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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792230/community-health-worker-support-to-improve-hiv-treatment-outcomes-for-older-children-and-adolescents-in-zimbabwe-a-process-evaluation-of-the-zenith-trial
#1
Chido Dziva Chikwari, Victoria Simms, Joanna Busza, Ethel Dauya, Tsitsi Bandason, Prosper Chonzi, Shungu Munyati, Hilda Mujuru, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Community health worker (CHW)-delivered support visits to children living with HIV and their caregivers significantly reduced odds of virological failure among the children in the ZENITH trial conducted in Zimbabwe. We conducted a process evaluation to assess fidelity, acceptability, and feasibility of this intervention to identify lessons that could inform replication and scale-up of this approach. METHODS: Field manuals kept by each CHW, records from monthly supervisory meetings, and participant data collected throughout the trial were used to assess the intervention's implementation...
May 23, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791881/effect-of-methane-partial-pressure-on-the-performance-of-a-membrane-biofilm-reactor-coupling-methane-dependent-denitrification-and-anammox
#2
Chen Cai, Shihu Hu, Xueming Chen, Bing-Jie Ni, Jiaoyang Pu, Zhiguo Yuan
Complete nitrogen removal has recently been demonstrated by integrating anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) processes. In this work, the effect of methane partial pressure on the performance of a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) consisting of DAMO and anammox microorganisms was evaluated. The activities of DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria in the biofilm increased significantly with increased methane partial pressure, from 367 ± 9 and 58 ± 22 mg-N L-1 d-1 to 580 ± 12 and 222 ± 22 mg-N L-1 d-1 , respectively, while the activity of anammox bacteria only increased slightly, when the methane partial pressure was elevated from 0...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790415/a-gene-variant-near-atm-affects-the-response-to-metformin-and-metformin-plasma-levels-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-an-rct
#3
Mattijs Out, Matthijs L Becker, Ron H van Schaik, Philippe Lehert, Coen D Stehouwer, Adriaan Kooy
AIM: To determine the influence of polymorphisms on the effects of metformin on HbA1c, daily dose of insulin and metformin plasma concentration. Methods: In a post hoc analysis of a 4.3 year placebo-controlled randomized trial with 390 patients with Type 2 diabetes already on insulin, we analyzed the influence of polymorphisms in genes coding for ATM and the transporters OCT1 and MATE1. Outcome measures were a combined HbA1c + daily dose of insulin Z score and metformin plasma concentrations...
June 1, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789817/so-2-absorption-in-emimcl-teg-deep-eutectic-solvents
#4
Dezhong Yang, Shaoze Zhang, De-En Jiang, Sheng Dai
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EmimCl) and triethylene glycol (TEG) with different molar ratios (from 6 : 1 to 1 : 1) were prepared. FTIR and theoretical calculation indicated that the C2-H on the imidazolium ring form hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl group rather than the ether O atom of the TEG. The EmimCl-TEG DESs can efficiently capture SO2; in particular, EmimCl-TEG (6 : 1) can capture 0.54 g SO2 per gram of solvent at 0.10 atm and 20 °C, the highest absorption amount for DESs under the same conditions...
May 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789391/mst2-kinase-suppresses-rdna-transcription-in-response-to-dna-damage-by-phosphorylating-nucleolar-histone-h2b
#5
Dafni Eleftheria Pefani, Maria Laura Tognoli, Deniz Pirincci Ercan, Vassilis Gorgoulis, Eric O'Neill
The heavily transcribed rDNA repeats that give rise to the ribosomal RNA are clustered in a unique chromatin structure, the nucleolus. Due to its highly repetitive nature and transcriptional activity, the nucleolus is considered a hotspot of genomic instability. Breaks in rDNA induce a transient transcriptional shut down to conserve energy and promote rDNA repair; however, how nucleolar chromatin is modified and impacts on rDNA repair is unknown. Here, we uncover that phosphorylation of serine 14 on histone H2B marks transcriptionally inactive nucleolar chromatin in response to DNA damage...
May 22, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787802/permeability-and-diffusivity-of-nitric-oxide-in-human-plasma-and-red-cells
#6
Colin Borland, Geoff Moggridge, Ruhi Patel, Suhani Patel, Qingyu Zhu, Alain Vuylsteke
A simple diffusion cell was made to measure the permeability and diffusivity of Nitric Oxide in human plasma and red cells. Nitric oxide was passed through the cell containing plasma or nitrited red cells enclosed by silicone membranes. Steady state permeability (αNO DNO ) was calculated from the cell dimensions and from the NO bulk flow entering and leaving the cell. The diffusion coefficient (DNO ) was calculated in three ways: (i) by dividing the steady state permeability by published values for solubility (αNO ) in water at 26 °C and 37 °C (ii) by a numerical method and (iii) by an analytical method...
May 19, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785153/prevalence-of-deleterious-mutations-among-patients-with-breast-cancer-referred-for-multigene-panel-testing-in-a-romanian-population
#7
Iulian Gabriel Goidescu, Gabriela Caracostea, Dan Tudor Eniu, Florin Vasile Stamatian
Aim: Multigene panel testing for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) using next generation sequencing is becoming more common in medical care.We report our experience regarding deleterious mutations of high and moderate-risk breast cancer genes (BRCA1/2, TP53, STK11, CDH1, PTEN, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM), as well as more recently identified cancer genes, many of which have increased risk but less well-defined penetrance. Methods: Genetic testing was performed in 130 consecutive cases with breast cancer referred to our clinic for surgical evaluation and who met the 2016 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria for genetic testing...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783791/controller%C3%A2-pilot-data-link-communication-security
#8
Andrei Gurtov, Tatiana Polishchuk, Max Wernberg
The increased utilization of the new types of cockpit communications, including controller⁻pilot data link communications (CPDLC), puts the airplane at higher risk of hacking or interference than ever before. We review the technological characteristics and properties of the CPDLC and construct the corresponding threat model. Based on the limitations imposed by the system parameters, we propose several solutions for the improved security of the data messaging communication used in air traffic management (ATM)...
May 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782802/pt-single-atoms-embedded-in-the-surface-of-ni-nanocrystals-as-highly-active-catalysts-for-selective-hydrogenation-of-nitro-compounds
#9
Yuhan Peng, Zhigang Geng, Songtao Zhao, Liangbing Wang, Hongliang Li, Xu Wang, XuSheng Zheng, Junfa Zhu, Zhenyu Li, Rui Si, Jie Zeng
Single-atom catalysts exhibit high selectivity in hydrogenation due to their isolated active sites which ensure uniform adsorption configurations of substrate molecules. Compared with the achievement in catalytic selectivity, there is still a long way to go in exploiting the catalytic activity of single-atom catalysts. Herein, we developed highly active and selective catalysts in selective hydrogenation by embedding Pt single atoms in the surface of Ni nanocrystals (denoted as Pt1/Ni nanocrystals). During the hydrogenation of 3-nitrostyrene, the TOF numbers based on surface Pt atoms of Pt1/Ni nanocrystals reached ~1800 h-1 under 3 atm of H2 at 40 oC, much higher than that of Pt single atoms supported on active carbon, TiO2, SiO2, and ZSM-5...
May 21, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778074/how-does-free-ammonia-based-sludge-pretreatment-improve-methane-production-from-anaerobic-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge
#10
Dongbo Wang, Bowen Liu, Xuran Liu, Qiuxiang Xu, Qi Yang, Yiwen Liu, Guangming Zeng, Xiaoming Li, Bing-Jie Ni
Previous studies reported that free ammonia (FA) pretreatment could improve methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) effectively. However, details of how FA pretreatment improves methane production are poorly understood. This study therefore aims to reveal the underlying mechanisms of FA pretreatment affecting anaerobic digestion of WAS through a series of batch tests using either real sludge or synthetic media as the digestion substrates at different pH values. At pH 8.5 level, with an increase of FA level from 18...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774099/camptothecin-induces-g-2-m-phase-arrest-through-the-atm-chk2-cdc25c-axis-as-a-result-of-autophagy-induced-cytoprotection-implications-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#11
Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga Jayasooriya, Matharage Gayani Dilshara, Ilandarage Menu Neelaka Molagoda, Cheol Park, Sang Rul Park, Seungheon Lee, Yung Hyun Choi, Gi-Young Kim
In the present study, we report that camptothecin (CPT) caused irreversible cell cycle arrest at the G2 /M phase, and was associated with decreased levels of cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) and increased levels of cyclin B1, p21, and phospho-H3. Interestingly, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, glutathione, decreased CPT-induced G2 /M phase arrest and moderately induced S phase arrest, indicating that the ROS is required for the regulation of CPT-induced G2 /M phase arrest. Furthermore, transient knockdown of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), in the presence of CPT, increased the ROS' level and further shifted the cell cycle from early S phase to the G2 /M phase, indicating that Nrf2 delayed the S phase in response to CPT...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771500/rational-design-of-cancer-targeted-selenadiazole-derivative-as-efficient-radiosensitizer-for-precise-cancer-therapy
#12
Delong Zeng, Shulin Deng, Chengcheng Sang, Jianfu Zhao Zhao, Tianfeng Chen
Chemical drug design based on the biochemical characteristics of cancer cells has become an important strategy for discovery of targeted therapies for personalized cancer medicine. Herein, cancer targeting RGD peptide has been covalently conjugated to selenadiazole derivative (RGD-SeD) to improve its cancer selectivity. The RGD decoration significantly enhances the anticancer efficacy of RGD-SeD in αVβ3 integrin-overexpressing HepG2 liver cancer cells, but not in normal liver cells. Cellular uptake assay and fluorescent imaging confirmed the selectivity of RGD-SeD to integrin overexpressing cancer cells...
May 17, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769598/germline-mutation-in-the-tp53-gene-in-uveal-melanoma
#13
Nikola Hajkova, Jan Hojny, Kristyna Nemejcova, Pavel Dundr, Jan Ulrych, Katerina Jirsova, Johana Glezgova, Ivana Ticha
We performed comprehensive molecular analysis of five cases of metastasizing uveal malignant melanoma (UM) (fresh-frozen samples) with an NGS panel of 73 genes. A likely pathogenic germline TP53 mutation c.760A > G (p.I254V) was found in two tumor samples and matched nontumor tissue. In three cases, pathogenic BAP1 mutation was detected together with germline missense variants of uncertain significance in ATM. All cases carried recurrent activating GNAQ or GNA11 mutation. Moreover, we analyzed samples from another 16 patients with primary UM by direct Sanger sequencing focusing only on TP53 coding region...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769345/the-major-tegument-protein-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-vp8-interacts-with-dna-damage-response-proteins-and-induces-apoptosis
#14
Sharmin Afroz, Ravendra Garg, Michel Fodje, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
VP8, the UL47 gene product in bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), is a major tegument protein, essential for virus replication in vivo The major DNA damage response protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylates Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS1) and structural maintenance of chromosome-1 (SMC1) proteins during the DNA damage response. VP8 was found to interact with ATM and NBS1 during transfection and BoHV-1 infection. However, VP8 did not interfere with phosphorylation of ATM in transfected or BoHV-1-infected cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769307/orally-bioavailable-and-blood-brain-barrier-penetrating-atm-inhibitor-az32-radiosensitizes-intracranial-gliomas-in-mice
#15
Jeremy Karlin, Jasmine Allen, Syed F Ahmad, Gareth Hughes, Victoria Sheridan, Rajesh Odedra, Paul Farrington, Elaine B Cadogan, Lucy C Riches, Antonio Garcia-Trinidad, Andrew G Thomason, Bhavika Patel, Jennifer Vincent, Alan Lau, Kurt G Pike, Thomas A Hunt, Amrita Sule, Nicholas C K Valerie, Laura Biddlestone-Thorpe, Jenna Kahn, Jason M Beckta, Nitai Mukhopadhyay, Bernard Barlaam, Sebastien L Degorce, Jason Kettle, Nicola Colclough, Joanne Wilson, Aaron Smith, Ian P Barrett, Li Zheng, Tianwei Zhang, Yingchun Wang, Kan Chen, Martin Pass, Stephen T Durant, Kristoffer Valerie
Inhibition of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) during radiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) may improve tumor control by short-circuiting the response to radiation-induced DNA damage. A major impediment for clinical implementation is that current inhibitors have limited CNS bioavailability, thus, the goal was to identify ATM inhibitors (ATMi) with improved CNS penetration. Drug screens and refinement of lead compounds identified AZ31 and AZ32. The compounds were then tested in vivo for efficacy and impact on tumor and healthy brain...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769262/a-new-molecular-assay-and-genomic-complexity-predict-outcome-in-conventional-and-leukemic-non-nodal-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#16
Guillem Clot, Pedro Jares, Eva Giné, Alba Navarro, Cristina Royo, Magda Pinyol, David Martín-Garcia, Santiago Demajo, Blanca Espinet, Antonio Salar, Ana Ferrer, Ana Muntañola, Marta Aymerich, Hilka Rauert-Wunderlich, Elaine S Jaffe, Joseph M Connors, Randy D Gascoyne, Jan Delabie, Armando López-Guillermo, German Ott, George W Wright, Louis M Staudt, Andreas Rosenwald, David W Scott, Lisa M Rimsza, Sílvia Beà, Elías Campo
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell malignancy but some patients have a very indolent evolution. This heterogeneous course is related, in part, to the different biological characteristics of conventional MCL (cMCL) and the distinct subgroup of leukemic non-nodal MCL (nnMCL). Robust criteria to distinguish these MCL subtypes and additional biological parameters that influence their evolution are not well defined. Herein, we describe a novel molecular assay that reliably distinguishes cMCL and nnMCL using blood samples...
May 16, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768870/high-efficient-vacuum-ultraviolet-excitable-srsi%C3%A2-n%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-eu-2-green-emitting-phosphors-synthesized-via-different-pressures
#17
Wei-Ren Liu
The luminescence properties of Eu2+-activated SrSi2N2O2 phosphor under VUV excitation have been firstly studied in this work. Normal pressure (1 atm) and high pressure (5 atm) synthesized- Sr0.96Si2N2O2:Eu+0.042+ powders were prepared by solid state reaction at temperature between 1400 °C and 1600 °C under 5% H2-95% N2 atmosphere and 5 atm N2 atmosphere, respectively. XRD patterns show that the purity and crystallinity of 1 atm-Sr0.96Si2N2O2:Eu+0.042+ is better than that of 5-atm Sr0.96Si2N2O2:Eu0.042+. Green emission broad band at 541 nm with Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of 75 nm can be efficiently excited under 172 nm...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768045/mfe-hi-adipose-tissue-macrophages-compensate-for-tissue-iron-pertubations-in-mice
#18
Merla J Hubler, Keith M Erikson, Arion J Kennedy, Alyssa H Hasty
Resident adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play multiple roles to maintain tissue homeostasis, such as removing excess FFAs and regulation of extracellular matrix. The phagocytic nature and oxidative resiliency of macrophages not only allows them to function as innate immune cells but also to respond to specific tissue needs, such as iron homeostasis. MFehi ATMs are a subtype of resident ATMs that we recently identified to have twice the intracellular iron content as other ATMs and elevated expression of iron handling genes...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765984/jazf1-inhibits-adipose-tissue-macrophages-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-diet-induced-diabetic-mice
#19
Fanping Meng, Yao Lin, Min Yang, Minyan Li, Gangyi Yang, Po Hao, Ling Li
Background: Juxtaposed with another zinc finger gene 1 (JAZF1) affects gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and inflammation, but its exact role in chronic inflammation remains unclear. This study aimed to examine JAZF1 overexpression in vivo on adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). Methods: Mouse models of high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced insulin resistance were induced using C57BL/6J and JAZF1-overexpressing (JAZF1-OX) mice. The mice were randomized (8-10/group) to C57BL/6J mice fed regular diet (RD) (NC group), C57BL/6J mice fed HFD (HF group), JAZF1-OX mice fed RD (NJ group), and JAZF1-OX mice fed HFD (HJ group)...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765396/acute-in-stent-thrombosis-after-carotid-angioplasty-and-stenting-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Wei Hu, Li Wang, GuoPing Wang
Background: Based on the results of a recent randomized controlled trial, carotid artery stenting (CAS) was regarded as a relatively safe, less invasive treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis. However, cerebral thromboembolic events are the most common complications of CAS. Especially acute stent thrombosis following CAS will be fatal without prompt diagnosis and revascularization. Case Report: We report a case of acute stent thrombosis in whom carotid revascularization was performed successfully via arterial thrombolysis and balloon postdilation...
April 2018: Interventional Neurology
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