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Brain injury in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212814/human-striatal-dopaminergic-and-regional-serotonergic-synaptic-degeneration-with-lewy-body-disease-and-inheritance-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54
#1
Nadia Postupna, Caitlin S Latimer, Eric B Larson, Emily Sherfield, Julie Paladin, Carol A Shively, Matthew J Jorgensen, Rachel N Andrews, Jay R Kaplan, Paul K Crane, Kathleen S Montine, Suzanne Craft, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine
Cognitive impairment in older individuals is a complex trait that in population-based studies most commonly derives from an individually varying mixture of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular brain injury. We investigated the molecular composition of synaptic particles from three sources: consecutive rapid autopsy brains from the adult changes in thought study, a population-based cohort; four aged nonhuman primate brains optimally processed for molecular investigation; and targeted replacement transgenic mice homozygous for APOE ε4...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212177/neurocognitive-outcomes-for-acute-global-acquired-brain-injury-in-children
#2
Fenella J Kirkham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In children, acute global brain injury from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic coma has a substantial cost to the child, the family, and the society. There have historically been relatively few studies looking at long-term cognition and behavioural outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up studies, population-based studies, and meta-analyses are now available for TBI in children as well as adults and suggest that there is a significant cognitive cost, particularly for processing speed, working memory, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in severe TBI...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211823/symptom-severity-and-life-satisfaction-in-brain-injury-the-mediating-role-of-disability-acceptance-and-social-self-efficacy
#3
Nicole Ditchman, Connie Sung, Amanda B Easton, Kristina S Johnson, Elisabeth Batchos
BACKGROUND: Although the negative impact of symptom severity on subjective well-being outcomes has been established among individuals with brain injury, the mediating and protective role that positive human traits might have on this relationship has not been adequately explored. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of social self-efficacy and disability acceptance on the relationship between symptom severity and life satisfaction among individuals with brain injury...
February 15, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210402/interdisciplinary-management-of-minimally-displaced-orbital-roof-fractures-delayed-pulsatile-exophthalmos-and-orbital-encephalocele
#4
Austin Y Ha, William Mangham, Sarah A Frommer, David Choi, Petra Klinge, Helena O Taylor, Adetokunbo A Oyelese, Stephen R Sullivan
Traumatic orbital roof fractures are rare and are managed nonoperatively in most cases. They are typically associated with severe mechanisms of injury and may be associated with significant neurologic or ophthalmologic compromise including traumatic brain injury and vision loss. Rarely, traumatic encephalocele or pulsatile exophthalmos may be present at the time of injury or develop in delayed fashion, necessitating close observation of these patients. In this article, we describe two patients with minimally displaced blow-in type orbital roof fractures that were later complicated by orbital encephalocele and pulsatile exophthalmos, prompting urgent surgical intervention...
March 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205254/manganese-and-selenium-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-seriously-ill-children
#5
Tomáš Franěk, Karel Kotaška, Richard Průša
BACKGROUND: The homeostasis of essential trace elements such as selenium and manganese may be altered in patients with severe diseases of various etiologies (trauma brain injuries, tumors, leukemias, lymphomas, neurological diseases). METHODS: Concentration of manganese and selenium were determined in cerebrospinal fluid by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry in 50 hospitalized children with various clinical ethiologies including oncological, neurological, and brain related diseases...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203181/bilateral-superior-cerebellar-artery-embolic-occlusion-with-a-fetal-type-posterior-cerebral-artery-providing-collateral-circulation
#6
Taylor J Bergman, Rachael C Saporito, Thomas Hope
Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198124/long-distance-axonal-growth-and-protracted-functional-maturation-of-neurons-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-after-intracerebral-transplantation
#7
Jonathan C Niclis, Christopher Turner, Jennifer Durnall, Stuart McDougal, Jessica A Kauhausen, Bryan Leaw, Mirella Dottori, Clare L Parish, Lachlan H Thompson
The capacity for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to be differentiated into a wide range of neural cell types makes them an attractive donor source for autologous neural transplantation therapies aimed at brain repair. Translation to the in vivo setting has been difficult, however, with mixed results in a wide variety of preclinical models of brain injury and limited information on the basic in vivo properties of neural grafts generated from human iPS cells. Here we have generated a human iPS cell line constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein as a basis to identify and characterize grafts resulting from transplantation of neural progenitors into the adult rat brain...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197085/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-does-not-facilitate-dynamic-balance-task-learning-in-healthy-old-adults
#8
Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Viola Rjosk, Christopher J Steele, Christopher Gundlach, Bernhard Sehm, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults' ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196142/moderate-injury-in-motor-sensory-cortex-causes-behavioral-deficits-accompanied-by-electrophysiological-changes-in-mice-adulthood
#9
Wei Ouyang, Qichao Yan, Yu Zhang, Zhiheng Fan
Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children often happen when there's a sudden blow to the frontal bone, end with long unconscious which can last for hours and progressive cognitive deficits. However, with regard to the influences of moderate TBI during children adulthood, injury-induced alterations of locomotive ability, long-term memory performance, and hippocampal electrophysiological firing changes have not yet been fully identified. In this study, lateral fluid percussion (LFP) method was used to fabricate moderate TBI in motor and somatosensory cortex of the 6-weeks-old mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195960/a-prospective-analysis-of-olfactory-impairment-recovery-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Melanie Drummond, Jacinta Douglas, John Olver
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural progression of olfactory impairment (OI) in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 6 months postinjury. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven adults (mean age = 43.1 years, SD = 18.2), with predominantly severe TBI (mean posttraumatic amnesia [PTA] duration = 25.5 days, SD = 22.8). DESIGN: Consecutive admission longitudinal study. MAIN MEASURES: Participants were evaluated using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) at resolution of PTA and at 6 months post-initial injury...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195959/treatment-charges-for-traumatic-brain-injury-among-older-adults-at-a-trauma-center
#11
Jennifer S Albrecht, Julia F Slejko, Deborah M Stein, Gordon S Smith
OBJECTIVE: To provide charge estimates of treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI), including both hospital and physician charges, among adults 65 years and older treated at a trauma center. METHODS: We identified older adults treated for TBI during 2008-2012 (n = 1843) at Maryland's Primary Adult Resource Center and obtained hospital and physician charges separately. Analyses were stratified by sex and all charges were inflated to 2012 dollars. Total TBI charges were modeled as a function of covariates using a generalized linear model...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195952/the-relations-of-cognitive-behavioral-and-physical-activity-variables-to-depression-severity-in-traumatic-brain-injury-reanalysis-of-data-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Charles H Bombardier, Jesse R Fann, Evette J Ludman, Steven D Vannoy, Joshua R Dyer, Jason K Barber, Nancy R Temkin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relations of cognitive, behavioral, and physical activity variables to depression severity among people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) undergoing a depression treatment trial. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (N = 88) who sustained complicated mild to severe TBI within the past 10 years, met criteria for major depressive disorder, and completed study measures. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195950/reliability-of-videoconferencing-administration-of-a-communication-questionnaire-to-people-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-their-close-others
#13
Rachael Rietdijk, Emma Power, Melissa Brunner, Leanne Togher
OBJECTIVES: To compare in-person with videoconferencing administration of a communication questionnaire for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their close others. DESIGN: Repeated-measures design with randomized order of administration. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty adults with severe TBI and their close others. METHODS: Both participants with TBI and their close others completed the La Trobe Communication Questionnaire (LCQ) via interview with a clinician, once via Skype and once during a home visit...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193459/epileptiform-activity-and-behavioral-arrests-in-mice-overexpressing-the-calcium-channel-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1
#14
Leonardo C Faria, Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Ben Barres, Z David Luo, David A Prince
: The alpha2delta-1 subunit (α2δ-1) of voltage-gated calcium channels is a receptor for astrocyte-secreted thrombospondins that promote developmental synaptogenesis.Alpha2delta-1 receptors are upregulated in models of injury-induced peripheral pain and epileptogenic neocortical trauma associated with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connectivity. These results lead to the hypothesis that overexpression of α2δ-1 alone in neocortex of uninjured transgenic (TG) mice might result in increased excitatory connectivity and consequent cortical hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity...
February 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188778/work-limitations-four-years-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-cohort-study
#15
Alice Theadom, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Kelly Jones, Michael Kahan, Braden Te Ao, Kathryn McPherson, Nicola Starkey, Valery Feigin
OBJECTIVE: To explore employment status, work limitations and productivity loss following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). STUDY DESIGN: Inception cohort study over four years. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: 245 Adults (>16 years at the time of injury), who experienced a mild TBI and who were employed prior to their injury. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Details of the injury, demographic information and pre-injury employment status were collected from medical records and self-report...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187734/the-potential-neuroprotective-role-of-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-sodium-butyrate-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#16
Joanna Jaworska, Malgorzata Ziemka-Nalecz, Joanna Sypecka, Teresa Zalewska
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), sodium butyrate (SB), has been shown to be neuroprotective in adult brain injury models. Potential explanation for the inhibitor action involves among others reduced inflammation. We therefore anticipated that SB will provide a suitable option for brain injury in immature animals. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by SB after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is associated with anti-inflammatory action...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186446/de-novo-avm-formation-following-venous-sinus-thrombosis-and-prior-avm-resection-in-adults-report-of-2-cases
#17
Siyu Shi, Raghav Gupta, Justin M Moore, Christoph J Griessenauer, Nimer Adeeb, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Ajith J Thomas, Christopher S Ogilvy
Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are traditionally considered congenital lesions, arising from aberrant vascular development during the intrauterine period. Rarely, however, AVMs develop in the postnatal period. Individual case reports of de novo AVM formation in both pediatric and adult patients have challenged the traditional dogma of a congenital origin. Instead, for these cases, a dynamic picture is emerging of AVM growth and development, initially triggered by ischemic and/or traumatic events, coupled with genetic predispositions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185504/artificial-cooling-can-increase-risk-of-death-in-children
#18
(no author information available yet)
Therapeutic hypothermia is proven to reduce the effects of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in adults. Researchers of this study found these benefits do not extend to children, however, and that the practice can even increase the likelihood of death.
February 10, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179209/administration-of-anabolic-steroid-during-adolescence-induces-long-term-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-increases-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-adult-wistar-rats
#19
Fernando de Azevedo Cruz Seara, Raiana Andrade Quintanilha Barbosa, Dahienne Ferreira de Oliveira, Diorney Luiz Souza Gran da Silva, Adriana Bastos Carvalho, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento, Emerson Lopes Olivares
Chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in adult rats results in cardiac hypertrophy and increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Molecular analyses demonstrated that hyperactivation of type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor mediates cardiac hypertrophy induced by AAS and also induces down-regulation of myocardial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP), resulting in loss of exercise-induced cardioprotection. Exposure to AAS during adolescence promoted long-term cardiovascular dysfunctions, such as dysautonomia...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177169/emergency-department-triage-of-traumatic-head-injury-using-brain-electrical-activity-biomarkers-a-multisite-prospective-observational-validation-trial
#20
Daniel Hanley, Leslie S Prichep, Jeffrey Bazarian, J Stephen Huff, Rosanne Naunheim, John Garrett, Elizabeth Jones, David Wright, John O'Neill, Neeraj Badjatia, Dheeraj Gandhi, Kenneth C Curley, Richard Chiacchierini, Brian O'Neil, Dallas C Hack
OBJECTIVES: A brain electrical activity biomarker for identifying traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Emergency Department (ED) patients presenting with high GCS after sustaining a head injury has shown promise for objective, rapid, triage. The main objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of an automated classification algorithm to determine the likelihood of being CT positive, in high functioning TBI patients in the acute state. METHODS: Adult patients admitted to the ED for evaluation within 72 hours of sustaining a closed head injury with GCS 12-15were candidates for study...
February 8, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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