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Ján Kovác, Alexander Lux, Marek Vaculík
Background and Aims: Heavy metals induce changes in root metabolism and physiology, which can lead to a complex remodelling of the root system. The final morphological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots exposed to toxic concentrations of the heavy metal (Cu) include root growth inhibition, differentiation of xylem vessels close to the root tip, enhanced suberin lamellae deposition and enhanced lateral root production. Recently, we have found that such changes in root morphology and anatomy are coupled to the formation of a subero-lignified apical deposit (SLAD) very close to the root tip...
February 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Alessandro Rossi, Margherita Ruoppolo, Pietro Formisano, Guglielmo Villani, Lucia Albano, Giovanna Gallo, Daniela Crisci, Augusta Moccia, Giancarlo Parenti, Pietro Strisciuglio, Daniela Melis
BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by mutations of either the G6PC gene (GSDIa) or the SLC37A4 gene (GSDIb). GSDIa patients are at higher risk of developing insulin-resistance (IR). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the development of IR. Mitochondrial dysfunction can demonstrate abnormalities in plama acylcarnitines (ACs) and urine organic acids (UOA). The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of mitochondrial impairment in GSDI patients and its possible connection with IR...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Jana Kohanová, Michal Martinka, Marek Vaculík, Philip J White, Marie-Theres Hauser, Alexander Lux
Background and Aims: Root hairs increase the contact area of roots with soil and thereby enhance the capacity for solute uptake. The strict hair/non-hair pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana can change with nutrient deficiency or exposure to toxic elements, which modify root hair density. The effects of root hair density on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in shoots of arabidopsis genotypes with altered root hair development and patterning were studied. Methods: Arabidopsis mutants that are unable to develop root hairs (rhd6-1 and cpc/try) or produce hairy roots (wer/myb23) were compared with the ecotype Columbia (Col-0)...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
Aurora Gitto, Wieland Fricke
The cellular and molecular basis of a reduction in root water uptake in plants exposed to heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) is poorly studied. The aim of the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare) was to test whether any reduction in root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in response to Zn treatment is accompanied by a reduction in cell Lp and gene expression level of aquaporin (AQP) isoforms. Plants were grown in the presence of 0.25 μM, (control), 0.1 mM and 1 mM Zn in the root medium and analysed when they were 16-18 d old...
January 30, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
N Sanjeeva Murthy, Zheng Zhang, Siddharth Borsadia, Joachim Kohn
The structure of nanospheres with a crystalline core and an amorphous diffuse shell was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-, medium-, and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, MAXS and WAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nanospheres, 28 to 35 nm in diameter, were prepared from a triblock copolymer with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrophilic end-blocks and oligomers of alternating desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine octyl ester (DTO) and suberic acid (SA) as the central hydrophobic block...
January 26, 2018: Soft Matter
Kathlyn N Woolfson, Meghan L Haggitt, Yanni Zhang, Alexandra Kachura, Anica Bjelica, M Alejandra Rey Rincon, Karina M Kaberi, Mark A Bernards
Wound-induced suberin deposition involves the temporal and spatial coordination of phenolic and fatty acid metabolism. Phenolic metabolism leads to both soluble metabolites that accumulate as defense compounds as well as hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives that form the basis of the poly(phenolic) domain found in suberized tissue. Fatty acid metabolism involves the biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids, 1-alkanols, ω-hydroxy fatty acids and α,ω-dioic acids that form a poly(aliphatic) domain, commonly referred to as suberin...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ogonna Obudulu, Niklas Mähler, Tomas Skotare, Joakim Bygdell, Ilka N Abreu, Maria Ahnlund, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Anna Petterle, Thomas Moritz, Torgeir R Hvidsten, Leif J Jönsson, Gunnar Wingsle, Johan Trygg, Hannele Tuominen
BACKGROUND: Secretory Carrier-Associated Membrane Proteins (SCAMPs) are highly conserved 32-38 kDa proteins that are involved in membrane trafficking. A systems approach was taken to elucidate function of SCAMPs in wood formation of Populus trees. Phenotypic and multi-omics analyses were performed in woody tissues of transgenic Populus trees carrying an RNAi construct for Populus tremula x tremuloides SCAMP3 (PttSCAMP3; Potri.019G104000). RESULTS: The woody tissues of the transgenic trees displayed increased amounts of both polysaccharides and lignin oligomers, indicating increased deposition of both the carbohydrate and lignin components of the secondary cell walls...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Christopher J Winslow, Brittany L B Nichols, Diana C Novo, Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Lynne S Taylor, Kevin J Edgar, Andrew P Neilson
The efficacy of rifapentine, an oral antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, may be reduced due to degradation at gastric pH and low solubility at intestinal pH. We hypothesized that delivery properties would be improved in vitro by incorporating rifapentine into pH-responsive amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) with cellulose derivatives including: hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), cellulose acetate suberate (CASub), and 5-carboxypentyl hydroxypropyl cellulose (CHC). ASDs generally reduced rifapentine release at gastric pH, with CASub affording >31-fold decrease in area under the curve (AUC) compared to rifapentine alone...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Louis F Dell'Osso, Suber S Huang
PURPOSE: To report and discuss a focal oscillopsia in a small area of the visual field produced by, and after the removal of, an epiretinal membrane (ERM) in an individual with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) since birth with no associated afferent visual deficits. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case report. METHODS: A chart review, including clinical and electrophysiological data. A 74 y/o man with INS and an epiretinal membrane was studied...
December 5, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Xueyuan Han, Wenjing Lu, Xiaopeng Wei, Li Li, Linchun Mao, Yuying Zhao
Quick suberin-based healing after wounding played a protective role for plant to prevent further damage. In this study, the stimulative effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on wound suberization in postharvest kiwifruit was evaluated through suberin staining with toluidine blue O as well as the determination of suberin phenolics and aliphatics in wound tissue. Furthermore, to reveal the regulatory involvement of ABA in wound suberization, comparative quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics analyses based on iTRAQ and qRT-PCR technique were performed...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Rose Joachim, Freeman Suber, Lester Kobzik
Sepsis is a common and deadly syndrome in which a dysregulated host response to infection causes organ failure and death. The current lack of treatment options suggests that a new approach to studying sepsis is needed. Pre-pubertal children show a relative resistance to death from severe infections and sepsis. To explore this phenomenon experimentally, we used an endotoxemia model of sepsis in mice. Following intra-peritoneal injection of endotoxin, pre-pubertal mice showed greater survival than post-pubertal mice (76...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sunkyung Choi, Yong-Eun Kim, Jae Whan Kim, Namjoon Cho, Seonghye Cheon, Kee K Kim
Rbfox family of proteins that consists of Rbfox1, Rbfox2, and Rbfox3 in mammals regulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing in various tissues via direct binding to their RNA binding element. Although many studies have indicated the splicing activity of each member of the Rbfox family, the interactions of Rbfox family proteins are largely unknown. Here, we have investigated interactions among Rbfox family proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and GST-pull down assays confirmed that Rbfox proteins form homo and hetero complexes...
November 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Fatima Zahra Maghnia, Younes Abbas, Frédéric Mahé, Benaissa Kerdouh, Estelle Tournier, Mohamed Ouadji, Pierre Tisseyre, Yves Prin, Naïma El Ghachtouli, Salah Eddine Bakkali Yakhlef, Robin Duponnois, Hervé Sanguin
Soil fungi associated with plant roots, notably ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, are central in above- and below-ground interactions in Mediterranean forests. They are a key component in soil nutrient cycling and plant productivity. Yet, major disturbances of Mediterranean forests, particularly in the Southern Mediterranean basin, are observed due to the greater human pressures and climate changes. These disturbances highly impact forest cover, soil properties and consequently the root-associated fungal communities...
2017: PloS One
T Jung, M H Jung, B Scanu, D Seress, G M Kovács, C Maia, A Pérez-Sierra, T-T Chang, A Chandelier, K Heungens, K van Poucke, P Abad-Campos, M Léon, S O Cacciola, J Bakonyi
During a survey of Phytophthora diversity in natural ecosystems in Taiwan six new species were detected. Multigene phylogeny based on the nuclear ITS, ß-tubulin and HSP90 and the mitochondrial cox1 and NADH1 gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to ITS Clade 7a with P. europaea, P. uniformis, P. rubi and P. cambivora being their closest relatives. All six new species differed from each other and from related species by a unique combination of morphological characters, the breeding system, cardinal temperatures and growth rates...
June 2017: Persoonia
Pau Boher, Marçal Soler, Anna Sánchez, Claire Hoede, Céline Noirot, Jorge Almiro Pinto Paiva, Olga Serra, Mercè Figueras
The transcriptome comparison of two oak species reveals possible candidates accounting for the exceptionally thick and pure cork oak phellem, such as those involved in secondary metabolism and phellogen activity. Cork oak, Quercus suber, differs from other Mediterranean oaks such as holm oak (Quercus ilex) by the thickness and organization of the external bark. While holm oak outer bark contains sequential periderms interspersed with dead secondary phloem (rhytidome), the cork oak outer bark only contains thick layers of phellem (cork rings) that accumulate until reaching a thickness that allows industrial uses...
November 15, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Shital Kumar Chattopadhyay, Suman Sil, Jyoti Prasad Mukherjee
A new synthesis of the important amino acid 2-aminosuberic acid from aspartic acid is reported. The methodology involves the alternate preparation of (S)-2-aminohept-6-enoate ester as a building block and its diversification through a cross-metathesis reaction to prepare the title compounds. The utility of the protocol is demonstrated through the preparation of three suberic acid derivatives of relevance to the design and the synthesis of peptides of biological relevance.
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
A M Cárdenas, P Gallardo, D Toledo
The subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei Clément causes lesions in the trunk of Quercus suber L. by constructing feeding galleries, but no information is available regarding other Quercus species from the Mediterranean region. This work aimed to study the suitability of the other main oak species of Mediterranean forests as a food resource for R. grassei. Two experiments, choice and non-choice feeding, were conducted lasting for 15, 30, and 45 days each. In the non-choice experiment, termites were offered one of the following food types: Quercus suber, Quercus ilex L...
November 6, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Youri M van Nuland, Gerrit Eggink, Ruud A Weusthuis
BACKGROUND: Medium chain length (C6-C12) α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and corresponding esters are important building blocks for the polymer industry. For DCAs of 12 carbon atoms and longer, a sustainable process based on monooxygenase catalyzed ω-oxidation of fatty-acids has been realized. For medium-chain DCAs with a shorter chain length however, such a process has not been developed yet, since monooxygenases poorly ω-oxidize medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). On the contrary, esterified MCFAs are ω-oxidized well by the AlkBGTHJ proteins from Pseudomonas putida GPo1...
November 2, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Tomeka Suber, Rama K Mallampalli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Andreea Scacioc, Carla Schmidt, Tommy Hofmann, Henning Urlaub, Karin Kühnel, Ángel Pérez-Lara
PROPPINs (β-propellers that bind polyphosphoinositides) are PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P2 binding autophagy related proteins. They contain two phosphatidylinositolphosphate (PIP) binding sites and a conserved FRRG motif is essential for PIP binding. Here we present the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of the PROPPIN Atg18 from Pichia angusta. We designed cysteine mutants for labelling with the fluorescence dyes to probe the distances of the mutants to the membrane. These measurements support a model for PROPPIN-membrane binding, where the PROPPIN sits in a perpendicular or slightly tilted orientation on the membrane...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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