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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679837/development-of-a-stacked-ensemble-model-for-forecasting-and-analyzing-daily-average-pm-2-5-concentrations-in-beijing-china
#1
Binxu Zhai, Jianguo Chen
A stacked ensemble model is developed for forecasting and analyzing the daily average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in Beijing, China. Special feature extraction procedures, including those of simplification, polynomial, transformation and combination, are conducted before modeling to identify potentially significant features based on an exploratory data analysis. Stability feature selection and tree-based feature selection methods are applied to select important variables and evaluate the degrees of feature importance...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679175/numerical-simulation-of-wind-sand-movement-in-the-reversed-flow-region-of-a-sand-dune-with-a-bridge-built-downstream
#2
Wei He, Ning Huang, Bin Xu, Wenbo Wang
A bridge built inside the reversed flow region of a sand dune will change the characteristics of wind-sand movement in this region. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation and discrete particle tracing are used to simulate the wind-sand movement around a sand dune with a bridge built inside the reversed region. Three cases with different bridge positions are studied. The results show that 1) compared with the isolated dune case, a tall bridge built at the leeward toe leads to an increase in the deposition rate on the leeward slope and a longer reversed flow region downstream of the sand dune; meanwhile, the high speed of crosswind on the bridge indicates that some measures should be taken to protect trains from strong crosswind; 2) a low bridge at the leeward toe has little effect on the sand deposition and reversed flow region of the dune; however, low sand transport rate and crosswind speed on the bridge show that anti-crosswind/sand measures should be taken according to the actual situation and 3) a low bridge on the leeward slope has little effect on the length of reversed flow region, however, high crosswind speed and sand flux on the bridge reveal the need of anti-crosswind/sand measures on the bridge...
April 23, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677676/assessing-the-geomorphological-vulnerability-of-arid-beach-dune-systems
#3
Carolina Peña-Alonso, Juan B Gallego-Fernández, Luis Hernández-Calvento, Antonio I Hernández-Cordero, Eduard Ariza
In this study, an arid dune vulnerability index (ADVI) is developed using a system of indicators to evaluate the geomorphological vulnerability of beach-dune systems of arid regions. The indicators are comprised of three analytical dimensions (susceptibility, exposure and resilience) and their corresponding sub-indices and variables and were assessed for eleven sites located in four aeolian sedimentary systems of the Canary archipelago (Spain). The selected sites have varying geomorphological characteristics, vegetation types, marine and wind conditions and human pressure degrees, and have seen different trends in their geomorphological evolution since 1960...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677170/development-of-the-who-environmental-noise-guidelines-for-the-european-region-an-introduction
#4
Dorota Jarosińska, Marie-Ève Héroux, Poonum Wilkhu, James Creswick, Jos Verbeek, Jördis Wothge, Elizabet Paunović
Following the Parma Declaration on Environment and Health adopted at the Fifth Ministerial Conference (2010), the Ministers and representatives of Member States in the WHO European Region requested the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop updated guidelines on environmental noise, and called upon all stakeholders to reduce children's exposure to noise, including that from personal electronic devices. The WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region will provide evidence-based policy guidance to Member States on protecting human health from noise originating from transportation (road traffic, railway and aircraft), wind turbine noise, and leisure noise in settings where people spend the majority of their time...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676965/the-influence-of-wind-speed-on-airflow-and-fine-particle-transport-within-different-building-layouts-of-an-industrial-city
#5
Dan Mei, Meng Wen, Yuzheng Zhu, Xuemei Xu, Futang Xing
In atmospheric environment, the layout difference of urban buildings has a powerful influence on accelerating or inhibiting the dispersion of particle matters (PM). In industrial cities, buildings of variable heights can obstruct the diffusion of PM from industrial stacks. In this study, PM dispersed within building groups was simulated by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled Lagrangian approach. Four typical street building arrangements were used: (a) a low-rise building block with Height/base H/b = 1 (b = 20 m); (b) step-up building layout (H/b = 1, 2, 3, 4); (c) step-down building layout (H/b = 4, 3, 2, 1); (d) high-rise building block (H/b = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676112/-effect-of-animal-medicines-for-extinguishing-wind-to-arrest-convulsions-on-central-nervous-system-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Zhi-Jie Yu, Jin-Song Li, Wei Peng, Ping Wang, Liang Xiong, Yu-Jie Liu, Ying Xu, Tao Sun
The human health is seriously affected by central nervous system(CNS) diseases, but the pathogenesis of CNS diseases is still not completely clear. Currently, the drugs used to treat CNS diseases are mainly receptor modulators and neurotransmitter inhibitors, which have serious side effects; and there are short of drugs for treating CNS diseases clinically. Studies suggest that animal medicines mainly include protein, polypeptide and small-molecule compounds, and have such pharmacological effects in calming, resisting convulsions and improving brain tissues...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675822/the-field-experiments-and-model-of-the-natural-dust-deposition-effects-on-photovoltaic-module-efficiency
#7
Marek Jaszczur, Janusz Teneta, Katarzyna Styszko, Qusay Hassan, Paulina Burzyńska, Ewelina Marcinek, Natalia Łopian
The maximisation of the efficiency of the photovoltaic system is crucial in order to increase the competitiveness of this technology. Unfortunately, several environmental factors in addition to many alterable and unalterable factors can significantly influence the performance of the PV system. Some of the environmental factors that depend on the site have to do with dust, soiling and pollutants. In this study conducted in the city centre of Kraków, Poland, characterised by high pollution and low wind speed, the focus is on the evaluation of the degradation of efficiency of polycrystalline photovoltaic modules due to natural dust deposition...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675186/extraction-of-nickel-from-nife-ldh-into-ni-2-p-nife-hydroxide-as-a-bifunctional-electrocatalyst-for-efficient-overall-water-splitting
#8
Fang-Shuai Zhang, Jia-Wei Wang, Jun Luo, Rui-Rui Liu, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Chun-Ting He, Tong-Bu Lu
The development of highly efficient, low-cost and stable electrocatalysts for overall water splitting is highly desirable for the storage of intermittent solar energy and wind energy sources. Herein, we show for the first time that nickel can be extracted from NiFe-layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) to generate an Ni2 P@FePO x heterostructure. The Ni2 P@FePO x heterostructure was converted to an Ni2 P@NiFe hydroxide heterostructure (P-NiFe) during water splitting, which displays high electrocatalytic performance for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 1...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674998/distributions-and-abundances-of-sublineages-of-the-n-2-fixing-cyanobacterium-candidatus-atelocyanobacterium-thalassa-ucyn-a-in-the-new-caledonian-coral-lagoon
#9
Britt A Henke, Kendra A Turk-Kubo, Sophie Bonnet, Jonathan P Zehr
Nitrogen (N2 ) fixation is a major source of nitrogen that supports primary production in the vast oligotrophic areas of the world's oceans. The Western Tropical South Pacific has recently been identified as a hotspot for N2 fixation. In the Noumea lagoon (New Caledonia), high abundances of the unicellular N2 -fixing cyanobacteria group A (UCYN-A), coupled with daytime N2 fixation rates associated with the <10 μm size fraction, suggest UCYN-A may be an important diazotroph (N2 -fixer) in this region. However, little is known about the seasonal variability and diversity of UCYN-A there...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673452/-modified-cheng-s-juanbi-decoction-reduces-camp-level-of-t-lymphocytes-in-peripheral-blood-and-cd4-cd8-t-cell-ratio-among-rats-with-adjuvant-arthritis
#10
Xia Xu, Huan DU, Yalan Wu, Hui Cheng, Jian Cao, Qingwei Meng, Mengyuan Guo
Objective To investigate the effects of modified Cheng's Juanbi Decoction (CJBD) on the level of cAMP in T lymphocytes and CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratio among rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA). Methods Male adult SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, AA group, CJBD group, and tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT) group. Blowing/cold water and Freund's complete adjuvant were used to establish a rat model of AA with wind-cold-dampness arthralgia. The control group was given normal saline by gavage, and the CJBD group and TGT group were given respective therapies...
February 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672852/responses-of-insect-herbivores-and-their-food-plants-to-wind-exposure-and-the-importance-of-predation-risk
#11
Cong Chen, Arjen Biere, Rieta Gols, Wouter Halfwerk, Kees van Oers, Jeffrey A Harvey
1.Wind is an important abiotic factor that influences an array of biological processes, but it is rarely considered in studies on plant-herbivore interactions. 2.Here, we tested whether wind exposure could directly or indirectly affect the performance of two insect herbivores, Plutella xylostella and Pieris brassicae, feeding on Brassica nigra plants. 3.In a greenhouse study using a factorial design, B. nigra plants were exposed to different wind regimes generated by fans before and after caterpillars were introduced on plants in an attempt to separate the effects of direct and indirect wind exposure on herbivores...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672238/long-term-meteorologically-independent-trend-analysis-of-ozone-air-quality-at-an-urban-site-in-the-greater-houston-area
#12
Venkata S V Botlaguduru, Raghava R Kommalapati, Ziaul Huque
The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas has a history of ozone exceedances and is currently classified under moderate nonattainment status for the 2008 8-hr ozone standard of 75 ppb. The HGB area is characterized by intense solar radiation, high temperature, and humidity, which influence day-to-day variations in ozone concentrations. Long-term air quality trends independent of meteorological influence need to be constructed for ascertaining the effectiveness of air quality management in this area...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670937/universal-characteristics-of-particle-shape-evolution-by-bed-load-chipping
#13
Tímea Novák-Szabó, András Árpád Sipos, Sam Shaw, Duccio Bertoni, Alessandro Pozzebon, Edoardo Grottoli, Giovanni Sarti, Paolo Ciavola, Gábor Domokos, Douglas J Jerolmack
River currents, wind, and waves drive bed-load transport, in which sediment particles collide with each other and Earth's surface. A generic consequence is impact attrition and rounding of particles as a result of chipping, often referred to in geological literature as abrasion. Recent studies have shown that the rounding of river pebbles can be modeled as diffusion of surface curvature, indicating that geometric aspects of impact attrition are insensitive to details of collisions and material properties. We present data from fluvial, aeolian, and coastal environments and laboratory experiments that suggest a common relation between circularity and mass attrition for particles transported as bed load...
March 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669025/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-in-commercial-watermelon-crops
#14
Carlos H O Lima, Renato A Sarmento, Tarcísio V S Galdino, Poliana S Pereira, Joedna Silva, Danival J Souza, Gil R Dos Santos, Thiago L Costa, Marcelo C Picanço
Spatiotemporal dynamics studies of crop pests enable the determination of the colonization pattern and dispersion of these insects in the landscape. Geostatistics is an efficient tool for these studies: to determine the spatial distribution pattern of the pest in the crops and to make maps that represent this situation. Analysis of these maps across the development of plants can be used as a tool in precision agriculture programs. Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), is the second most consumed fruit in the world, and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important pests of this crop...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667513/a-survey-of-valleys-and-basins-of-the-western-usa-for-the-capacity-to-produce-winter-ozone
#15
Marc L Mansfield, Courtney F Hall
High winter ozone in the Uintah Basin, Utah, and the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, occurs because of the confluence of three separate factors: (1) extensive oil or natural gas production, (2) topography conducive to strong multi-day thermal inversions, and (3) snow cover. We surveyed 13 basins and valleys in the western USA for the existence and magnitude of these factors. Seven of the basins, because winter ozone measurements were available, were assigned to four different behavioral classes. Based on similarities among the basins, the remaining six were also given a tentative assignment...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666367/westward-migration-of-tropical-cyclone-rapid-intensification-over-the-northwestern-pacific-during-short-duration-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#16
Yi-Peng Guo, Zhe-Min Tan
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can significantly affect the rapid intensification of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific (WNP). However, ENSO events have various durations, which can lead to different atmospheric and oceanic conditions. Here we show that during short duration El Niño events, the WNP tropical cyclone rapid-intensification mean occurrence position migrates westward by ~8.0° longitude, which is caused by reduced vertical wind shear, increased mid-tropospheric humidity, and enhanced tropical cyclone heat potential over the westernmost WNP...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666237/goamazon2014-5-campaign-points-to-deep-inflow-approach-to-deep-convection-across-scales
#17
Kathleen A Schiro, Fiaz Ahmed, Scott E Giangrande, J David Neelin
A substantial fraction of precipitation is associated with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), which are currently poorly represented in climate models. Convective parameterizations are highly sensitive to the assumptions of an entraining plume model, in which high equivalent potential temperature air from the boundary layer is modified via turbulent entrainment. Here we show, using multiinstrument evidence from the Green Ocean Amazon field campaign (2014-2015; GoAmazon2014/5), that an empirically constrained weighting for inflow of environmental air based on radar wind profiler estimates of vertical velocity and mass flux yields a strong relationship between resulting buoyancy measures and precipitation statistics...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665781/machine-learning-methods-reveal-the-temporal-pattern-of-dengue-incidence-using-meteorological-factors-in-metropolitan-manila-philippines
#18
Thaddeus M Carvajal, Katherine M Viacrusis, Lara Fides T Hernandez, Howell T Ho, Divina M Amalin, Kozo Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Several studies have applied ecological factors such as meteorological variables to develop models and accurately predict the temporal pattern of dengue incidence or occurrence. With the vast amount of studies that investigated this premise, the modeling approaches differ from each study and only use a single statistical technique. It raises the question of whether which technique would be robust and reliable. Hence, our study aims to compare the predictive accuracy of the temporal pattern of Dengue incidence in Metropolitan Manila as influenced by meteorological factors from four modeling techniques, (a) General Additive Modeling, (b) Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with exogenous variables (c) Random Forest and (d) Gradient Boosting...
April 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665634/characterization-of-microplastic-litter-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-solea-solea-from-the-adriatic-sea
#19
G Pellini, A Gomiero, T Fortibuoni, Carmen Ferrà, F Grati, A N Tassetti, P Polidori, G Fabi, G Scarcella
Micro-plastic particles in the world's oceans represent a serious threat to both human health and marine ecosystems. Once released into the aquatic environment plastic litter is broken down to smaller pieces through photo-degradation and the physical actions of waves, wind, etc. The resulting particles may become so small that they are readily taken up by fish, crustaceans and mollusks. There is mounting evidence for the uptake of plastic particles by marine organisms that form part of the human food chain and this is driving urgent calls for further and deeper investigations into this pollution issue...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665463/long-term-exposure-to-wind-turbine-noise-at-night-and-risk-for-diabetes-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#20
Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Alfredo Peña, Andrea N Hahmann, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Jørgen Brandt, Mette Sørensen
Focus on renewable energy sources and reduced unit costs has led to increased number of wind turbines (WTs). WT noise (WTN) is reported to be highly annoying at levels from 30 to 35 dB and up, whereas for traffic noise people report to be highly annoyed from 40 to 45 dB and up. This has raised concerns as to whether WTN may increase risk for major diseases, as exposure to traffic noise has consistently been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20 WT heights and 25% of all dwellings within 20-40 WT heights from a WT...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Research
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