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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906524/the-development-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-variability-and-causal-complexity
#1
REVIEW
Robert H Wozniak, Nina B Leezenbaum, Jessie B Northrup, Kelsey L West, Jana M Iverson
The autism spectrum is highly variable, both behaviorally and neurodevelopmentally. Broadly speaking, four related factors contribute to this variability: (1) genetic processes, (2) environmental events, (3) gene × environment interactions, and (4) developmental factors. Given the complexity of the relevant processes, it appears unlikely that autism spectrum atypicalities can be attributed to any one causal mechanism. Rather, the development of neural atypicality reflects an interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895572/plastic-changes-in-human-motor-cortical-output-induced-by-random-but-not-closed-loop-peripheral-stimulation-the-curse-of-causality
#2
Kenneth I Brown, Elizabeth R Williams, Felipe de Carvalho, Stuart N Baker
Previous work showed that repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation can induce plastic changes in motor cortical output. Triggering electrical stimulation of central structures from natural activity can also generate plasticity. In this study, we tested whether triggering peripheral nerve stimulation from muscle activity would likewise induce changes in motor output. We developed a wearable electronic device capable of recording electromyogram (EMG) and delivering electrical stimulation under closed-loop control...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881959/effective-connectivity-within-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-during-resting-state-in-cocaine-users
#3
Suchismita Ray, Xin Di, Bharat B Biswal
Objective: Although effective connectivity between brain regions has been examined in cocaine users during tasks, no effective connectivity study has been conducted on cocaine users during resting-state. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined effective connectivity in resting-brain, between the brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, implicated in reward and motivated behavior, while the chronic cocaine users and controls took part in a resting-state scan by using a spectral Dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) approach...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862484/%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-autoantibodies-increase-the-susceptibility-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-involving-abnormal-repolarization-in-guinea-pigs
#4
Yu-Hui Zhao, Hai-Xia Huang, Ping Liu, Yun-Hui Du, Peng Wang, Wen Wang, Ye Wu, Li Wang, Chang-Sheng Ma, Hui-Rong Liu
High titers of autoantibodies against the second extracellular loop of β1 -adrenergic receptors (β1 -AA) can be detected in the sera from patients with ventricular arrhythmias, but a causal relationship between β1 -AAs and ventricular arrhythmias has not been established. In this work, electrocardiograms of guinea pigs and isolated guinea pig hearts were recorded. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) were evoked by programmed electrical stimulation of the left ventricular epicardium of isolated guinea pig hearts...
November 11, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861577/identifying-causal-genes-at-the-multiple-sclerosis-associated-region-6q23-using-capture-hi-c
#5
Paul Martin, Amanda McGovern, Jonathan Massey, Stefan Schoenfelder, Kate Duffus, Annie Yarwood, Anne Barton, Jane Worthington, Peter Fraser, Stephen Eyre, Gisela Orozco
BACKGROUND: The chromosomal region 6q23 has been found to be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) predisposition through genome wide association studies (GWAS). There are four independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with MS in this region, which spans around 2.5 Mb. Most GWAS variants associated with complex traits, including these four MS associated SNPs, are non-coding and their function is currently unknown. However, GWAS variants have been found to be enriched in enhancers and there is evidence that they may be involved in transcriptional regulation of their distant target genes through long range chromatin looping...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859579/sixty-hertz-stimulation-improves-bradykinesia-and-amplifies-subthalamic-low-frequency-oscillations
#6
REVIEW
Zack Blumenfeld, Mandy Miller Koop, Thomas E Prieto, Lauren A Shreve, Anca Velisar, Emma J Quinn, Megan H Trager, Helen Brontë-Stewart
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that attenuation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) alpha-/beta-band oscillations is causal to improvement in bradykinesia. METHODS: STN local field potentials from a sensing neurostimulator (Activa(®) PC+S; Medtronic, Inc.) and kinematics from wearable sensors were recorded simultaneously during 60- and 140-Hz deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 9 freely moving PD subjects (15 STNs) performing repetitive wrist flexion-extension...
November 8, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835976/an-integrated-risk-and-vulnerability-assessment-framework-for-climate-change-and-malaria-transmission-in-east-africa
#7
Esther Achieng Onyango, Oz Sahin, Alex Awiti, Cordia Chu, Brendan Mackey
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the key research concerns in climate change-health relationships. Numerous risk assessments and modelling studies provide evidence that the transmission range of malaria will expand with rising temperatures, adversely impacting on vulnerable communities in the East African highlands. While there exist multiple lines of evidence for the influence of climate change on malaria transmission, there is insufficient understanding of the complex and interdependent factors that determine the risk and vulnerability of human populations at the community level...
November 11, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829840/antioxidant-functions-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#8
REVIEW
Cornelia Dietrich
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799070/capture-hi-c-identifies-a-novel-causal-gene-il20ra-in-the-pan-autoimmune-genetic-susceptibility-region-6q23
#9
Amanda McGovern, Stefan Schoenfelder, Paul Martin, Jonathan Massey, Kate Duffus, Darren Plant, Annie Yarwood, Arthur G Pratt, Amy E Anderson, John D Isaacs, Julie Diboll, Nishanthi Thalayasingam, Caroline Ospelt, Anne Barton, Jane Worthington, Peter Fraser, Stephen Eyre, Gisela Orozco
BACKGROUND: The identification of causal genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is the next important step for the translation of genetic findings into biologically meaningful mechanisms of disease and potential therapeutic targets. Using novel chromatin interaction detection techniques and allele specific assays in T and B cell lines, we provide compelling evidence that redefines causal genes at the 6q23 locus, one of the most important loci that confers autoimmunity risk...
November 1, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788224/quantifying-a-systems-map-network-analysis-of-a-childhood-obesity-causal-loop-diagram
#10
Jaimie McGlashan, Michael Johnstone, Doug Creighton, Kayla de la Haye, Steven Allender
Causal loop diagrams developed by groups capture a shared understanding of complex problems and provide a visual tool to guide interventions. This paper explores the application of network analytic methods as a new way to gain quantitative insight into the structure of an obesity causal loop diagram to inform intervention design. Identification of the structural features of causal loop diagrams is likely to provide new insights into the emergent properties of complex systems and analysing central drivers has the potential to identify leverage points...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760050/insulin-receptor-thr1160-phosphorylation-mediates-lipid-induced-hepatic-insulin-resistance
#11
Max C Petersen, Anila K Madiraju, Brandon M Gassaway, Michael Marcel, Ali R Nasiri, Gina Butrico, Melissa J Marcucci, Dongyan Zhang, Abudukadier Abulizi, Xian-Man Zhang, William Philbrick, Stevan R Hubbard, Michael J Jurczak, Varman T Samuel, Jesse Rinehart, Gerald I Shulman
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether NAFLD plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2D is uncertain. One proposed mechanism linking NAFLD to hepatic insulin resistance involves diacylglycerol-mediated (DAG-mediated) activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKCε) and the consequent inhibition of insulin receptor (INSR) kinase activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PKCε inhibition of INSR kinase activity is unknown. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify the phosphorylation site Thr1160 as a PKCε substrate in the functionally critical INSR kinase activation loop...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757231/emergency-department-crowding-in-singapore-insights-from-a-systems-thinking-approach
#12
Lukas K Schoenenberger, Steffen Bayer, John P Ansah, David B Matchar, Rajagopal L Mohanavalli, Sean Sw Lam, Marcus Eh Ong
OBJECTIVES: Emergency Department crowding is a serious and international health care problem that seems to be resistant to most well intended but often reductionist policy approaches. In this study, we examine Emergency Department crowding in Singapore from a systems thinking perspective using causal loop diagramming to visualize the systemic structure underlying this complex phenomenon. Furthermore, we evaluate the relative impact of three different policies in reducing Emergency Department crowding in Singapore: introduction of geriatric emergency medicine, expansion of emergency medicine training, and implementation of enhanced primary care...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754484/modulation-of-motor-inhibition-by-subthalamic-stimulation-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
A Kibleur, G Gras-Combe, D Benis, J Bastin, T Bougerol, S Chabardès, M Polosan, O David
High-frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can be used to treat severe obsessive-compulsive disorders that are refractory to conventional treatments. The mechanisms of action of this approach possibly rely on the modulation of associative-limbic subcortical-cortical loops, but remain to be fully elucidated. Here in 12 patients, we report the effects of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on behavior, and on electroencephalographic responses and inferred effective connectivity during motor inhibition processes involved in the stop signal task...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728902/changes-in-corticocortical-and-corticohippocampal-network-during-absence-seizures-in-wag-rij-rats-revealed-with-time-varying-granger-causality
#14
Marina V Sysoeva, Lyudmila V Vinogradova, Galina D Kuznetsova, Ilya V Sysoev, Clementina M van Rijn
PURPOSE: Spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) recorded in the cortical EEGs of WAG/Rij rats are the hallmark for absence epilepsy in this model. Although this type of epilepsy was long regarded as a form of primary generalized epilepsy, it is now recognized that there is an initiation zone - the perioral region of the somatosensory cortex. However, networks involved in spreading the seizure are not yet fully known. Previously, the dynamics of coupling between different layers of the perioral cortical region and between these zones and different thalamic nuclei was studied in time windows around the SWDs, using nonlinear Granger causality...
October 8, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721746/extended-neural-metastability-in-an-embodied-model-of-sensorimotor-coupling
#15
Miguel Aguilera, Manuel G Bedia, Xabier E Barandiaran
The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioral metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioral preference task...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685848/fluid-composition-and-acute-kidney-injury
#16
Fernando G Zampieri, Alexandre B Libório, Alexandre B Cavalcanti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advances in the understanding of the role of fluid composition in renal outcomes in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The debate on fluid composition is now focused in a pragmatic discussion on fluid electrolyte composition. The resurgence of this debate was propelled by several observational studies that suggested that balanced (i.e., low chloride) solutions were associated with less acute kidney injury in critically ill patients...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658590/impact-of-irrigation-extension-on-malaria-transmission-in-simret-tigray-ethiopia
#17
Bonhee Chung
Poor subsistence farmers who live in a semi-arid area of northern Ethiopia build irrigation systems to overcome water shortages. However, there is a high risk of malaria transmission when increased standing water provides more favorable habitats for mosquito breeding. This is a serious problem because there are many barriers to malaria control measures and health care systems in the area. Using a causal loop diagram and computer simulations, the author attempted to visually illustrate positive and negative feedbacks between mosquito and human populations in the context of Simret, which is a small village located in northern Ethiopia and is generally considered a malaria-free area...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614224/hyperaldosteronism-induces-left-atrial-systolic-and-diastolic-dysfunction
#18
Jan-Christian Reil, Marcus Tauchnitz, Qinghai Tian, Mathias Hohl, Dominik Linz, Martin Oberhofer, Lars Kaestner, Gert-Hinrich Reil, Holger Thiele, Paul Steendijk, Michael Böhm, Hans-Ruprecht Neuberger, Peter Lipp
Patients with hypertension and hyperaldosteronism show an increased risk of stroke compared with patients with essential hypertension. Aim of the study was to assess the effects of aldosterone on left atrial function in rats as a potential contributor to thromboembolism. Osmotic mini-pumps delivering 1.5 μg aldosterone/h were implanted in rats subcutaneously (Aldo, n = 39; controls, n = 38). After 8 wk, left ventricular pressure-volume analysis of isolated working hearts was performed, and left atrial systolic and diastolic function was also assessed by atrial pressure-diameter loops...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532002/natural-functional-snps-in-mir-155-alter-its-expression-level-blood-cell-counts-and-immune-responses
#19
Congcong Li, Huabin He, An Liu, Huazhen Liu, Haibo Huang, Changzhi Zhao, Lu Jing, Juan Ni, Lilin Yin, Suqin Hu, Hui Wu, Xinyun Li, Shuhong Zhao
miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B). Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517530/the-prevalence-and-use-of-walking-loops-in-neighborhood-parks-a-national-study
#20
Deborah A Cohen, Bing Han, Kelly R Evenson, Catherine Nagel, Thomas L McKenzie, Terry Marsh, Stephanie Williamson, Peter Harnik
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that the design of streets and sidewalks can influence physical activity among residents. Park features also influence park use and park-based physical activity. Although individuals can walk on streets and sidewalks, walking loops in parks offer a setting to walk in nature and to avoid interruptions from traffic. OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of walking loops in parks and compare the number of park users and their physical activity in urban neighborhood parks with and without walking loops...
August 12, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
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