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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050005/effect-of-salt-intake-on-serum-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-in-normotensive-salt-sensitive-subjects
#1
Wen-Ling Zheng, Chao Chu, Yong-Bo Lv, Yang Wang, Jia-Wen Hu, Qiong Ma, Yu Yan, Yu-Meng Cao, Xi-Long Dang, Ke-Ke Wang, Jian-Jun Mu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Excess dietary salt is a critical risk factor of salt-sensitive hypertension. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) , a gut incretin hormone, conferring benefits for blood pressure by natriuresis and diuresis. We implemented a randomized trial to verify the effect of altered salt intake on serum GLP-1 level in human beings. METHODS: The 38 subjects were recruited from a rural community of Northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained a baseline diet period for 3 days, a low-salt diet period for 7 days (3...
October 19, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049653/effect-of-oral-semaglutide-compared-with-placebo-and-subcutaneous-semaglutide-on-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Melanie Davies, Thomas R Pieber, Marie-Louise Hartoft-Nielsen, Oluf K H Hansen, Serge Jabbour, Julio Rosenstock
Importance: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are all currently available as an injection. Objectives: To compare the effects of oral semaglutide with placebo (primary) and open-label subcutaneous semaglutide (secondary) on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Patients: Phase 2, randomized, parallel-group, dosage-finding, 26-week trial with 5-week follow-up at 100 sites (hospital clinics, general practices, and clinical research centers) in 14 countries conducted between December 2013 and December 2014...
October 17, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046727/elevated-circulating-fasting-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-surgical-patients-with-aortic-valve-disease-and-diabetes
#3
Camilla Krizhanovskii, Stelia Ntika, Christian Olsson, Per Eriksson, Anders Franco-Cereceda
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for peripheral, coronary, and cerebrovascular disease. In contrast, results also indicate that patients with diabetes have reduced prevalence of aortic aneurysms, although the mechanisms remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that altered endogenous secretion of the intestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-previously shown to protect from aneurysm formation, and governing many of the mechanisms thought to be involved in aneurysm formation-may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the inverse relationship of diabetes and aneurysm...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045658/exendin-4-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-attenuates-breast-cancer-growth-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#4
Chikayo Iwaya, Takashi Nomiyama, Shiho Komatsu, Takako Kawanami, Yoko Tsutsumi, Yuriko Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Horikawa, Yasuteru Yoshinaga, Shinichi Yamashita, Tomoko Tanaka, Yuichi Terawaki, Makito Tanabe, Kazuki Nabeshima, Akinori Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yanase
Incretin therapies have received significant attention because of their tissue-protective effects, which extend beyond those associated with glycemic control. Cancer is a primary cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. We previously reported anti-prostate cancer effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4). Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Thus, we examined whether GLP-1 action could attenuate breast cancer...
October 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044772/rd-lawrence-lecture-2017-incretins-the-intelligent-hormones-in-diabetes
#5
V A Gault
The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest due largely to their insulin-releasing and glucose-lowering properties. Indeed, GLP-1-based therapies are now key treatment options for many people with diabetes worldwide. In contrast, GIP-based agents have yet to reach the clinic based primarily on the impaired insulinotropic action of GIP observed in people with diabetes. Nevertheless, GIP is a key physiological regulator of insulin secretion and stable forms of GIP show much promise in rodent models to alleviate diabetes-obesity...
October 16, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044434/glp-1-increases-kiss-1-mrna-expression-in-kisspeptin-expressing-neuronal-cells
#6
Aki Oride, Haruhiko Kanasaki, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Tomomi Hara, Tuvshintugs Tumurbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Feeding-related metabolic factors exert regulatory influences on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an anorexigenic hormone synthesized from the ileum in response to food intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct effect of GLP-1 on hypothalamic kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression using the rat clonal hypothalamic cell line rHypoE-8. GLP-1 significantly increased Kiss-1 mRNA expression in rHypoE-8 cells up to 1.94 ± 0.22-fold...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042458/exenatide-modulates-tumor-endothelial-cell-interactions-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#7
Agnieszka Kosowska, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Wojciech Garczorz, Agnieszka Klych-Ratuszny, Mohammad Reza F Aghdam, Michal Wozniak, Andrzej Witek, Agnieszka Wroblewska-Czech, Anna Cygal, Jerzy Wojnar, Tomasz Francuz
Diabetes and cancer are prevalent diseases whose incidence is increasing globally. Diabetic women have a moderate risk increase of ovarian cancer which have associated worse prognosis, reduced survival and shorter relapse-free survival. Incretin drugs such as Exenatide, a synthetic analogue of Exendin-4, and Liraglutide are used as therapy for the type 2 diabetes (T2D). We studied the effects of GLP-1 and Exendin-4 on migration, apoptosis and metalloproteinase production in two human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3 and CAOV-3)...
October 17, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041949/incretins-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Beatriz Tejera-Segura, Raquel López-Mejías, María Jesús Domínguez-Luis, Antonia M de Vera-González, Alejandra González-Delgado, Begoña Ubilla, José M Olmos, José L Hernández, Miguel A González-Gay, Iván Ferraz-Amaro
BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism linking systemic inflammation with insulin resistance (IR) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains elusive. In the present study, we determined whether the incretin-insulin axis and incretin effect are disrupted in patients with RA and if they are related to the IR found in these patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study that encompassed 361 subjects without diabetes, 151 patients with RA, and 210 sex-matched control subjects...
October 17, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040429/the-role-of-glp-1-in-the-metabolic-success-bariatric-surgery
#9
Chelsea R Hutch, Darleen Sandoval
Two of the most popular bariatric procedures, vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), are commonly considered 'metabolic surgeries' because they are thought to impact metabolism in a weight loss-independent manner. In support of this, improvements in glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and even discontinuation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication can occur before substantial postoperative weight loss. The mechanisms that underlie this effect are unknown. However, one of the common findings after VSG and RYGB in both animal models and in humans is the sharp postprandial rise in several gut peptides, including the incretin and satiety peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
October 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037205/vildagliptin-ameliorates-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-lung-injury-by-inhibiting-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#10
Toshio Suzuki, Yuji Tada, Santhi Gladson, Rintaro Nishimura, Iwao Shimomura, Satoshi Karasawa, Koichiro Tatsumi, James West
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a late manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sepsis is a major cause of ARDS, and its pathogenesis includes endotoxin-induced vascular injury. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was shown to play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. On the other hand, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 was reported to improve vascular dysfunction in an experimental sepsis model, although whether DPP-4 affects EndMT and fibrosis initiation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury is unclear...
October 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036231/vildagliptin-increases-butyrate-producing-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-diabetic-rats
#11
Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Jia Zheng, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034596/regulation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-sensitivity-by-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis
#12
Shunsuke Yamane, Nobuya Inagaki
Gut hormonal substances released in response to nutrients include incretins, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Together, incretins are responsible for 50%-60% of postprandial insulin secretion. Oral glucose administration leads to greater insulin release from pancreatic islets than intravenous glucose loading that yields equivalent blood glucose levels; this phenomenon is called the incretin effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032333/glucagon-like-peptide-1-improves-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-by-suppressing-the-mir-27a-induced-downregulation-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-a1
#13
Yue Yao, Yi Xu, Wei Wang, Jinchao Zhang, Qiang Li
Lipotoxicity is considered one of the main causes of deterioration in β-cells function. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been revealed to protect and improve pancreatic β-cell function against lipotoxicity. However, the mechanism behind these is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced lipotoxicity in INS-1 cells and examine the underlying mechanisms. The cell viability was determined, and caspase-3 was used to assess the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced apoptosis...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032011/sitagliptin-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-pregabalin-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-acute-epileptogenesis-in-mice-implication-of-oxidative-inflammatory-apoptotic-and-autophagy-pathways
#14
Manar A Nader, Hayam Ateyya, Mohamed El-Shafey, Nagla A El-Sherbeeny
The current investigation aimed at studying the anti-epileptogenic effect of sitagliptin. The possible effect of the drug in combination with pregabalin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizures was studied. In addition, the postulated mechanisms that could mediate such effect were explored namely, suppression of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammatory markers, autophagy and apoptosis. Seven days prior to PTZ (60 mg/kg, sc) injection, mice were treated with sitagliptin (5, 15, and 60 mg/kg, twice daily, orally) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg, once daily, orally) or their combination...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031770/effects-of-three-major-amino-acids-found-in-japanese-broth-on-glucose-metabolism-and-gastric-emptying
#15
Fumika Mano, Kaori Ikeda, Erina Joo, Shunsuke Yamane, Norio Harada, Nobuya Inagaki
OBJECTIVES: To our knowledge, the effect of the broth of dried kelp and dried bonito, dashi, on glucose metabolism and digestion has rarely been studied. Based on the component analysis of three actual broths served in traditional restaurants, a chemically synthesized broth with three free amino acids (histidine, glutamate, aspartate) and salt was prepared to investigate their effect on glucose metabolism, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, and digestion...
August 10, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031724/elevated-hepatic-dpp4-activity-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Christian Baumeier, Luisa Schlüter, Sophie Saussenthaler, Thomas Laeger, Maria Rödiger, Stella Amelie Alaze, Louise Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Robert Wolfgang Schwenk, Annette Schürmann
OBJECTIVE: Increased hepatic expression of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether this is causative for the development of NAFLD is not yet clarified. Here we investigate the effect of hepatic DPP4 overexpression on the development of liver steatosis in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Plasma DPP4 activity of subjects with or without NAFLD was analyzed. Wild-type (WT) and liver-specific Dpp4 transgenic mice (Dpp4-Liv-Tg) were fed a high-fat diet and characterized for body weight, body composition, hepatic fat content and insulin sensitivity...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031718/g%C3%AE-s-regulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-mediated-cyclic-amp-generation-at%C3%A2-rab5-endosomal-compartment
#17
Shravan Babu Girada, Ramya S Kuna, Shilpak Bele, Zhimeng Zhu, N R Chakravarthi, Richard D DiMarchi, Prasenjit Mitra
OBJECTIVE: Upon activation, G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) associate with heterotrimeric G proteins at the plasma membrane to initiate second messenger signaling. Subsequently, the activated receptor experiences desensitization, internalization, and recycling back to the plasma membrane, or it undergoes lysosomal degradation. Recent reports highlight specific cases of persistent cyclic AMP generation by internalized GPCRs, although the functional significance and mechanistic details remain to be defined...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028177/postmeal-increment-in-intact-glucagon-like-peptide-1-level-but-not-intact-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-levels-is-inversely-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Soyeon Yoo, Eun-Jin Yang, Sang Ah Lee, Gwanpyo Koh
PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists proved to be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the association of blood incretin levels with metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 334 people with type 2 diabetes. Intact GLP-1 (iGLP-1) and intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (iGIP) levels were measured in a fasted state and 30 min after ingestion of a standard mixed meal...
October 13, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025878/elevated-postoperative-endogenous-glp-1-levels-mediate-effects-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-neural-responsivity-to-food-cues
#19
Jennifer S Ten Kulve, Dick J Veltman, Victor E A Gerdes, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Frederik Barkhof, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Madeleine L Drent, Michaela Diamant, Richard G IJzerman
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that weight reduction and improvements in satiety after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are partly mediated via postoperative neuroendocrine changes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone secreted after food ingestion and is associated with appetite and weight reduction, mediated via effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Secretion of GLP-1 is greatly enhanced after RYGB. We hypothesized that postoperative elevated GLP-1 levels contribute to the improved satiety regulation after RYGB via effects on the CNS...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024408/effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-receptor-agonists-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-narrative-review-of-head-to-head-comparisons
#20
REVIEW
Niels B Dalsgaard, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Five CV risk factors (blood pressure, resting heart rate [HR], body weight, cholesterol levels and blood glucose) are monitored routinely as safety and efficacy endpoints in randomised clinical trials for diabetes therapies. To determine if different glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) had varying effects on these CV risk factors, we reviewed 16 head-to-head trials directly comparing GLP-1RAs that included at least one of the five factors...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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