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Brain injury in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433414/diffusion-tensor-imaging-findings-and-cognitive-function-following-hospitalised-mixed-mechanism-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Lucy Oehr, Jacqueline Anderson
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between microstructural damage and cognitive function following hospitalised mixed-mechanism (HMM) mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). DATA SOURCES: PsycInfo, Embase, and Medline were used to find relevant empirical papers published between January 2002 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that examined the specific relationship between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive test performance were included...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431870/the-effect-of-hypertonic-saline-and-mannitol-on-coagulation-in-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#2
Haifeng Wang, Hongshi Cao, Xiaohong Zhang, Liang Ge, Li Bie
BACKGROUND: Hyperosmolar therapy, using either hypertonic saline (HTS) or mannitol (MT), is considered the treatment of choice for intracranial hypertension, a disorder characterized by high intracranial pressure (ICP). However, hyperosmolar agents have been postulated to impair coagulation and platelet function. The aim of this study was to identify whether HTS and MT could affect coagulation in moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. METHODS: In this prospective and randomized double-blind study, we included adult patients with moderate TBI...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431030/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#3
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
Objective: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430782/predictors-of-falls-and-mortality-among-elderly-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#4
Wayne W Fu, Terence S Fu, Rowan Jing, Steven R McFaull, Michael D Cusimano
BACKGROUND: Elderly adults are at particular risk of sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and tend to suffer worse outcomes compared to other age groups. Falls are the leading cause of TBI among the elderly. METHODS: We examined nationwide trends in TBI hospitalizations among elderly adults (ages 65 and older) between April 2006 and March 2011 using a population-based database that is mandatory for all hospitals in Canada. Trends in admission rates were analyzed using linear regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429353/roles-of-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-in-the-anti-oxidative-stress-response-to-ischemia-reperfusion-brain-injury-in-rats
#5
L-J Jiang, S-M Zhang, C-W Li, J-Y Tang, F-Y Che, Y-C Lu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in the responses to the oxidative stress created by ischemia-reperfusion brain injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 54 healthy, adult, male SD rats were included in the study. Eighteen (18) rats were placed in the sham group. The ischemia-reperfusion model was created in the other 36 rats, among which 18 received injections of Nrf2 agonist before the surgery. The suture method was used to create artery occlusions in the right brain of the rats; and reperfusion was done after 90-minute ischemia (MCAO); while no suture was inserted in the sham group...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428091/characterization-of-the-effects-of-l-4-chlorokynurenine-on-nociception-in-rodents
#6
Tony L Yaksh, Robert Schwarcz, H Ralph Snodgrass
Upon systemic administration in rats, the prodrug L-4-chlorokynurenine (4-Cl-KYN) (AV-101) is rapidly absorbed, actively transported across the blood-brain barrier, and converted in astrocytes to 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYNA), a potent and specific antagonist of the GlyB co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor. We examined the effects of 4-Cl-KYN in several rat models of hyperalgesia and allodynia and determined the concentrations of 4-Cl-KYN and newly produced 7-Cl-KYNA in serum, brain and spinal cord. Adult male rats were given 4-Cl-KYN (56, 167, 500 mg/kg), the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426378/ostracism-and-physiological-arousal-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Michelle Kelly, Skye McDonald, Jacqueline Rushby
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the psychological and physiological effects of ostracism in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: A within-subject, counterbalanced design was used. The two conditions, inclusion and ostracism, were examined across two groups (between subjects). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A group of 21 adults with TBI and 17 matched controls participated in the Cyberball paradigm. This task is a computerised task that exposes participants to a game of catch and throw...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425724/factors-impacting-sense-of-community-among-adults-with-brain-injury
#8
Nicole Ditchman, Fong Chan, Christopher Haak, Amanda B Easton
PURPOSE: Despite increasing interest in examining community outcomes following disability, sense of community (SOC) has received relatively no attention in the rehabilitation literature. SOC refers to feelings of belonging and attachment one has for a community and is of particular relevance for people with brain injury who are at increased risk of social isolation. The aim of this study was to investigate factors contributing to SOC for individuals with brain injury. METHOD: Members from 2 brain injury associations (n = 98) participated in this survey-based study...
April 20, 2017: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425328/the-use-of-a-smartwatch-as-a-prompting-device-for-people-with-acquired-brain-injury-a-single-case-experimental-design-study
#9
Matthew Jamieson, Mattia Monastra, Graeme Gillies, Rumen Manolov, Breda Cullen, Marilyn McGee-Lennon, Stephen Brewster, Jonathan Evans
Prompting-based memory compensation is a potential application for smartwatches. This study investigated the usability and efficacy of a Moto360 smartwatch as a memory aid. Four community dwelling adults with memory difficulties following acquired brain injury (ABI) were included in an A-B-A single case experimental design study. Performance of everyday memory tasks was tested over six weeks with the smartwatch and software provided during weeks three and four. Participants were asked to use their usual memory aids and strategies during the control phases (weeks 1-2, 5-6)...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424016/acute-brain-injury-following-illicit-drug-abuse-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-patients-spectrum-of-neuroimaging-findings
#10
Shai Shrot, Andrea Poretti, Elizabeth W Tucker, Bruno P Soares, Thierry Agm Huisman
The use of illicit drugs is currently a major medical problem among adolescents. Several illicit drugs have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic causing high morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestation of adolescents with acute drug-induced neurotoxicity is often characterized by non-specific symptoms and findings. Early diagnosis is important to prevent death and permanent long-term neurological impairments. We report on clinical and neuroimaging findings in five adolescents with acute brain imaging following illicit drug intoxication to highlight the role of neuroimaging findings in the diagnostic work-up of pediatric acute drug-induced neurotoxicity...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422899/variation-in-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-outcomes-in-the-united-states
#11
Nathaniel H Greene, Mary A Kernic, Monica S Vavilala, Frederick P Rivara
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the degree of variation, by state of acute care hospitalization, in outcomes associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in an adult population. SETTING: All acute care hospitals in 21 states in the United States in the year 2010. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (> 18 years) patients (N = 95 546) admitted to a hospital with a moderate or severe TBI. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using data from State Inpatient Databases from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422898/internet-and-social-media-use-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-traumatic-brain-injury-model-systems-study
#12
Christina Baker-Sparr, Tessa Hart, Thomas Bergquist, Jennifer Bogner, Laura Dreer, Shannon Juengst, David Mellick, Therese M OʼNeil-Pirozzi, Angelle M Sander, Gale G Whiteneck
OBJECTIVES: To characterize Internet and social media use among adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with Internet use between those with and without TBI. SETTING: Ten Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems centers. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with moderate to severe TBI (N = 337) enrolled in the TBI Model Systems National Database and eligible for follow-up from April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422643/occupational-therapy-interventions-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Steven Wheeler, Amanda Acord-Vira, Marian Arbesman, Deborah Lieberman
This Evidence Connection describes a case report of an adult with traumatic brain injury (TBI), applying the evidence for intervention from the systematic reviews on TBI that were conducted in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA's) Evidence-Based Practice Project. The occupational therapy assessment and treatment processes for hospital, home, and community settings are described. Evidence Connection articles provide a clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with AOTA's Evidence-Based Practice Project...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421863/a-meta-analysis-of-task-related-influences-in-prospective-memory-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Daniela Wong Gonzalez, Lori Buchanan
Prospective memory is the ability to remember to do something in the future and it is essential to every-day functional independence. Traumatic brain injury is associated with frequent and persistent prospective memory deficits. This study presents a review and meta-analysis investigating the effects of task parameters on prospective memory performance of individuals with TBI. Individual studies using continuous behavioural measures of prospective memory with a sample of adults with TBI and matched controls were included...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421542/neural-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-functional-recovery-from-traumatic-brain-injury-via-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-mediated-neuroplasticity
#15
Liu-Lin Xiong, Yue Hu, Piao Zhang, Zhuo Zhang, Li-Hong Li, Guo-Dong Gao, Xin-Fu Zhou, Ting-Hua Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces cognitive impairments, motor and behavioral deficits. Previous evidences have suggested that neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation could facilitate functional recovery from brain insults, but their underlying mechanisms remains to be elucidated. Here, we established TBI model by an electromagnetic-controlled cortical impact device in the rats. Then, 5 μl NSCs (5.0 × 10(5)/μl), derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mouse, was transplanted into the traumatic brain regions of rats at 24 h after injury...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420601/what-older-people-like-to-play-genre-preferences-and-acceptance-of-casual-games
#16
Alvin Chesham, Patric Wyss, René Martin Müri, Urs Peter Mosimann, Tobias Nef
BACKGROUND: In recent computerized cognitive training studies, video games have emerged as a promising tool that can benefit cognitive function and well-being. Whereas most video game training studies have used first-person shooter (FPS) action video games, subsequent studies found that older adults dislike this type of game and generally prefer casual video games (CVGs), which are a subtype of video games that are easy to learn and use simple rules and interfaces. Like other video games, CVGs are organized into genres (eg, puzzle games) based on the rule-directed interaction with the game...
April 18, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420192/thioredoxin-interacting-protein-mediates-apoptosis-in-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-haemorrhage
#17
Qing Zhao, Xudong Che, Hongxia Zhang, Guanping Tan, Liu Liu, Dengzhi Jiang, Jun Zhao, Xiang Xiang, Xiaochuan Sun, Zhaohui He
Early brain injury (EBI) is considered to be the major factor associated with high morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Apoptosis is the major pathological mechanism of EBI, and its pathogenesis has not been fully clarified. Here, we report that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), which is induced by protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK), participates in EBI by promoting apoptosis. By using adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to establish SAH models, as well as Terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, immunofluorescence, and western blot, we found that TXNIP expression significantly increased after SAH in comparison to the sham group and peaked at 48 h (up to 3...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417612/fatigue-and-its-relationship-to-physical-activity-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Frederike van Markus-Doornbosch, Jorit Meesters, Laurika Kraaij, Ron Wolterbeek, Thea Vliet Vlieland
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be impaired leading to secondary health issues and limitations in participation. AIM: This study aims to determine the level of PA and its determinants in adolescents and young adults with TBI. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a rehabilitation centre. POPULATION: Discharged patients aged 12-39 years with a diagnosis of TBI >6 months treated in the rehabilitation centre between 2009-2012...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417610/functional-outcome-of-critical-illness-polyneuropathy-in-patients-affected-by-severe-brain-injury
#19
Domenico Intiso, Filomena DI Rienzo, Andrea Fontana, Maurizio Tolfa, Michelangelo Bartolo, Massimiliano Copetti
BACKGROUND: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) frequently occur in intensive care unit (ICU) critically ill subjects; about 55-70% of subjects achieve full recovery. CIPNM can occur in ICU subjects with severe acquired brain injury (sABI), but no data have been reported regarding their outcome. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional recovery in subjects suffering from both CIPNM and sABI and whether they had poorer outcome than those with sABI only...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417146/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-female-rats-increases-lipid-peroxidation-in-neurons
#20
Nathanael J Yates, Stephen Lydiard, Brooke Fehily, Gillian Weir, Aaron Chin, Carole A Bartlett, Jacqueline Alderson, Melinda Fitzgerald
Negative outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can be exacerbated by repeated insult. Animal models of repeated closed-head mTBI provide the opportunity to define acute pathological mechanisms as the number of mTBI increases. Furthermore, little is known about the effects of mTBI impact site, and how this may affect brain function. We use a closed head, weight drop model of mTBI that allows head movement following impact, in adult female rats to determine the role of the number and location of mTBI on brain pathology and behaviour...
April 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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