well-defined. We evaluated if fixed-rate atrial pacing that abolishes the effect of physiological HRV, will alter ventricular repolarization wavefronts and is relevant to ventricular arrhythmogenesis. The study was performed in 16 subjects: 8 heart failure patients with spontaneous ventricular tachycardia [HFVT], and 8 subjects with structurally normal hearts (H Norm)...
June 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254455/early-processing-in-primary-visual-cortex-is-necessary-for-conscious-and-unconscious-vision-while-late-processing-is-necessary-only-for-conscious-vision-in-neurologically-healthy-humans
#15
Mikko Hurme, Mika Koivisto, Antti Revonsuo, Henry Railo
The neural mechanisms underlying conscious and unconscious visual processes remain controversial. Blindsight patients may process visual stimuli unconsciously despite their V1 lesion, promoting anatomical models, which suggest that pathways bypassing the V1 support unconscious vision. On the other hand, physiological models argue that the major geniculostriate pathway via V1 is involved in both unconscious and conscious vision, but in different time windows and in different types of neural activity. According to physiological models, feedforward activity via V1 to higher areas mediates unconscious processes whereas feedback loops of recurrent activity from higher areas back to V1 support conscious vision...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198522/cardiovascular-drug-utilization-post-implant-is-related-to-clinical-outcome-in-heart-failure-patients-receiving-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#16
Zoltan Bakos, Christian Reitan, Anna Werther-Evaldsson, Anders Roijer, Pyotr PLatonov, Rasmus Borgquist
BACKGROUND: In select patients with heart failure, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the most common complementary treatment besides medical treatment. We aimed to assess the association between post CRT-implant changes in cardiovascular medication and cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalization. METHODS: 211 patients on optimal medical therapy eligible for CRT were retrospectively included in this study (72 ± 7 years, 80% male, 66% left bundle branch block [LBBB], 48% dilated cardiomyopathy [DCMP]) and investigated at baseline and after 6 months ...
February 15, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192794/the-genetic-causes-of-nonsyndromic-congenital-retinal-detachment-a-genetic-and-phenotypic-study-of-pakistani-families
#17
Vafa Keser, Ayesha Khan, Sorath Siddiqui, Irma Lopez, Huanan Ren, Raheel Qamar, Javad Nadaf, Jacek Majewski, Rui Chen, Robert K Koenekoop
Purpose: To evaluate consanguineous pedigrees from Pakistan with a clinical diagnosis of nonsyndromic congenital retinal nonattachment (NCRNA) and identify genes responsible for the disease as currently only one NCRNA gene is known (atonal basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 7: ATOH7). Methods: We implemented a three-step genotyping platform: single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping to identify loss of heterozygosity regions in patients, Retinal Information Network panel screening for mutations in currently known retinal genes...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185595/exploring-pathways-for-building-trust-in-vaccination-and-strengthening-health-system-resilience
#18
Sachiko Ozawa, Ligia Paina, Mary Qiu
BACKGROUND: Trust is critical to generate and maintain demand for vaccines in low and middle income countries. However, there is little documentation on how health system insufficiencies affect trust in vaccination and the process of re-building trust once it has been compromised. We reflect on how disruptions to immunizations systems can affect trust in vaccination and can compromise vaccine utilization. We then explore key pathways for overcoming system vulnerabilities in order to restore trust, to strengthen the resilience of health systems and communities, and to promote vaccine utilization...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169219/open-ephys-an-open-source-plugin-based-platform-for-multichannel-electrophysiology
#19
Joshua Handman Siegle, Aarón Cuevas López, Yogi Patel, Kirill Abramov, Shay Ohayon, Jakob Voigts
OBJECTIVE: Closed-loop experiments, in which causal interventions are conditioned on the state of the system under investigation, have become increasingly common in neuroscience. Such experiments can have a high degree of explanatory power, but they require a precise implementation that can be difficult to replicate across laboratories. We sought to overcome this limitation by building open-source software that makes it easier to develop and share algorithms for closed-loop control. APPROACH: We created the Open Ephys GUI, an open-source platform for multichannel electrophysiology experiments...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158040/simple-delay-limited-sideband-locking-with-heterodyne-readout
#20
Christoph Reinhardt, Tina Müller, Jack C Sankey
We present a robust sideband laser locking technique ideally suited for applications requiring low probe power and heterodyne readout. By feeding back to a high-bandwidth voltage-controlled oscillator, we lock a first-order phase-modulation sideband to a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity in ambient conditions, achieving a closed-loop bandwidth of 3.5 MHz (with a single integrator) limited fundamentally by the signal delay. The measured transfer function of the closed loop agrees with a simple model based on ideal system components, and from this we suggest a modified design that should achieve a bandwidth exceeding 6 MHz with a near-causally limited feedback gain as high as 4 × 10<sup>7</sup> at 1 kHz...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
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