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Ronggui Tang, Changfeng Ding, Fei Dang, Yibing Ma, Junsong Wang, Taolin Zhang, Xingxiang Wang
Mercury is a globally distributed toxicant to aquatic animals and mammals. However, the potential risks of environmental relevant mercury in terrestrial systems remain largely unclear. The metabolic profiles of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to soil contaminated with mercury at 0.77 ± 0.09 mg/kg for 2 weeks were investigated using a two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance-based (1 H-13 C NMR) metabolomics approach. The results revealed that traditional endpoints (e.g., mortality and weight loss) did not differ significantly after exposure...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wei Zhao, Yuting Yang, Zhi Tao, Zhi Hong Hang
Following the seminal work by Dubois et al. (Nat. Commun. 8, 14871 (2017)), we study a double-zero-index acoustic metamaterial with triangular lattice. By varying the height and diameter of air scatterers inside a parallel-plate acoustic waveguide, acoustic dispersion of the first-order waveguide mode can be manipulated and various interesting properties are explored. With accidental degeneracy of monopolar and dipolar modes, we numerically prove the double-zero-index properties of this novel acoustic metamaterial...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hidekazu Yoshida, Koshi Yamamoto, Masayo Minami, Nagayoshi Katsuta, Sirono Sin-Ichi, Richard Metcalfe
Isolated spherical carbonate concretions observed in marine sediments are fascinating natural objet trouve because of their rounded shapes and distinct sharp boundaries. They occur in varied matrices and often contain well preserved fossils. The formation process of such concretions has been explained by diffusion and rapid syn-depositional reactions with organic solutes and other pore water constituents. However, the rates, conditions and formation process of syngenetic spherical concretions are still not fully clear...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Wendler, Renan Belli, Diana Valladares, Anselm Petschelt, Ulrich Lohbauer
OBJECTIVES: Chemical and mechanical degradation play a key role on the lifetime of dental restorative materials. Therefore, prediction of their long-term performance in the oral environment should base on fatigue, rather than inert strength data, as commonly observed in the dental material's field. The objective of the present study was to provide mechanistic fatigue parameters of current dental CAD/CAM materials under cyclic biaxial flexure and assess their suitability in predicting clinical fracture behaviors...
April 17, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Faraz Najam, Yun Seop Yu
Corner-effect existing in L-shaped tunnel field-effect-transistor (LTFET) was investigated using numerical simulations and band diagram analysis. It was found that the corner-effect is caused by the convergence of electric field in the sharp source corner present in an LTFET, thereby increasing the electric field in the sharp source corner region. It was found that in the corner-effect region tunneling starts early, as a function of applied bias, as compared to the rest of the channel not affected by corner-effect...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Sangwan Kim, Woo Young Choi
In this manuscript, the compact potential model for double-gate (DG) Si1-xGex/Si heterojunction tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) is proposed by adopting several strategies to the previous model. Compared with the control model, the enhanced model can describe the effects of additional parameters such as electron permittivity and Si1-xGex affinity, doping dependent bandgap narrowing, temperature, built-in potential change due to degenerately doping condition and energy band off-sets. The model accuracy is examined by benchmarking against to the technology computeraided design (TCAD) device simulations in terms of electrostatic potential profiles, band diagrams and minimum tunneling barrier width (Wt, min)...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Charles L Perrin
The NMR intensity pattern of a nucleus split by N identical nuclei of spin 1/2 is given by the binomial coefficients. These are conveniently obtained from Pascal's Triangle, equivalent to the chemist's branching diagram. Much less well known is the pattern from splitting by N identical nuclei of spin I > 1/2. This was originally presented in terms of multinomial coefficients, but polynomial coefficients are more convenient. These describe the number of ways that N objects can be distributed to 2I+1 numbered boxes...
April 20, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Shu-Wei Ma, Yong-Jie Wang, Cheng Chen, Yue Qiu, Qing Wu
In order to increase the solubility of essential oil in compound licorice microemulsion and improve the efficacy of the decoction for treating chronic eczema, this experiment intends to prepare the decoction into microemulsion. The essential oil was used as the oil phase of the microemulsion and the extract was used as the water phase. Then the microemulsion area and maximum ratio of water capacity was obtained by plotting pseudo-ternary phase diagram, to determine the appropriate types of surfactant and cosurfactant, and Km value-the mass ratio between surfactant and cosurfactant...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yesim Mogulkoc, Mohsen Modarresi, Aybey Mogulkoc, Bora Alkan
The van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are emerging as promising structures for future possible optoelectronic devices. Motivated by the recent studies on vdW heterostructures with their fascinating physical properties, we investigate the electronic and optical properties of boron phosphide/blue phosphorus heterostructures in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) and tight-binding (TB) approximations. We analyze the variation of the energy band gap, the characteristics of the energy band diagram, charge redistribution by stacking and the electrostatic potential along the perpendicular direction...
April 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Parswa Nath, Saswati Ganguly, Jürgen Horbach, Peter Sollich, Smarajit Karmakar, Surajit Sengupta
Customarily, crystalline solids are defined to be rigid since they resist changes of shape determined by their boundaries. However, rigid solids cannot exist in the thermodynamic limit where boundaries become irrelevant. Particles in the solid may rearrange to adjust to shape changes eliminating stress without destroying crystalline order. Rigidity is therefore valid only in the metastable state that emerges because these particle rearrangements in response to a deformation, or strain, are associated with slow collective processes...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bartosz Jachimczyk, Damian Dziak, Jacek Czapla, Pawel Damps, Wlodek J Kulesza
The assessment of skills is essential and desirable in areas such as medicine, security, and other professions where mental, physical, and manual skills are crucial. However, often such assessments are performed by people called “experts” who may be subjective and are able to consider a limited number of factors and indicators. This article addresses the problem of the objective assessment of driving style independent of circumstances. The proposed objective assessment of driving style is based on eight indicators, which are associated with the vehicle’s speed, acceleration, jerk, engine rotational speed and driving time...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Wei Yang, Tinghua Ai, Wei Lu
Crowdsourcing trajectory data is an important approach for accessing and updating road information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle traces based on Delaunay triangulation (DT). First, an optimization and interpolation method is proposed to filter abnormal trace segments from raw global positioning system (GPS) traces and interpolate the optimization segments adaptively to ensure there are enough tracking points. Second, constructing the DT and the Voronoi diagram within interpolated tracking lines to calculate road boundary descriptors using the area of Voronoi cell and the length of triangle edge...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Vincent Croset, Christoph Daniel Treiber, Scott Waddell
To understand the brain, molecular details need to be overlaid onto neural wiring diagrams so that synaptic mode, neuromodulation and critical signaling operations can be considered. Single-cell transcriptomics provide a unique opportunity to collect this information. Here we present an initial analysis of thousands of individual cells from Drosophila midbrain, that were acquired using Drop-Seq. A number of approaches permitted the assignment of transcriptional profiles to several major brain regions and cell-types...
April 19, 2018: ELife
Albert Rivas-Ubach, Yina Liu, Thomas Stephen Bianchi, Nikola Toliċ, Christer Jansson, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić
van Krevelen diagrams (O:C vs H:C ratios of elemental formulas) have been widely used in studies to obtain an estimation of the main compound categories present in environmental samples. However, the limits defining a specific compound category based solely on O:C and H:C ratios of elemental formulas have never been accurately listed or proposed to classify metabolites in biological samples. Furthermore, while O:C vs. H:C ratios of elemental formulas can provide an overview of the compound categories, such classification is inefficient because of the large overlap among different compound categories along both axes...
April 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Linglong Li, Yaodong Yang, Dawei Zhang, Zuo-Guang Ye, Stephen Jesse, Sergei V Kalinin, Rama K Vasudevan
Exploration of phase transitions and construction of associated phase diagrams are of fundamental importance for condensed matter physics and materials science alike, and remain the focus of extensive research for both theoretical and experimental studies. For the latter, comprehensive studies involving scattering, thermodynamics, and modeling are typically required. We present a new approach to data mining multiple realizations of collective dynamics, measured through piezoelectric relaxation studies, to identify the onset of a structural phase transition in nanometer-scale volumes, that is, the probed volume of an atomic force microscope tip...
March 2018: Science Advances
Erin S Kenzie, Elle L Parks, Erin D Bigler, David W Wright, Miranda M Lim, James C Chesnutt, Gregory W J Hawryluk, Wayne Gordon, Wayne Wakeland
Despite increasing public awareness and a growing body of literature on the subject of concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, an urgent need still exists for reliable diagnostic measures, clinical care guidelines, and effective treatments for the condition. Complexity and heterogeneity complicate research efforts and indicate the need for innovative approaches to synthesize current knowledge in order to improve clinical outcomes. Methods from the interdisciplinary field of systems science, including models of complex systems, have been increasingly applied to biomedical applications and show promise for generating insight for traumatic brain injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Vedran Jakupovic, Suajb Solakovic, Nedim Celebic, Dzenan Kulovic
Introduction: Diabetes is progressive condition which requires various ways of treatment. Adequate therapy prescribed in the right time helps patient to postpone development of complications. Adherence to complicated therapy is challenge for both patients and HCPs and is subject of research in many disciplines. Improvement in communication between HCP and patients is very important in patient's adherence to therapy. Aim: Aim of this research was to explore validity and reliability of modified SERVQUAL instrument in attempt to explore ways of motivating diabetic patient to accept prescribed insulin therapy...
March 2018: Materia Socio-medica
Hou-Jian Duan, Chen Wang, Shi-Han Zheng, Rui-Qiang Wang, Da-Ru Pan, Mou Yang
Silicene offers an ideal platform for exploring the phase transition due to strong spin-orbit interaction and its unique structure with strong tunability. With applied electric field and circularly polarized light, silicone is predicted to exhibit rich phases. We propose that these intricate phase transitions can be detected by measuring the bulk Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction. We have in detail analyzed the dependence of RKKY interaction on phase parameters for different impurity configurations along zigzag direction...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhenghan Gao, Nicolas Giovambattista, Ozgur Sahin
The behavior of water confined at the nanoscale plays a fundamental role in biological processes and technological applications, including protein folding, translocation of water across membranes, and filtration and desalination. Remarkably, nanoscale confinement drastically alters the properties of water. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the phase diagram of water confined by graphene sheets in slab geometry, at T = 300 K and for a wide range of pressures. We find that, depending on the confining dimension D and density σ, water can exist in liquid and vapor phases, or crystallize into monolayer and bilayer square ices, as observed in experiments...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hyunsoo Kim, Makariy A Tanatar, Catalin Martin, Erick C Blomberg, Ni Ni, Sergey L Bud'ko, Paul C Canfield, Ruslan Prozorov
Doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy was studied in single crystals of 4$d$-electron doped Ba(Fe$_{1-x}$Rh$_x$)$_2$As$_2$ using tunnel diode resonator measurements of the temperature variation of London penetration depth $\Delta\lambda(T)$. Single crystals with doping level representative of underdoped regime $x$ = 0.039 ($T_c=$ 15.5 K), close to optimal doping $x=$ 0.057 ($T_c=$ 24.4 K) and overdoped $x=$ 0.079 ($T_c=$ 21.5 K) and $x=$ 0.131($T_c=$ 4.9 K) were studied. Superconducting energy gap anisotropy was characterized by the exponent, $n$, by fitting the data to the power-law, $\Delta\lambda=AT^n$...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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