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Dal-Sik Kim, Yunjeong Kim, Ji-Young Jeon, Min-Gul Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the drug interaction profile of Red Ginseng (RG) with respect to the activities of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in healthy Korean volunteers. METHODS: This article describes an open-label, crossover study. CYP probe cocktail drugs, caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam, and fexofenadine were administered before and after RG supplementation for 2 wk. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Luc Dirix, Helen Swaisland, Henk M W Verheul, Sylvie Rottey, Karin Leunen, Guy Jerusalem, Christian Rolfo, Dorte Nielsen, L Rhoda Molife, Rebecca Kristeleit, Judith de Vos-Geelen, Morten Mau-Sørensen, Patricia Soetekouw, Carla van Herpen, Anitra Fielding, Karen So, Wendy Bannister, Ruth Plummer
PURPOSE: The metabolism of olaparib, a potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with demonstrated efficacy in patients with BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer, is mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (predominantly CYP3A4/5). We assessed the potential of a CYP3A4 inhibitor (itraconazole) and inducer (rifampin) to alter the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of olaparib following single oral tablet doses. METHODS: Two Phase I, open-label, non-randomized trials were conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Shuai-Bing He, Man-Man Li, Bai-Xia Zhang, Xiao-Tong Ye, Ran-Feng Du, Yun Wang, Yan-Jiang Qiao
During the past decades, there have been continuous attempts in the prediction of metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. However, it has indeed remained a huge challenge to accurately predict the metabolism of xenobiotics mediated by these enzymes. To address this issue, microsomal metabolic reaction system (MMRS)-a novel concept, which integrates information about site of metabolism (SOM) and enzyme-was introduced. By incorporating the use of multiple feature selection (FS) techniques (ChiSquared (CHI), InfoGain (IG), GainRatio (GR), Relief) and hybrid classification procedures (Kstar, Bayes (BN), K-nearest neighbours (IBK), C4...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
William M Greenberg, Leslie Citrome
Lurasidone hydrochloride, a benzisothiazol derivative, is a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic agent that has received regulatory approval for the treatment of schizophrenia in the US, Canada, the EU, Switzerland, and Australia, and also for bipolar depression in the US and Canada. In addition to its principal antagonist activity at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, lurasidone has distinctive 5-HT7 antagonistic activity, and displays partial agonism at 5-HT1A receptors, as well as modest antagonism at noradrenergic α2A and α2C receptors...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Yongjie Zhang, Nico P E Vermeulen, Jan N M Commandeur
AIMS: Oxidative bioactivation of amodiaquine (AQ) by cytochrome P450s to a reactive quinoneimine is considered as an important mechanism underlying its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. However, because internal exposure to its major metabolite N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) is up to 240 fold higher than AQ, bioactivation of DEAQ might significant contribute to covalent binding. The aim of the present study was to compare the kinetics of bioactivation of AQ and DEAQ by human liver microsomes and to characterize the CYPs involved in bioactivation of AQ and DEAQ...
October 8, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Poe-Hirr Hsyu, Daniela Soriano Pignataro, Kyle Matschke
PURPOSE: Bosutinib is an oral, dual Src and Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia resistant or intolerant to prior TKI therapy. Bosutinib is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, suggesting drug interaction potential with other CYP3A4 modulators. This open-label, randomized, 2-sequence, 2-period crossover study assessed the effect of single-dose aprepitant, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, on the single-dose pharmacokinetic profile of oral bosutinib 500 mg...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Mohd Usman Mohd Siddique, Glen J P McCann, Vinay Sonawane, Neill Horley, Ibidapo Steven Williams, Prashant Joshi, Sandip B Bharate, Venkatesan Jayaprakash, Barij N Sinha, Bhabatosh Chaudhuri
Highly selective CYP1B1 inhibitors have potential in the treatment of hormone-induced breast and prostate cancers. Mimicry of potent and selective CYP1B1 inhibitors, α-naphthoflavone and stilbenes, revealed that two sets of hydrophobic clusters suitably linked via a polar linker could be implanted into a new scaffold 'biphenyl ureas' to create potentially a new class of CYP1B1 inhibitors. A series of sixteen biphenyl ureas were synthesized and screened for CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 inhibition in Sacchrosomes™, yeast-derived recombinant microsomal enzymes...
September 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Beth Williamson, Mathias Lorbeer, Michael D Mitchell, Timothy G Brayman, Robert J Riley
The nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the expression of genes involved in the metabolism, hepatobiliary disposition, and toxicity of drugs and endogenous compounds. PXR is a promiscuous nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) with significant ligand and DNA-binding crosstalk with the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR); hence, defining the precise role of PXR in gene regulation is challenging. Here, utilising a novel PXR-knockout (KO) HepaRG cell line, real-time PCR analysis was conducted to determine PXR involvement for a range of inducers...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Stéphanie Romand, Dany Spaggiari, Niloufar Marsousi, Caroline Samer, Jules Desmeules, Youssef Daali, Serge Rudaz
The hepatic metabolism of oxycodone by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT), the main metabolic enzymes of phase I and phase II, respectively, was assessed in vitro. The N-demethylation by CYP3A4/5 and the O-demethylation by CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes (HLM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with intrinsic clearances of 1.46μL/min/mg and 0.35μL/min/mg, respectively. Although noroxycodone and oxymorphone mainly contribute to the elimination of oxycodone, the simulated total in vivo clearance using in vitro phase I metabolism was underestimated...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Chung-Ching Wang, Wei-Liang Chen, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Sheng-Ta Chiang, Ying-Chuan Wang, Ching-Hui Loh, I-Shen Lin, Hong-I Chen, Saou-Hsing Liou
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) exposure and micronucleus (MN) frequency, and how this association was affected by genetic polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP3A4). METHODS: We divided the study population into an exposed group (n=44 with total urine MBOCA ≥20 μg/g creatinine) and a control group (n=47 with total urine MBOCA <20 μg/g creatinine). Lymphocyte MN frequency (MNF) and micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency were measured by the cytokinesis-block MN assay method...
September 27, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
L Ganoci, M Lovrić, M Živković, M Šagud, I Klarica Domjanović, N Božina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Katalin Tóth, Gábor Csukly, Dávid Sirok, Ales Belic, Ádám Kiss, Edit Háfra, Máté Déri, Ádám Menus, István Bitter, Katalin Monostory
BACKGROUND: The shortcomings of clonazepam therapy include tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, and confusion leading to increased risk of falls. Inter-individual variability in the incidence of adverse events in patients partly originates from the differences in clonazepam metabolism due to genetic and nongenetic factors. METHODS: Since the prominent role in clonazepam nitro-reduction and acetylation of 7-amino-clonazepam is assigned to CYP3A and N-acetyl transferase 2 enzymes, respectively, the association between the patients' CYP3A status (CYP3A5 genotype, CYP3A4 expression) or N-acetyl transferase 2 acetylator phenotype and clonazepam metabolism (plasma concentrations of clonazepam and 7-amino-clonazepam) was evaluated in 98 psychiatric patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorders...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Rangaraj Narayanan, Matthew Hoffmann, Gondi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Oncology therapy typically involves drug combinations since monotherapy seldom provides the desired outcome. But combination therapy presents the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Due to the narrow window between therapeutic concentrations and onset of toxicity often observed with oncology therapeutics, managing DDIs with combination therapy in cancer is critical. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can be effectively used for predicting DDIs and guiding dose-selection, but requires development of PBPK models of cancer drugs...
July 29, 2016: Drug Metabolism Letters
Matilde Capi, Martina Curto, Luana Lionetto, Fernando de Andrés, Giovanna Gentile, Andrea Negro, Paolo Martelletti
Migraine is a multifactorial, neurological and disabling disorder, also characterized by several autonomic symptoms. Triptans, selective serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonists, are the first-line treatment option for moderate-to-severe headache attacks. In this paper, we review the recent data on eletriptan clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability, and potential clinically relevant interactions with other drugs. Among triptans, eletriptan shows a consistent and significant clinical efficacy and a good tolerability profile in the treatment of migraine, especially for patients with cardiovascular risk factors without coronary artery disease...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Wojciech Leppert, Jaroslaw Woron
Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) significantly deteriorate patients' quality of life and may lead to noncompliance with opioid schedule and undertreatment of pain. Although traditional oral laxatives are the first-line treatment of OIC, they do not address OIBD pathophysiology, and display numerous adverse effects. OIC treatment includes prokinetics (lubiprostone), opioid switch, and changing route of opioid administration...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Ole Kristian Thu, Odd Georg Nilsen, Bent Hellum
CONTEXT: Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) products are popular natural remedies with a worldwide distribution. Recent studies have revealed potent CYP inhibition by R. rosea extracts both in vitro and in vivo, but information on in vitro CYP inhibition by commercial products are lacking. Variations in commercial R. rosea product quality have also been published. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the variation of in vitro CYP inhibition potential and product quality of six commercially available R...
August 29, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Mahmoud Hasan, Werner Siegmund, Stefan Oswald
Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP) enzymes are involved in the elimination of many drugs and are known to be regulated by several environmental factors. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop and validate an analytical method allowing estimation of the hepatic CYP3A enzyme activity using the 4-hydroxycholesterol to cholesterol ratio as an endogenous biomarker in serum. Both compounds were isolated from the biological matrix by liquid-liquid extraction using n-hexane after saponification with ethanolic sodium methoxide solution (2M) to cleave the steroids from their esterified forms without any kind of further derivatization...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Clayton D Knox, Pieter-Jan de Kam, Karim Azer, Peggy Wong, Antwan G Ederveen, Diane Shevell, Christopher Morabito, Alan G Meehan, Wen Liu, Tom Reynders, Jean Francois Denef, Anna Mitselos, Daniel Jonathan, David E Gutstein, Kaushik Mitra, Shu Yu Sun, Michael Man-Chu Lo, Doris Cully, Amjad Ali
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide donors are widely used to treat cardiovascular disease, but their major limitation is the development of tolerance, a multifactorial process to which the in vivo release of nitric oxide is thought to contribute. Here we describe the preclinical and clinical results of a translational drug development effort to create a next-generation nitric oxide donor with improved pharmacokinetic properties and a unique mechanism of nitric oxide release through CYP3A4 metabolism that was designed to circumvent the development of tolerance...
September 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Qian-Jie Tang, Hao-Ming Lin, Guo-Dong He, Ju-E Liu, Hong Wu, Xin-Xin Li, Wan-Ping Zhong, Lan Tang, Jin-Xiu Meng, Meng-Zhen Zhang, Han-Ping Li, Ji-Yan Chen, Shi-Long Zhong, Lai-You Wang
AIM: To investigate whether plasma miRNAs targeting CYP3A4/5 have an impact on the variance of pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel. MATERIALS & METHODS: The contribution of 13 miRNAs to the CYP3A4/5 gene expression and activity was investigated in 55 liver tissues. The association between plasma miRNAs targeting CYP3A4/5 mRNA and clopidogrel pharmacokinetics was analyzed in 31 patients with coronary heart disease who received 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel. RESULTS: Among 13 miRNAs, miR-142 was accounting for 12...
September 2016: Pharmacogenomics
S W Chan, Y Xiao, M Hu, O Q P Yin, T T W Chu, B S P Fok, V H L Lee, B Tomlinson
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The oral plasma clearance of midazolam and the ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol (6β-OHF) to cortisol (F) in urine are two potential markers for evaluating CYP3A activity in vivo. We assessed the influence of two common CYP3A polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of oral midazolam and urinary ratio of 6β-OHF/F in healthy Chinese. METHODS: Single oral 15 mg doses of midazolam were given to 20 healthy male Chinese subjects who were genotyped for the CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1G polymorphisms...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
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