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Richard Shehane, Steve Miller, Luke Suber, Miranda Chakos
We present a case of rapid onset severe psychosis followed by suicide attempt in a United States Navy sailor. Investigation revealed a left temporal lobe brain mass suspicious for low-grade glioma. After hospitalization and medical management with olanzapine and lurasidone the patient's psychosis improved. The purpose of this paper is to add to the existing case reports that suggest a relationship between temporal lobe lesions and psychiatric illness, specifically psychosis. In addition, this case adds insight into the effectiveness of medical therapy for brain tumor patients that are not immediate candidates for neurosurgical intervention...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Kubilay Yıldırım, Adem Yağcı, Seda Sucu, Sümeyye Tunç
Roots are the major interface between the plant and various stress factors in the soil environment. Alteration of root system architecture (RSA) (root length, spread, number and length of lateral roots) in response to environmental changes is known to be an important strategy for plant adaptation and productivity. In light of ongoing climate changes and global warming predictions, the breeding of drought-tolerant grapevine cultivars is becoming a crucial factor for developing a sustainable viticulture. Root-trait modeling of grapevine rootstock for drought stress scenarios, together with high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, may provide a valuable background for breeding studies in viticulture...
March 31, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Anna Wunderling, Dagmar Ripper, Azahara Barra-Jimenez, Stefan Mahn, Kathrin Sajak, Mehdi Ben Targem, Laura Ragni
During secondary growth in most eudicots and gymnosperms, the periderm replaces the epidermis as the frontier tissue protecting the vasculature from biotic and abiotic stresses. Despite its importance, the mechanisms underlying periderm establishment and formation are largely unknown. The herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana undergoes secondary growth, including periderm formation in the root and hypocotyl. Thus, we focused on these two organs to establish a framework to study periderm development in a model organism...
April 3, 2018: New Phytologist
Tonni Grube Andersen, Sadaf Naseer, Robertas Ursache, Brecht Wybouw, Wouter Smet, Bert De Rybel, Joop E M Vermeer, Niko Geldner
In vascular plants, the root endodermis surrounds the central vasculature as a protective sheath that is analogous to the polarized epithelium in animals, and contains ring-shaped Casparian strips that restrict diffusion. After an initial lag phase, individual endodermal cells suberize in an apparently random fashion to produce 'patchy' suberization that eventually generates a zone of continuous suberin deposition. Casparian strips and suberin lamellae affect paracellular and transcellular transport, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Katharina Wulf, Michael Teske, Claudia Matschegewski, Daniela Arbeiter, Dalibor Bajer, Thomas Eickner, Klaus-Peter Schmitz, Niels Grabow
The successive incorporation of several drugs into the polymeric bulk of implants mostly results in loss of considerable quantity of one drug, and/or the loss in quality of the coating and also in changes of drug release time points. A dual drug delivery system (DDDS) based on poly-L-lactide (PLLA) copolymers combining the effective inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation while simultaneously promoting re-endothelialization was successfully developed. To overcome possible antagonistic drug interactions and the limitation of the polymeric bulk material as release system for dual drugs, a novel concept which combines the bulk and surface drug immobilization for a DDDS was investigated...
March 12, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Zhao Xiaoxiong, Wang Junmei, Song Yujun, Xinhua Chen
A new methodology has been developed with conjugating nanoparticles (NPs) with an active ingredient of Chinese herbs for nanomedicines with auto-targeting and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for liver cancer therapy. Fe@Fe3 O4 NPs are first synthesized via the programmed microfluidic process, whose surfaces are first modified with -NH2 groups using a silane coupling technique that uses (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS) as the coupling reagent and are subsequently activated by the bifunctional amine-active cross-linker (e...
March 12, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Suber S Huang, Lihteh Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Carla Sappino, Alessandra Mari, Agnese Mantineo, Mauro Moliterno, Matteo Palagri, Chiara Tatangelo, Lorenza Suber, Paolo Bovicelli, Alessandra Ricelli, Giuliana Righi
A study aimed at the synthesis and structure optimization of new, efficient, optically active β-amino alcohol ligands with a structure suitable for immobilization on magnetite nanoparticles has been carried out. The optimized homogeneous amino alcohol catalysts 13a and 13b, the chirality of which arises from the Sharpless epoxidation of suitable allyl alcohols, were tested by employing the well-established enantioselective amino alcohol-promoted addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde, giving the corresponding benzyl alcohol with nearly quantitative yield and ee = 95%...
February 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Italo F Cuneo, Thorsten Knipfer, Pratiti Mandal, Craig R Brodersen, Andrew J McElrone
Water acquisition is thought to be limited to the unsuberized surface located close to root tips. However, there are recurring periods when the unsuberized surfaces are limited in woody root systems, and radial water uptake across the bark of woody roots might play an important physiological role in hydraulic functioning. Using X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) and hydraulic conductivity measurements (Lpr ), we examined water uptake capacity of suberized woody roots in vivo and in excised samples. Bark hydration in grapevine woody roots occurred quickly upon exposure to water (c...
February 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Tino Kreszies, Lukas Schreiber, Kosala Ranathunge
Water is the most important prerequisite for life and plays a major role during uptake and transport of nutrients. Roots are the plant organs that take up the major part of water, from the surrounding soil. Water uptake is related to the root system architecture, root growth, age and species dependent complex developmental changes in the anatomical structures. The latter is mainly attributed to the deposition of suberized barriers in certain layers of cell walls, such as endo- and exodermis. With respect to water permeability, changes in the suberization of roots are most relevant...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ján Kovác, Alexander Lux, Marek Vaculík
Background and Aims: Heavy metals induce changes in root metabolism and physiology, which can lead to a complex remodelling of the root system. The final morphological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots exposed to toxic concentrations of the heavy metal (Cu) include root growth inhibition, differentiation of xylem vessels close to the root tip, enhanced suberin lamellae deposition and enhanced lateral root production. Recently, we have found that such changes in root morphology and anatomy are coupled to the formation of a subero-lignified apical deposit (SLAD) very close to the root tip...
February 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Alessandro Rossi, Margherita Ruoppolo, Pietro Formisano, Guglielmo Villani, Lucia Albano, Giovanna Gallo, Daniela Crisci, Augusta Moccia, Giancarlo Parenti, Pietro Strisciuglio, Daniela Melis
BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by mutations of either the G6PC gene (GSDIa) or the SLC37A4 gene (GSDIb). GSDIa patients are at higher risk of developing insulin-resistance (IR). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the development of IR. Mitochondrial dysfunction can demonstrate abnormalities in plama acylcarnitines (ACs) and urine organic acids (UOA). The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of mitochondrial impairment in GSDI patients and its possible connection with IR...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Jana Kohanová, Michal Martinka, Marek Vaculík, Philip J White, Marie-Theres Hauser, Alexander Lux
Background and Aims: Root hairs increase the contact area of roots with soil and thereby enhance the capacity for solute uptake. The strict hair/non-hair pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana can change with nutrient deficiency or exposure to toxic elements, which modify root hair density. The effects of root hair density on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in shoots of arabidopsis genotypes with altered root hair development and patterning were studied. Methods: Arabidopsis mutants that are unable to develop root hairs (rhd6-1 and cpc/try) or produce hairy roots (wer/myb23) were compared with the ecotype Columbia (Col-0)...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Aurora Gitto, Wieland Fricke
The cellular and molecular basis of a reduction in root water uptake in plants exposed to heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) is poorly studied. The aim of the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare) was to test whether any reduction in root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in response to Zn treatment is accompanied by a reduction in cell Lp and gene expression level of aquaporin (AQP) isoforms. Plants were grown in the presence of 0.25 μM, (control), 0.1 mM and 1 mM Zn in the root medium and analysed when they were 16-18 d old...
January 30, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
N Sanjeeva Murthy, Zheng Zhang, Siddharth Borsadia, Joachim Kohn
The structure of nanospheres with a crystalline core and an amorphous diffuse shell was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-, medium-, and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, MAXS and WAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nanospheres, 28 to 35 nm in diameter, were prepared from a triblock copolymer with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrophilic end-blocks and oligomers of alternating desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine octyl ester (DTO) and suberic acid (SA) as the central hydrophobic block...
January 26, 2018: Soft Matter
Kathlyn N Woolfson, Meghan L Haggitt, Yanni Zhang, Alexandra Kachura, Anica Bjelica, M Alejandra Rey Rincon, Karina M Kaberi, Mark A Bernards
Wound-induced suberin deposition involves the temporal and spatial coordination of phenolic and fatty acid metabolism. Phenolic metabolism leads to both soluble metabolites that accumulate as defense compounds as well as hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives that form the basis of the poly(phenolic) domain found in suberized tissue. Fatty acid metabolism involves the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids, 1-alkanols, ω-hydroxy fatty acids and α,ω-dioic acids that form a poly(aliphatic) domain, commonly referred to as suberin...
March 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ogonna Obudulu, Niklas Mähler, Tomas Skotare, Joakim Bygdell, Ilka N Abreu, Maria Ahnlund, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Anna Petterle, Thomas Moritz, Torgeir R Hvidsten, Leif J Jönsson, Gunnar Wingsle, Johan Trygg, Hannele Tuominen
BACKGROUND: Secretory Carrier-Associated Membrane Proteins (SCAMPs) are highly conserved 32-38 kDa proteins that are involved in membrane trafficking. A systems approach was taken to elucidate function of SCAMPs in wood formation of Populus trees. Phenotypic and multi-omics analyses were performed in woody tissues of transgenic Populus trees carrying an RNAi construct for Populus tremula x tremuloides SCAMP3 (PttSCAMP3; Potri.019G104000). RESULTS: The woody tissues of the transgenic trees displayed increased amounts of both polysaccharides and lignin oligomers, indicating increased deposition of both the carbohydrate and lignin components of the secondary cell walls...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Christopher J Winslow, Brittany L B Nichols, Diana C Novo, Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Lynne S Taylor, Kevin J Edgar, Andrew P Neilson
The efficacy of rifapentine, an oral antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, may be reduced due to degradation at gastric pH and low solubility at intestinal pH. We hypothesized that delivery properties would be improved in vitro by incorporating rifapentine into pH-responsive amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) with cellulose derivatives including: hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), cellulose acetate suberate (CASub), and 5-carboxypentyl hydroxypropyl cellulose (CHC). ASDs generally reduced rifapentine release at gastric pH, with CASub affording >31-fold decrease in area under the curve (AUC) compared to rifapentine alone...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Louis F Dell'Osso, Suber S Huang
PURPOSE: To report and discuss a focal oscillopsia in a small area of the visual field produced by, and after the removal of, an epiretinal membrane (ERM) in an individual with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) since birth with no associated afferent visual deficits. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case report. METHODS: A chart review, including clinical and electrophysiological data. A 74 y/o man with INS and an epiretinal membrane was studied...
March 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Xueyuan Han, Wenjing Lu, Xiaopeng Wei, Li Li, Linchun Mao, Yuying Zhao
Quick suberin-based healing after wounding played a protective role for plant to prevent further damage. In this study, the stimulative effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on wound suberization in postharvest kiwifruit was evaluated through suberin staining with toluidine blue O as well as the determination of suberin phenolics and aliphatics in wound tissue. Furthermore, to reveal the regulatory involvement of ABA in wound suberization, comparative quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics analyses based on iTRAQ and qRT-PCR technique were performed...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
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