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Z X Luo, Z Q Li, X M Cai, L Bian, Z M Chen
The sex pheromones of Ectropis grisescens Warren and Ectropis obliqua Prout were both reported to contain (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene (Z3,Z6,Z9-18:H) and (Z,Z)-3,9-cis-6,7-epoxy-octadecadiene (Z3,epo6,Z9-18:H). To clarify how these two sibling geometrids maintain premating isolation, the female sex pheromones of the two species were reexamined. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed two GC-EAD-active compounds, Z3,Z6,Z9-18:H and Z3,epo6,Z9-18:H, in E...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Konstantinos Kotzakoulakis, Simon C George
The majority of the evaporation models currently available in the literature for the prediction of oil spill weathering do not take into account diffusion-limited mass transport and the formation of a concentration gradient in the oil phase. The altered surface concentration of the spill caused by diffusion-limited transport leads to a slower evaporation rate compared to the predictions of diffusion-agnostic evaporation models. The model presented in this study incorporates a diffusive layer in the oil phase and predicts the diffusion-limited evaporation rate...
September 29, 2017: Chemosphere
Robert Vasta, Ian Crandell, Anthony Millican, Leanna House, Eric Smith
Microphone sensor systems provide information that may be used for a variety of applications. Such systems generate large amounts of data. One concern is with microphone failure and unusual values that may be generated as part of the information collection process. This paper describes methods and a MATLAB graphical interface that provides rapid evaluation of microphone performance and identifies irregularities. The approach and interface are described. An application to a microphone array used in a wind tunnel is used to illustrate the methodology...
October 13, 2017: Sensors
Kirsi Jussila, Sirkka Rissanen, Anna Aminoff, Jens Wahlström, Arild Vaktskjold, Ljudmila Talykova, Jouko Remes, Satu Mänttäri, Hannu Rintamäki
Workers in the Arctic open-pit mines are exposed to harsh weather conditions. Employers are required to provide protective clothing for workers. This can be the outer layer, but sometimes also inner or middle layers are provided. This study aimed to determine how the Arctic open-pit miners protect themselves against cold and the sufficiency, and the selection criteria of the garments. Workers' cold experiences and the clothing in four Arctic open-pit mines in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia were evaluated by a questionnaire (n=1323)...
October 11, 2017: Industrial Health
Maude Jacquot, Kyriaki Nomikou, Massimo Palmarini, Peter Mertens, Roman Biek
Spatio-temporal patterns of the spread of infectious diseases are commonly driven by environmental and ecological factors. This is particularly true for vector-borne diseases because vector populations can be strongly affected by host distribution as well as by climatic and landscape variables. Here, we aim to identify environmental drivers for bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of a major vector-borne disease of ruminants that has emerged multiple times in Europe in recent decades. In order to determine the importance of climatic, landscape and host-related factors affecting BTV diffusion across Europe, we fitted different phylogeographic models to a dataset of 113 time-stamped and geo-referenced BTV genomes, representing multiple strains and serotypes...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Abdul Jalil, Yiping Li, Wei Du, Wencai Wang, Jianwei Wang, Xiaomeng Gao, Hafiz Osama Sarwar Khan, Baozhu Pan, Kumud Acharya
Wind induced flow velocity patterns and associated thermal destratification can drive to hypoxia reduction in large shallow lakes. The effects of wind induced hydrodynamic changes on destratification and hypoxia reduction were investigated at the Meiling bay (N 31° 22' 56.4″, E 120° 9' 38.3″) of Lake Taihu, China. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis showed surface flow velocities consistency with the wind field and lower flow velocity profiles were also consistent (but with delay response time) when the wind speed was higher than 6...
October 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Hao Wu, Yan Zhang, Qi Yu, Weichun Ma
In this study, we endeavored to develop an effective framework for improving local urban air quality on meso-micro scales in cities in China that are experiencing rapid urbanization. Within this framework, the integrated WRF/CALPUFF modeling system was applied to simulate the concentration distributions of typical pollutants (PM10, SO2 and NOx) in the urban area of Benxi. Statistical analyses were performed to verify the credibility of this simulation, including the meteorological fields and concentration fields...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Shobhit Mehrotra, Ian C Faloona, Maxime Suard, Stephen A Conley, Marc L Fischer
We report 65 individual measurements of methane emissions from 24 oil & gas facilities across California. Methane emission rates were estimated using in-situ methane and wind velocity measurements from a small aircraft by a novel Gauss' Theorem flux integral approach. The estimates are compared with annual mean emissions reported to the US-EPA and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) through their respective greenhouse gas reporting programs. The average emissions from 36 measurements of 10 gas storage facilities were within a factor of 2 of emissions reported to US-EPA or CARB, though large variance was observed and the reporting database did not contain all of the facilities...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Takehiko Fukushima, Eiji Komatsu, Hiroyuki Arai, Koichi Kamiya, Yuichi Onda
Vertical profiles of radiocesium concentrations were measured in sediment cores collected at various times after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in five Japanese lakes (Hinuma, Kasumigaura, Kitaura, Onogawa and Sohara) with different morphological and trophic characteristics in order to investigate the sedimentation-diffusion processes. In lakes where sediments had high porosities and experienced considerable wave action due to shallowness, we observed rapid penetration of radiocesium to a certain depth just after the accident, followed by downward movement of the peak depths...
October 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Eric Hittinger, Ines M L Azevedo
The variable and non-dispatchable nature of wind and solar generation has been driving interest in energy storage as an enabling low-carbon technology that can help spur large-scale adoption of renewables. However, prior work has shown that adding energy storage alone for energy arbitrage in electricity systems across the U.S. routinely increases system emissions. While adding wind or solar reduces electricity system emissions, the emissions effect of both renewable generation and energy storage varies by location...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Abbas Miri, Deirdre Dragovich, Zhibao Dong
Vegetation cover is crucial to controlling aeolian erosion but highly efficient vegetation is critical. How this efficiency is influenced by vegetation response to airflow is not clear. Here we evaluate the responses of Cosmos bipinnatus and Ligustrum lucidum Ait to a range of wind speeds in a wind tunnel. For both species, we calculate shelter effect and sand flux. We show that plant effectiveness in reducing wind speed and sediment transport is linked to their aerodynamic response to airflow which results from their morphology...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Keri T Holmes-Maybank, Andrew D Schreiner, Nathan Houchens, Walter A Brzezinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Drew M Morris, June J Pilcher, Robert B Powell
This study seeks to understand the degree of body cooling, cold perception and physical discomfort during Antarctic tour excursions. Eight experienced expedition leaders across three Antarctic cruise voyages were monitored during occupational tasks: kayaking, snorkelling and zodiac outings. Subjective cold perception and discomfort were recorded using a thermal comfort assessment and skin temperature was recorded using a portable data logger. Indoor cabin temperature and outdoor temperature with wind velocity were used as measures of environmental stress...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
G R Gladstone, M H Versteeg, T K Greathouse, V Hue, M W Davis, J-C Gérard, D C Grodent, B Bonfond, J D Nichols, R J Wilson, G B Hospodarsky, S J Bolton, S M Levin, J E P Connerney, A Adriani, W S Kurth, B H Mauk, P Valek, D J McComas, G S Orton, F Bagenal
Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (UVS) observations of Jupiter's aurora obtained during approach are presented. Prior to the bow shock crossing on 24 June 2016, the Juno approach provided a rare opportunity to correlate local solar wind conditions with Jovian auroral emissions. Some of Jupiter's auroral emissions are expected to be controlled or modified by local solar wind conditions. Here we compare synoptic Juno-UVS observations of Jupiter's auroral emissions, acquired during 3-29 June 2016, with in situ solar wind observations, and related Jupiter observations from Earth...
August 16, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
M Hey, T Hocke, P Ambrosch
BACKGROUND: As part of postoperative cochlear implant (CI) diagnostics, speech comprehension tests are performed to monitor audiological outcome. In recent years, a trend toward improved suprathreshold speech intelligibility in quiet and an extension of intelligibility to softer sounds has been observed. Parallel to audiometric data, analysis of the patients' acoustic environment can take place by means of data logging in modern CI systems. OBJECTIVES: Which test levels reflect the individual listening environment in a relevant manner and how can these be reflected in a clinical audiometric setting? PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, data logs of 263 adult CI patients were evaluated for sound level and the listening situation (quiet, speech in quiet, noise, speech in noise, music, and wind)...
October 6, 2017: HNO
Jingliang Huangfu, Ronghui Huang, Wen Chen
This paper addresses whether a tropical cyclone can trigger the onset of the South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon (SM). We conducted a statistical analysis of tropical cyclones (TCs) generated over the western North Pacific (WNP) between late-April and May. The results showed that there were cases in which TCs were generated before the onset of the SCSSM, accounting for 43.2% of the TCs generated during this season. This study examined a representative case, Super Typhoon Chanchu (0601), which was determined to be influential in the onset of the SCSSM...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Liis Sipelgas, Rivo Uiboupin, Age Arikas, Laura Siitam
Variations and trends in water quality parameters (total suspended matter and coloured dissolved organic matter) were examined in five harbours in the eastern Baltic Sea using satellite imagery collected from 2002 to 2011 by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) at full spatial resolution (300×300m). In the eastern Gulf of Finland harbours (Sillamäe, Kunda) the TSM monthly variations were related to monthly mean wind speed. In Tallinn harbour, which operates >6000 vessels annually, evidence of anthropogenic impacts was identified through inter-annual TSM variations...
October 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Bo Strandberg, Anneli Julander, Mattias Sjöström, Marie Lewné, Hatice Koca Akdeva, Carolina Bigert
Routine monitoring of workplace exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is performed mainly via active sampling. However, active samplers have several drawbacks and, in some cases, may even be unusable. Polyurethane foam (PUF) as personal passive air samplers constitute good alternatives for PAH monitoring in occupational air (8 h). However, PUFs must be further tested to reliably yield detectable levels of PAHs in short exposure times (1-3 h) and under extreme occupational conditions. Therefore, we compared the personal exposure monitoring performance of a passive PUF sampler with that of an active air sampler and determined the corresponding uptake rates (Rs)...
September 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Bradley S Higbee, Charles S Burks, Ring T Cardé
The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almonds and pistachios and is sometimes controlled using mating disruption as part of a program of integrated management. The formulation used has a single, nonattractive compound [(11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal] as the active ingredient that is emitted from timed aerosol dispensers. This study compared this nonattractive, single-compound formulation with two aerosol formulations also containing two additional compounds [(11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-tricosapentaene] that are found in the pheromone glands, and that in combination with the aldehyde are attractive in wind-tunnel and field-attraction trials...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Birgit Wieland, Sven Ropte
The production of rotor blades for wind turbines is still a predominantly manual process. Process simulation is an adequate way of improving blade quality without a significant increase in production costs. This paper introduces a module for tolerance simulation for rotor-blade production processes. The investigation focuses on the simulation of temperature distribution for one-sided, self-heated tooling and thick laminates. Experimental data from rotor-blade production and down-scaled laboratory tests are presented...
October 5, 2017: Materials
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