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Brain injury in adults

Kevin C Kemp, Rimi Dey, Johan Verhagen, Neil J Scolding, Maria M Usowicz, Alastair Wilkins
Bone marrow-derived cells are known to infiltrate the adult brain and fuse with cerebellar Purkinje cells. Histological observations that such heterotypic cell fusion events are substantially more frequent following cerebellar injury suggest they could have a role in the protection of mature brain neurons. To date, the possibility that cell fusion can preserve or restore the structure and function of adult brain neurons has not been directly addressed; indeed, though frequently suggested, the possibility of benefit has always been rather speculative...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Jing Li Huang, Theo A Woehrle, Pat Conway, Catherine A McCarty, Madeline M Eyer, Steven D Eyer
PURPOSE: In 2007, Essentia Health St. Mary's Medical Center (SMMC), a Level II trauma center in northeastern Minnesota, implemented a protocol for patients who presented with blunt head trauma and were receiving warfarin for anticoagulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of early delayed, warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Adult patients with signs and symptoms of head injury on warfarin who were admitted by protocol to SMMC between March 2007 and June 2015 were included...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Per F Nordmark, Christina Ljungberg, Roland S Johansson
Transection of the median nerve typically causes lifelong restriction of fine sensory and motor skills of the affected hand despite the best available surgical treatment. Inspired by recent findings on activity-dependent structural plasticity of the adult brain, we used voxel-based morphometry to analyze the brains of 16 right-handed adults who more than two years earlier had suffered injury to the left or right median nerve followed by microsurgical repair. Healthy individuals served as matched controls. Irrespective of side of injury, we observed gray matter reductions in left ventral and right dorsal premotor cortex, and white matter reductions in commissural pathways interconnecting those motor areas...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jong Min Kim, Seung Beom Woo, Zeeihn Lee, Sung Jae Heo, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Verbal auditory agnosia is the selective inability to recognize verbal sounds. Patients with this disorder lose the ability to understand language, write from dictation, and repeat words with reserved ability to identify nonverbal sounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there was no report about verbal auditory agnosia in adult patient with traumatic brain injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: He was able to clearly distinguish between language and nonverbal sounds, and he did not have any difficulty in identifying the environmental sounds...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Samuel Enumah, Elizabeth J Lilley, Stephanie Nitzschke, Adil H Haider, Ali Salim, Zara Cooper
BACKGROUND: Hospice improves quality and value of end of life care (EOLC), and enrollment has increased for older patients dying from chronic medical conditions. It remains unknown if the same is true for older patients who die after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI). METHODS: Subjects included Medicare beneficiaries (≥65 years) who were hospitalized for msTBI from 2005 to 2011. Outcomes included intensity and quality of EOLC for decedents within 30 days of admission, and 30-day mortality for the entire cohort...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Faisal S Ali, Maryam R Hussain, Carolina Gutiérrez, Petya Demireva, Leomar Y Ballester, Jiguang-Jay Zhu, Angel Blanco, Yoshua Esquenazi
Cognitive dysfunction is common among patients with intracranial tumors. Most cognitive deficits are subtle, lack specificity, may mimic depression or other neurological disorders and may be recognized in retrospect by the physician. In certain cases, distinguishing between tumor recurrence and cognitive deficits that arise as a consequence of the treatment becomes challenging. Late treatment effects have also become an area of focus as the overall survival and prognosis of patients with brain tumors increases...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Raghavendra Rao, Motaz Nashawaty, Saher Fatima, Kathleen Ennis, Ivan Tkac
Hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration >150 mg/dL) is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs; birth at <28 week gestation). Hyperglycemia increases the risk of brain injury in the neonatal period. The long-term effects are not well understood. In adult rats, hyperglycemia alters hippocampal energy metabolism. The effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus were studied in rat pups. In Experiment 1, recurrent hyperglycemia of graded severity (moderate hyperglycemia (moderate-HG), mean blood glucose 214...
March 13, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Lili Zhang, Zhaomin Fan, Yuechen Han, Lei Xu, Wenwen Liu, Xiaohui Bai, Meijuan Zhou, Jianfeng Li, Haibo Wang
Valproic acid (VPA), a medication primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder, has been applied to the repair of central and peripheral nervous system injury. The present study investigated the effect of VPA on functional recovery, survival of facial motor neurons (FMNs), and expression of proteins in rats after facial nerve trunk transection by functional measurement, Nissl staining, TUNEL, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. Following facial nerve injury, all rats in group VPA showed a better functional recovery, which was significant at the given time, compared with group NS...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Laura B Ngwenya, Sarmistha Mazumder, Zachary R Porter, Amy Minnema, Duane J Oswald, H Francis Farhadi
Cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are debilitating and contribute to the morbidity and loss of productivity of over 10 million people worldwide. Cell transplantation has been linked to enhanced cognitive function after experimental traumatic brain injury, yet the mechanism of recovery is poorly understood. Since the hippocampus is a critical structure for learning and memory, supports adult neurogenesis, and is particularly vulnerable after TBI, we hypothesized that stem cell transplantation after TBI enhances cognitive recovery by modulation of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis...
2018: Stem Cells International
Maria Punchak, Jihad Abdelgadir, Oscar Obiga, Martha Itait, Josephine N Najjuma, Michael M Haglund, David Kitya
BACKGROUND: RTIs, falls and violence contribute to more than two thirds of pediatric TBIs in SSA. In this study, we sought to assess mechanisms of pediatric TBI in an effort to propose interventions for more effective pediatric head injury prevention. METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients who were <18 years treated at MRRH between November 2016 and June 2017 were enrolled in the study. Information on etiology of injury was obtained via a questionnaire administered to patient caretakers at the time of admission...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Saeed Kayhanian, Adam M H Young, Rory J Piper, Joseph Donnelly, Daniel Scoffings, Matthew R Garnett, Helen M Fernandes, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J Hutchinson, Shruti Agrawal
Radiological assessment of the head is a routine part of the management of traumatic brain injury. This assessment can help to determine the requirement for invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The radiological correlates of elevated ICP have been widely studied in adults but far fewer specific pediatric studies have been conducted. There is, however, growing evidence that there are important differences in the radiological presentations of elevated ICP between children and adults; a reflection of the anatomical and physiological differences, as well as a difference in the pathophysiology of brain injury in children...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Lauren B Crawford, Meredith R Golomb
OBJECTIVE: Here we review the current literature regarding visual outcome after perinatal and childhood stroke. BACKGROUND: Visual deficits following stroke in adults are common and have been previously reviewed. Less is known about visual deficits following stroke in neonates and older children. Most of the literature regarding this subject has focused on preterm infants, or on other types of brain injury. This review summarizes the types of visual deficits seen in term infants following perinatal stroke and children following childhood stroke and predictors of outcome...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Lenore Hawley, Jessica M Ketchum, Clare Morey, Kathleen Collins Pharm D, Susan Charlifue
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of cannabis use in an adult sample with spinal cord injury (SCI) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Colorado, and to describe the self-reported reasons and side effects of cannabis use in this sample. DESIGN: Mixed methods observational study, using focus group data and telephone survey SETTING: Community PARTICIPANTS: Colorado adults who have sustained SCI or moderate to severe TBI and have received services through the rehabilitation hospital conducting the study...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Christopher G Hughes, Mayur B Patel, Nathan E Brummel, Jennifer L Thompson, J Brennan McNeil, Pratik P Pandharipande, James C Jackson, Rameela Chandrasekhar, Lorraine B Ware, E Wesley Ely, Timothy D Girard
PURPOSE: Neurologic and endothelial injury biomarkers are associated with prolonged delirium during critical illness and may reflect injury pathways that lead to poor long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that blood-brain barrier (BBB), neuronal, and endothelial injury biomarkers measured during critical illness are associated with cognitive impairment and disability after discharge. METHODS: We enrolled adults with respiratory failure and/or shock and measured plasma concentrations of BBB (S100B), neuronal (UCHL1, BDNF), and endothelial (E-selectin, PAI-1) injury markers within 72 h of ICU admission...
March 9, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Chantal F Hillebregt, Eline W M Scholten, Marjolijn Ketelaar, Marcel W M Post, Johanna M A Visser-Meily
INTRODUCTION: Many patients and family members experience a large gap between the protected environment during inpatient medical rehabilitation and life in the community after discharge. They feel insufficiently prepared to cope with the consequences of their disability in daily life. This study protocol describes the design measuring the effectiveness and implementation of family group conferences on the empowerment of patients with a high risk of chronic disability and their significant others...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Véronique de Goumoëns, Laura Marques Rio, Anne-Sylvie Ramelet
The aim of this scoping review is to examine the range and nature of family-oriented interventions that have been developed and/or tested for people with acquired brain injuries (ABI) and their families in all settings. Specifically the review questions are.
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Xinhua Zhan, Boryana Stamova, Frank R Sharp
This review proposes that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, found in the wall of all Gram-negative bacteria) could play a role in causing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is based in part upon recent studies showing that: Gram-negative E. coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid; bacterial-encoded 16S rRNA is present in all human brains with over 70% being Gram-negative bacteria; ultrastructural analyses have shown microbes in erythrocytes of AD patients; blood LPS levels in AD patients are 3-fold the levels in control; LPS combined with focal cerebral ischemia and hypoxia produced amyloid-like plaques and myelin injury in adult rat cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Kyung-Joo Seong, Hyeong-Jun Kim, Bangrong Cai, Min-Suk Kook, Ji-Yeon Jung, Won-Jae Kim
The subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG) is a primary site of adult neurogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in neural system development of Drosophila and innate immune response of mammals. TLR2 is expressed abundantly in neurogenic niches such as adult mammalian hippocampus. It regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis is not well studied in global or focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis after photochemically induced cerebral ischemia...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Erika A Scholl, Stephanie M Miller-Smith, Steven L Bealer, Mark J Lehmkuhle, Jeffrey J Ekstrand, F Edward Dudek, John H McDonough
Exposure to nerve agents (NAs) and other organophosphates (OPs) can initiate seizures that rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE). While the electrographic and neuropathological sequelae of SE evoked by NAs and OPs have been characterized in adult rodents, they have not been adequately investigated in immature animals. In this study postnatal day (PND) 14, 21 and 28 rat pups, along with PND70 animals as adult controls, were exposed to NAs (sarin, VX) or another OP (diisopropylfluorophosphate, DFP). We then evaluated behavioral and electrographic (EEG) correlates of seizure activity, and performed neuropathology using Fluoro-Jade B...
March 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Paul M Macey, Natasha Haris, Rajesh Kumar, M Albert Thomas, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46...
2018: PloS One
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