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Jacob B Rowe, Rachel A Cancel, Tyler D Evangelous, Rhiannon P Flynn, Sergei Pechenov, J Anand Subramony, Jifeng Zhang, Ying Wang
Crystallization of IgG antibodies has important applications in the fields of structural biology, biotechnology, and biopharmaceutics. However, a rational approach to crystallize antibodies is still lacking. In this work, we report a method to estimate the solubility of antibodies at various temperatures. We experimentally determined the full phase diagram of an IgG antibody. Using the full diagram, we examined the metastability gaps, i.e., the distance between the crystal solubility line and the liquid-liquid coexistence curve, of IgG antibodies...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Claire Verrier, Estelle Appert, Odette Chaix-Pluchery, Laetitia Rapenne, Quentin Rafhay, Anne Kaminski-Cachopo, Vincent Consonni
The elucidation of the fundamental processes in aqueous solution during the chemical bath deposition of ZnO nanowires (NWs) using zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine is of great significance: however, their extrinsic doping by foreign elements for monitoring their optical and electrical properties is still challenging. By combining thermodynamic simulations yielding theoretical solubility plots and speciation diagrams with in situ pH measurements and structural, chemical, and optical analyses, we report an in-depth understanding of the pH effects on the formation and aluminum doping mechanisms of ZnO NWs...
October 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Rashed Al-Rashed, Francisco López Jiménez, Joel Marthelot, Pedro M Reis
We introduce a new experimental system to study the effects of pre-stretch on the buckling patterns that emerge from the biaxial compression of elastomeric bilayer shells. Upon fabrication of the samples, releasing the pre-stretch in the substrate through deflation places the outer film in a state of biaxial compression and yields a variety of buckling patterns. We systematically explore the parameter space by varying the pre-stretch of the substrate and the ratio between the stiffness of the substrate and film...
October 18, 2017: Soft Matter
Matti Hellström, Jörg Behler
Density functional theory (DFT) is routinely used to calculate the adsorption energies of molecules on solid surfaces, which can be employed to derive surface phase diagrams. Such calculations become computationally expensive if the number of substrate atoms is large, which happens whenever the adsorbate coverage is small. Here, we propose an efficient method for calculating surface phase diagrams for redox-active adsorbates on semiconductors, that we apply to the important example of proton (H(+)) and hydride (H(-)) adsorbates on a ZnO surface...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Meng-Shan Hsieh, Huang-Jen Su, Pei-Lun Hsieh, Yun-Wei Chiang, Michael H Huang
This work has developed conditions for the synthesis of Ag3PO4 cubes, rhombic dodecahedra, {100}-truncated rhombic dodecahedra, tetrahedra, and tetrapods by tuning the amount of NH4NO3, NaOH, AgNO3, and K2HPO4 solutions added. Use of a lesser amount of AgNO3 solution can form much smaller rhombic dodecahedra and tetrahedra. Sub-micrometer-sized Ag3PO4 cubes and rhombic dodecahedra with sizes larger than 300 nm do not exhibit optical size effect, but ~290 nm rhombic dodecahedra show a smaller band gap value than that for larger cubes, and tetrahedra show the most blue-shifted absorption edge...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shuai Zhang, Li Pi, Rui Wang, Geliang Yu, Xing-Chen Pan, Zhongxia Wei, Jinglei Zhang, Chuanying Xi, Zhanbin Bai, Fucong Fei, Mingyu Wang, Jian Liao, Yongqing Li, Xuefeng Wang, Fengqi Song, Yuheng Zhang, Baigeng Wang, Dingyu Xing, Guanghou Wang
Dirac Fermions with different helicities exist on the top and bottom surfaces of topological insulators, offering a rare opportunity to break the degeneracy protected by the no-go theorem. Through the application of Co clusters, quantum Hall plateaus were modulated for the topological insulator BiSbTeSe2, allowing an optimized surface transport. Here, using renormalization group flow diagrams, we show the extraction of two sets of converging points in the conductivity tensor space, revealing that the top surface exhibits an anomalous quantization trajectory, while the bottom surface retains the 1/2 quantization...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Partha S Mandal, Gunther Springholz, Valentine V Volobuev, Ondrej Caha, Andrei Varykhalov, Evangelos Golias, Günther Bauer, Oliver Rader, Jaime Sánchez-Barriga
Topological insulators constitute a new phase of matter protected by symmetries. Time-reversal symmetry protects strong topological insulators of the Z2 class, which possess an odd number of metallic surface states with dispersion of a Dirac cone. Topological crystalline insulators are merely protected by individual crystal symmetries and exist for an even number of Dirac cones. Here, we demonstrate that Bi-doping of Pb1-x Sn x Se (111) epilayers induces a quantum phase transition from a topological crystalline insulator to a Z2 topological insulator...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Christian Celia, Angela Scala, Rosanna Stancanelli, Emanuela Surdo, Donatella Paolino, Alessandro Grattoni, Nicola Micale, Vincenza Crupi, Domenico Majolino, Massimo Fresta, Silvana Tommasini, Valentina Venuti, Cinzia Anna Ventura
Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CyD) were used to generate hydrophilic complexes of the poorly water-soluble drug testosterone propionate (TP). The inclusion complexes were obtained by freeze-drying, and then analyzed at both liquid and solid states. Phase solubility studies, performed according to the type-AL solubility diagrams of TP in presence of both CyDs, suggested the formation of water-soluble complexes at 1:1 molar ratio. These results were confirmed by continuous variation method (Job's plot)...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Xiao Xu, Lin Ma, Shoulin Jiang, Zuyuan He
We demonstrate circular-core 1550 nm single-mode polymer waveguides with a graded-index profile fabricated by commercially available UV-curable epoxies using so-called mosquito method. The relative index difference ∆n of the waveguides was designed to be 0.46% in order to guarantee both single-mode operation and good compatibility with standard single-mode fiber. Accurate refractive index tuning of monomer for core construction was realized by mixing the core and cladding epoxies properly. The core pitch of the waveguides was chosen to be 50 μm to satisfy the requirements for high-density on-board optical interconnects...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Jian-Bo Li, Si Xiao, Shan Liang, Meng-Dong He, Jian-Hua Luo, Nam-Chol Kim, Li-Qun Chen
We perform a theoretical study of the bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) response in a coupled system comprised of a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and a photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity in which the SQD is embedded. It is shown that the shape of the FWM spectrum can switch among single-peaked, double-peaked, triple-peaked, and four-peaked arising from the vacuum Rabi splitting and the exciton-nanocavity coupling. Especially, we map out bistability phase diagrams within a parameter subspace of the system, and find that it is easy to turn on or off the bistable FWM response by only adjusting the excitation frequency or the pumping intensity...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Yen-Kuang Kuo, Ya-Hsuan Shih, Jih-Yuan Chang, Wei-Chih Lai, Heng Liu, Fang-Ming Chen, Ming-Lun Lee, Jinn-Kong Sheu
Monolithic stacked InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) connected by a polarization-enhanced GaN/AlN-based tunnel junction is demonstrated experimentally in this study. The typical stacked LEDs exhibit 80% enhancement in output power compared with conventional single LEDs because of the repeated use of electrons and holes for photon generation. The typical operation voltage of stacked LEDs is higher than twice the operation voltage of single LEDs. This high operation voltage can be attributed to the non-optimal tunneling junction in stacked LEDs...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
Brad A Steele, Ivan I Oleynik
Ternary CxNyOz compounds are actively researched as novel high energy density and ultrahard materials. Although some synthesis work has been performed at ambient conditions, very little is known about the high pressure chemistry of of CxNyOz compounds. In this work, first-principles variable-composition evolutionary structure prediction calculations are performed with the goal of discovering novel mixed CxNyOz materials at ambient and high pressure conditions. By systematically searching ternary variable composition crystalline materials, the full ternary phase diagram is constructed in the range of pressures from 0 to 100 GPa...
October 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Arnab Banerjee, Biswajit Kundu, Amlan J Pal
We form junctions between a monolayer of a range of metal-phthalocyanines and a monolayer of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) through an electrostatic adsorption process. The energy levels of the components, as drawn from scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and the density of states (DOS) thereof, indicated that the hybrid junctions would act as current rectifiers. We have observed that the central metal atom affected the energies of the metalorganics and thereby the rectification ratio of the junctions...
October 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Parikshit Sahatiya, Sushmee Badhulika
Electronic structure and carrier behavior in semiconductor junctions can be effectively modulated on the application of strain. This work represents the first demonstration of a large-area, flexible, paper-based graphene-molybdenum disulfide (Gr/MoS2) broadband photodetector using a low-cost solution-processed hydrothermal method and enhancement in photodetection through strain modulation by assembling the device on polydimethylsiloxane. Optimization, in terms of process parameters, was carried out to obtain trilayer MoS2 over Gr-cellulose paper...
October 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
B M Hunt, J I A Li, A A Zibrov, L Wang, T Taniguchi, K Watanabe, J Hone, C R Dean, M Zaletel, R C Ashoori, A F Young
The high magnetic field electronic structure of bilayer graphene is enhanced by the spin, valley isospin, and an accidental orbital degeneracy, leading to a complex phase diagram of broken symmetry states. Here, we present a technique for measuring the layer-resolved charge density, from which we directly determine the valley and orbital polarization within the zero energy Landau level. Layer polarization evolves in discrete steps across 32 electric field-tuned phase transitions between states of different valley, spin, and orbital order, including previously unobserved orbitally polarized states stabilized by skew interlayer hopping...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
Konstantinos I Bougioukas, Aris Liakos, Apostolos Tsapas, Evangelia Ntzani, Anna-Bettina Haidich
OBJECTIVE: An Overview of Systematic Reviews (OoSRs) is a study designed to synthesize multiple evidence from existing systematic reviews on a specific domain. The aim of this paper was to offer a pilot version checklist with Preferred Reporting Items for OoSRs (PRIO-harms) in order to promote a more balanced reporting of benefits and harms in OoSRs of healthcare interventions. METHODS: The included items were developed by combining key features from healthcare OoSRs designs with recommendations from statements of other relevant checklists and pertinent methodological review articles...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Sen-Wen Teng, Yu-Shu Lo, Wei-Ting Liu, Yogi Hsuan, Willie Lin
OBJECTIVE: The human umbilical cord and placenta have been considered as attractive alternative sources for noninvasive isolation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Different sources of MSC may have individual differentiation potential and phenotype. In this study, we compared the genome-wide expression data of umbilical cord and placenta derived hMSCs to identify specific differential expression genes (DEGs) and corresponding functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected human placental tissues and umbilical cord from healthy full-term placenta (n = 17)...
October 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Greg Lyle, Gilly A Hendrie, Delia Hendrie
BACKGROUND: Globally, the provision of equitable outcomes for women with breast cancer is a priority for governments. However, there is growing evidence that a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient exists in outcomes across the breast cancer continuum - namely incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survival and mortality. This systematic review describes this evidence and, because of the importance of place in defining SES, findings are limited to the Australian experience. METHODS: An on-line search of PubMed and the Web of Science identified 44 studies published since 1995 which examined the influence of SES along the continuum...
October 16, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Tulio Honorio, Laurent Brochard, Matthieu Vandamme
Adsorption plays a fundamental role in the behavior of clays. Due to the confinement between clay solid layers at the nanoscale, adsorbed water is structured in layers, which can occupy a specific volume. The transition between these states is intimately related to key features of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. In this paper, we consider the hydration states of clays as phases and the transition between these states, as phase changes. The thermodynamic formulation supporting this idea is presented. Then, results from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of sodium-montmorillonite are used to derive hydration phase diagrams...
October 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Bartlomiej Kiczek, Andrzej Ptok
Majorana quasi-particles can be realised using magnetic field in form of diamagnetic (orbital) or paramagnetic effects. In both cases, magnetic field induces a topologically non-trivial phase of matter. In this paper the influence of orbital effects on the Majorana bound states induced by paramagnetic effects in one dimensional nanowire is elaborated. Also a role of orbital effects in density of states and eigenstates of the system is discussed. Additionally we show the phase diagram -- the magnetic field v...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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