Read by QxMD icon Read


Emilie Hein Zobel, Bernt Johan von Scholten, Morten Lindhardt, Frederik Persson, Tine Willum Hansen, Peter Rossing
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Management of diabetic nephropathy includes reduction of albuminuria, blood pressure and weight. The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide may possess these pleiotropic effects in addition to the glucose lowering effect. We aimed to elucidate the individual liraglutide treatment response by determining if high responders (highest reduction) in each risk factor also had high response in other renal risk factors (cross-dependency). METHODS: Open-label study: 31 type 2 diabetics treated with liraglutide for 7weeks...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Susan L Samson, Alan J Garber
Incretin-based therapies are important addition to our armamentarium for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). There are six Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) which have received regulatory approval for clinical use. The short-acting GLP-1RAs include exenatide twice daily, liraglutide once daily, and lixisenatide once daily. The approved long-acting GLP-1RAs are administered weekly and are exenatide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide. Although all of these therapies lower hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), there also are unique features of GLP-1RAs that have been made manifest from clinical trial data with regard to weight-loss efficacy, fasting and post-prandial glucose control, cardiovascular safety and protection, and gastrointestinal and injection adverse effects...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Geisa Nogueira Salles, Fernanda Aparecida Dos Santos Pereira, Cristina Pacheco-Soares, Fernanda Roberta Marciano, Christian Hölscher, Thomas J Webster, Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Bioresorbable electrospun fibres have highly functional features that can preserve drug efficacy, avoiding premature degradation, and control drug release rates over long periods. In parallel, it is known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to impaired insulin signalling in the brain. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues have beneficial effects on insulin release and possess exceptional neuroprotective properties. Herein, we describe for the first time the incorporation of a GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, into electrospun poly (lactic acid) (PLA) fibres with in situ gelatin capsules, in order to provide the controlled release of liraglutide, improving neuroprotective properties...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Juan Rosas-Guzmán, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-García
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin-America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
August 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Monica L Castro-Acosta, Leanne Smith, Rosalind J Miller, Danielle I McCarthy, Jonathan A Farrimond, Wendy L Hall
Blackcurrants are rich in polyphenolic glycosides called anthocyanins, which may inhibit postprandial glycemia. The aim was to determine the dose-dependent effects of blackcurrant extract on postprandial glycemia. Men and postmenopausal women (14M, 9W, mean age 46 years, S.D.=14) were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Low sugar fruit drinks containing blackcurrant extract providing 150-mg (L-BE), 300-mg (M-BE) and 600-mg (H-BE) total anthocyanins or no blackcurrant extract (CON) were administered immediately before a high-carbohydrate meal...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Zhu Zeng, Rui Yu, Fanglei Zuo, Bo Zhang, Deju Peng, Huiqin Ma, Shangwu Chen
Exendin-4, a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is an excellent therapeutic peptide drug for type 2 diabetes due to longer lasting biological activity compared to GLP-1. This study explored the feasibility of using probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei as an oral vector for recombinant exendin-4 peptide delivery, an alternative to costly chemical synthesis and inconvenient administration by injection. L. paracasei transformed with a plasmid encoding the exendin-4 gene (L. paracasei L14/pMG76e-exendin-4) with a constitutive promotor was successfully constructed and showed efficient secretion of exendin-4...
2016: PloS One
Fabio Broglio, Edoardo Mannucci, Raffaele Napoli, Antonio Nicolucci, Francesco Purrello, Elena Nikonova, William Stager, Roberto Trevisan
AIMS: To evaluate long term efficacy and safety of lixisenatide, a short-acting, prandial GLP-1 RA (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists) as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A meta-analysis of 76-week results of five placebo-controlled clinical trials from the GetGoal program was performed including 3,000 inadequately controlled adult diabetic patients where lixisenatide 20 µg once-daily was administered in combination with metformin (GetGoal-M and GetGoal-F1), sulphonylurea ± metformin (GetGoal-S), basal insulin ± metformin (GetGoal-L) or pioglitazone ± metformin (GetGoal-P)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Attilio Pingitore, Edward S Chambers, Thomas Hill, Inmaculada Ruz Maldonado, Bo Liu, Gavin Bewick, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Gareth A Wallis, Catriona Tedford, Ramón Castañera González, Guo Cai Huang, Pratik Choudhary, Gary Frost, Shanta J Persaud
AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Tongzhi Wu, Cong Xie, Hang Wu, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner
In rodents, metformin slows intestinal glucose absorption, potentially increasing exposure of the distal gut to glucose to enhance postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. We evaluated the effects of metformin on serum 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG, a marker of glucose absorption) and plasma total GLP-1 concentrations during a standardised intraduodenal infusion of glucose and 3-OMG in patients with type 2 diabetes. 12 patients, treated with metformin 850 mg bd or placebo each for 7 days in a double-blind, randomised, crossover design (14 days 'washout' between treatments), were evaluated on days 5 or 8 of each treatment (6 each)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Gunter Laux, Sarah Berger, Joachim Szecsenyi, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Rüdiger Leutgeb
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to analyze prescription decisions for family practice (FP) patients with Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) using the case of the incretin mimetics Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists dependent on patients' health insurance status (statutory or private) in Germany. This study is important since the scientific debate is still open with regard to DPP-4-inhibitors and GLP-1-agonists, where some critics are raising questions on potential long-term risks for patients...
October 19, 2016: BMC Family Practice
Mahalingam Balakumar, Durai Prabhu, Chandrakumar Sathishkumar, Paramasivam Prabu, Namita Rokana, Ramesh Kumar, Srividhya Raghavan, Avinash Soundarajan, Sunita Grover, Virender Kumar Batish, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
PURPOSE: Diabetes and obesity are characterized by glucose intolerance, fat deposition, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Recent reports postulated that distinct gut microbiota alterations were observed in obese/diabetic subjects and modulating gut microbiota beneficially through specific probiotics could be a potential therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes/obesity. Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Bernt Johan von Scholten, Frederik Persson, Signe Rosenlund, Peter Hovind, Jens Faber, Tine Willum Hansen, Peter Rossing
AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria have high cardiorenal morbidity and mortality despite multifactorial treatment. Short-term reduction in albuminuria is considered suggestive of long-term renoprotective effects. We evaluated the renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide on top of multifactorial care, including renin-angiotensin-system (RAS)-inhibition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial including patients with type 2 diabetes and persistent albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/min/1...
October 17, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Alexandre Baptista, Inês Teixeira, Sónia Romano, António Vaz Carneiro, Julian Perelman
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit studies of DPP-4 inhibitors for diabetes treatment versus other antidiabetics. METHODS: Three investigators searched the CRD York, Tufts CEA Registry, and MEDLINE databases through 2015. We reviewed all potentially relevant titles and abstracts, and screened full-text articles, according to inclusion criteria. We established a quality score for each study based on a 35-item list...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Chafiq Hamdouchi, Steven D Kahl, Anjana Patel Lewis, Guemalli R Cardona, Richard W Zink, Keyue Chen, Thomas E Eessalu, James V Ficorilli, Marialuisa C Marcelo, Keith A Otto, Kelly L Wilbur, Jayana P Lineswala, Jared L Piper, D Scott Coffey, Stephanie A Sweetana, Joseph V Haas, Dawn A Brooks, Edward J Pratt, Ruth M Belin, Mark A Deeg, Xiaosu Ma, Ellen A Cannady, Jason T Johnson, Nathan P Yumibe, Qi Chen, Pranab Maiti, Chahrzad Montrose-Rafizadeh, Yanyun Chen, Anne Reifel Miller
The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) also known as Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFAR1) is highly expressed in pancreatic, islet cells and responds to endogenous fatty acids resulting in amplification of insulin secretion only in the presence of elevated glucose levels. Hypothesis driven structural modifications to endogenous FFAs, focused on breaking planarity and reducing lipophilicity, led to the identification of spiropiperidine and tetrahydroquinoline acid derivatives as GPR40 agonists with unique pharmacology, selectivity and pharmacokinetic properties...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Giulia Cantini, Alessandra Di Franco, Edoardo Mannucci, Michaela Luconi
Glucagon-like peptide 1(9-36) [GLP-1(9-36)] is generated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) cleavage of the gut incretin hormone, GLP-1(7-36). Since GLP-1(9-36) has a very low affinity for the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), it has so far been considered an inactive form of GLP-1. Here we show GLP-1(9-36) activity in human adipose stem cells (ASC) in vitro. GLP-1(9-36) inhibits human ASC proliferation, glucose uptake and adipogenesis, as well as induces cell apoptosis, to a similar extent as GLP-1(7-36) and liraglutide...
October 13, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Antoni Sicras-Mainar, Ruth Navarro-Artieda, Raúl Morano, Lucía Ruíz
OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to assess resource use and costs of starting treatment with insulin or injectable GLP-1 receptor analogues (GLP-1 RAs) in a Spanish population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment adherence and persistence were also determined for both treatment groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective, non-interventional, observational study was conducted. Patients aged ≥20 years who started treatment with insulin or GLP-1 RAs in the 2010-2012 period were recruited...
October 13, 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Federico Sista, Valentina Abruzzese, Marco Clementi, Sergio Carandina, Gianfranco Amicucci
BACKGROUND: The correlation between resected gastric volume (RGV) and neuro-humoral changes (ghrelin and GLP-1) after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and their effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been evaluated. MATERIALS: Ninety-eight patients were divided in two groups: RGV <1200 mL (group A: 53 pts) and RGV >1200 mL (group B: 45 pts). Insulin secretion (insulin area under the curve (AUC)), insulinogenic index (IGI) and insulin-resistance (homeostasis model assessment, HOMAIR) were assessed before and after surgery (at the 3rd day and 6, 12 and 24 months after LSG) using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Thomas Fremming Dejgaard, Sten Madsbad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jean-Michel Petit, Jean-Pierre Cercueil, Romaric Loffroy, Damien Denimal, Benjamin Bouillet, Coralie Fourmont, Olivier Chevallier, Laurence Duvillard, Bruno Vergès
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is very frequent in type 2 diabetes with increased risk of further development of liver fibrosis. Animal studies have shown that GLP-1 receptor agonists may reduce liver lipogenesis. However, data in humans are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of liraglutide 1.2 mg/d on liver fat content (LFC) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the factors potentially associated with liraglutide-induced modification of LFC...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, GLP-1, GLP-2, and GIP exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels, and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
October 12, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"