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Li Liang, Yun Deng, Ran Li, Jia Li
Considering the highly complex flow structure of saltwater lakes during freshwater supplementation, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate suspended sediment transport in saltwater lakes. The model was validated using measurements of the salinity and sediment concentration during a pumping test at Yamdrok Lake. The simulation results were in quantitative agreement with the measured data. The observed and simulated results also indicated that the wind stress and vertical salinity gradient have a significant influence on salinity and sediment transport in a saltwater lake...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Stefan J Eder, Ulrike Cihak-Bayr, Carsten Gachot, Manel Rodriguez Ripoll
We performed large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the transient softening stage that has been observed experimentally in sliding interfaces subject to strain path changes. The occurrence of this effect can be of crucial importance for the energy efficiency and wear resistance of systems that experience changes in sliding direction, such as bearings or gears in wind parks, piston rings in combustion engines, or wheel--rail contacts for portal cranes. We therefore modeled the sliding of a rough counterbody against two polycrystalline substrates of fcc copper and bcc iron with initial near-surface grain sizes of 40 nm...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
M Gabarrón, O Babur, J M Soriano-Disla, A Faz, J A Acosta
Pyrite ash is a residue from the roasting of pyrite ores to obtain sulphuric acid used in the fertiliser industry and its production is widely extended worldwide. The mismanagement of this waste may result in environmental and health damages due to its physico-chemical characteristics. The main objective of this study was to examine the physico-chemical and mineralogical composition of roasted pyrite ash from an abandoned fertiliser company, and to evaluate the environmental risk caused by the wind and water dispersion of metals posed by this waste...
June 18, 2018: Chemosphere
Tingfeng Wu, Boqiang Qin, Guangwei Zhu, Timo Huttula, Antti Lindfors, Anne-Mari Ventelä, Yongwei Sheng, Richard F Ambrose
To address the contribution of long-term wind wave changes on diminishing ice period in Northern European lakes, an in situ observation of wind waves was conducted to calibrate a wind-wave numerical model for Lake Pyhäjärvi, which is the largest lake in southwest Finland. Using station-measured hydrometeorological data from 1963 to 2013 and model-simulated wind waves, correlation and regression analyses were conducted to assess the changing trend and main influences on ice period. Ice period in Lake Pyhäjärvi decreased significantly over 51 years (r = 0...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shao Lin, Wayne R Lawrence, Ziqiang Lin, Stephen DiRienzo, Kevin Lipton, Guang-Hui Dong, Ricky Leung, Ursula Lauper, Philip Nasca, Neil Stuart
More extreme cold weather and larger weather variations have raised concerns regarding their effects on public health. Although prior studies assessed the effects of cold air temperature on health, especially mortality, limited studies evaluated wind chill temperatures on morbidity, and health effects under the current cold warning threshold. This study identified the thresholds, lag periods, and best indicators of extreme cold on cardiovascular disease (CVD) by comparing effects of wind chill temperatures and cold air temperatures on CVD emergency department (ED) visits in winter and winter transition months...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rubén Varela, Fernando P Lima, Rui Seabra, Claudia Meneghesso, Moncho Gómez-Gesteira
Long-term sea surface temperature (SST) warming trends are far from being homogeneous, especially when coastal and ocean locations are compared. Using data from NOAA's AVHRR OISST, we have analyzed sea surface temperature trends over the period 1982-2015 at around 3500 worldwide coastal points and their oceanic counterparts with a spatial resolution of 0.25 arc-degrees. Significant warming was observed at most locations although with important differences between oceanic and coastal points. This is especially patent for upwelling regions, where 92% of the coastal locations showed lower warming trends than at neighboring ocean locations...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jia-Yong Lao, Chen-Chou Wu, Lian-Jun Bao, Liang-Ying Liu, Lei Shi, Eddy Y Zeng
Barbecue (BBQ) is one of the most popular cooking activities with charcoal worldwide and produces abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter. Size distribution and clothing-air partitioning of particle-bound PAHs are significant for assessing potential health hazards to humans due to exposure to BBQ fumes, but have not been examined adequately. To address this issue, particle and gaseous samples were collected at 2-m and 10-m distances from a cluster of four BBQ stoves. Personal samplers and cotton clothes were carried by volunteers sitting near the BBQ stoves...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dezhao Liu, Tavs Nyord, Li Rong, Anders Feilberg
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide are emitted from land spreading of manure slurry to the atmosphere and contribute to odour nuisance, particle formation and tropospheric ozone formation. Data on emissions is almost non-existing partly due to lack of suitable quantitative methods for measuring emissions in full scale. Here we present a method based on application of wind tunnels for simulation of air exchange combined with the use of online mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The focus was on odorous VOC but all relevant VOC were included...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guang Xu, Yinping Chen, Jacques Eksteen, Jialin Xu
There is an increasing trend in the occurrence of coal worker's pneumoconiosis even in developed countries such as the US and Australia who have believed such an issue have been well controlled in the past. Water spray is one of the most commonly applied methods for underground coal mines dust control, and research have shown the dust suppression efficiency can be greatly improved by adding surfactants. However, the literature appears to show inconsistent results that do not provide the coal mining industry with a clearly effective solution...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Haiyan Zhang, Jiangwen Fan, Wei Cao, Warwick Harris, Yuzhe Li, Wenfeng Chi, Suizi Wang
Soil erosion caused by wind is a serious environmental problem that results in land degradation and threatens sustainable development. Accurately evaluating wind erosion dynamics is important for reducing the hazard of wind erosion. Separating the climatic and anthropogenic causes of wind erosion can improve the understanding of its driving mechanisms. Based on meteorological, remote sensing and field observation data, we applied the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) to simulate wind erosion in Inner Mongolia, China from 1990 to 2015...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ning Yao, Yi Li, Na Li, Daqing Yang, Olusola Olaitan Ayantobo
The accuracy of gauge-measured precipitation (Pm ) affects drought assessment since drought severity changes due to precipitation bias correction. This research investigates how drought severity changes as the result of bias-corrected precipitation (Pc ) using the Erinc's index Im and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). Daily and monthly Pc values at 552 sites in China were determined using daily Pm and wind speed and air temperature data over 1961-2015. Pc -based Im values were generally larger than Pm -based Im for most sub-regions in China...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xue Yang, Tao Wang, Men Xia, Xiaomen Gao, Qinyi Li, Naiwen Zhang, Yuan Gao, Shuncheng Lee, Xinfeng Wang, Likun Xue, Lingxiao Yang, Wenxing Wang
Particulate chloride can be converted to nitryl chloride (ClNO2 ) through heterogeneous reactions with dinitrogen pentoxide (N2 O5 ), and photolysis of ClNO2 affects atmospheric oxidative capacity. However, the characteristics and sources of chloride, especially those with an anthropogenic origin, are poorly characterized, which makes it difficult to evaluate the effects of ClNO2 on radical chemistry and air quality in polluted regions. Aerosol composition data from the literature were compiled to derive the spatial distributions of particulate chloride across China, and hourly aerosol composition data collected at a highly polluted inland urban site in eastern China and at a coastal site in southern China were analysed to gain further insights into non-oceanic sources of chloride...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Judit Núñez-Manchón, Alfonsina Ballester-Lopez, Emma Koehorst, Ian Linares-Pardo, Daniëlle Coenen, Ignacio Ara, Carlos Rodriguez-Lopez, Alba Ramos-Fransi, Alicia Martínez-Piñeiro, Giuseppe Lucente, Miriam Almendrote, Jaume Coll-Cantí, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Alejandro Santos Lozano, Joaquin Arenas, Miguel Angel Martín, Mauricio de Castro, Alejandro Lucia, Alfredo Santalla, Gisela Nogales-Gadea
McArdle disease is an autosomal recessive condition caused by deficiency of the PYGM gene-encoded muscle isoform of glycogen phosphorylase. Some cases of "manifesting" heterozygotes or carriers (i.e., patients who show some McArdle-like symptoms or signs despite being carriers of only one mutated PYGM allele) have been reported in the literature but there is controversy, with misdiagnosis being a possibility. The purpose of our study was to determine if there are actually "manifesting" heterozygotes of McArdle disease and, if existing, whether statin treatment can trigger such condition...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Iris Schaub, Christel Baum, Rhena Schumann, Ulf Karsten
Early successional biological soil crusts (BSCs), a consortium of bacteria, cyanobacteria, and other microalgae, are one of the first settlement stages on temperate coastal sand dunes. In this study, we investigated the algal biomass (Chlorophyll a (Chl a)), algal (Calgal ) and microbial carbon (Cmic ), elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P), and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity (AcidPA and AlkPA) of two algae-dominated BSCs from a coastal white dune (northeast Germany, on the southwestern Baltic Sea) which differed in the exposure to wind forces...
June 20, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Yanjie Wang, Huachun Lan, Lin Li, Kaixiong Yang, Jiuhui Qu, Junxin Liu
Sampling was conducted from biochemical reaction tanks of six municipal wastewater treatment plants in the Yangtze River and Zhujiang deltas and the Jing-Jin-Ji region to assess their morphology, level, and composition. Morphological observations suggested that particles were scattered amorphously with C, O, and Si as the major elements. Bioaerosols are composed of spatially varying levels of microorganisms and chemicals. As the sampling height increased, the level of the components in the bioaerosols decreased...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gábor Horváth, Ádám Pereszlényi, Dénes Száz, András Barta, Imre M Jánosi, Balázs Gerics, Susanne Åkesson
There are as many as 18 theories for the possible functions of the stripes of zebras, one of which is to cool the animal. We performed field experiments and thermographic measurements to investigate whether thermoregulation might work for zebra-striped bodies. A zebra body was modelled by water-filled metal barrels covered with horse, cattle and zebra hides and with various black, white, grey and striped patterns. The barrels were installed in the open air for four months while their core temperature was measured continuously...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yaohong Qu, Bing Xiao, Zhenzhou Fu, Dongli Yuan
Any unmanned surface ship is subject to system uncertainty, unknown parameters, and external disturbance induced by the wind, the wave loads, and the ocean currents. They may deteriorate ship's control accuracy. This paper aims to solve the trajectory tracking control problem of unmanned surface ships with disturbance and system uncertainty accommodated simultaneously. An estimator-based backstepping controller is presented with an estimator designed to provide a precise estimation of the disturbance and uncertainties...
July 2018: ISA Transactions
Lucie Vebrová, Andre van Nieuwenhuijzen, Vojtěch Kolář, David S Boukal
BACKGROUND: Chironomids, a major invertebrate taxon in many standing freshwaters, rely on adult flight to reach new suitable sites, yet the impact of weather conditions on their flight activity is little understood. We investigated diel and seasonal flight activity patterns of aquatic and terrestrial chironomids in a reclaimed sandpit area and analysed how weather conditions and seasonality influenced their total abundance and species composition. RESULTS: Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and air pressure significantly affected total flight activity of both groups, but not in the same way...
June 19, 2018: BMC Ecology
Xiao-Nan He, Jin-Liang Zhan, Cheng Zhang, Yu Chen, Wei Gong, Wang Ji, Shao-Ping Nie
Objective: To investigate the impact of meteorological conditions and PM2.5 on the onset of acute aortic dissection in monsoonal climate. Methods: A linear regression analysis was performed in monsoonal climate epidemiological survey for a period of four years on the impact of meteorological factors (minimal temperature, mean temperature, maximal temperature, average daily surface temperature, day temperature range, relative humidity, mean wind speed, and atmospheric pressure) and PM2...
April 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
F P Chmiel, N Waterfield Price, R D Johnson, A D Lamirand, J Schad, G van der Laan, D T Harris, J Irwin, M S Rzchowski, C-B Eom, P G Radaelli
Vortices, occurring whenever a flow field 'whirls' around a one-dimensional core, are among the simplest topological structures, ubiquitous to many branches of physics. In the crystalline state, vortex formation is rare, since it is generally hampered by long-range interactions: in ferroic materials (ferromagnetic and ferroelectric), vortices are observed only when the effects of the dipole-dipole interaction are modified by confinement at the nanoscale1-3 , or when the parameter associated with the vorticity does not couple directly with strain 4 ...
June 18, 2018: Nature Materials
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