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Brain injury in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634441/roles-of-pannexin-1-channels-in-inflammatory-response-through-the-tlrs-nf-kappa-b-signaling-pathway-following-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#1
Ling-Yun Wu, Zhen-Nan Ye, Chen-Hui Zhou, Chun-Xi Wang, Guang-Bin Xie, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Yong-Yue Gao, Zi-Huan Zhang, Meng-Liang Zhou, Zong Zhuang, Jing-Peng Liu, Chun-Hua Hang, Ji-Xin Shi
Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Pannexin-1 channels, as a member of gap junction proteins located on the plasma membrane, releases ATP, ions, second messengers, neurotransmitters, and molecules up to 1 kD into the extracellular space, when activated. Previous studies identified that the opening of Pannexin-1 channels is essential for cellular migration, apoptosis and especially inflammation, but its effects on inflammatory response in SAH model have not been explored yet...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634000/dose-dependent-effects-of-abobotulinumtoxina-dysport%C3%A2-on-spasticity-and-active-movements-in-adults-with-upper-limb-spasticity-secondary-analysis-of-a-phase-3-study
#2
Michael W O'Dell, Allison Brashear, Robert Jech, Thierry Lejeune, Philippe Marque, Djamel Bensmail, Ziyad Ayyoub, David M Simpson, Magali Volteau, Claire Vilain, Philippe Picaut, Jean Michel Gracies
BACKGROUND: AbobotulinumtoxinA has beneficial effects on spasticity and active movements in hemiparetic adults with upper limb spasticity (ULS). However, evidence-based information on optimal dosing for clinical use is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe joint-specific dose effects of abobotulinumtoxinA in adults with ULS. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a phase 3 study (NCT01313299). SETTING: Multi-center, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial...
June 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631942/a-systematic-review-of-factors-affecting-driving-and-public-transportation-among-youth-and-young-adults-with-acquired-brain-injury
#3
Sally Lindsay, Andrei Stoica
PURPOSE: Although many people with an acquired brain injury (ABI) encounter difficulties with executive functioning and memory which could negatively affect driving, few people are assessed for fitness to drive after injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature on factors affecting driving and public transportation among youth and young adults with ABI, post injury. METHOD: Seven databases were systematically searched for articles from 1980 to 2016...
June 20, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631816/cognitive-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-to-improve-occupational-outcomes
#4
REVIEW
K Suresh Kumar, Selvaraj Samuelkamaleshkumar, Anand Viswanathan, Ashish S Macaden
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) could affect multiple facets of their daily functioning. Cognitive rehabilitation brings about clinically significant improvement in certain cognitive skills. However, it is uncertain if these improved cognitive skills lead to betterments in other key aspects of daily living. We evaluated whether cognitive rehabilitation for people with TBI improves return to work, independence in daily activities, community integration and quality of life...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631089/targeted-temperature-management-in-the-icu-guidelines-from-a-french-expert-panel
#5
REVIEW
Alain Cariou, Jean-François Payen, Karim Asehnoune, Gerard Audibert, Astrid Botte, Olivier Brissaud, Guillaume Debaty, Sandrine Deltour, Nicolas Deye, Nicolas Engrand, Gilles Francony, Stéphane Legriel, Bruno Levy, Philippe Meyer, Jean-Christophe Orban, Sylvain Renolleau, Bernard Vigue, Laure De Saint Blanquat, Cyrille Mathien, Lionel Velly
Over the recent period, the use of induced hypothermia has gained an increasing interest for critically ill patients, in particular in brain-injured patients. The term "targeted temperature management" (TTM) has now emerged as the most appropriate when referring to interventions used to reach and maintain a specific level temperature for each individual. TTM may be used to prevent fever, to maintain normothermia, or to lower core temperature. This treatment is widely used in intensive care units, mostly as a primary neuroprotective method...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628913/age-dependent-effects-of-alk5-inhibition-and-mechanism-of-neuroprotection-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#6
Brian H Kim, Mariano Guardia Clausi, Michelle Frondelli, Israel C Nnah, Chaitali Saqcena, Radek Dobrowolski, Steven W Levison
Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury triggers a wave of neuroinflammatory events attributed to causing the progressive degeneration and functional deficits seen weeks after the initial insult. In a recent set of studies, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a small molecule antagonist for ALK5 (activin-like kinase 5 ), TGF-β receptor in a rat model of moderate perinatal HI and found significant improvements in neurologic outcomes. Here, we have extended those studies to evaluate the efficacy of delayed TGF-β receptor antagonism on postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 HI rat pups with and without hypothermia...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627974/microrna-132-protects-hippocampal-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-apoptosis
#7
Zu-Zhen Sun, Zhan-Yun Lv, Wen-Jing Tian, Yan Yang
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) results in death or long-term neurologic impairment in both adults and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microRNA-132 (miR-132) dysregulation on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced apoptosis in fetal rat hippocampal neurons, in order to reveal the therapeutic potential of miR-132 on HIBI. MiR-132 dysregulation was induced prior to OGD exposure by transfection of primary fetal rat hippocampal neurons with miR-132 mimic or miR-132 inhibitor. The effects of miR-132 overexpression and suppression on OGD-stimulated hippocampal neurons were evaluated by detection of cell viability, apoptotic cells rate, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627348/-effect-of-hydrogen-rich-water-on-the-cd34-expression-in-lesion-boundary-brain-tissue-of-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Ying Liu, Qing Lan, Difen Wang, Xianjun Chen, Jia Yuan, Hailing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of hydrogen-rich water on the CD34 expression and angiogenesis in lesion boundary brain tissue of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A total of 54 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups by random number table: namely sham-operated group (sham group), trauma group (TBI group), and trauma + hydrogen-rich water group (TBI+HW group), the rats in each group were subdivided into 1, 3 and 7 days subgroups according to the time points after trauma, with 6 rats in each subgroup...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627225/the-relationships-between-bnp-and-neurocardiac-injury-severity-noninvasive-cardiac-output-and-outcomes-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#9
Amber McAteer, Marilyn Hravnak, Yuefang Chang, Elizabeth A Crago, Matthew J Gallek, Khalil M Yousef
INTRODUCTION: Neurocardiac injury, a type of myocardial dysfunction associated with neurological insult to the brain, occurs in 31-48% of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is commonly used to diagnose neurocardiac injury. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), another cardiac marker, is more often used to evaluate degree of heart failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between BNP and (a) neurocardiac injury severity according to cTnI, (b) noninvasive continuous cardiac output (NCCO), and (c) outcomes in aSAH patients...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625615/efficacy-and-safety-of-abobotulinumtoxina-dysport%C3%A2-for-the-treatment-of-hemiparesis-in-adults-with-upper-limb-spasticity-previously-treated-with-botulinum-toxin-sub-analysis-from-a-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Christina Marciniak, Peter McAllister, Heather Walker, Allison Brashear, Steven Edgley, Thierry Deltombe, Svetlana Khatkova, Marta Banach, Fatma Gul, Claire Vilain, Philippe Picaut, Anne-Sophie Grandoulier, Jean-Michel Gracies
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of abobotulinumtoxinA in adults with upper limb spasticity previously treated with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). DESIGN: A post-hoc analysis from a Phase 3, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study SETTING: 34 neurology or rehabilitation clinics in nine countries. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18-80 years with hemiparesis, ≥6 months after stroke or traumatic brain injury. This analysis focused on a subgroup of subjects with previous onabotulinumtoxinA or incobotulinumtoxinA treatment (n=105 of 243 in the total trial population) in the affected limb...
June 15, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624361/low-intensity-rtms-has-sex-dependent-effects-on-the-local-response-of-glia-following-a-penetrating-cortical-stab-injury
#11
Darren Clarke, Marissa A Penrose, Alan R Harvey, Jennifer Rodger, Kristyn A Bates
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive form of brain stimulation, has shown experimental and clinical efficacy in a range of neuromodulatory models, even when delivered at low intensity (i.e. subthreshold for action potential generation). After central nervous system (CNS) injury, studies suggest that reactive astrocytes and microglia can have detrimental but also beneficial effects; thus modulating glial activity, for example through application of rTMS, could potentially be a useful therapeutic tool following neurotrauma...
June 14, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624032/epidural-analgesia-for-traumatic-rib-fractures-is-associated-with-worse-outcomes-a-matched-analysis
#12
Katherine M McKendy, Lawrence F Lee, Kerianne Boulva, Dan L Deckelbaum, David S Mulder, Tarek S Razek, Jeremy R Grushka
BACKGROUND: The optimal method of pain control for patients with traumatic rib fractures is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of epidural analgesia on respiratory complications and in-hospital mortality in patients with rib fractures. METHODS: Adult patients at a level I trauma center with ≥1 rib fracture from blunt trauma were included (2004-2013). Those with a blunt-penetrating mechanism, traumatic brain injury, or underwent a laparotomy or thoracotomy were excluded...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623786/proteolytic-processed-form-of-cxcl12-abolishes-migration-and-induces-apoptosis-in-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#13
Taís Adelita, Roberta Sessa Stilhano, Sang Won Han, Giselle Zenker Justo, Marimelia Porcionatto
The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain hosts full potential neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are able to respond to extracellular signals in the brain, amplifying the pool of progenitor cells and giving rise to neuroblasts that show ability to migrate towards an injury site. These signals can come from vascular system, cerebrospinal fluid, glial cells, or projections of neurons in adjoining regions. CXCL12, a chemokine secreted after brain injury, reaches the SVZ in a gradient manner and drives neuroblasts towards the lesion area...
June 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620347/neural-consequences-of-chronic-short-sleep-reversible-or-lasting
#14
REVIEW
Zhengqing Zhao, Xiangxiang Zhao, Sigrid C Veasey
Approximately one-third of adolescents and adults in developed countries regularly experience insufficient sleep across the school and/or work week interspersed with weekend catch up sleep. This common practice of weekend recovery sleep reduces subjective sleepiness, yet recent studies demonstrate that one weekend of recovery sleep may not be sufficient in all persons to fully reverse all neurobehavioral impairments observed with chronic sleep loss, particularly vigilance. Moreover, recent studies in animal models demonstrate persistent injury to and loss of specific neuron types in response to chronic short sleep (CSS) with lasting effects on sleep/wake patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616017/inhibition-and-enhancement-of-neural-regeneration-by-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans
#15
REVIEW
Heikki Rauvala, Mikhail Paveliev, Juha Kuja-Panula, Natalia Kulesskaya
The current dogma in neural regeneration research implies that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit plasticity and regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We argue that the role of the CSPGs can be reversed from inhibition to activation by developmentally expressed CSPG-binding factors. Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM; also designated as pleiotrophin) has been studied as a candidate molecule that might modulate the role of CSPG matrices in plasticity and regeneration...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615436/hospital-safety-among-neurologic-patients-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-adverse-events
#16
Khara M Sauro, Hude Quan, Khokan C Sikdar, Peter Faris, Nathalie Jette
OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and type of adverse events (AEs) experienced by neurologic patients in hospital. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used hospital discharge abstract data for children and adults admitted to hospital from 2009 to 2015 with 1 of 9 neurologic conditions (Alzheimer disease and related dementia, brain tumor, epilepsy, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, parkinsonism/Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke)...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614179/molecular-hydrogen-inhalation-attenuates-postoperative-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#17
Yuchang Xin, Huiying Liu, Peng Zhang, Liuhui Chang, Keliang Xie
Postoperative cognitive decline is a major clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality after surgery. Many studies have found that molecular hydrogen (H2) has significant neuroprotection against acute and chronic neurological injury by regulating inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, we hypothesized that H2 treatment could ameliorate the development of cognitive impairment following surgery. Adult male rats were subjected to stabilized tibial fracture operation under anesthesia. Two percent of H2 was inhaled for 3 h beginning at 1 h after surgery...
June 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609560/resolving-the-contributions-of-anaesthesia-surgery-and-nerve-injury-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-male-rats-in-the-cci-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#18
James W M Kang, Kevin A Keay, David Mor
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critical for selecting and shaping complex behavioral responses. In rodent models of neuropathic pain there is evidence for both structural and functional changes in the mPFC. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in the normal functioning of the mPFC. It has been suggested that the disruption of complex behaviors and mood seen in some neuropathic pain patients is mediated in part by alterations of BDNF in this cortical region. In Sprague-Dawley rats, mPFC levels of BDNF and TrkB mRNA and protein, were quantified and compared to controls (n = 24) 6 days after either: (a) halothane (1...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609379/pediatric-moped-related-injuries-in-the-u-s-from-2002-2014-age-related-comparisons-of-mechanisms-and-outcomes
#19
Nathaniel K Johnson, Brandon M Johnson, Gerene M Denning, Charles A Jennissen
INTRODUCTION: Mopeds are a popular means of transportation, especially in urban areas. However, few studies have investigated moped-related injuries in the United States. This study's goal was to compare the crash mechanisms and injuries suffered in moped-related crashes involving youth versus adults, as well as between younger and older children. METHODS: Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data and additional variables coded from injury narratives...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607351/early-oxygen-therapy-does-not-protect-the-brain-from-vasogenic-edema-following-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-adult-male-rats
#20
Elmira Pasban, Hamdollah Panahpour, Akbar Vahdati
Brain edema aggravates primary brain injury and increases its mortality rate after ischemic stroke. It is believed that normobaric oxygen therapy (NBO) may produce neuroprotective effects against ischemic stroke; however, reports have been controversial, and its effects on vasogenic brain edema as a major complication of brain ischemia have not been clarified. The present study investigates the effects of NBO on cerebral edema and blood - brain barrier integrity using rat model of ischemic stroke. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min followed by 24 h reperfusion...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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