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Brain injury in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087762/a-delay-between-motor-cortex-lesions-and-neuronal-transplantation-enhances-graft-integration-and-improves-repair-and-recovery
#1
Sophie Péron, Marine Droguerre, Franck Debarbieux, Nissrine Ballout, Marianne Benoit-Marand, Maureen Francheteau, Sébastien Brot, Geneviève Rougon, Mohamed Jaber, Afsaneh Gaillard
We previously reported that embryonic motor cortical neurons transplanted immediately after lesions in the adult mouse motor cortex restored damaged motor cortical pathways. A critical barrier hindering application of transplantation strategies for a wide range of traumatic injuries is the determination of a suitable time window for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report that a one-week delay between the lesion and transplantation significantly enhances graft vascularization, survival and proliferation of grafted cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081467/oxidative-stress-and-mrna-expression-of-acetylcholinesterase-in-the-leukocytes-of-ischemic-patients
#2
Mesut Işık, Şükrü Beydemir, Aslan Yılmaz, Muhammet Emin Naldan, Hatice Esra Aslan, İlhami Gülçin
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury is occurred by crucial metabolic reasons. For instance, oxidative stress from free radical generation is causing to the thrombotic cerebrovascular stroke. In this case, the measurement of the oxidative stress is very important for a better understanding of the stroke pathophysiology. Because, the oxidative stress in stroke is generally assumed as one of the mechanisms taking part in neuronal damage. Thus, oxidative stress has a vital role in the cholinergic system...
January 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079874/cerebral-modulation-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-term-infants
#3
N Schneebaum Sender, R B Govindan, M T Whitehead, A N Massaro, M Metzler, J Wang, Y I Cheng, A J du Plessis
OBJECTIVE: Central topography of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has yet to be fully deciphered. In adults it has been shown to lateralize sympathetic and parasympathetic influence predominantly to the right and left cerebral hemispheres, respectively. We examined functional topography of central ANS in newborn subjects utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), an established measure of ANS function. STUDY DESIGN: We studied newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy participating in a prospective study undergoing a therapeutic hypothermia protocol...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074401/adipsic-diabetes-insipidus-in-adult-patients
#4
REVIEW
Martín Cuesta, Mark J Hannon, Christopher J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a very rare disorder, characterized by hypotonic polyuria due to arginine vasopressin (AVP) deficiency and failure to generate the sensation of thirst in response to hypernatraemia. As the sensation of thirst is the key homeostatic mechanism that prevents hypernatraemic dehydration in patients with untreated diabetes insipidus (DI), adipsia leads to failure to respond to aquaresis with appropriate fluid intake. This predisposes to the development of significant hypernatraemia, which is the typical biochemical manifestation of adipsic DI...
January 10, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073948/functioning-and-health-related-quality-of-life-following-injury-in-older-people-a-systematic-review
#5
Katherine Brown, Ian D Cameron, Lisa Keay, Kristy Coxon, Rebecca Ivers
AIM AND BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence around the impact of injury and recovery trajectories but little focuses on older people, despite rising burden. The aim of this review was to describe the evidence for postinjury functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older people. METHOD: A systematic search of three databases and an extensive search of the grey literature was carried out on prospective injury outcome studies in older people (age ≥65 years) that used a generic health status outcome measure...
January 10, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069320/mild-induced-hypothermia-for-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-after-decompressive-craniectomy
#6
Chunhai Tang, Yun Bao, Min Qi, Lizhi Zhou, Fan Liu, Jian Mao, Qingmei Lei, Songtao Qi, Binghui Qiu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mild induced hypothermia for intracranial hypertension in patients with traumatic brain injury after decompressive craniectomy. METHODS: A total of 60 adults with intracranial pressure (ICP) of more than 20 mm Hg after decompressive craniectomy were randomly assigned to standard care (control group) or hypothermia (32°C-35°C) plus standard care. Then, ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure, Glasgow Outcome Scale score, and complications were assessed...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069028/robot-aided-developmental-assessment-of-wrist-proprioception-in-children
#7
Francesca Marini, Valentina Squeri, Pietro Morasso, Claudio Campus, Jürgen Konczak, Lorenzo Masia
BACKGROUND: Several neurodevelopmental disorders and brain injuries in children have been associated with proprioceptive dysfunction that will negatively affect their movement. Unfortunately, there is lack of reliable and objective clinical examination protocols and our current knowledge of how proprioception evolves in typically developing children is still sparse. METHODS: Using a robotic exoskeleton, we investigated proprioceptive acuity of the wrist in a group of 49 typically developing healthy children (8-15 years), and a group of 40 young adults...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068845/post-traumatic-growth-in-adult-survivors-of-brain-injury-a-qualitative-study-of-participants-completing-a-pilot-trial-of-brief-positive-psychotherapy
#8
Olga Karagiorgou, Jonathan J Evans, Breda Cullen
PURPOSE: Post-traumatic growth (PTG) can occur following acquired brain injury (ABI). It has been proposed that people experiencing psychological distress following ABI may benefit from a positive psychotherapy intervention (PPT) aimed at increasing well-being; PPT may also influence PTG. We aimed to investigate PTG experiences in participants of a positive psychotherapy pilot trial. METHODS: ABI survivors who had received PPT or treatment as usual (TAU) were interviewed individually after the end of the trial...
January 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067551/emotional-recognition-from-dynamic-facial-vocal-and-musical-expressions-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Joanie Drapeau, Nathalie Gosselin, Isabelle Peretz, Michelle McKerral
OBJECTIVES: To assess emotion recognition from dynamic facial, vocal and musical expressions in sub-groups of adults with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) of different severities and identify possible common underlying mechanisms across domains. METHODS: Forty-one adults participated in this study: 10 with moderate-severe TBI, nine with complicated mild TBI, 11 with uncomplicated mild TBI and 11 healthy controls, who were administered experimental (emotional recognition, valence-arousal) and control tasks (emotional and structural discrimination) for each domain...
October 24, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063881/early-stage-alterations-of-catecholamine-and-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-levels-in-posttraumatic-acute-diffuse-brain-swelling
#10
Weiqiang Chen, Jiangtao Sheng, Guoyi Peng, Jinhua Yang, Shousen Wang, Kangsheng Li
Posttraumatic acute diffuse brain swelling (PADBS) is characterized by serious brain bulk enlargement rapidly following trauma and is a major cause of elevated intracranial pressure and thus mortality. The pathogenesis of PADBS is not clearly understood, and the early stage alterations of catecholamine (CA) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in PADBS also remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate CA and ACTH levels in the patients with PADBS in the early stage and discuss the possible roles CA and ACTH in the pathogenesis of PADBS...
January 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063597/living-near-major-roads-and-the-incidence-of-dementia-parkinson-s-disease-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Hong Chen, Jeffrey C Kwong, Ray Copes, Karen Tu, Paul J Villeneuve, Aaron van Donkelaar, Perry Hystad, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray, Barry Jessiman, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Richard T Burnett
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that living near major roads might adversely affect cognition. However, little is known about its relationship with the incidence of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. We aimed to investigate the association between residential proximity to major roadways and the incidence of these three neurological diseases in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we assembled two population-based cohorts including all adults aged 20-50 years (about 4·4 million; multiple sclerosis cohort) and all adults aged 55-85 years (about 2·2 million; dementia or Parkinson's disease cohort) who resided in Ontario, Canada on April 1, 2001...
January 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062175/intranasal-c3a-treatment-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#12
Javier Morán, Anna Stokowska, Frederik R Walker, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg, Marcela Pekna
Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury is often associated with irreversible neurological complications such as intellectual disability and cerebral palsy but available therapies are limited. Novel neuroprotective therapies as well as approaches stimulating neural plasticity mechanism that can compensate for cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are urgently needed. We previously reported that single i.c.v. injection of complement-derived peptide C3a 1h after HI induction prevented HI-induced cognitive impairment when mice were tested as adults...
January 3, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060793/preterm-birth-and-ventilation-decrease-surface-density-of-glomerular-capillaries-in-lambs-regardless-of-postnatal-respiratory-support-mode
#13
Eveline Staub, Mar Janna Dahl, Calan Yost, Sydney Bowen, Toshio Aoki, Adam Blair, Zhengming Wang, Donald M Null, Bradley A Yoder, Kurt H Albertine
BACKGROUND: Prematurity is often complicated by respiratory support, including invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and non-invasive support (NIS). Compared to IMV, NIS reduces injury to the lung and brain. Prematurity may also disrupt glomerular architecture. Whether NIS differentially affects glomerular architecture is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that IMV would lead to greater disruption of glomerular architecture than NIS. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of kidneys from moderately preterm lambs delivered at ~131d gestation (term ~150d) that had antenatal steroid exposure and surfactant treatment before resuscitation by IMV...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060319/isolation-and-culture-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-from-the-mouse-subcallosal-zone
#14
Joo Yeon Kim, Ju-Hyun Lee, Woong Sun
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) can be used for the regeneration of damaged brain tissue. NSCs have the potential for differentiation and proliferation into three types of cells: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Identifying aNSC-derived regions and characterizing the aNSC properties are critical for the potential use of aNSCs and for the elucidation of their role in neural regeneration. The subcallosal zone (SCZ), located between white matter and the hippocampus, has recently been reported to contain aNSCs and continuously give rise to neuroblasts...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060220/predictive-factors-that-may-contribute-to-secondary-insults-with-nursing-interventions-in-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Lena Nyholm, Tim Howells, Per Enblad
BACKGROUND: Nursing interventions pose risks and benefits to patients with traumatic brain injury at a neurointensive care unit. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of inducing high intracranial pressure (ICP) related to interventions and whether intracranial compliance, baseline ICP, or autoregulation could be used as predictors. METHODS: The study had a quantitative, prospective, observational design. Twenty-eight patients with TBI were included, and 67 interventions were observed...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060210/obtaining-a-history-of-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-using-the-ohio-state-university-tbi-identification-method-to-elicit-adult-recall
#16
Audrey McKinlay, John D Corrigan, Jennifer A Bogner, L John Horwood
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the concordance between medically documented childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and recall of same by adults aged 35 years. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 962 birth cohort members from the Christchurch Health and Development Study available at the 35-year follow-up. MAIN MEASURES: Childhood TBI information prospectively collected yearly over ages 0 to 15 years as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060205/reductions-in-alexithymia-and-emotion-dysregulation-after-training-emotional-self-awareness-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-phase-i-trial
#17
Dawn Neumann, James F Malec, Flora M Hammond
OBJECTIVES: To examine the acceptability and initial efficacy of an emotional self-awareness treatment at reducing alexithymia and emotion dysregulation in participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: An outpatient rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen adults with moderate to severe TBI and alexithymia. Time postinjury ranged 1 to 33 years. DESIGN: Within subject design, with 3 assessment times: baseline, posttest, and 2-month follow-up...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060204/late-functional-changes-post-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-are-related-to-community-reentry-support-results-from-the-paris-tbi-cohort
#18
Claire Jourdan, E Bayen, C Vallat-Azouvi, I Ghout, E Darnoux, S Azerad, J Charanton, P Aegerter, P Pradat-Diehl, A Ruet, P Azouvi
OBJECTIVES: To explore late functional changes after a traumatic brain injury and their relation to patients' characteristics and reentry support. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up of an inception cohort of adults with severe traumatic brain injury recruited in 2005-2007 in the Parisian area, France. One and 4-year assessments were performed by trained neuropsychologists. One-to-4-year change in the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended defined 3 groups: "improvement," "stability," and "worsening...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060201/epidemiology-of-comorbid-conditions-among-adults-50-years-and-older-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Raj G Kumar, Shannon B Juengst, Zhensheng Wang, Kristen Dams-OʼConnor, Sureyya S Dikmen, Therese M OʼNeil-Pirozzi, Marie N Dahdah, Flora M Hammond, Elizabeth R Felix, Patricia M Arenth, Amy K Wagner
OBJECTIVES: Aging individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience multiple comorbidities that can affect recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to describe the most commonly co-occurring comorbid conditions among adults 50 years and older with TBI. SETTING: Level I Trauma centers. PARTICIPANTS: Adults 50 years and older with moderate/severe TBI enrolled in the TBI-Model Systems (TBI-MS) from 2007 to 2014 (n = 2134)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058996/intranasal-insulin-treatment-of-an-experimental-model-of-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Fiona Brabazon, Colin M Wilson, Shalini Jaiswal, John Reed, William H Frey, Kimberly R Byrnes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in learning and memory dysfunction. Cognitive deficits result from cellular and metabolic dysfunction after injury, including decreased cerebral glucose uptake and inflammation. This study assessed the ability of intranasal insulin to increase cerebral glucose uptake after injury, reduce lesion volume, improve memory and learning function and reduce inflammation. Adult male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by intranasal insulin or saline treatment daily for 14 days...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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