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Brain injury in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944949/the-research-progress-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Gang Li, Yue Yang, Hua-Jiang Dong, Ling Lin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adults throughout the world. It is urgent to ameliorate TBI damage and reduce the disability and case-fatality rate. Stem cell therapy is another medical revolution after drug and surgical medication. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a class of cells with significant self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties and be favorable for the treatment of various diseases and injuries, it could be envisioned that MSCs transplantation may be a promising treatment for TBI...
July 16, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940129/the-role-of-smurf1-in-neuronal-necroptosis-after-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation
#2
Lifei Shao, Xiaojuan Liu, Shunxing Zhu, Chun Liu, Yilu Gao, Xide Xu
The role of inflammation in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease is gradually recognized and leads to an urgent challenge. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1), one member of the HECT family, is up-regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and associated with apoptosis in acute spinal cord injury. However, the function of Smurf1 through promoting neuronal necroptosis is still limited in the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, we developed a neuroinflammatory model in adult rats following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventral injection to elaborate whether Smurf1 is involved in necroptosis in CNS injury...
September 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938277/multimodality-neuromonitoring-in-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-a-narrative-review
#3
Martin Smith
Neuromonitoring plays an important role in the management of traumatic brain injury. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral hemodynamics, oxygenation, and metabolism allows an individualized approach to patient management in which therapeutic interventions intended to prevent or minimize secondary brain injury are guided by monitored changes in physiologic variables rather than generic thresholds. This narrative review describes various neuromonitoring techniques that can be used to guide the management of patients with traumatic brain injury and examines the latest evidence and expert consensus guidelines for neuromonitoring...
September 22, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937345/practical-implications-of-the-minimally-conscious-state-diagnosis-in-adults
#4
Karola V Kreitmair, Katherine E Kruse
This article addresses questions surrounding the minimally conscious state (MCS) from the perspective of adult clinical ethics. It describes the background of the MCS diagnosis, analyzes phenomenological ambiguities inherent in the nature of MCS, and raises epistemological concerns surrounding its diagnosis. It argues that in many cases, the burdens of prolonging treatment for people who have sustained certain severe brain injuries (SBI) outweigh the benefits, even if they are in or have the prospect of entering into MCS...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937044/priming-of-the-cells-hypoxic-preconditioning-for-stem-cell-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Zheng Z Wei, Yan-Bing Zhu, James Y Zhang, Myles R McCrary, Song Wang, Yong-Bo Zhang, Shan-Ping Yu, Ling Wei
OBJECTIVE: Stem cell-based therapies are promising in regenerative medicine for protecting and repairing damaged brain tissues after injury or in the context of chronic diseases. Hypoxia can induce physiological and pathological responses. A hypoxic insult might act as a double-edged sword, it induces cell death and brain damage, but on the other hand, sublethal hypoxia can trigger an adaptation response called hypoxic preconditioning or hypoxic tolerance that is of immense importance for the survival of cells and tissues...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935338/soft-tissue-surgery-for-adults-with-nonfunctional-spastic-hands-following-central-nervous-system-lesions-a-retrospective-study
#6
Laure Gatin, Alexis Schnitzler, Fabien Calé, Guillaume Genêt, Philippe Denormandie, François Genêt
PURPOSE: Soft tissue surgery for upper extremity contractures can improve hygiene, pain, and appearance in adults with central nervous system lesions. The goal of such interventions is highly individual; thus, goal attainment scaling (GAS; a method of scoring the extent to which patient's individual goals are achieved [5 levels] in the course of intervention and using T score values) is pertinent to evaluate outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of soft tissue surgery for upper extremity muscle contractures in patients with central nervous system lesions using GAS...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934276/enhanced-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-activity-improves-cardiac-outcomes-in-a-murine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#7
Lin Piao, Yong-Hu Fang, Manfred M Kubler, Michael W Donnino, Willard W Sharp
RATIONALE: Post-ischemic changes in cellular metabolism alter myocardial and neurological function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the limiting step in mitochondrial glucose oxidation, is inhibited by increased expression of PDH kinase (PDK) during ischemia/reperfusion injury. This results in decreased utilization of glucose to generate cellular ATP. Post-cardiac arrest (CA) hypothermia improves outcomes and alters metabolism, but its influence on PDH and PDK activity following CA are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933514/hypothermia-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Sharon R Lewis, David Jw Evans, Andrew R Butler, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Phil Alderson
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia has been used in the treatment of brain injury for many years. Encouraging results from small trials and laboratory studies led to renewed interest in the area and some larger trials. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of mild hypothermia for traumatic brain injury (TBI) on mortality, long-term functional outcomes and complications. SEARCH METHODS: We ran and incorporated studies from database searches to 21 March 2016...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933219/suppression-of-trim32-enhances-motor-function-repair-after-traumatic-brain-injury-associated-with-antiapoptosis
#9
Zi-Bin Zhang, Liu-Lin Xiong, Bin-Tuan Lu, Hui-Xiang Zhang, Piao Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
To investigate the role of Trim32 in traumatic brain injury (TBI), adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and mice were randomly divided into sham (n = 6) and TBI groups ( n = 24), respectively. Then, mice were assigned into Trim32 knockout mice (Trim32-KO [+/-]) and wild-type (WT) littermates. The TBI model used was the Feeney free-falling model, and neurological function was evaluated after TBI using a neurological severity score (NSS). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression of Trim32 in the damaged cortex...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933213/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-potential-mechanisms-of-damage
#10
Brooke Fehily, Melinda Fitzgerald
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a significant public healthcare concern, accounting for the majority of all head injuries. While symptoms are generally transient, some patients go on to experience long-term cognitive impairments and additional mild impacts can result in exacerbated and persisting negative outcomes. To date, studies using a range of experimental models have reported chronic behavioral deficits in the presence of axonal injury and inflammation following repeated mTBI; assessments of oxidative stress and myelin pathology have thus far been limited...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932245/electromagnetic-fields-for-the-regulation-of-neural-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Mengchu Cui, Hongfei Ge, Hengli Zhao, Yongjie Zou, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Localized magnetic fields (MFs) could easily penetrate the scalp, skull, and meninges, thus inducing an electrical current in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is primarily used in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for inducing specific effects on different regions or cells that play roles in various brain activities. Studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have led to novel attractive therapeutic approaches. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult human brain are able to self-renew and possess multidifferential ability to maintain homeostasis and repair damage after acute central nervous system...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931374/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-on-tnf-%C3%AE-and-interleukin-2-in-serum-of-rats-with-severe-craniocerebral-injury
#12
Wan-Wei Jiang, Qing-Hui Wang, Ya-Jing Liao, Pai Peng, Min Xu, Li-Xin Yin
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective adrenergic receptor agonist, which has a dose-dependent sedative hypnotic effect. Furthermore, it also has pharmacological properties, and the ability to inhibit sympathetic activity and improve cardiovascular stability during an operation. However, its protective effect on patients with severe craniocerebral injury in the perioperative period remains unclear. METHOD: Eighty adult male SD rats were used and divided into two groups (n = 40, each group): dexmedetomidine injury group (experimental group), and sodium chloride injury group (control group)...
September 20, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930945/effects-of-propranolol-and-clonidine-on-brain-edema-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-endothelial-glycocalyx-disruption-following-fluid-percussion-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#13
Gustav Folmer Genét, Peter Bentzer, Morten Bagge Hansen, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Pär Ingemar Johansson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury causes a disruption of the vascular endothelial glycocalyx layer that is associated with an overactivation of the sympathoadrenal system. We hypothesized that early and unselective beta-blockade with propranolol alone or in combination with the alfa2-agonist clonidine would decrease brain edema, blood-brain-barrier permeability and glycocalyx disruption at 24 hours after trauma. METHODS: We subjected fifty-three adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to lateral fluid-percussion brain injury and randomized infusion with propranolol (n=16), propranolol+clonidine (n=16), vehicle (n=16) or sham (n=5) for 24 hours...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929580/selective-expression-of-egfp-in-mouse-perivascular-astrocytes-by-modification-of-the-mlc1-gene-using-t2a-based-ribosome-skipping
#14
Jordan J Toutounchian, Joseph H McCarty
Perivascular astrocyte end feet closely juxtapose cerebral blood vessels to regulate important developmental and physiological processes including endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting as well as the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms underlying these events remain largely unknown due to a lack of experimental models for identifying perivascular astrocytes and distinguishing these cell types from other astroglial populations. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (Mlc1) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in perivascular astrocyte end feet where it controls BBB development and homeostasis...
September 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928193/the-course-and-prognostic-factors-of-cognitive-status-after-central-nervous-system-trauma-a-systematic-review-protocol
#15
Tatyana Mollayeva, Nicole Pacheco, Andrea D'Souza, Angela Colantonio
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the most disabling injuries, resulting in a range of cognitive impairments. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often occurs in conjunction with TBI; the two are best considered together in the context of trauma to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite strong indications of cognitive dysfunction in CNS trauma, little is known about its natural history or relationship with other factors. The current protocol outlines a strategy for a systematic review of the current evidence examining CNS trauma as a prognostic factor of cognitive decline in the adult population...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926484/alcohol-and-drug-use-before-and-during-the-first-year-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Simon Beaulieu-Bonneau, Frédéric St-Onge, Marie-Claude Blackburn, Andrée Banville, Andrée-Anne Paradis-Giroux, Marie-Christine Ouellet
OBJECTIVES: To compare individuals with mild and moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on alcohol and drug use and substance use disorders before and in the first year post-TBI; to explore sociodemographic and injury-related variables associated with substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 225 adults hospitalized in a level I trauma center after TBI. DESIGN: Observational cohort study with retrospective (pre-TBI) and prospective (4, 8, and 12 months post-TBI) assessments...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926481/disparities-in-health-care-utilization-of-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injuries-are-related-to-insurance-race-and-ethnicity-a-systematic-review
#17
Shiyao Gao, Raj G Kumar, Stephen R Wisniewski, Anthony Fabio
OBJECTIVE: To characterize racial/ethnic and insurance disparities in the utilization of healthcare services among US adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The PubMed database was used to search for articles that directly examined the association between race/ethnicity and insurance disparities and healthcare utilization among patients with TBI. Eleven articles that met the criteria and were published between June 2011 and June 2016 were finally included in the review...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926480/postconcussive-symptoms-over-the-first-14-days-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-an-experience-sampling-study
#18
Maria Pacella, Arjun Prabhu, Julia Morley, Stephanie Huang, Brian Suffoletto
OBJECTIVE: This study examined changes in postconcussive symptoms (PCS) over the acute postinjury recovery period, focusing on how daily PCSs differ between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and other injury types. SETTING: An urban emergency department (ED) in Western Pennsylvania. SUBJECTS: A total of 108 adult patients with trauma being discharged from the ED were recruited and grouped by injury type: mild TBI (mTBI; n = 39), head injury without mTBI (HI: n = 16), and non-head-injured trauma controls (TCs: n = 53)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925746/impact-of-extended-monitoring-guided-intensive-care-on-outcome-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study-paris-tbi-study
#19
Joaquim Mateo, Didier Payen, Idir Ghout, Fabrice Vallée, Thomas Lescot, Stephane Welschbillig, Karim Tazarourte, Philippe Azouvi, Jean-Jacques Weiss, Philippe Aegerter, Bernard Vigué
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether an integrated monitoring with systemic and specific monitoring affect mortality and disability in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). METHODS: Adults with severeTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] ≤ 8) admitted alive in intensive care units (ICUs) were prospectively included. Primary endpoints were in-hospital 30-day mortality and extended Glasgow outcome score (GOSE) at 3 years. Association with the intensity of monitoring and outcome was studied by comparing a high level of monitoring (HLM) (systemic and ≥3 specific monitoring) and low level of monitoring (LLM) (systemic and 0-2 specific monitoring) and using inverse probability weighting procedure...
September 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925561/nestin-expressing-cell-types-in-the-temporal-lobe-and-hippocampus-morphology-differentiation-and-proliferative-capacity
#20
Joan Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Thomas Jacques, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Pamela Thompson, Sanjay Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Nestin is expressed in immature neuroepithelial and progenitor cell types and transiently upregulated in proliferative neuroglial cells responding to acute brain injury, including following seizures. In 36 temporal lobe (TLobe) specimens from patients with TLobe epilepsy (age range 8-60 years) we studied the number, distribution and morphology of nestin-expressing cells (NEC) in the pes, hippocampus body, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, temporal cortex and pole compared with post mortem control tissues from 26 cases (age range 12 gestational weeks to 76 years)...
September 19, 2017: Glia
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