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Francis Corson, Eric D Siggia
Models of cell function that assign a variable to each gene frequently lead to systems of equations with many parameters whose behavior is obscure. Geometric models reduce dynamics to intuitive pictorial elements that provide compact representations for sparse in-vivo data and transparent descriptions of developmental transitions. To illustrate, a geometric model fit to vulval development in C. elegans, implies a phase diagram where cell-fate choices are displayed in a plane defined by EGF and Notch signaling levels...
December 13, 2017: ELife
Jian Yang, Chao Jiang, Yan Jin, Yu-Yang Zhao, Yuan Yuan, Lu-Qi Huang
The calibration technical specification for reference drug of Lonicera japonica cultivated in Xinmi (Mi Yin Hua) established in this study can be used as the theoretical basis and technical standard for internal quality control and evaluation of reference drug of Mi Yin Hua and for modern research and characteristics identification of Dao-di herbs. Based on the quality standard of L. japonica in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (version 2015), 10 batches samples of Mi Yin Hua also conformed to the stipulation. The LC-MS fingerprint common mode of Mi Yin Hua was obtained, and a total of 23 characteristic peaks were selected as the common fingerprint peaks, and eight common chromatographic peaks in the fingerprint was identified based on standard substances and references...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Christiana E Udoh, João T Cabral, Valeria Garbin
The precise spatiotemporal delivery of nanoparticles from polymeric capsules is required for applications ranging from medicine to materials science. These capsules derive key performance aspects from their overall shape and dimensions, porosity, and internal microstructure. To this effect, microfluidics provide an exceptional platform for emulsification and subsequent capsule formation. However, facile and robust approaches for nanocomposite capsule fabrication, exhibiting triggered nanoparticle release, remain elusive because of the complex coupling of polymer-nanoparticle phase behavior, diffusion, phase inversion, and directional solidification...
December 2017: Science Advances
Edoardo Sterpetti, Johan Biscaras, Andreas Erb, Abhay Shukla
The phase diagram of hole-doped high critical temperature superconductors as a function of doping and temperature has been intensively studied with chemical variation of doping. Chemical doping can provoke structural changes and disorder, masking intrinsic effects. Alternatively, a field-effect transistor geometry with an electrostatically doped, ultra-thin sample can be used. However, to probe the phase diagram, carrier density modulation beyond 1014 cm-2 and transport measurements performed over a large temperature range are needed...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Gerald Gartlehner, Marie-Therese Schultes, Viktoria Titscher, Laura C Morgan, Georgiy V Bobashev, Peyton Williams, Suzanne L West
BACKGROUND: Summary of findings tables in systematic reviews are highly informative but require epidemiological training to be interpreted correctly. The usage of fishbone diagrams as graphical displays could offer researchers an effective approach to simplify content for readers with limited epidemiological training. In this paper we demonstrate how fishbone diagrams can be applied to systematic reviews and present the results of an initial user testing. METHODS: Findings from two systematic reviews were graphically depicted in the form of the fishbone diagram...
December 12, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Seijirow Goya, Tomoki Wada, Kazumi Shimada, Daiki Hirao, Ryou Tanaka
Vector flow mapping (VFM) is a novel echocardiographic technology that shows blood flow vectors and vortexes, enabled the hydrokinetic evaluation of hemodynamics within the left ventricle. VFM provides several unique parameters: circulation, vorticity, vortex area, and energy loss. The present study aims to reveal a relationship between VFM parameters and cardiac function. Five healthy Beagle dogs were anesthetized and administered with dobutamine (0, 2, 4, 8, 12 µg/kg/min). Pressure-volume diagrams were acquired to assess cardiac function using pressure-volume conductance catheter...
December 11, 2017: Heart and Vessels
Xiang Li, Suxia Zhang, Xijun Liu, Xiaojing Wang, Anqi Zhou, Peng Liu
Based on the model considering the influences of mitochondria, a further theoretical study on the dynamic behaviors of calcium signals is made. First of all, the reason for the generation and disappearance of calcium oscillations is verified in theory. Second, an analysis on the model considering the influences of mitochondria and the model neglecting the influences of mitochondria is carried out. Third, β (representing calcium leak) is introduced and it can be found that with the increase of β, the Hopf bifurcation points of system move towards the decreasing direction of μ (representing stimulus intensity) and calcium oscillations region gradually decreases...
December 8, 2017: Bio Systems
Vipin Kumar Agarwal, Gupta Amresh, Phool Chandra
BACKGROUND: Lagerstroemia speciosa (SEL) leaves are a popular folk medicine for diabetes treatment due to presence of corosolic acid. It has low water solubility resulting poor absorption after oral administration. Self micro-emulsified drug delivery system is the way by which we can improve the oral absorption of drug. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the self micro-emulsifying formulation of standardized extract of SEL leaves and evaluate its pharmacodynamic performance for antidiabetic activity...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Hongchao Yang, Jingjuan Li, Lin Cui, Yanqing Ren, Liying Niu, Xinguo Wang, Yun Huang, Lijian Cui
The influences of caffeine, lysozyme and the joint application of them on the hepatoma cell line HepG2 proliferation inhibition and cell apoptosis were observed by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and Hoechst 33342, which showed the proliferation inhibition rate of the joint application on HepG2 cells was 47.21%, significantly higher than caffeine or lysozyme, and the joint application promoted the apoptosis of HepG2 cells obviously. Van't Hoff classical thermodynamics formula, the Föster theory of non-radiation energy transfer and fluorescence phase diagram were used to manifest that the process of lysozyme binding to caffeine followed a two-state model, which was spontaneous at low temperature driven by enthalpy change, and the predominant intermolecular force was hydrogen bonding or Van der Waals force to stabilize caffeine-lysozyme complex with the distance 5...
December 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Michael H Huang, Gollapally Naresh, Hsiang-Sheng Chen
Recent studies on the electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity properties of semiconductor nanocrystals such as Cu2O, Ag2O, TiO2, PbS, and Ag3PO4 exposing well-defined surfaces have revealed strong facet effects. For example, the electrical conductivity of Cu2O crystals can vary from highly conductive to non-conductive, and they can be highly photocatalytically active or inactive depending on the exposed faces. The crystal surfaces can even tune their light absorption wavelengths. Our understanding is that the emergence of these unusual phenomena can be explained in terms of the presence of an ultrathin surface layer having different band structures and degrees of band bending for different surfaces, which affects charge transport and photons into and out of the crystals...
December 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Meysam Mirarabrazi, Olga Stolarska, Marcin Smiglak, Christian Robelin
The present paper describes an experimental study and a thermodynamic model for the phase diagrams of the common-cation ternary system [C4MPyrr]Cl-[C4MPyrr]Br-[C4MPyrr]BF4 (where [C4MPyrr] refers to 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium) and of the ternary reciprocal system [C2Py], [C4Py]‖Cl, Br (where [CnPy] refers to 1-alkyl-pyridinium). Phase equilibria were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for two isoplethal sections in the common-cation pyrrolidinium-based ternary system. Phase diagram measurements were recently performed for the four common-ion binary subsystems and the two diagonal sections in the pyridinium-based ternary reciprocal system...
December 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Andreas Johannes, Damien Salomon, Gema Martinez-Criado, Markus Glaser, Alois Lugstein, Carsten Ronning
We introduce a method for directly imaging depletion layers in operando with elemental specificity and chemical speciation at sub-100 nm spatial resolution applicable to today's three-dimensional electronic architectures. These typically contain complex, multicomponent designs consisting of epitaxial heterostructures, buried domains, or nanostructures with different shapes and sizes. Although the variety of devices is immense, they commonly rely on carrier separation in a built-in potential induced by composition or strain gradients...
December 2017: Science Advances
Lewis D Blackman, Kay E B Doncom, Matthew I Gibson, Rachel K O'Reilly
Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is an emerging industrially relevant technology, which allows the preparation of defined and predictable polymer self-assemblies with a wide range of morphologies. In recent years, interest has turned to photoinitiated PISA processes, which show markedly accelerated reaction kinetics and milder conditions, thereby making it an attractive alternative to thermally initiated PISA. Herein, we attempt to elucidate the differences between these two initiation methods using isothermally derived phase diagrams of a well-documented poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PEG-b-HPMA) PISA system...
May 14, 2017: Polymer Chemistry
Taru Bhattacharya, V Madhavi Shankar, B Ram Mohan Reddy, S Thangavel, P K Sharma
The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and corresponding dose rates over atomic mineral occurrences of Dharmapuri shear zone in parts of Salem, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, and Vellore districts of Tamilnadu, India. In this paper, area-wise ternary diagrams of Ra, Th and K were plotted to study their relative concentration in the samples. Correlation study was also carried out to delineate the contribution of individual radionuclides toward the measured gamma dose rate...
December 7, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Masumi Villeneuve, Mihoko Tanaka, Natsumi Saito, Hiroyasu Sakamoto, Yoshiteru Hayami
We studied a ternary solutes aqueous solution of NaOH, iron (III)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid complex (Fe-edta), and 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC)/air interface system to clarify the interactions between iron complexes and lipids with a phosphatidylcholine head group. The solution surface tension and pH were measured as functions of the total molality of NaOH, Fe-edta and DHPC, and the mole fractions of NaOH and DHPC. Rigorous thermodynamic equations were derived, in which the overall proton dissociation equilibria of Fe-edta and DHPC were taken into consideration, and applied to experimental data to obtain phase diagram of adsorption...
December 6, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Koray Sayin, Ayhan Üngördü
Computational investigations were performed for 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dimethylpurine-2,6-dione, their Ru(II) and Os(III) complexes. B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)(LANL2DZ) level was used in numerical calculations. Geometric parameters, IR spectrum, 1H-, 13C and 15N NMR spectrum were examined in detail. Additionally, contour diagram of frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps, MEP contour and some quantum chemical descriptors were used in the determination of reactivity rankings and active sites...
December 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jeong-Eun Rah, Dongho Shin, Ryan P Manger, Tae Hyun Kim, Do Hoon Oh, Dae Yong Kim, Gwe-Ya Kim
PURPOSE: To implement the DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) can be used for customizing the patient-specific QA by designing site-specific range tolerances. METHODS: The DMAIC framework (process flow diagram, cause and effect, Pareto chart, control chart, and capability analysis) were utilized to determine the steps that need focus for improving the patient-specific QA. The patient-specific range QA plans were selected according to 7 treatment site groups, a total of 1437 cases...
December 9, 2017: Medical Physics
Jun Onoe, Shinta Watanabe, Shiro Kato, Masato Nakaya, Jean-Pierre Bucher
We have examined the structural, electronic, and optical properties of zinc-octaethylporphyrin [Zn(OEP)]/C60 co-deposited films to elucidate the donor (D)-acceptor (A) interactions at the D/A interface of heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs), using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy in combination with first-principles and semi-empirical calculations. The FT-IR and XRD results indicated that Zn(OEP) and C60 were mixed with each other at the molecular level in the co-deposited film...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sibo Guo, Hiroki Kamite, Nozomu Suzuki, Laibing Wang, Asuka Ohkubo, Michiya Fujiki
We investigated whether helicity and/or chirality of cellulose tris(phenylcarbamate) (CTPC) can transfer to non-charged, non-helical oligo- and polyfluorenes (F3, F5, F7, PF6, and PF8, Chart 1) when CTPC was employed as a solution processable homochiral platform of a D-glucose-skeletal polymer. Noticeably, CTPC revealed the solvent-driven, ambidextrous intermolecular helicity/chirality transfer capability to these fluorenes. The chiroptical inversion characteristics of circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) and the corresponding CD spectra were realized by solely choosing a proper achiral solvents and/or achiral cosolvents...
December 8, 2017: Biomacromolecules
A M Hallas, J Gaudet, N P Butch, Guangyong Xu, M Tachibana, C R Wiebe, G M Luke, B D Gaulin
We report neutron scattering measurements on Er_{2}Pt_{2}O_{7}, a new addition to the XY family of frustrated pyrochlore magnets. Symmetry analysis of our elastic scattering data shows that Er_{2}Pt_{2}O_{7} orders into the k=0, Γ_{7} magnetic structure (the Palmer-Chalker state), at T_{N}=0.38  K. This contrasts with its sister XY pyrochlore antiferromagnets Er_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} and Er_{2}Ge_{2}O_{7}, both of which order into Γ_{5} magnetic structures at much higher temperatures, T_{N}=1.2 and 1.4 K, respectively...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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