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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822926/human-exposure-to-hydrogen-sulphide-concentrations-near-wastewater-treatment-plants
#1
Ana Flavia Locateli Godoi, Anderson Marlon Grasel, Gabriela Polezer, Andrew Brown, Sanja Potgieter-Vermaak, Débora Camargo Scremim, Carlos I Yamamoto, Ricardo Henrique Moreton Godoi
The hydrogen sulphide (H2S) levels from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Curitiba, Brazil have been quantified for the first time. H2S generated by anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in WWTPs is a cause for concern because it is an air pollutant, which can cause eye and respiratory irritation, headaches, and nausea. Considering the requirement for WWTPs in all communities, it is necessary to assess the concentrations and effects of gases such as H2S on populations living and/or working near WWTPs...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822040/the-effect-of-sources-and-air-mass-transport-on-the-variability-of-trace-element-deposition-in-central-poland-a-cluster-based-approach
#2
Patrycja Siudek, Marcin Frankowski
Measurements of trace element (As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn) deposition fluxes were conducted simultaneously in two contrasted environments, i.e., urban and forest, between April 2013 and October 2014. This was the first such project in central Poland, aimed at long-term observations of trace elements in the atmosphere and their distribution, transport, and deposition pattern. The receptor sites were different in terms of local meteorological conditions, emission potential, and distance to major anthropogenic sources...
August 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821866/detection-of-magnetized-quark-nuggets-a-candidate-for-dark-matter
#3
J Pace VanDevender, Aaron P VanDevender, T Sloan, Criss Swaim, Peter Wilson, Robert G Schmitt, Rinat Zakirov, Josh Blum, James L Cross, Niall McGinley
Quark nuggets are theoretical objects composed of approximately equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks and are also called strangelets and nuclearites. They have been proposed as a candidate for dark matter, which constitutes ~85% of the universe's mass and which has been a mystery for decades. Previous efforts to detect quark nuggets assumed that the nuclear-density core interacts directly with the surrounding matter so the stopping power is minimal. Tatsumi found that quark nuggets could well exist as a ferromagnetic liquid with a ~10(12)-T magnetic field...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821858/modern-dust-aerosol-availability-in-northwestern-china
#4
Xunming Wang, Hong Cheng, Huizheng Che, Jimin Sun, Huayu Lu, Mingrui Qiang, Ting Hua, Bingqi Zhu, Hui Li, Wenyong Ma, Lili Lang, Linlin Jiao, Danfeng Li
The sources of modern dust aerosols and their emission magnitudes are fundamental for linking dust with climate and environment. Using field sample data, wind tunnel experiments and statistical analysis, we determined the contributions of wadis, gobi (stony desert), lakebeds, riverbeds, and interdunes to modern dust aerosol availability in the three important potential dust sources including the Tarim Basin, Qaidam Basin, and Ala Shan Plateau of China. The results show that riverbeds are the dominant landscape for modern dust aerosol availabilities in the Qaidam Basin, while wadis, gobi, and interdunes are the main landscapes over the Ala Shan Plateau and Tarim Basin...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821792/the-contribution-of-human-agricultural-activities-to-increasing-evapotranspiration-is-significantly-greater-than-climate-change-effect-over-heihe-agricultural-region
#5
Minzhong Zou, Jun Niu, Shaozhong Kang, Xiaolin Li, Hongna Lu
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821772/asynchrony-of-wind-and-hydropower-resources-in-australia
#6
Udaya Bhaskar Gunturu, Willow Hallgren
Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation - canonical and Modoki - on the wind and hydro resources...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819103/mass-production-of-polymer-nano-wires-filled-with-metal-nano-particles
#7
Nino Lomadze, Alexey Kopyshev, Matias Bargheer, Markus Wollgarten, Svetlana Santer
Despite the ongoing progress in nanotechnology and its applications, the development of strategies for connecting nano-scale systems to micro- or macroscale elements is hampered by the lack of structural components that have both, nano- and macroscale dimensions. The production of nano-scale wires with macroscale length is one of the most interesting challenges here. There are a lot of strategies to fabricate long nanoscopic stripes made of metals, polymers or ceramics but none is suitable for mass production of ordered and dense arrangements of wires at large numbers...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818943/zones-spots-and-planetary-scale-waves-beating-in-brown-dwarf-atmospheres
#8
D Apai, T Karalidi, M S Marley, H Yang, D Flateau, S Metchev, N B Cowan, E Buenzli, A J Burgasser, J Radigan, E Artigau, P Lowrance
Brown dwarfs are massive analogs of extrasolar giant planets and may host types of atmospheric circulation not seen in the solar system. We analyzed a long-term Spitzer Space Telescope infrared monitoring campaign of brown dwarfs to constrain cloud cover variations over a total of 192 rotations. The infrared brightness evolution is dominated by beat patterns caused by planetary-scale wave pairs and by a small number of bright spots. The beating waves have similar amplitudes but slightly different apparent periods because of differing velocities or directions...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815004/hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-among-wind-musicians-an-overlooked-disease
#9
Janne Møller, Charlotte Hyldgaard, Sissel Brix Kronborg-White, Finn Rasmussen, Elisabeth Bendstrup
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a complex pulmonary disorder mediated by the immune system and caused by various inhaled antigens against which the subject has previously been sensitized. In about 50% of the cases, the antigen is not identified. Identification and removal of the eliciting antigen is important for the prognosis. We report two cases of HP caused by molds and atypical mycobacteria isolated from wind instruments. We present the first case of HP caused by bassoon playing and another case of HP caused by molds in a trombone...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814611/homing-pigeons-columba-livia-modulate-wingbeat-characteristics-as-a-function-of-route-familiarity
#10
Lucy A Taylor, Steven J Portugal, Dora Biro
Mechanisms of avian navigation have received considerable attention, but whether different navigational strategies are accompanied by different flight characteristics is unknown. Managing energy expenditure is critical for survival; therefore, understanding how flight characteristics, and hence energy allocation, potentially change with birds' familiarity with a navigational task could provide key insights into the costs of orientation. We addressed this question by examining changes in the wingbeat characteristics and airspeed of homing pigeons (Columba livia) as they learned a homing task...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813416/large-turbulent-reservoirs-of-cold-molecular-gas-around-high-redshift-starburst-galaxies
#11
E Falgarone, M A Zwaan, B Godard, E Bergin, R J Ivison, P M Andreani, F Bournaud, R S Bussmann, D Elbaz, A Omont, I Oteo, F Walter
Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy...
August 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812578/throw-caution-to-the-wind-is-refeeding-syndrome-really-a-cause-of-death-in-acute-care
#12
K L Matthews, S M Capra, M A Palmer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Refeeding syndrome (RFS), a life-threatening medical condition, is commonly associated with acute or chronic starvation. While the prevalence of patients at risk of RFS in hospital reportedly ranges from 0 to 80%, the prevalence and types of patients who die as a result of RFS is unknown. We aimed to measure the prevalence rate and examine the case histories of patients who passed away with RFS listed as a cause of death. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Patients were eligible for inclusion provided their death occurred within a Queensland hospital...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812200/dust-emission-and-dispersion-from-mineral-storage-piles
#13
Andrea Romeo, Laura Capelli, Selena Sironi, Giuseppe Nano, Renato Rota, Valentina Busini
Dust pollution is a complex problem of growing interest because of its environmental, health, economic and political impact. Environmental impact assessment methods for dust pollution management are often based on the simulation of dust dispersion, which requires a precise characterization of the source term and of the source parameters. The source term model should be as simple and as accurate as possible and requires low time consumption in order to be easily connected to a more complex algorithm for the dispersion calculations...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811888/performance-test-and-verification-of-an-off-the-shelf-automated-avian-radar-tracking-system
#14
Roel May, Yngve Steinheim, Pål Kvaløy, Roald Vang, Frank Hanssen
Microwave radar is an important tool for observation of birds in flight and represents a tremendous increase in observation capability in terms of amount of surveillance space that can be covered at relatively low cost. Based on off-the-shelf radar hardware, automated radar tracking systems have been developed for monitoring avian movements. However, radar used as an observation instrument in biological research has its limitations that are important to be aware of when analyzing recorded radar data. This article describes a method for exploring the detection capabilities of a dedicated short-range avian radar system used inside the operational Smøla wind-power plant...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811635/majorana-charges-winding-numbers-and-chern-numbers-in-quantum-ising-models
#15
G Zhang, C Li, Z Song
Mapping a many-body state on a loop in parameter space is a simple way to characterize a quantum state. The connections of such a geometrical representation to the concepts of Chern number and Majorana zero mode are investigated based on a generalized quantum spin system with short and long-range interactions. We show that the topological invariants, the Chern numbers of corresponding Bloch band, is equivalent to the winding number in the auxiliary plane, which can be utilized to characterize the phase diagram...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811627/impact-of-ocean-warming-on-tropical-cyclone-size-and-its-destructiveness
#16
Yuan Sun, Zhong Zhong, Tim Li, Lan Yi, Yijia Hu, Hongchao Wan, Haishan Chen, Qianfeng Liao, Chen Ma, Qihua Li
The response of tropical cyclone (TC) destructive potential to global warming is an open issue. A number of previous studies have ignored the effect of TC size change in the context of global warming, which resulted in a significant underestimation of the TC destructive potential. The lack of reliable and consistent historical data on TC size limits the confident estimation of the linkage between the observed trend in TC size and that in sea surface temperature (SST) under the background of global climate warming...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811576/microclimatic-temperatures-increase-the-potential-for-vector-borne-disease-transmission-in-the-scandinavian-climate
#17
Najmul Haider, Carsten Kirkeby, Birgit Kristensen, Lene Jung Kjær, Jens Havskov Sørensen, Rene Bødker
We quantified the difference between the meteorological temperature recorded by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) weather stations and the actual microclimatic temperatures at two or three different heights at six potential insect habitats. We then compared the impact of the hourly temperature on the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of six pathogens. Finally, we developed a regression model, enabling us to predict the microclimatic temperatures of different habitats based on five standard meteorological parameters readily available from any meteorological institution...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811518/anomalous-in-situ-activation-of-carbon-supported-ni2p-nanoparticles-for-oxygen-evolving-electrocatalysis-in-alkaline-media
#18
Young-Hoon Chung, Injoon Jang, Jue-Hyuk Jang, Hyun S Park, Hyung Chul Ham, Jong Hyun Jang, Yong-Kul Lee, Sung Jong Yoo
Electrochemical water splitting is one of the most promising systems by which to store energy produced from sustainable sources, such as solar and wind energy. Designing robust and stable electrocatalysts is urgently needed because of the relatively sluggish kinetics of the anodic reaction, i.e. the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this study, we investigate the anomalous in situ activation behaviour of carbon-supported Ni2P nanoparticles (Ni2P/C) during OER catalysis in alkaline media. The activated Ni2P/C shows an exceptionally high activity and stability under OER conditions in which the overpotential needed to achieve 10 mA cm(-2) was reduced from approximately 350 mV to approximately 300 mV after 8,000 cyclic voltammetric scans...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811497/vertical-ocean-heat-redistribution-sustaining-sea-ice-concentration-trends-in-the-ross-sea
#19
Olivier Lecomte, Hugues Goosse, Thierry Fichefet, Casimir de Lavergne, Antoine Barthélemy, Violette Zunz
Several processes have been hypothesized to explain the slight overall expansion of Antarctic sea ice over the satellite observation era, including externally forced changes in local winds or in the Southern Ocean's hydrological cycle, as well as internal climate variability. Here, we show the critical influence of an ocean-sea-ice feedback. Once initiated by an external perturbation, it may be sufficient to sustain the observed sea-ice expansion in the Ross Sea, the region with the largest and most significant expansion...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810686/sampling-efficiency-and-performance-of-selected-thoracic-aerosol-samplers
#20
Peter Görner, Xavier Simon, Alexis Boivin, Sébastien Bau
Measurement of worker exposure to a thoracic health-related aerosol fraction is necessary in a number of occupational situations. This is the case of workplaces with atmospheres polluted by fibrous particles, such as cotton dust or asbestos, and by particles inducing irritation or bronchoconstriction such as acid mists or flour dust. Three personal and two static thoracic aerosol samplers were tested under laboratory conditions. Sampling efficiency with respect to particle aerodynamic diameter was measured in a horizontal low wind tunnel and in a vertical calm air chamber...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
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