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Yicun Ni, J L Skinner
No man's land is the region in the metastable phase diagram of water where it is very difficult to do experiments on liquid water because of homogeneous nucleation to the crystal. There are a number of estimates of the location in no man's land of the liquid-liquid critical point, if it exists. We suggest that published IR absorption experiments on water droplets in no man's land can provide information about the correct location. To this end, we calculate theoretical IR spectra for liquid water over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, using our E3B3 model, and use the results to argue that the temperature dependence of the experimental spectra is inconsistent with several of the estimated critical point locations, but consistent with others...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
A P Furlan, N G Almarza, M C Barbosa
A lattice model for the study of mixtures of associating liquids is proposed. Solvent and solute are modeled by adapting the associating lattice gas (ALG) model. The nature of interaction of solute/solvent is controlled by tuning the energy interactions between the patches of ALG model. We have studied three set of parameters, resulting in, hydrophilic, inert, and hydrophobic interactions. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were carried out, and the behavior of pure components and the excess properties of the mixtures have been studied...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sutapa Roy, S Dietrich, Felix Höfling
The dynamic and static critical behavior of a family of binary Lennard-Jones liquid mixtures, close to their continuous demixing points (belonging to the so-called model H' dynamic universality class), are studied computationally by combining semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, accelerated by graphic processing units (GPU). The symmetric binary liquid mixtures considered cover a variety of densities, a wide range of compressibilities, and various interactions between the unlike particles...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Qian Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Zhixin Wang, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
An adverse intrauterine environment, induced by a chromium-restricted diet, is a potential cause of metabolic disease in adult life. Up to now, the relative mechanism has not been clear. C57BL female mice were time-mated and fed either a control diet (CD), or a chromium-restricted diet (CR) throughout pregnancy and the lactation period. After weaning, some offspring continued the diet diagram (CD-CD or CR-CR), while other offspring were transferred to another diet diagram (CD-CR or CR-CD). At 32 weeks of age, glucose metabolism parameters were measured, and the liver from CR-CD group and CD-CD group was analyzed using a gene array...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Javier Roulet, Gabriel B Mindlin
We develop an extension of the Ott-Antonsen method [E. Ott and T. M. Antonsen, Chaos 18(3), 037113 (2008)] that allows obtaining the mean activity (spiking rate) of a population of excitable units. By means of the Ott-Antonsen method, equations for the dynamics of the order parameters of coupled excitatory and inhibitory populations of excitable units are obtained, and their mean activities are computed. Two different excitable systems are studied: Adler units and theta neurons. The resulting bifurcation diagrams are compared with those obtained from studying the phenomenological Wilson-Cowan model in some regions of the parameter space...
September 2016: Chaos
Sudharsana V Iyengar, Janaki Balakrishnan, Jürgen Kurths
We study the dynamics of a discrete-time tritrophic model which mimics the observed periodicity in the population cycles of the larch budmoth insect which causes widespread defoliation of larch forests at high altitudes periodically. Our model employs q-deformation of numbers to model the system comprising the budmoth, one or more parasitoid species, and larch trees. Incorporating climate parameters, we introduce additional parasitoid species and show that their introduction increases the periodicity of the budmoth cycles as observed experimentally...
September 2016: Chaos
Ukachukwu Okoroafor Abaraogu, Wisdom Onyedikachi Ugwa, Osita Nnodim, Elochukwu Fortune Ezenwankwo
BACKGROUND: The effects of backpack load on young adults' gait parameters have received little attention. This author group previously reported that with a backpack load within 15% body weight, young adults maintain their gait parameters at the expense of increased exertion during a 6-minute walk at self-selected normal walking speed. However, the effect of backpack strap pattern on gait parameters during faster walking or longer stride length has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of different backpack strap patterns on gait parameters during 12 minute duration walk test in young adults at self-selected normal and fast walking speeds...
October 22, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
M A Timirgazin, P A Igoshev, A K Arzhnikov, V Yu Irkhin
The ground-state magnetic phase diagram (including collinear and spiral states) of the single-band Hubbard model for the face-centered cubic lattice and related metal-insulator transition (MIT) are investigated within the slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The correlation-induced electron spectrum narrowing and a comparison with a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation allow one to estimate the strength of correlation effects. This, as well as the MIT scenario, depends dramatically on the ratio of the next-nearest and nearest electron hopping integrals [Formula: see text]...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Mark Wilson
The study of the structure and dynamics of network-forming materials is reviewed. Experimental techniques used to extract key structural information are briefly considered. Strategies for building simulation models, based on both targeting key (experimentally-accessible) materials and on systematically controlling key model parameters, are discussed. As an example of the first class of materials, a key target system, SiO2, is used to highlight how the changing structure with applied pressure can be effectively modelled (in three dimensions) and used to link to both experimental results and simple structural models...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Yun Li, Ping Xie, Dandan Zhao, Tianshun Zhu, Longgen Guo, Jing Zhang
To assess whether and how zooplankton communities respond to variations in temperature and how these assemblages change with eutrophication, we performed a large-scale, monthly survey from August 2011 to July 2012 to determine the seasonal and spatial variations in these communities in a high-altitude lake. A detrended correspondence analysis and a path analysis demonstrated that temperature and chlorophyll a were important factors influencing zooplankton. The path diagram showed that Daphnia was negatively affected directly by chlorophyll a and indirectly by temperature, whereas Bosmina was directly and positively affected by temperature...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Ji-Sun Kim, Han-Byeol Oh, A-Hee Kim, Jun-Sik Kim, Eun-Suk Lee, Jin-Young Baek, Ki Sung Lee, Soon-Cheol Chung, Jae-Hoon Jun
Glucose concentration is closely related to the metabolic activity of cells and it is the most important substance as the energy source of a living body which plays an important role in the human body. This paper proposes an optical method that can measure the concentration of glucose. The change in glucose concentration was observed by using CIE diagram, and wavelength and purity values were detected. Also, even small changes in glucose concentration can be evaluated through mathematical modeling. This system is simple, economical, and capable of quantifying optical signals with numerical values for glucose sensing...
October 24, 2016: Bioengineered
Nahla Abdellatif, Radhouane Fekih-Salem, Tewfik Sari
We study a model of the chemostat with several species in competition for a single resource. We take into account the intra-specific interactions between individuals of the same population of micro-organisms and we assume that the growth rates are increasing and the dilution rates are distinct. Using the concept of steady-state characteristics, we present a geometric characterization of the existence and stability of all equilibria. Moreover, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the control parameters of the system to have a positive equilibrium...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Tao Li, Yunlong Xiao, Teng Ma, Shao-Ming Fei, Naihuan Jing, Xianqing Li-Jost, Zhi-Xi Wang
We study universal uncertainty relations and present a method called joint probability distribution diagram to improve the majorization bounds constructed independently in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230401 (2013)] and [J. Phys. A. 46, 272002 (2013)]. The results give rise to state independent uncertainty relations satisfied by any nonnegative Schur-concave functions. On the other hand, a remarkable recent result of entropic uncertainty relation is the direct-sum majorization relation. In this paper, we illustrate our bounds by showing how they provide a complement to that in [Phys...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Subhash Chandra Bose Penjuri, Saritha Damineni, Nagaraju Ravouru, Srikanth Reddy Poreddy Reddy Poreddy
BACKGROUND: The objective of this investigation was to develop a self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of naproxen, a poorly water soluble drug, which could improve its solubility and oral bioavailability. Methoda: The recent patents on SEDDS of abiraterone acetate (WO2014/009434 A1) and tamoxifen (WO2013/0080083) helped in selecting the naproxen and excipients. Phase diagrams were constructed and the formulations were taken from the micro emulsion region. Formulations were subjected to thermodynamic stability, dispersibility and precipitation tests for optimization...
October 19, 2016: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
Ana Filipa M Cláudio, Jorge F B Pereira, Parker D McCrary, Mara G Freire, João A P Coutinho, Robin D Rogers
An extensive study on the formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) using aqueous solutions of protic ionic liquids (PILs) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was performed in order to understand the mechanisms underlying the phase separation. Aqueous solutions of PEG polymers with different molecular weights (600, 1000, 2000, and 3400 g mol(-1)) and several N-alkyl-, dialkyl-, and trialkyl-ammonium salts of acetate, propanoate, butanoate, hexanoate and octanoate were prepared and their ability to form ABS at several temperatures assessed...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Seifollah Gholampour, Nasser Fatouraee, Amir Saeed Seddighi, Afsoun Seddighi
In the present study, the heads of 11 normal subjects and 21 patients affected by hydrocephalus due to three different causes were simulated using fluid-structure interaction (FSI). To validate the results, the calculated diagram of CSF velocity in aqueduct of Sylvius (AS) was compared with the similar velocity diagram measured using Cine PC-MRI for the same subject. After ensuring the agreement of results, other outputs such as CSF pressure were calculated non-invasively using FSI. The intracranial pressure and CSF pressure in AS and behind the optic nerve sheath were in patients 5-5...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Guang-Hui Zhu, Hai-Bo Mei, Rong-Guo He, Yao-Xi Liu, Kun Liu, Jin Tang, Jiang-Yan Wu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the initial union rate, refracture rate and residual deformities of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT), using combined surgery including pseudarthrosis resection, intramedullary rodding, autogenous iliac bone grafting and Ilizarov's fixator, with a mean 5.2 years follow-up. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records and diagrams of patients with Crawford type IV congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia between February 2007 and March 2010...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Dennis Toddenroth, Janakan Sivagnanasundaram, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Thomas Ganslandt
BACKGROUND: The difficulty of managing patient recruitment and documentation for clinical trials prompts a demand for instruments for closely monitoring these critical but unpredictable processes. Increasingly adopted Electronic Data Capture (EDC) applications provide novel opportunities to reutilize stored information for an efficient management of traceable trial workflows. In related clinical and administrative settings, so-called digital dashboards that continuously visualize time-dependent parameters have recently met a growing acceptance...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Amal A Sultan, Sanaa A El-Gizawy, Mohamed A Osman, Gamal M El Maghraby
Mixed micelles provide promising strategy for enhancing dissolution and permeability of drugs. However, their fluid nature limited the stability of the loaded drug and hindered the development of stable oral dosage form. Accordingly, the objective was to develop solid self dispersing mixed micelle forming systems (MMFS) for enhanced dissolution and intestinal permeability of hydrochlorothiazide. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using sodium cholate, lecithin with either poloxamer 407 or PEG 4000 to determine the composition of MMFS...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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