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Brain injury in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743088/chitosan-derived-co-spheroids-of-neural-stem-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-neural-regeneration
#1
Hao-Wei Han, Shan-Hui Hsu
Chitosan has been considered as candidate biomaterials for neural applications. The effective treatment of neurodegeneration or injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is still in lack nowadays. Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) represents a promising cell source to treat the CNS diseases but they are limited in number. Here, we developed the core-shell spheroids of NSCs (shell) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, core) by co-culturing cells on the chitosan surface. The NSCs in chitosan derived co-spheroids displayed a higher survival rate than those in NSC homo-spheroids...
July 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742817/temporal-profile-of-intracranial-pressure-and-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-and-association-with-fatal-outcome-an-observational-study
#2
Hadie Adams, Joseph Donnelly, Marek Czosnyka, Angelos G Kolias, Adel Helmy, David K Menon, Peter Smielewski, Peter J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Both intracranial pressure (ICP) and the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity represent the dysregulation of pathways directly involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathogenesis and have been used to inform clinical management. However, how these parameters evolve over time following injury and whether this evolution has any prognostic importance have not been studied. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed the temporal profile of ICP and pressure reactivity index (PRx), examined their relation to TBI-specific mortality, and determined if the prognostic relevance of these parameters was affected by their temporal profile using mixed models for repeated measures of ICP and PRx for the first 240 hours from the time of injury...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742231/different-resuscitation-strategies-and-novel-pharmacologic-treatment-with-valproic-acid-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Simone E Dekker, Vahagn C Nikolian, Martin Sillesen, Ted Bambakidis, Patrick Schober, Hasan B Alam
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in young adults, and effective treatment strategies have the potential to save many lives. TBI results in coagulopathy, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, cell death, and impaired epigenetic homeostasis, ultimately leading to morbidity and/or mortality. Commonly used resuscitation fluids such as crystalloids or colloids have several disadvantages and might even be harmful when administered in large quantities. There is a need for next-generation treatment strategies (especially in the prehospital setting) that minimize cellular damage, improve survival, and enhance neurological recovery...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#4
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738538/diosmin-improved-cognitive-deficit-and-amplified-brain-electrical-activity-in-the-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Mohammad Ali Mirshekar, Hamed Fanaei, Fereshteh Keikhaei, Fatemeh Sargolzaee Javan
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of intellectual and cognitive disabilities in humans. Clinically, it is essential to limit the progress of cognitive impairment after TBI. It is reported that diosmin has a neuroprotective effect that can limit the progress of the impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diosmin on neurological score, memory, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level and long-term potentiation in hippocampal dentate gyrus after the injury...
July 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738314/factors-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-a-cohort-of-older-homeless-adults-results-from-the-hope-home-study
#6
Emily Hurstak, Julene K Johnson, Lina Tieu, David Guzman, Claudia Ponath, Christopher T Lee, Christina Weyer Jamora, Margot Kushel
BACKGROUND: We evaluated cognitive function and factors associated with cognitive impairment in a cohort of older homeless adults. We hypothesized that substance use and a history of traumatic brain injury would be associated with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We recruited 350 homeless individuals aged ≥50 years using population-based sampling and conducted structured interviews and neuropsychological testing. We evaluated alcohol use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, defining high-severity alcohol use as a total score ≥16 or ≥4 on the alcohol dependency sub-scale...
July 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737117/prevalence-and-correlates-of-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-in-older-adults-results-from-the-well-being-of-the-singapore-elderly-wise-study
#7
Laxman Cetty, Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Boon Yiang Chua, Louisa Picco, Martin Prince, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: Older adults are among the most susceptible to sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study aimed to determine the (1) prevalence of TBI among older adults in Singapore, and (2) socio-demographic, lifestyle, and clinical correlates of TBI. METHODS: Data were extracted from the cross-sectional, Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study. The study included 2,565 participants aged 60 years and above (Mean = 72.75, SD = 9.54). Information on TBI, socio-demographic, and lifestyle factors were collected using participant self-report and verified with the informant report where necessary...
July 24, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736792/double-injected-human-stem-cells-enhance-rehabilitation-in-tbi-mice-via-modulation-of-survival-and-inflammation
#8
Chul Kim, Ji-Min Park, TaeHo Kong, Seungmin Lee, Ki-Weon Seo, Yuri Choi, Young Sook Song, Jisook Moon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a complicated form of brain damage, is a major cause of mortality in adults. Following mechanical and structural primary insults, a battery of secondary insults, including neurotransmitter-mediated cytotoxicity, dysregulation of calcium and macromolecule homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress, exacerbate brain injury and functional deficits. Although stem cell therapy is considered to be an alternative treatment for brain injuries, such as TBI and stroke, many obstacles remain...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736137/nogo-presence-is-inversely-associated-with-shifts-in-cortical-microglial-morphology-following-experimental-diffuse-brain-injury
#9
Jenna M Ziebell, Helen Ray-Jones, Jonathan Lifshitz
Diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates secondary pathology, including inflammation and reduced myelination. Considering these injury-related pathologies, the many states of activated microglia as demonstrated by differing morphologies would form, migrate, and function in and through fields of growth-inhibitory myelin byproduct, specifically Nogo. Here we evaluate the relationship between inflammation and reduced myelin antigenicity in the wake of diffuse TBI and present the hypothesis that the Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide NEP(1-40) would reverse the injury-induced shift in distribution of microglia morphologies by limiting myelin-based inhibition...
July 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735026/regulated-viral-bdnf-delivery-in-combination-with-schwann-cells-promotes-axonal-regeneration-through-capillary-alginate-hydrogels-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Shengwen Liu, Beatrice Sandner, Thomas Schackel, LaShae Nicholson, Abdelwahed Chtarto, Liliane Tenenbaum, Radhika Puttagunta, Rainer Müller, Norbert Weidner, Armin Blesch
Grafting of cell-seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while physically directing regenerating axonal growth in a linear pattern. However, without an additional growth stimulus, bridging axons fail to extend into the distal host spinal cord. Here we examined whether a combinatory strategy would support regeneration of descending axons across a cervical (C5) lateral hemisection lesion in the rat spinal cord. Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)-seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter was injected caudally...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733998/quiescent-oct4-neural-stem-cells-nscs-repopulate-ablated-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-nscs-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#11
Rachel L Reeve, Samantha Z Yammine, Cindi M Morshead, Derek van der Kooy
Adult primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) are a rare population of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)(-) Oct4(+) cells in the mouse forebrain subependymal zone bordering the lateral ventricles that give rise to clonal neurospheres in leukemia inhibitory factor in vitro. pNSC neurospheres can be passaged to self-renew or give rise to GFAP(+) NSCs that form neurospheres in epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, which we collectively refer to as definitive NSCs (dNSCs). Label retention experiments using doxycycline-inducible histone-2B (H2B)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice and several chase periods of up to 1 year quantified the adult pNSC cell cycle time as 3-5 months...
July 21, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732255/can-head-trauma-trigger-adult-onset-rasmussen-s-encephalitis
#12
Derrick Soh, Dennis J Cordato, Andrew F Bleasel, Peter Brimage, Roy G Beran
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare unilateral inflammatory brain disorder that causes progressive neurocognitive deterioration and refractory epilepsy including epilepsia partialis continua (EPC). We describe a patient with a unique presentation, where right upper limb EPC due to RE began within 2weeks of a concussive left frontal head injury, in a 36-year-old female without other identifiable etiology, no prior neurological deficit nor suggestion of intracranial pathology or infection, and no preceding seizures...
July 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731870/the-association-of-cognitive-reserve-in-chronic-phase-functional-and-neuropsychological-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Jacob B Leary, Grace Y Kim, Catherine L Bradley, Uzma Z Hussain, Maryanne Sacco, Martha Bernad, John Collins, John Dsurney, Leighton Chan
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of cognitive reserve (CR) factors (estimated premorbid intelligence quotient [IQ], years of education, and occupational attainment) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity with functional and neuropsychological outcomes 1 to 5 years following TBI. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with mild (N = 58), moderate (N = 25), or severe (N = 17) TBI. MAIN MEASURES: Cognitive reserve factors (estimated premorbid IQ, years of education, and occupational attainment); neuropsychological test battery; Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended; Short Form-36 Health Survey...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731431/association-between-cholesterol-exposure-and-neuropathological-findings-the-act-study
#14
Brianne M Bettcher, M Colin Ard, Bruce R Reed, Andreana Benitez, Amanda Simmons, Eric B Larson, Josh A Sonnen, Thomas J Montine, Ge Li, C Dirk Keene, Paul K Crane, Dan Mungas
We characterized the relationship between late life cholesterol exposure and neuropathological outcomes in a community-based, older adult cohort. Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) is a cohort study that enrolls consenting, randomly selected, non-demented people aged ≥65 from a healthcare delivery system. We used late life HDL and total cholesterol lab values from Group Health computerized records, and calculated HDL and non-HDL levels. We evaluated neuropathological outcomes of Alzheimer's disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, vascular brain injury, and Lewy body disease...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728464/repeat-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-adolescent-rats-increases-subsequent-%C3%AE-amyloid-pathogenesis
#15
Daya Alexander Grant, Rebecka Serpa, Cameron R Moattari, Ari Brown, Tiffany Greco, Mayumi Prins, Edmond Teng
Single moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) may increase subsequent risk for neurodegenerative disease by facilitating β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. However, the chronic effects on Aβ pathogenesis of repetitive mild TBIs, which are common in adolescents and young adults, remain uncertain. We examined the effects of repetitive mild TBI sustained during adolescence on subsequent deposition of Aβ pathology in a transgenic APP/PS1 rat model. Transgenic rats received sham or four individual mild TBI (rTBI) separated by either 24- or 72-hour intervals at post-natal day 35 (prior to Aβ plaque deposition)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726776/autophagosome-maturation-mediated-by-rab7-contributes-to-neuroprotection-of-hypoxic-preconditioning-against-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#16
Lixuan Zhan, Siyuan Chen, Kongping Li, Donghai Liang, Xinyong Zhu, Liu Liu, Zhiwei Lu, Weiwen Sun, En Xu
Autophagy disruption leads to neuronal damage in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Rab7, a member of the Rab GTPase superfamily, has a unique role in the regulation of autophagy. Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) provides neuroprotection against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI). However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Thus, the current study explored the potential molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of HPC by investigating how Rab7 mediates autophagosome (AP) maturation after tGCI in adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721054/neuroprotective-effects-of-curdione-against-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#17
Xing-Jie Li, Li Liang, Hong-Xia Shi, Xiao-Ping Sun, Jing Wang, Lian-Sheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Curdione is one of the most highly concentrated component of the active constituents in E-zhu, which has been reported to possess a variety of activities. However, the pharmacologic neuroprotective activity of curdione has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curdione on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion-induced injury in rats and further exploring the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery for 2 h, followed by reperfusion stage...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718218/impact-of-prenatal-immune-challenge-on-the-demyelination-injury-during-adulthood
#18
Abdeslam Mouihate, Hessah Al-Hashash, Sarah Rakhshani-Moghadam, Samah Kalakh
AIM: Brain inflammation is associated with several brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease characterized by demyelination. Whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation in the white matter during adulthood is unclear. In the present study, we used a well-established experimental model of focal demyelination to assess whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation. METHODS: Pregnant rats were injected with either lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg, ip) or pyrogen-free saline...
July 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717885/risk-of-severe-acute-liver-injury-among-patients-with-brain-cancer-treated-with-temozolomide-a-nested-case-control-study-using-the-healthcore-integrated-research-database
#19
Vibha C A Desai, Scott C Quinlan, Anne C Deitz, Jinghua He, Crystal N Holick, Stephan Lanes
Temozolomide (TMZ) is used to treat adult patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported among patients using TMZ. The objective of the study was to assess the relation, if any, between exposure to TMZ and serious acute liver injury (SALI). We used the HealthCore Integrated Research Database to perform a case-control study nested within a retrospective cohort of adult patients aged 18-100 years with at least two diagnoses of brain cancer anytime between 2006 and 2014...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716537/participant-and-service-provider-perceptions-of-an-outpatient-rehabilitation-program-for-people-with-acquired-brain-injury
#20
Frédérique Poncet, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Marie-Eve Lamontagne, Anne Alifax, Pascaline Fradelizi, Maude Barette, Bonnie Swaine
BACKGROUND: A holistic, intensive and interdisciplinary rehabilitation program for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) was developed at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, France (5 days/week for 7 weeks). This program, recently demonstrated effective, aimed to optimize the ability of people with ABI to perform activities and improve their participation by using individual and group interventions involving ecologically valid activities inside (e.g., in the gym and kitchen) and outside the hospital...
July 14, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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