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Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazrgani, Iman Dianat
To evaluate the quality of reporting in published randomized controlled trials (RTCs) in the field of fall injuries. The 188 RTCs published between 2001 and 2011, indexed in EMBASE and Medline databases were extracted through searching by appropriate keywords and EMTree classification terms. The evaluation trustworthiness was assured through parallel evaluations of two experts in epidemiology and biostatistics. About 40%-75% of papers had problems in reporting random allocation method, allocation concealment, random allocation implementation, blinding and similarity among groups, intention to treat and balancing benefits and harms...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Alexander Tischer, Venkata R Machha, Jörg Rösgen, Matthew Auton
Protein phase diagrams have a unique potential to identify the presence of additional thermodynamic states even when non-2-state character is not readily apparent from the experimental observables used to follow protein unfolding transitions. Two-state analysis of the von Willebrand factor A3 domain has previously revealed a discrepancy in the calorimetric enthalpy obtained from thermal unfolding transitions as compared with Gibbs-Helmholtz analysis of free energies obtained from the Linear Extrapolation Method (Tischer and Auton, Prot Sci 2013; 22(9):1147-60)...
February 19, 2018: Biopolymers
Palani R Jothi, Kunio Yubuta, Boniface P T Fokwa
Most nanomaterials, such as transition metal carbides, phosphides, nitrides, chalcogenides, etc., have been extensively studied for their various properties in recent years. The similarly attractive transition metal borides, on the contrary, have seen little interest from the materials science community, mainly because nanomaterials are notoriously difficult to synthesize. Herein, a simple, general synthetic method toward crystalline transition metal boride nanomaterials is proposed. This new method takes advantage of the redox chemistry of Sn/SnCl2 , the volatility and recrystallization of SnCl2 at the synthesis conditions, as well as the immiscibility of tin with boron, to produce crystalline phases of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metal nanoborides with different morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets, nanoprisms, nanoplates, nanoparticles, etc...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Deborah Le Corre-Bordes, Kathleen Hofman, Bronwyn Hall
Tissue engineering requires the design and manufacture of biomimetic scaffolds. Collagen-derived nanofibrous scaffolds have been intensively studied because collagen, in the form of fibrils, is one of the main components of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). Several collagen materials have been used in electrospinning studies including mammalian extracted Type I collagen and gelatin formulations. Denatured whole chain collagen (DWCC) can be prepared by heat denaturing acid-soluble collagen extracted from cold-water fish skin...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Bernd Neumayr, Christoph G Schuetz, Manfred A Jeusfeld, Michael Schrefl
An enterprise database contains a global, integrated, and consistent representation of a company's data. Multi-level modeling facilitates the definition and maintenance of such an integrated conceptual data model in a dynamic environment of changing data requirements of diverse applications. Multi-level models transcend the traditional separation of class and object with clabjects as the central modeling primitive, which allows for a more flexible and natural representation of many real-world use cases. In deep instantiation, the number of instantiation levels of a clabject or property is indicated by a single potency...
2018: Software and Systems Modeling
A K M Mahmudul Haque, Sedong Kim, Junhyo Kim, Jungpil Noh, Sunchul Huh, Byeongkeun Choi, Hanshik Chung, Hyomin Jeong
This study presents the forced convective heat transfer of a nanofluid consisting of distilled water and different weight concentrations (1 wt% and 2 wt%) of Al2O3 nanoparticles flowing in a vertical shell and tube heat exchanger under counter flow and laminar flow regime with certain constant heat flaxes (at 20 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C). The Al2O3 nanoparticles of about 50 nm diameter are used in the present study. Stability of aqueous Al2O3 nanofluids, TEM, thermal conductivity, temperature differences, heat transfer rate, T-Q diagrams, LMTD and convective heat transfer coefficient are investigated experimentally...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Istafaul Haque Ansari, Nicolas Rivas, Meheboob Alam
We report patterns consisting of coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous states [for example, a granular gas co-existing with (i) bouncing bed, (ii) undulatory subharmonic waves, and (iii) Leidenfrost-like states] in experiments on vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures in a Hele-Shaw cell. Most experiments have been carried out with equimolar binary mixtures of glass and steel balls of same diameter by varying the total layer height (F) for a range of shaking acceleration (Γ). All patterns as well as the related phase diagram in the (Γ,F) plane have been reproduced via molecular dynamics simulations of the same system...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Romi Mankin, Sander Paekivi
The behavior of a stochastic resonate-and-fire neuron model based on a reduction of a fractional noise-driven generalized Langevin equation (GLE) with a power-law memory kernel is considered. The effect of temporally correlated random activity of synaptic inputs, which arise from other neurons forming local and distant networks, is modeled as an additive fractional Gaussian noise in the GLE. Using a first-passage-time formulation, in certain system parameter domains exact expressions for the output interspike interval (ISI) density and for the survival probability (the probability that a spike is not generated) are derived and their dependence on input parameters, especially on the memory exponent, is analyzed...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
T Putelat, P Recho, L Truskinovsky
The motility of a cell can be triggered or inhibited not only by an applied force but also by a mechanically neutral force couple. This type of loading, represented by an applied stress and commonly interpreted as either squeezing or stretching, can originate from extrinsic interaction of a cell with its neighbors. To quantify the effect of applied stresses on cell motility we use an analytically transparent one-dimensional model accounting for active myosin contraction and induced actin turnover. We show that stretching can polarize static cells and initiate cell motility while squeezing can symmetrize and arrest moving cells...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
A Petri, D B Liarte, S R Salinas
We perform statistical mechanics calculations to analyze the global phase diagram of a fully connected version of a Maier-Saupe-Zwanzig lattice model with the inclusion of couplings to an elastic strain field. We point out the presence of uniaxial and biaxial nematic structures, depending on temperature T and on the applied stress σ. Under uniaxial extensive tension, applied stress favors uniaxial orientation, and we obtain a first-order boundary along which there is a coexistence of two uniaxial paranematic phases, and which ends at a simple critical point...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Swayamshree Patra, Debashish Chowdhury
We introduce a multispecies exclusion model where length-conserving probabilistic fusion and fission of the hard rods are allowed. Although all rods enter the system with the same initial length ℓ=1, their length can keep changing, because of fusion and fission, as they move in a step-by-step manner towards the exit. Two neighboring hard rods of lengths ℓ_{1} and ℓ_{2} can fuse into a single rod of longer length ℓ=ℓ_{1}+ℓ_{2} provided ℓ≤N. Similarly, length-conserving fission of a rod of length ℓ^{'}≤N results in two shorter daughter rods...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Arvind Ayyer, Caley Finn, Dipankar Roy
We study a two-species partially asymmetric exclusion process where the left boundary is permeable for the "slower" species but the right boundary is not. We find a matrix product solution for the stationary state and the exact stationary phase diagram for the densities and currents. By calculating the density of each species at the boundaries, we find further structure in the stationary phases. In particular, we find that the slower species can reach and accumulate at the far boundary, even in phases where the bulk density of these particles approaches zero...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Erol Vatansever, Nikolaos G Fytas
We employ numerical simulations and finite-size scaling techniques to investigate the properties of the dynamic phase transition that is encountered in the Blume-Capel model subjected to a periodically oscillating magnetic field. We mainly focus on the study of the two-dimensional system for various values of the crystal-field coupling in the second-order transition regime. Our results indicate that the present nonequilibrium phase transition belongs to the universality class of the equilibrium Ising model and allow us to construct a dynamic phase diagram, in analogy with the equilibrium case, at least for the range of parameters considered...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
S Hamidreza Arabi, Behdad Aghelnejad, Christian Schwieger, Annette Meister, Andreas Kerth, Dariush Hinderberger
We report extended pH- and temperature-induced preparation procedures and explore the materials and molecular properties of different types of hydrogels made from human and bovine serum albumin, the major transport protein in the blood of mammals. We describe the diverse range of properties of these hydrogels at three levels: (1) their viscoelastic (macroscopic) behavior, (2) protein secondary structure changes during the gelation process (via ATR-FTIR spectroscopy), and (3) the hydrogel fatty acid (FA) binding capacity and derive from this the generalized tertiary structure through CW EPR spectroscopy...
February 15, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Zbyšek Posel, Martin Svoboda, Zuzana Limpouchová, Martin Lísal, Karel Procházka
The sorption of graft copolymers on surfaces attractive only for the backbone and its effect on the conformational behavior of adsorbed/desorbed chains in solvents good for the grafts and poor for the backbone was studied by coarse-grained computer simulations. It was found that the sorption and conformational behavior are very complex and are results of an intricate interplay of solvent quality (polymer-solvent interactions) and solvent strength (polymer-surface vs. solvent-surface interactions). Increasing grafting density and length of grafts protect the backbone against adsorption, but the behavior is non-trivial...
February 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Han Gyu Kang, Seong Hyun Song, Young Been Han, Kyeong Min Kim, Seong Jong Hong
Optical imaging techniques are widely used for in vivo preclinical studies, and it is well known that the Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography (GATE) can be employed for the Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of light transport inside heterogeneous tissues. However, the GATE MC toolkit is limited in that it does not yet include optical lens implementation, even though this is required for a more realistic optical imaging simulation. We describe our implementation of a biconvex lens into the GATE MC toolkit to improve both the sensitivity and spatial resolution for optical imaging simulation...
February 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Yong Xie, Yuanyuan Li, Guoqing Wei, Qingkun Liu, Haridas Mundoor, Ziyu Chen, Ivan I Smalyukh
Monodisperse rod-like colloidal particles are known for spontaneously forming both nematic and smectic liquid crystal phases, but their self-assembly was typically exploited from the fundamental soft condensed matter physics perspective. Here we demonstrate that depletion interactions, driven by non-adsorbing polymers like dextran and surfactants, can be used to enrich the self-organization of photon-upconversion nanorods into orientationally ordered nematic and smectic-like membrane colloidal superstructures...
February 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Peter M Prodinger, Peter Foehr, Dominik Bürklein, Oliver Bissinger, Hakan Pilge, Kilian Kreutzer, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Thomas Tischer
OBJECTIVES: Rat fracture models are extensively used to characterize normal and pathological bone healing. Despite, systematic research on inter- and intra-individual differences of common rat bones examined is surprisingly not available. Thus, we studied the biomechanical behaviour and radiological characteristics of the humerus, the tibia and the femur of the male Wistar rat-all of which are potentially available in the experimental situation-to identify useful or detrimental biomechanical properties of each bone and to facilitate sample size calculations...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
Jake A Funkhouser, Jessica A Mayhew, John B Mulcahy
Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings...
2018: PloS One
Nadia Shardt, Janet A W Elliott
At any given temperature, pressure, and composition, a compound or a mixture of compounds will exist either in a single phase, whether solid, liquid, or vapor, or in a combination of these phases coexisting in equilibrium. For multiphase systems, it is known that the geometry of the interface impacts the equilibrium state; this effect has been well-studied in single component systems with spherical interfaces. However, multicomponent phase diagrams are usually calculated assuming a planar interface between phases...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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