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Yinwen Cao, Morteza Ziyadi, Ahmed Almaiman, Amirhossein Mohajerin-Ariaei, Peicheng Liao, Changjing Bao, Fatemeh Alishahi, Ahmad Fallahpour, Bishara Shamee, Asher J Willner, Youichi Akasaka, Tadashi Ikeuchi, Steven Wilkinson, Carsten Langrock, Martin M Fejer, Joseph Touch, Moshe Tur, Alan E Willner
An all-optical pilot-tone-based self-homodyne detection scheme using nonlinear wave mixing is experimentally demonstrated. Two scenarios are investigated using (1) multiple wavelength-division-multiplexed channels with sufficient power of the pilot tones and (2) a single channel with a low-power pilot tone. The eye diagram and bit error rate of the system are studied by tuning various parameters such as pump power, relative phase, and pilot-to-signal ratio.
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Ke Xiao, Yanping Zhao, Gang Ouyang, Xinlei Li
An analytic thermodynamic model has been established to quantitatively investigate the wetting states of droplets on nanopatterned surfaces. Based on the calculations for the free energies of droplets with the Wenzel state and the Cassie-Baxter state, it is found that the size and shape of nanostructured surfaces play crucial roles in wetting states. In detail, for nanohole-patterned surfaces, the deep and thin nanoholes lead to the Cassie-Baxter state, and contrarily, the shallow and thick nanoholes result in the Wenzel state...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Ian D Peikon, Justus M Kebschull, Vasily V Vagin, Diana I Ravens, Yu-Chi Sun, Eric Brouzes, Ivan R Corrêa, Dario Bressan, Anthony M Zador
The function of a neural circuit is determined by the details of its synaptic connections. At present, the only available method for determining a neural wiring diagram with single synapse precision-a 'connectome'-is based on imaging methods that are slow, labor-intensive and expensive. Here, we present SYNseq, a method for converting the connectome into a form that can exploit the speed and low cost of modern high-throughput DNA sequencing. In SYNseq, each neuron is labeled with a unique random nucleotide sequence-an RNA 'barcode'-which is targeted to the synapse using engineered proteins...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Xianfeng Zhang, Masakazu Kobayashi
Junction of Ag(In, Ga)Se2 (AIGS)/Mo and Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS)/Mo were characterized and compared from the prospect of structural and electrical properties. The region between CIGS and Mo was filled by a layered hexagonal MoSe2 layer with a thickness of 10-15 nm. The c-axis of MoSe2 was mostly perpendicular with the Mo layer, while the c value was 12.6 Å. However, no such layer was observed at the interface of AIGS and Mo. The result was also confirmed by the energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer and x-ray diffraction pattern to confirm status of MoSe2 layer...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wael Gamal, Rania H Fahmy, Magdy I Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: the aim of the current investigation was to enhance the oral biopharmaceutical behavior; solubility and intestinal permeability of amisulpride (AMS) via development of liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (L-SNEDDS) containing bioenhancing excipients. METHODS: the components of L-SNEDDS were identified via solubility studies and emulsification efficiency tests, and ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the efficient self-emulsification regions...
April 27, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Raisul Islam, Gang Chen, Pranav Ramesh, Junkyo Suh, Nobi Fuchigami, Donovan Lee, Karl A Littau, Kurt Weiner, Reuben T Collins, Krishna C Saraswat
Drastic reduction in nickel oxide (NiOx) film resistivity and ionization potential is observed when subjected to ultraviolet (UV)/ ozone (O3) treatment. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy suggests that UV/O3 treatment changes the film stoichiometry by introducing Ni vacancy defects. Oxygen-rich NiOx having Ni vacancy defects behaves as a p type semiconductor. Therefore, in this work, a simple and effective technique to introduce doping in NiOx is shown. Angle resolved XPS reveals that the effect of UV/O3 treatment does not only alter the film surface property, but also introduces oxygen-rich stoichiometry throughout the depth of the film...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhen Wang, Jianzhu Ju, Lingpu Meng, Nan Tian, Jiarui Chang, Haoran Yang, Youxin Ji, Fengmei Su, Liangbin Li
Structural and morphological transitions of flow-induced crystallization (FIC) in poly(1-butene) (PB-1) melt have been studied by combining extensional rheology and in situ synchrotron radiation ultrafast wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXD/SAXS) measurements. Unexpectedly, metastable Form III is crystallized directly from the PB-1 melt by high-speed extension, which has a short lifetime of several tens of milliseconds and manifests the thermodynamic and kinetic competition among Form III, Form II and melt under flow...
April 27, 2017: Soft Matter
S R Al-Ayoubi, P H Schummel, M Golub, J Peters, R Winter
We studied the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on the dynamical properties and folding stability of highly concentrated lysozyme solutions in the absence and presence of the osmolytes trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and urea. Elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) was applied to determine the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of the protein's hydrogen atoms to yield insights into the effects of these cosolvents on the averaged sub-nanosecond dynamics in the pressure range from ambient up to 4000 bar...
April 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Daniel González-Mancebo, Ana Isabel Becerro, Eugenio Cantelar, Fernando Cussó, Arnaud Briat, Damien Boyer, Manuel Ocaña
Uniform, hydrophilic 50 nm diameter Nd(3+)-doped Ba0.3Lu0.7F2.7 nanospheres are synthesized at 120 °C using a singular one-pot method based on the use of ethylene glycol as solvent, in the absence of any additive. The composition and crystal structure of the undoped material are analyzed in detail using ICP and XRD, which reveals a BaF2 cubic crystal structure that is able to incorporate 70 mol% of Lu ions. This finding contrasts with the reported phase diagram of the system, where the maximum solubility is around 30 mol% Lu...
April 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
J Sous, M Chakraborty, C P J Adolphs, R V Krems, M Berciu
We study two identical fermions, or two hard-core bosons, in an infinite chain and coupled to phonons by interactions that modulate their hopping as described by the Peierls/Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. We show that exchange of phonons generates effective nearest-neighbor repulsion between particles and also gives rise to interactions that move the pair as a whole. The two-polaron phase diagram exhibits two sharp transitions, leading to light dimers at strong coupling and the flattening of the dimer dispersion at some critical values of the parameters...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
A V Malm, T A Waigh
The flow instabilities of solutions of high molecular weight DNA in the entangled semi-dilute concentration regime were investigated using optical coherence tomography velocimetry, a technique that provides high spatial (probe volumes of 3.4 pL) and temporal resolution (sub μs) information on the flow behaviour of complex fluids in a rheometer. The velocity profiles of the opaque DNA solutions (high and low salt) were measured as a function of the distance across the gap of a parallel plate rheometer, and their evolution over time was measured...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Per Söderlind
Lattice dynamics and elasticity for the high-temperature ε phase (body-centered cubic; bcc) of plutonium is predicted utilizing first-principles electronic structure coupled with a self-consistent phonon method that takes phonon-phonon interaction and strong anharmonicity into account. These predictions establish the first sensible lattice-dynamics and elasticity data on ε-Pu. The atomic forces required for the phonon scheme are highly accurate and derived from the total energies obtained from relativistic and parameter-free density-functional theory...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kai Liu, Gary R Marple, Jun Allard, Shuwang Li, Shravan Veerapaneni, John Lowengrub
We study the fully nonlinear, nonlocal dynamics of two-dimensional multicomponent vesicles in a shear flow with matched viscosity of the inner and outer fluids. Using a nonstiff, pseudo-spectral boundary integral method, we investigate dynamical patterns induced by inhomogeneous bending for a two phase system. Numerical results reveal that there exist novel phase-treading and tumbling mechanisms that cannot be observed for a homogeneous vesicle. In particular, unlike the well-known steady tank-treading dynamics characterized by a fixed inclination angle, here the phase-treading mechanism leads to unsteady periodic dynamics with an oscillatory inclination angle...
April 25, 2017: Soft Matter
Irene Russo Krauss, Riccardo Imperatore, Augusta De Santis, Alessandra Luchini, Luigi Paduano, Gerardino D'Errico
HYPOTHESIS: Catanionic vesicles based on large-scale produced surfactants represent a promising platform for the design of innovative, effective and relatively inexpensive nano-vehicles for a variety of actives. Structural, dynamic and functional behavior of these aggregates is finely tuned by the molecular features of their components and can be opportunely tailored for their applications as drug carriers. EXPERIMENTS: Here we investigate the aggregates formed by CTAC and SDS, two of the most diffused surfactants, by means of Dynamic Light Scattering, Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Marine Schott, Anne Bernand-Mantel, Laurent Ranno, Stéfania Pizzini, Jan Vogel, Hélène Béa, Claire Baraduc, Stéphane Auffret, Gilles Gaudin, Dominique Givord
Nanoscale magnetic skyrmions are considered as potential information carriers for future spintronics memory and logic devices. Such applications will require the control of their local creation and annihilation, which involves so far solutions that are either energy consuming or difficult to integrate. Here we demonstrate the control of skyrmion bubbles nucleation and annihilation using electric field gating, an easily integrable and potentially energetically efficient solution. We present a detailed stability diagram of the skyrmion bubbles in a Pt/Co/oxide trilayer and show that their stability can be controlled via an applied electric field...
April 24, 2017: Nano Letters
Xin Chen, Jiapei Shu, Qing Chen
Gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water is studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Abnormal phenomena are observed. At a fixed pressure of 450 Pa, with the temperature set to -7 °C, direct desublimation happens, and ice grows continuously along the substrate surface. At 550 Pa, although ice is the stable phase according to the phase diagram, metastable liquid droplets first nucleate and grow to ~100-200 μm sizes. Ice crystals nucleate within the large sized droplets, grow up and fill up the droplets...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yuya Ikeuchi, Hiroshi Takatsu, Cédric Tassel, Yoshihiro Goto, Taito Murakami, Hiroshi Kageyama
A high-pressure reaction yielded the fully occupied tetragonal tungsten bronze K3 W5 O15 (K0.6 WO3 ). The terminal phase shows an unusual transport property featuring slightly negative temperature-dependence in resistivity (dρ/dT<0) and a large Wilson ratio of RW =3.2. Such anomalous metallic behavior possibly arises from the low-dimensional electronic structure with a van Hove singularity at the Fermi level and/or from enhanced magnetic fluctuations by geometrical frustration of the tungsten sublattice...
April 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Horacio Serna, Alberto P Muñuzuri, Daniel Barragán
The effect of temperature on the bifurcation diagram and Turing instability domain under non isothermal conditions is studied in the reversible Gray-Scott model. After adding the energy balance to the cubic autocatalytic model, the thermostat temperature and heat transfer coefficient are used as control parameters in the Turing pattern formation. The patterns obtained in the domain of the thermal parameter are characterized by quantifying the overall entropy generation rate and two topological indices; Shannon entropy and Minkowski functionals...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ahmed Elsherbiny, Ahmed S Mazeed
OBJECTIVE: Due to the lack of a universally accepted classification system, we are aiming to introduce a modified comprehensive, precise and relatively simple classification system for primary diagnosis of cleft lip and palate. METHODS: The proposed classification is based on the Kernahan's striped Y diagram with more details in cleft extent and with the addition of severity scores to each cleft component. Clear definitions of cleft extents and severity degrees were described based on 400 consecutive primary cases...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Irene Adroher-Benítez, Arturo Moncho-Jorda, Joachim Dzubiella
We have theoretically studied the uptake of a non-uniformly charged biomolecule, suitable to represent a globular protein or a drug, by a charged hydrogel carrier in the presence of a 1:1 electrolyte. Based on the analysis of a physical interaction Hamilto- nian including monopolar, dipolar and Born (self-energy) contributions derived from linear electrostatic theory of the unperturbed homogeneous hydrogel, we have identi- fied five different sorption states of the system, from complete repulsion of the molecule to its full sorption deep inside the hydrogel, passing through meta- and stable sur- face adsorption states...
April 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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