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Bhaskar Dudem, Yeong Hwan Ko, Jung Woo Leem, Joo Ho Lim, Jae Su Yu
We report the hierarchical nano/micro architectured (HNMA)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film-based hybrid energy cells with multi-functionality to simultaneously harvest mechanical, solar, and wind energies. These films consist of nano/micro dual-scale architectures (i.e., nanonipples on inverted micro pyramidal arrays) on the PDMS surface. The HNMA-PDMS is replicable by a facile and cost-effective soft imprint lithography (SIL) using a nanoporous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) film formed on the micro-pyramidal (MP) structured silicon substrate...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sridhar Ravi, Dmitry Kolomenskiy, Thomas Engels, Kai Schneider, Chun Wang, Jörn Sesterhenn, Hao Liu
The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight-control and stability challenges. It is critical to understand the strategies insects employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high-fidelity numerical simulations and lower-order modeling to identify the mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial flower in a wind tunnel under steady wind and in a von Kármán street formed in the wake of a cylinder...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Annette Menzel, Michael Matiu, Rico Michaelis, Susanne Jochner
Indoor pollen concentrations are an underestimated human health issue. In this study, we measured hourly indoor birch pollen concentrations on eight days in April 2015 with portable pollen traps in five rooms of a university building at Freising, Germany. These data were compared to the respective outdoor values right in front of the rooms and to background pollen data. The rooms were characterised by different aspects and window ventilation schemes. Meteorological data were equally measured directly in front of the windows...
October 17, 2016: Indoor Air
Michael Mazzeffi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Yu-Bin Yan, Norm C Duke, Mei Sun
Rhizophora species are the most widely distributed mangrove trees in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region. Comparative studies of these species with shared life history traits can help identify evolutionary factors that have played most important roles in determining genetic diversity within and between populations in ocean-current dispersed mangrove tree species. We sampled 935 individuals from 54 natural populations for genotyping with 13 microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow on a broad geographic scale in Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, and Rhizophora stylosa across the IWP region...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qian Yin, Jinfeng Wang, Maogui Hu, Hoting Wong
When investigating the impact of air pollution on health, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is considered more harmful than particulates of other sizes. Therefore, studies of PM2.5 have attracted more attention. Beijing, the capital of China, is notorious for its serious air pollution problem, an issue which has been of great concern to the residents, government, and related institutes for decades. However, in China, significantly less time has been devoted to observing PM2...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Xiaoru Zhang, Yan Yin, Zhenyi Lin, Yongxiang Han, Jian Hao, Liang Yuan, Kui Chen, Jinghua Chen, Shaofei Kong, Yunpeng Shan, Hui Xiao, Wen Tan
To quantify the physical/chemical properties, and the formation and growth processes of aerosol particles on mountainous regions in Southeast China, an intensive field campaign was conducted from April to July 2008 on the top of Mt. Huang (1840m above mean sea level). The average particle number concentration was 2.35×10(3)cm(-3), and the ultrafine particles (<0.1μm) represented 70.5% of the total particle number concentration. Excluding the accumulation mode particles, the average daytime particle number concentrations were prominently higher than those measured at nighttime, suggesting there was a diurnal pattern of changes between planetary boundary layer and free troposphere air...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Isabella Bertani, Cara E Steger, Daniel R Obenour, Gary L Fahnenstiel, Thomas B Bridgeman, Thomas H Johengen, Michael J Sayers, Robert A Shuchman, Donald Scavia
Cyanobacteria blooms are a major environmental issue worldwide. Our understanding of the biophysical processes driving cyanobacterial proliferation and the ability to develop predictive models that inform resource managers and policy makers rely upon the accurate characterization of bloom dynamics. Models quantifying relationships between bloom severity and environmental drivers are often calibrated to an individual set of bloom observations, and few studies have assessed whether differences among observing platforms could lead to contrasting results in terms of relevant bloom predictors and their estimated influence on bloom severity...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jinpu Jia, Chunjuan Bi, Xue Guo, Xueping Wang, Xiaoxiao Zhou, Zhenlou Chen
Road dusts and agricultural soil samples were collected from eight sites close to steel mills, chemical plants, and municipal solid waste incinerator in suburban Shanghai. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority controlled list were analyzed quantitatively using GC-MS. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.79 to 6.2 μg g(-1) in road dust samples with a mean value of 2.38 μg g(-1) and 0.26 to 0.54 μg g(-1) in agricultural soils with an average of 0...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jianing Liu, Xiaoxu Wu, Chenlu Li, Bing Xu, Luojia Hu, Jin Chen, Shuang Dai
Climate change mainly refers to long-term change in weather variables, and it has significant impact on sustainability and spread of infectious diseases. Among three leading infectious diseases in China, dysentery is exclusively sensitive to climate change. Previous researches on weather variables and dysentery mainly focus on determining correlation between dysentery incidence and weather variables. However, the contribution of each variable to dysentery incidence has been rarely clarified. Therefore, we chose a typical county in epidemic of dysentery as the study area...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Shanhai Jin, Noriyasu Iwamoto, Kazunobu Hashimoto, Motoji Yamamoto
This paper presents a new soft wearable robotic suit for energy-efficient walking in daily activities for elderly persons. The presented robotic suit provides a small yet effective assistive force for hip flexion through winding belts that include elastic elements. In addition, it does not restrict the range of movement in the lower limbs. Moreover, its structure is simple and lightweight, and thus wearers can easily take the device on and off by themselves. Experimental results on nine elderly subjects (age = 74...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Tripti Mishra, N B Singh, Nandita Singh
Disposal of red mud (RM) poses serious environmental problems such as wind erosion, air and water pollution. To overcome these problems, effective restoration of the disposal land through naturally growing vegetation is a sustainable and economical approach. Present study involved estimation of frequency (F), density (D), abundance (Ab) and important value index (IVI) of natural flora on abandoned RM sites in order to assess their metal toxicity tolerance capacity. Based on visual observations and highest IVI, Sonchus asper and Sesbania punicea were identified as an effective ecological tool for the restoration of barren RM sites...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Hugo Chauvet, Olivier Pouliquen, Yoël Forterre, Valérie Legué, Bruno Moulia
Gravity perception plays a key role in how plants develop and adapt to environmental changes. However, more than a century after the pioneering work of Darwin, little is known on the sensing mechanism. Using a centrifugal device combined with growth kinematics imaging, we show that shoot gravitropic responses to steady levels of gravity in four representative angiosperm species is independent of gravity intensity. All gravitropic responses tested are dependent only on the angle of inclination from the direction of gravity...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Antonius J Poot, Monique A A Caljouw, Claudia S de Waard, Annet W Wind, Jacobijn Gussekloo
BACKGROUND: Integrated care for older persons with complex care needs is widely advocated. Particularly professionals and policy makers have positive expectations. Care outcome results are ambiguous. Receiver and provider satisfaction is relevant but still poorly understood. METHODS: During implementation of integrated care in residential homes (The MOVIT project), we compared general satisfaction and satisfaction with specific aspects of General Practitioner (GP) care in older persons and GPs before (cohort I) and after at least 12 months of implementation (cohort II)...
2016: PloS One
L Arendt-Nielsen, G-L Jiang, R DeGryse, C C Turkel
OBJECTIVES: OnabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) attenuates peripheral nociceptive transduction and consequently neuronal firing. The aim of this mechanistic study was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular (IA) onabotA in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial using a single ultrasound-guided IA injection of onabotA (200 U). Patients (N = 121) were randomized to receive onabotA (n = 61) or placebo (n = 60)...
October 13, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
F Sara Ceccarelli, Brent D Opell, Charles R Haddad, Robert J Raven, Eduardo M Soto, Martín J Ramírez
Closely related organisms with transoceanic distributions have long been the focus of historical biogeography, prompting the question of whether long-distance dispersal, or tectonic-driven vicariance shaped their current distribution. Regarding the Southern Hemisphere continents, this question deals with the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass, which has also affected global wind and oceanic current patterns since the Miocene. With the advent of phylogenetic node age estimation and parametric bioinformatic advances, researchers have been able to disentangle historical evolutionary processes of taxa with greater accuracy...
2016: PloS One
Simon Birkholz, Carsten Brée, Ivan Veselić, Ayhan Demircan, Günter Steinmeyer
We reanalyse the probability for formation of extreme waves using the simple model of linear interference of a finite number of elementary waves with fixed amplitude and random phase fluctuations. Under these model assumptions no rogue waves appear when less than 10 elementary waves interfere with each other. Above this threshold rogue wave formation becomes increasingly likely, with appearance frequencies that may even exceed long-term observations by an order of magnitude. For estimation of the effective number of interfering waves, we suggest the Grassberger-Procaccia dimensional analysis of individual time series...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
L F Weissert, J A Salmond, G Miskell, M Alavi-Shoshtari, S K Grange, G S Henshaw, D E Williams
Ozone (O3) concentrations in urban areas are spatially and temporally variable, influenced by chemical production, depletion through deposition and chemical titration processes and dispersion. To date, analysis of intra-urban variability of O3 concentrations, and the influence of local controls on production and depletion rates, has been limited due to the low spatial and/or temporal resolution of measurements. We demonstrate that measurements made using a carefully managed multi-sensor network of low-cost gas-sensitive semiconductor instruments are sufficiently precise to resolve subtle but significant variations in ozone concentration across a region...
October 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Margherita Siracusa, Fabio Petrelli
The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Lian Li, Yan Li, Danyang Feng, Linghua Xu, Fengxin Yin, Hengchang Zang, Chunhui Liu, Fengshan Wang
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) plays important roles in the complement system. However, the CS structure is complicated due to different sources and the number and positions of sulfate groups. The objective of this study was to prepare different low molecular weight chondroitin sulfates (LMWCSs) and to investigate the biological activity in anti-complement capacity. A series of LMWCSs was prepared from different sources and characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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