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Adult traumatic brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930945/effects-of-propranolol-and-clonidine-on-brain-edema-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-endothelial-glycocalyx-disruption-following-fluid-percussion-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#1
Gustav Folmer Genét, Peter Bentzer, Morten Bagge Hansen, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Pär Ingemar Johansson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury causes a disruption of the vascular endothelial glycocalyx layer that is associated with an overactivation of the sympathoadrenal system. We hypothesized that early and unselective beta-blockade with propranolol alone or in combination with the alfa2-agonist clonidine would decrease brain edema, blood-brain-barrier permeability and glycocalyx disruption at 24 hours after trauma. METHODS: We subjected fifty-three adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to lateral fluid-percussion brain injury and randomized infusion with propranolol (n=16), propranolol+clonidine (n=16), vehicle (n=16) or sham (n=5) for 24 hours...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928193/the-course-and-prognostic-factors-of-cognitive-status-after-central-nervous-system-trauma-a-systematic-review-protocol
#2
Tatyana Mollayeva, Nicole Pacheco, Andrea D'Souza, Angela Colantonio
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the most disabling injuries, resulting in a range of cognitive impairments. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often occurs in conjunction with TBI; the two are best considered together in the context of trauma to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite strong indications of cognitive dysfunction in CNS trauma, little is known about its natural history or relationship with other factors. The current protocol outlines a strategy for a systematic review of the current evidence examining CNS trauma as a prognostic factor of cognitive decline in the adult population...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926484/alcohol-and-drug-use-before-and-during-the-first-year-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Simon Beaulieu-Bonneau, Frédéric St-Onge, Marie-Claude Blackburn, Andrée Banville, Andrée-Anne Paradis-Giroux, Marie-Christine Ouellet
OBJECTIVES: To compare individuals with mild and moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on alcohol and drug use and substance use disorders before and in the first year post-TBI; to explore sociodemographic and injury-related variables associated with substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 225 adults hospitalized in a level I trauma center after TBI. DESIGN: Observational cohort study with retrospective (pre-TBI) and prospective (4, 8, and 12 months post-TBI) assessments...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926481/disparities-in-health-care-utilization-of-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injuries-are-related-to-insurance-race-and-ethnicity-a-systematic-review
#4
Shiyao Gao, Raj G Kumar, Stephen R Wisniewski, Anthony Fabio
OBJECTIVE: To characterize racial/ethnic and insurance disparities in the utilization of healthcare services among US adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The PubMed database was used to search for articles that directly examined the association between race/ethnicity and insurance disparities and healthcare utilization among patients with TBI. Eleven articles that met the criteria and were published between June 2011 and June 2016 were finally included in the review...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926480/postconcussive-symptoms-over-the-first-14-days-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-an-experience-sampling-study
#5
Maria Pacella, Arjun Prabhu, Julia Morley, Stephanie Huang, Brian Suffoletto
OBJECTIVE: This study examined changes in postconcussive symptoms (PCS) over the acute postinjury recovery period, focusing on how daily PCSs differ between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and other injury types. SETTING: An urban emergency department (ED) in Western Pennsylvania. SUBJECTS: A total of 108 adult patients with trauma being discharged from the ED were recruited and grouped by injury type: mild TBI (mTBI; n = 39), head injury without mTBI (HI: n = 16), and non-head-injured trauma controls (TCs: n = 53)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925746/impact-of-extended-monitoring-guided-intensive-care-on-outcome-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study-paris-tbi-study
#6
Joaquim Mateo, Didier Payen, Idir Ghout, Fabrice Vallée, Thomas Lescot, Stephane Welschbillig, Karim Tazarourte, Philippe Azouvi, Jean-Jacques Weiss, Philippe Aegerter, Bernard Vigué
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether an integrated monitoring with systemic and specific monitoring affect mortality and disability in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). METHODS: Adults with severeTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] ≤ 8) admitted alive in intensive care units (ICUs) were prospectively included. Primary endpoints were in-hospital 30-day mortality and extended Glasgow outcome score (GOSE) at 3 years. Association with the intensity of monitoring and outcome was studied by comparing a high level of monitoring (HLM) (systemic and ≥3 specific monitoring) and low level of monitoring (LLM) (systemic and 0-2 specific monitoring) and using inverse probability weighting procedure...
September 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921694/protease-activated-receptor-2-controls-myelin-development-resiliency-and-repair
#7
Hyesook Yoon, Maja Radulovic, Grant Walters, Alex R Paulsen, Kristen Drucker, Phillip Starski, Jianmin Wu, David P Fairlie, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Oligodendrocytes are essential regulators of axonal energy homeostasis and electrical conduction and emerging target cells for restoration of neurological function. Here we investigate the role of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a unique protease activated G protein-coupled receptor, in myelin development and repair using the spinal cord as a model. Results demonstrate that genetic deletion of PAR2 accelerates myelin production, including higher proteolipid protein (PLP) levels in the spinal cord at birth and higher levels of myelin basic protein and thickened myelin sheaths in adulthood...
September 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921587/dimethyl-fumarate-treatment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-prevents-depletion-of-antioxidative-brain-glutathione-and-confers-neuroprotection
#8
Tobias Krämer, Theresa Grob, Lutz Menzel, Tobias Hirnet, Eva Griemert, Konstantin Radyushkin, Serge C Thal, Axel Methner, Michael K E Schaefer
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an immunomodulatory therapeutic for multiple sclerosis and psoriasis with neuroprotective potential. Its mechanism of action involves activation of the antioxidant pathway regulator Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) thereby increasing synthesis of the cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The objective of this study was to investigate whether post-traumatic DMF treatment is beneficial after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact followed by oral administration of DMF (80 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at 3 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the inflicted TBI...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918666/treatment-options-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-children-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-prospects
#9
Lisa A DelSignore, Robert C Tasker
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) afflicts many children and adults worldwide, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Recent therapeutic advances have focused on both surgical and medical treatment options, but none have been proven to reduce overall morbidity and mortality in this population. Areas covered: Several emerging therapies are addressed that focus on treating related secondary injuries and other clinical sequelae post-TBI during the acute injury phase (defined by authors as up to four weeks post-injury)...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916852/pediatric-head-trauma-an-extensive-review-on-imaging-requisites-and-unique-imaging-findings
#10
REVIEW
F C Sarioglu, H Sahin, Y Pekcevik, O Sarioglu, O Oztekin
The effects of trauma in children are different due to association with some anatomical and physiological differences compared with adults. The role of neuroimaging gains importance in early detection of traumatic brain injuries and prevention of secondary post-traumatic complications. Many algorithms are described for children with head trauma to decide the necessity of a computed tomography scan. The aims of this article are to describe differences of these algorithms, the mechanism of traumatic brain injury with radiological imaging findings in the pediatric population, and explain complications of undiagnosed traumatic brain lesions...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902694/safety-and-effectiveness-of-pharmacotherapy-for-depression-in-adults-who-have-sustained-a-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-protocol
#11
Fiona J Clay, Luke A Perry, Amelia J Hicks, Rachel Batty, Catalin Tufanaru, Mahesh Jayaram, Jennie Ponsford, Malcolm Hopwood
The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness and harms of pharmacotherapy in the management of depression in adults who have sustained a traumatic brain injury.
September 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901780/cognitive-correlates-of-pragmatic-language-comprehension-in-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#12
Dane A Rowley, Miles Rogish, Timothy Alexander, Kevin J Riggs
Effective pragmatic comprehension of language is critical for successful communication and interaction, but this ability is routinely impaired following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (1,2). Individual studies have investigated the cognitive domains associated with impaired pragmatic comprehension, but there remains little understanding of the relative importance of these domains in contributing to pragmatic comprehension impairment following TBI. This paper presents a systematic meta-analytic review of the observed correlations between pragmatic comprehension and cognitive processes following TBI...
September 13, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898132/staged-residential-post-acute-rehabilitation-for-adults-following-acquired-brain-injury-a-comparison-of-functional-gains-rated-on-the-uk-functional-assessment-measure-uk-fim-fam-and-the-mayo-portland-adaptability-inventory-mpai-4
#13
Diana Jackson, Karla Seaman, Kristylee Sharp, Rachel Singer, Janet Wagland, Lynne Turner-Stokes
OBJECTIVE: To compare the UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM) and Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) as measures of functional change in patients with brain injury receiving a staged residential post-acute community-based rehabilitation programme. RESEARCH DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study of consecutive admissions (N = 42) over 3 years. METHODS: Patients were assessed at admission and discharge/annual review. We examined groups according to stage of independence on admission: Maximum support (stages 1 and 2: N = 17); moderate/maximum self-care/household support (stage 3: N = 15); minimal self-care and moderate household/community support (stages 4-6: N = 10)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895796/prevalence-and-severity-of-fatigue-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-acquired-brain-injury-a-nationwide-study
#14
Anne Norup, Susanne Wulff Svendsen, Karoline Doser, Trine Okkerstrøm Ryttersgaard, Nicole Frandsen, Louise Gade, Hysse Birgitte Forchhammer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and severity of fatigue in adolescents and young adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) compared with healthy controls (HCs) and to examine associations between fatigue and gender, age and level of education. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 15-30 year old patients with ABI and a convenience sample of 15-30 year old HCs. All participants completed the 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Pathological fatigue was defined as "General Fatigue" ≥12...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895491/preliminary-validation-of-the-whodas-2-0-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Deborah Snell, Grant L Iverson, William Panenka, Noah D Silverberg
The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability, factor structure, and validity of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0 12-item version) in a sample of patients who were slow to recover from a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Participants were 79 adults with MTBI recruited from one of four specialty outpatient clinics in Vancouver, Canada. The WHODAS 2.0 12-item version is a disease-non-specific measure of disability representing six International Classification of Disability, Functioning, and Health activity and participation domains including cognition, mobility, self-care, interpersonal functioning, life activities, and participation...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895488/a-systematic-review-of-psychological-interventions-for-sleep-and-fatigue-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Karen Sullivan, Hannah Blaine, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Alice Theadom, Catherine Haden, Simon Smith
This review evaluated the evidence for psychological interventions to improve sleep and reduce fatigue after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eight electronic databases were searched up until August 2016 for studies that: (1) included adults; (2) tested intervention effectiveness on sleep quality and fatigue, post-acutely; (3) applied a broadly-defined psychological intervention (e.g., cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT], counselling, or education). Only randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891322/data-driven-topological-filtering-based-on-orthogonal-minimal-spanning-trees-application-to-multi-group-meg-resting-state-connectivity
#17
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Marios Antonakakis, Panagiotis Simos, Jack M Fletcher, Andrew C Papanicolaou
In the present study a novel data-driven topological filtering technique is introduced to derive the backbone of functional brain networks relying on orthogonal minimal spanning trees (OMST). The method aims to identify the essential functional connections to ensure optimal information flow via the objective criterion of global efficiency minus the cost of surviving connections. The OMST technique was applied to multichannel, resting-state neuromagnetic recordings from four groups of participants: healthy adults (n=50), adults who have suffered mild traumatic brain injury (n=30), typically developing children (n=27), and reading-disabled children (n=25)...
September 11, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886718/repositioning-drugs-for-traumatic-brain-injury-n-acetyl-cysteine-and-phenserine
#18
REVIEW
Barry J Hoffer, Chaim G Pick, Michael E Hoffer, Robert E Becker, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Nigel H Greig
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality of both young adults of less than 45 years of age and the elderly, and contributes to about 30% of all injury deaths in the United States of America. Whereas there has been a significant improvement in our understanding of the mechanism that underpin the primary and secondary stages of damage associated with a TBI incident, to date however, this knowledge has not translated into the development of effective new pharmacological TBI treatment strategies...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882543/longitudinal-study-of-a-nogo-p3-event-related-potential-component-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-adults
#19
Gian Candrian, Andreas Müller, Patrizia Dall'Acqua, Kyveli Kompatsiari, Gian-Marco Baschera, Ladislav Mica, Hans-Peter Simmen, Richard Glaab, Javier Fandino, Markus Schwendinger, Christoph Meier, Erika Jasmin Ulbrich, Sönke Johannes
BACKGROUND: Event-related potentials have repeatedly revealed electrophysiological markers of cognitive dysfunction associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and may represent a sensitive tool to guide cognitive rehabilitative interventions. We previously found patients with symptomatic MTBI characterized by smaller P300 (or P3) wave amplitudes in a NoGo-P3 subcomponent in the acute phase of the injury. The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether this early NoGo-P3 subcomponent differs over time in symptomatic MTBI patients and healthy controls...
September 4, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876156/home-based-circuit-training-program-for-an-adolescent-female-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#20
Devashish Tiwari, Carol Daly, Bara Alsalaheen
Adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often discharged from physical therapy (PT) services without transitioning into exertional conditioning programs. Active participation in physical activities with peers at school is essential to achieve a sense of accomplishment and acceptance. Factors such as reduced aerobic fitness and residual gait impairments can lead to limited participation and peer interaction. The purpose of this case report was to describe the impact of home-based circuit training (HBCT) focusing on strength and balance on gait speed (GS), energy expenditure, and functional performance in a 17-year-old female with severe TBI...
September 6, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
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