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S-adenosyl homocysteine

Kilmer S McCully
The indoleamine hormone melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland, controls circadian rhythm, and is dependent upon adenosyl methionine for enzymatic synthesis of melatonin from N-acetyl serotonin. Pineal melatonin secretion declines dramatically with aging and dementia. Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and the marked decline in adenosyl methionine with aging leads to dysregulation of methionine metabolism and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thioretinaco ozonide is a disulfonium complex formed from thioretinamide, cobalamin, and ozone, which binds the alpha and gamma-phosphate groups of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen in the process of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Emmanuel S Burgos, Ryan O Walters, Derek M Huffman, David Shechter
Methyltransferases use S -adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to deposit methyl marks. Many of these epigenetic 'writers' are associated with gene regulation. As cancer etiology is highly correlated with misregulated methylation patterns, methyltransferases are emerging therapeutic targets. Successful assignment of methyltransferases' roles within intricate biological networks relies on (1) the access to enzyme mechanistic insights and (2) the efficient screening of chemical probes against these targets. To characterize methyltransferases in vitro and in vivo , we report a highly-sensitive one-step deaminase-linked continuous assay where the S -adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) enzyme-product is rapidly and quantitatively catabolized to S -inosyl-l-homocysteine (SIH)...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Nayoung Han, Jung-Woo Chae, Jihyun Jeon, Jaeyeon Lee, Hyun-Moon Back, Byungjeong Song, Kwang-Il Kwon, Sang Kyum Kim, Hwi-Yeol Yun
Background: Although alterations in the methionine metabolism cycle (MMC) have been associated with vascular complications of diabetes, there have not been consistent results about the levels of methionine and homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to predict changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations after simulated consumption of methionine-rich foods, following the development of a mathematical model for MMC in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, as a representative T2DM animal model...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Myriam Visram, Maja Radulovic, Sabine Steiner, Nermina Malanovic, Thomas O Eichmann, Heimo Wolinski, Gerald N Rechberger, Oksana Tehlivets
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy hydrolase; Sah1 in yeast/AHCY in mammals) degrades AdoHcy, a byproduct and strong product inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methylation reactions, to adenosine and homocysteine (Hcy). This reaction is reversible, so any elevation of Hcy levels, such as in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), drives the formation of AdoHcy, with detrimental consequences for cellular methylation reactions. HHcy, a pathological condition linked to cardiovascular and neurological disorders as well as fatty liver amongst others, is associated with a deregulation of lipid metabolism...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Swarnalok De, Gabriela Chavez-Calvillo, Matti Wahlsten, Kristiina Mäkinen
Infection caused by synergistic interaction of two plant viruses is typically manifested by severe symptoms and increased accumulation of either virus. In potex-potyviral synergism potyviral RNA silencing suppressor HCPro is known to enhance the pathogenicity of the potexvirus counterpart. In line with this Potato virus X (PVX; genus Potexvirus) genomic RNA (gRNA) accumulation and gene expression from subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) increased in Nicotiana benthamiana by Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) HCPro expression...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Edoardo Longo, Ksenia Morozova, Monica R Loizzo, Rosa Tundis, Sara Savini, Roberta Foligni, Massimo Mozzon, Daniel Martin-Vertedor, Matteo Scampicchio, Emanuele Boselli
Freshly harvested Tuber melanosporum samples were packed and stored at 4°C under reduced atmospheric pressure or modified atmosphere for four weeks. Multivariate analysis was employed to correlate the antioxidant power of the ethanolic extracts of the samples with the chemical composition determined by high resolution mass spectrometry. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with a coularray detector was applied to select the chemical species associated with the antioxidant power. Four classes of chemical compounds were investigated in more detail by a targeted approach: derivatives of glutathione, adenine (such as S-adenosyl-homocysteine), oxidized linoleic acid and ergosterol...
December 2017: Food Research International
Zhengan Zhang, Nilkamal Mahanta, Graham A Hudson, Douglas A Mitchell, Wilfred A van der Donk
The past decade has seen the discovery of four different classes of radical S-adenosylmethionine (rSAM) methyltransferases that methylate unactivated carbon centers. Whereas the mechanism of class A is well understood, the molecular details of methylation by classes B-D are not. In this study, we present detailed mechanistic investigations of the class C rSAM methyltransferase TbtI involved in the biosynthesis of the potent thiopeptide antibiotic thiomuracin. TbtI C-methylates a Cys-derived thiazole during posttranslational maturation...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ze-Min Lin, Meng Ma, Heng Li, Qing Qi, Yu-Ting Liu, Yu-Xi Yan, Yun-Fu Shen, Xiao-Qian Yang, Feng-Hua Zhu, Shi-Jun He, Wei Tang, Jian-Ping Zuo
DZ2002, a reversible S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) inhibitor with immunosuppressive properties and potent therapeutic activity against various autoimmune diseases in mice. The present study was designed to characterize the potential therapeutic effects of DZ2002 on murine model of psoriasis and reveal the correlated mechanisms. In this report, we demonstrated that in vitro, DZ2002 significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecule including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and ICAM-1 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK and JNK in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT human keratinocytes...
November 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Igor P Pogribny, Kostiantyn Dreval, Iryna Kindrat, Stepan Melnyk, Leandro Jimenez, Aline de Conti, Volodymyr Tryndyak, Marta Pogribna, Juliana Festa Ortega, S Jill James, Ivan Rusyn, Frederick A Beland
The substantial rise in the prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the strong association between NASH and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma indicate the urgent need for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, by using the Stelic animal model of NASH and NASH-derived liver carcinogenesis, we investigated the role of the folate-dependent 1-carbon metabolism in the pathogenesis of NASH. We demonstrated that advanced NASH and NASH-related liver carcinogenesis are characterized by a significant dysregulation of 1-carbon homeostasis, with diminished expression of key 1-carbon metabolism genes, especially a marked inhibition of the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (Ahcy) gene and an increased level of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH)...
November 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Da Xu, Jiakun Zuo, Zhaoguo Chen, Xiaolong Lv, Jiangang Hu, Xiaoka Wu, Kezong Qi, Rongsheng Mi, Yan Huang, Jingfeng Miao, Wei Jiang, Shaohui Wang, Chengming Wang, Xiangan Han
The activated methyl cycle (AMC) regulates the cellular levels of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) in bacteria, which plays a crucial role in bacterial pathogenicity. There are two AMC pathways in bacteria: one is a two-step reaction pathway (named the LuxS/Pfs pathway) in which LuxS and Pfs catalyze the conversion of SAH to l-homocysteine and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and the other is a one-step reaction (named the SahH pathway) mediated by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SahH), which completes this cycle without producing AI-2...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Kilmer S McCully
Many pathogenic microorganisms have been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques and in cerebral plaques in dementia. Hyperhomocysteinemia, which is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and dementia, is caused by dysregulation of methionine metabolism secondary to deficiency of the allosteric regulator, adenosyl methionine. Deficiency of adenosyl methionine results from increased polyamine biosynthesis by infected host cells, causing increased activity of ornithine decarboxylase, decreased nitric oxide and peroxynitrate formation and impaired immune reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Eleonora Gatta, James Auta, David P Gavin, Dulal K Bhaumik, Dennis R Grayson, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
Background: Cerebellum is an area of the brain particularly sensitive to the effects of acute and chronic alcohol consumption. Alcohol exposure decreases cerebellar Purkinje cell output by increasing GABA release from Golgi cells onto extrasynaptic α6/δ-containing GABAA receptors located on glutamatergic granule cells. Here, we studied whether chronic alcohol consumption induces changes in GABAA receptor subunit expression and whether these changes are associated with alterations in epigenetic mechanisms via DNA methylation...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
S E Aggrey, F González-Cerón, R Rekaya, Y Mercier
This study examined the molecular mechanisms of methionine pathways in meat-type chickens where birds were provided with a diet deficient in methionine from 3 to 5 weeks of age. The birds on the deficient diet were then provided with a diet supplemented with either D,L-methionine or D,L-HMTBA from 5 to 7 weeks. The diet of the control birds was supplemented with L-methionine from hatch till 7 weeks of age. We studied the mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha, methionine adenosyltransferase 1, beta, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, glycine N-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and cystathionine beta synthase genes in the liver, duodenum, Pectoralis (P...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Jie Kang, Huan Fang, Huina Dong, Wenjun Song, Dawei Zhang
Biosynthesis of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) requires the methylation at positions C-2 and C-7 of the precursor uroporphyrinogen Ⅲ (urogen Ⅲ) to precorrin-2 by S-adenosyl-L-methionine uroporphyrinogen Ⅲ methyltransferase (SUMT), which is a potential bottleneck step. Most of SUMTs are inhibited by urogen Ⅲ and by-product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH). In order to mine an SUMT that lacks such an inhibitory property to drive greater flux through the VB₁₂ biosynthetic pathway, we cloned two SUMT genes (RCcobA1, RCcobA2) from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 and expressed them in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)...
January 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Weiwei Hao, Yanhua Li, Qiuli Shan, Tian Han, Wencheng Li, Sheng He, Kongkai Zhu, Yumei Li, Xiaojun Tan, Jinsong Gu
Human S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH, E.C. has been considered to be an attractive target for the design of medicines to treat human disease, because of its important role in regulating biological methylation reactions to catalyse the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) to adenosine (Ado) and l-homocysteine (Hcy). In this study, SAHH protein was successfully cloned and purified with optimized, Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) expression system. The biological activity results revealed that, among the tested compounds screened by ChemMapper and SciFinder Scholar, 4-(3-hydroxyprop-1-en-1-yl)-2-methoxyphenol (coniferyl alcohol, CAS: 458-35-5, ZINC: 12359045) exhibited the highest inhibition against rSAHH (IC50= 34 nM)...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Hao Yang, Yifan Ouyang, Hao Ma, Hui Cong, Chunlin Zhuang, Wun-Taai Lok, Zhe Wang, Xuanli Zhu, Yutong Sun, Wei Hong, Hao Wang
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) catalyses the methylation of substrate arginine by transferring the methyl group from SAM (S-adenosyl-l-methionine), which leads to the formation of S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and methylated arginine. We have shown previously that the Asp84 on PRMT1 could be a potential inhibitor binding site. In the current study, 28 compounds were designed and synthesized that were predicted to bind the Asp84 and substrate arginine sites together. Among them, 6 compounds were identified as potential PRMT1 inhibitors, and showed strong inhibitory effects on cancer cell lines, especially HepG2...
October 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Priscila Dos Santos Bury, Fanglu Huang, Sicong Li, Yuhui Sun, Peter F Leadlay, Marcio Vinicius Bertacine Dias
Gentamicins are heavily methylated, clinically valuable pseudotrisaccharide antibiotics produced by Micromonospora echinospora. GenN has been characterized as an S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase with low sequence similarity to other enzymes. It is responsible for the 3″-N-methylation of 3″-dehydro-3″-amino-gentamicin A2, an essential modification of ring III in the biosynthetic pathway to the gentamicin C complex. Purified recombinant GenN also efficiently catalyzes 3″-N-methylation of related aminoglycosides kanamycin B and tobramycin, which both contain an additional hydroxymethyl group at the C5″ position in ring III...
November 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Yongbin Xu, Lulu Wang, Jinli Chen, Jing Zhao, Shengdi Fan, Yuesheng Dong, Nam-Chul Ha, Chunshan Quan
The Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila has two multifunctional 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) enzymes, MtaN-1 and MtaN-2, that differ from those in other bacteria. These proteins are essential for several metabolic pathways, including biological methylation, polyamine biosynthesis, methionine recycling, and bacterial quorum sensing. To gain insight into how these two proteins function, we determined four high-resolution crystal structures of MtaN-1 in its apo form and in complex with the substrates S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, 5'-methylthioadenosine, and 5'-deoxyadenosine...
October 10, 2017: Biochemistry
Zhixin Zhang, Hao Gu, Huizhen Zhao, Yuehong Liu, Shuang Fu, Meiling Wang, Wenjuan Zhou, Ziye Xie, Honghong Yu, Zhenghai Huang, Xiaoyan Gao
The evaluation of individual variability in endogenous drugs' metabolism and disposition is a very challenging task. We developed and validated a metabotype to pharmacokinetics (PK) matching approach by taking cholic acid as an example to predict the individualized PK of endogenous drugs. The stable isotope-labeled cholic acid was selected as the substitute analyte of cholic acid to ensure the accurate measurement of blood concentration. First, large-scale metabolite profiling studies were performed on the predose urine samples of 28 rats...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Juliette Aury-Landas, Céline Bazille, Lyess Allas, Sara Bouhout, Christophe Chesneau, Sylvain Leclercq, Karim Boumédiene, Catherine Baugé
3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) is an inhibitor of S-Adenosyl-L-Homocysteine Hydrolase (SAHH) known to inhibit EZH2, a histone methylase upregulated during osteoarthritis. In this study, we assessed its effects in human articular chondrocytes. Anti-inflammatory effects were assessed by Nitric Oxide (NO), Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Metalloprotease (MMP) release in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. MAPK and NFκB activation was analyzed by western blotting. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) regulated by DZNep were identified by whole-transcriptome microarray...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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