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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245054/understanding-the-transmission-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-at-different-scales
#1
REVIEW
David J Paton, Simon Gubbins, Donald P King
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly infectious, but despite the large quantities of FMD virus released into the environment and the extreme susceptibility of host species to infection, transmission is not always predictable. Whereas virus spread in endemic settings is characterised by frequent direct and indirect animal contacts, incursions into FMD-free countries may be seeded by low-probability events such as fomite or wind-borne aerosol routes. There remains a void between data generated from small-scale experimental studies and our ability to reliably reconstruct transmission routes at different scales between farms, countries and regions...
December 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243147/seasonal-variations-in-size-distribution-water-soluble-ions-and-carbon-content-of-size-segregated-aerosols-over-new-delhi
#2
Pawan Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Sudesh Yadav
Size distribution, water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), and organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in size-segregated aerosols were investigated during a year-long sampling in 2010 over New Delhi. Among different size fractions of PM10, PM0.95 was the dominant fraction (45%) followed by PM3-7.2 (20%), PM7.2-10 (15%), PM0.95-1.5 (10%), and PM1.5-3 (10%). All size fractions exceeded the ambient air quality standards of India for PM2.5. Annual average mass size distributions of ions were specific to size and ion(s); Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and Cl- followed bimodal distribution while SO42- and NH4+ ions showed one mode in PM0...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241017/older-adult-multitasking-performance-using-a-gaze-contingent-useful-field-of-view
#3
Nathan Ward, John G Gaspar, Mark B Neider, James Crowell, Ronald Carbonari, Hank Kaczmarski, Ryan V Ringer, Aaron P Johnson, Lester C Loschky, Arthur F Kramer
Objective We implemented a gaze-contingent useful field of view paradigm to examine older adult multitasking performance in a simulated driving environment. Background Multitasking refers to the ability to manage multiple simultaneous streams of information. Recent work suggests that multitasking declines with age, yet the mechanisms supporting these declines are still debated. One possible framework to better understand this phenomenon is the useful field of view, or the area in the visual field where information can be attended and processed...
December 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240111/frequency-modulated-multifunction-lidar-for-anemometry-range-finding-and-velocimetry-1-theory-and-signal-processing
#4
P Feneyrou, L Leviandier, J Minet, G Pillet, A Martin, D Dolfi, J-P Schlotterbeck, P Rondeau, X Lacondemine, A Rieu, T Midavaine
Original waveforms and optimized signal processing are proposed for frequency-modulated continuous-wave lidar for range finding, velocimetry, and laser anemometry. For range finding, the aim of this signal processing is to extend lidar range and reduce ambiguities. Moreover, the effect of moderate atmospheric turbulence on lidar efficiency is analyzed for infinite and finite targets, taking into account wind-induced bistatism. For laser anemometry, the aim is to measure air speed at the shortest distance farther than the rotor-induced turbulent volume around the helicopter and to avoid parasitic echoes coming from clouds or hard targets in the vicinity of a helicopter...
December 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239561/spatial-analysis-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-an-endemic-area-of-iran-based-on-environmental-factors
#5
Roghieh Ramezankhani, Nooshin Sajjadi, Roya Nezakati Esmaeilzadeh, Seyed Ali Jozi, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still a great public health problem in Iran, especially in Isfahan Province. Distribution and abundance of vectors and reservoirs of this disease is affected by different factors such as climatic, socioeconomic and cultural. This study aimed to identify the hotspot areas for CL in Isfahan and assess the relations between the climatic and topographic factors with CL incidence using spatial analysis...
November 8, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238930/modeling-the-impacts-of-ambient-temperatures-on-cardiovascular-mortality-in-yinchuan-evidence-from-a-northwestern-city-of-china
#6
Huiling Zhang, Qingan Wang, Yajuan Zhang, Yi Yang, Yi Zhao, Jianren Sang, Yulong Zhang, Yine Zhang, Fan Xie, Shanshan Li, Yuhong Zhang, Yuming Guo
No evidence is available on whether cardiovascular mortality is affected by the ambient temperatures in Yinchuan, which is located in the northwestern region of China, with a typical continental semi-humid semi-arid climate. Daily data on cardiovascular mortality and meteorological factors was collected from Yinchuan city for the period of 2010-2015. A distributed lag non-linear model with quasi-Poisson link was used to assess the association between daily temperatures and cardiovascular deaths, after controlling for seasonality, day of the week, atmospheric pressure, humidity, sunshine duration, and wind speed...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238532/seasonal-genetic-variation-associated-with-population-dynamics-of-a-poecilogonous-polychaete-worm
#7
Anne Thonig, Gary Thomas Banta, Benni Winding Hansen, K Emily Knott
Poecilogonous species show variation in developmental mode, with larvae that differ both morphologically and ecologically. The spionid polychaete Pygospio elegans shows variation in developmental mode not only between populations, but also seasonally within populations. We investigated the consequences of this developmental polymorphism on the spatial and seasonal genetic structure of P. elegans at four sites in the Danish Isefjord-Roskilde-Fjord estuary at six time points, from March 2014 until February 2015...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238524/functional-redundancy-modifies-species-area-relationship-for-freshwater-phytoplankton
#8
Gábor Várbíró, Judit Görgényi, Béla Tóthmérész, Judit Padisák, Éva Hajnal, Gábor Borics
Although species-area relationship (SAR) is among the most extensively studied patterns in ecology, studies on aquatic and/or microbial systems are seriously underrepresented in the literature. We tested the algal SAR in lakes, pools and ponds of various sizes (10-2-108 m2) and similar hydromorphological and trophic characteristics using species-specific data and functional groups. Besides the expectation that species richness increases monotonously with area, we found a right-skewed hump-shaped relationship between the area and phytoplankton species richness...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238509/areal-location-of-hazardous-atmospheres-simulation-on-toxic-chemical-release-a-scenario-based-case-study-from-ray-iran
#9
Farin Fatemi, Ali Ardalan, Benigno Aguirre, Nabiollah Mansouri, Iraj Mohammadfam
Background and aim: Chemical accidents cause significant danger for residents living close to chemical facilities. For this reason, this study assessed the impacts of a simulated chemical accident on surrounding residents in the city of Ray, Iran. Methods: In this scenario-based case study in 2015, the Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) model was applied to simulate a toxic chemical release from a chlorine warehouse in Shourabad, Ray, Iran. The population of the area was calculated based on the latest census in Iran, 2011...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238118/mechanisms-and-model-diversity-of-trade-wind-shallow-cumulus-cloud-feedbacks-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Jessica Vial, Sandrine Bony, Bjorn Stevens, Raphaela Vogel
Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has emerged as an important topic of investigation. We review physical understanding of these key controlling factors and discuss the value of the different approaches that have been developed so far, based on global and high-resolution model experimentations and process-oriented analyses across a range of models and for observations...
2017: Surveys in Geophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236152/transport-pathway-and-source-area-for-artemisia-pollen-in-beijing-china
#11
Xiaoxin Qin, Yiyin Li, Xu Sun, Ling Meng, Xiaoke Wang
Artemisia pollen is an important allergen responsible for allergic rhinitis in Beijing, China. To explore the transport pathways and source areas of Artemisia pollen, we used Burkard 7-day traps to monitor daily pollen concentrations in 2016 in an urban and suburban locality. Backward trajectories of 24- and 96-h and their cluster analysis were performed to identify transport pathways of Artemisia pollen using the HYSPLIT model on 0.5° × 0.5° GADS meteorological data. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) were calculated to further identify the major potential source areas at local, regional, and long-range scales...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234907/rheotropism-of-the-dowser-texture
#12
Pawel Pieranski, Jean-Pierre Hulin, Maria Helena Godinho
In spite of its metastability, the pseudo-planar texture of a nematic layer confined between surfaces with homeotropic anchoring can be preserved indefinitely in certain conditions. The pseudo-planar texture, dubbed "the dowser texture", is degenerated and therefore sensitive to perturbations. It has been shown recently that the dowser texture is cuneitropic, that is to say, has a tendency to follow thickness gradients. Here, we point out that the dowser texture is also rheotropic or, in other words, has a weathercock behavior: it tends to follow the direction of Poiseuille flows...
December 14, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234456/-it-s-still-a-great-adventure-exploring-offshore-employees-working-conditions-in-a-qualitative-study
#13
Janika Mette, Marcial Velasco Garrido, Volker Harth, Alexandra M Preisser, Stefanie Mache
Background: Despite the particular demands inherent to offshore work, little is known about the working conditions of employees in the German offshore wind industry. To date, neither offshore employees' job demands and resources, nor their needs for improving the working conditions have been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative analysis to gain further insight into these topics. Methods: Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews with German offshore employees (n = 21) and offshore experts (n = 21) were conducted...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232845/hybrid-signal-processing-technique-to-improve-the-defect-estimation-in-ultrasonic-non-destructive-testing-of-composite-structures
#14
Kumar Anubhav Tiwari, Renaldas Raisutis, Vykintas Samaitis
This work proposes a novel hybrid signal processing technique to extract information on disbond-type defects from a single B-scan in the process of non-destructive testing (NDT) of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) material using ultrasonic guided waves (GW). The selected GFRP sample has been a segment of wind turbine blade, which possessed an aerodynamic shape. Two disbond type defects having diameters of 15 mm and 25 mm were artificially constructed on its trailing edge. The experiment has been performed using the low-frequency ultrasonic system developed at the Ultrasound Institute of Kaunas University of Technology and only one side of the sample was accessed...
December 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232707/genetic-mapping-of-qtl-for-maize-leaf-width-combining-ril-and-if2-populations
#15
Ruixiang Liu, Qingchang Meng, Fei Zheng, Lingjie Kong, Jianhua Yuan, Thomas Lübberstedt
Leaf width is an important component of plant architecture that affects light capture during photosynthesis and wind circulation under dense planting conditions. To improve understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in leaf width at different positions, a comprehensive evaluation using the RIL (Recombinant Inbred Line) and IF2 (Immortalized F2) populations and a subsequent meta-analysis were performed. Forty-seven QTL associated with leaf width at different positions below the tassel were detected. The individual effects of QTL explained 3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232615/a-wind-tunnel-study-on-the-effect-of-trees-on-pm2-5-distribution-around-buildings
#16
Wenjing Ji, Bin Zhao
Vegetation, especially trees, is effective in reducing the concentration of particulate matter. Trees can efficiently capture particles, improve urban air quality, and may further decrease the introduction of outdoor particles to indoor air. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of trees on particle distribution and removal around buildings using wind tunnel experiments. The wind tunnel is 18m long, 12m wide, and 3.5m high. Trees were modeled using real cypress branches to mimic trees planted around buildings...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232561/development-of-artificial-intelligence-approach-to-forecasting-oyster-norovirus-outbreaks-along-gulf-of-mexico-coast
#17
Shima Shamkhali Chenar, Zhiqiang Deng
This paper presents an artificial intelligence-based model, called ANN-2Day model, for forecasting, managing and ultimately eliminating the growing risk of oyster norovirus outbreaks. The ANN-2Day model was developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Toolbox in MATLAB Program and 15-years of epidemiological and environmental data for six independent environmental predictors including water temperature, solar radiation, gage height, salinity, wind, and rainfall. It was found that oyster norovirus outbreaks can be forecasted with two-day lead time using the ANN-2Day model and daily data of the six environmental predictors...
December 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232117/all-fullerene-based-cells-for-non-aqueous-redox-flow-batteries
#18
Jochen Friedl, Maria A Lebedeva, Kyriakos Porfyrakis, Ulrich Stimming, Thomas W Chamberlain
Redox flow batteries have the potential to revolutionize our use of intermittent sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind power by storing the energy in liquid electrolytes. Our concept study utilizes a novel electrolyte system, exploiting derivatised fullerenes as both anolyte and catholyte species in a series of battery cells, including a symmetric, single species system which alleviates the common problem of membrane crossover. The prototype multi electron system, utilizing molecular based charge carriers, made from inexpensive, abundant and sustainable materials, principally, C and Fe, demonstrates remarkable current and energy densities and promising long-term cycling stability...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231351/-brief-discussion-on-acupuncture-technique-controlling-qihai-to-regulate-blood-pressure-proposed-by-academician-shi-xuemin
#19
Liang Yu, Xifa Xu, Jian Liu, Xiaonong Fan
According to Qihai theory, academician SHI Xuemin established the acupuncture technique "controlling Qihai to regulate blood pressure" which focused on Renying (ST 9), and achieved favorable effects in clinical application. In this paper, based on the Qihai theory, from aspects of Yuanqi, Zongqi, Yingqi and Weiqi and relations among qi, blood and veins in TCM, and cardiac output, sympathetic nerve activity and blood vessels in modern medicine, the understanding on hypertension was explained. As a result, both TCM and modern medicine had consistency in the understanding of hypertension, reflecting the scientificity and practicability of this acupuncture technique...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231326/-huxiang-acupuncture-and-massage-academic-school-with-the-combination-of-five-meridians-for-post-stroke-urinary-incontinence
#20
Yun Xia, Jun Wen, Xiaoye Lu, Junfei She, Feng Zhong, Wei Zhang, Xiaorong Chang, Bidan Lou
The theory of "combination of five meridians" focuses on meridians and acupoints as well as compatibility and interrelationship of generation and restriction of five elements. By regulating corresponding meridians to diseased zangfu, the relationship of unbalanced zangfu is balanced, which can regulate body function and effectively treat diseases. Under the guide of theory "the combination of five meridians", according to etiology and pathogenesis of post-stroke urinary incontinence, wind, fire and phlegm, from three aspects of deficiency, excess and deficient root and excessive surface, under the treatment principle of "nourishing the mother if it is deficient, reducing the son if it is excessive", the original meridian, son meridian, mother meridian, conquering meridian and conquered meridian are selected while the methods of nourishing the mother, reducing the son, reinforcing the suppression and developing the weak are applied, so as to discuss the acupuncture treatment for post-stroke urinary incontinence, which can provide new clinical thoughts of acupuncture treatment for post-stroke urinary incontinence...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
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