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laminitis in horses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829433/plasma-insulin-concentration-increases-linearly-with-body-condition-in-icelandic-horses
#1
Anna Jansson, Gudrun J Stéfansdóttir, Sveinn Ragnarsson
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the variation in plasma insulin concentration (PIC) in a group of Icelandic horses in training, considered to be healthy and examined possible relationships between PIC and gender, age, body size, body condition score and management factors such as feed allowance and subjective level of fitness. RESULTS: Plasma insulin concentration ranged from 0.2 to 13.9 mU/l, body condition score from 2.3 to 4.0 and concentrate allowance from 0 to 4 kg...
November 9, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785793/prevalence-of-obesity-and-owners-perceptions-of-body-condition-in-pleasure-horses-and-ponies-in-south-eastern-australia
#2
S J Potter, N J Bamford, P A Harris, S R Bailey
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity within a population of pleasure horses and ponies in Victoria, Australia, and to compare owners' perceptions of their animals' body condition with researchers' assessments. DESIGN: An observational study plus owner questionnaire. METHODS: Ten Pony Club rallies in different regions of Victoria were attended. Information regarding 229 horses and ponies were obtained from owner questionnaires, and owners' perceptions of the current body condition of their animals were assessed using a visual analogue scale...
November 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766968/body-condition-score-morphometric-measurements-and-estimation-of-body-weight-in-mature-icelandic-horses-in-denmark
#3
Rasmus B Jensen, Signe H Danielsen, Anne-Helene Tauson
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699910/positron-emission-tomography-of-the-equine-distal-limb-exploratory-study
#4
Mathieu Spriet, Pablo Espinosa, Andre Z Kyme, Pavel Stepanov, Val Zavarzin, Stephen Schaeffer, Scott A Katzman, Larry D Galuppo, David Beylin
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive, noninvasive imaging technique for quantifying biological functions of tissues. However, at the time of this study, PET imaging applications had not been reported in the horse. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether a portable high-resolution PET scanner could be used to image the equine distal limb. Images of the front feet and fetlocks of three research horses, with known lesions localized to the distal front limbs, were acquired under general anesthesia after administration of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG), with doses ranging from 1...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684374/vascular-dysfunction-in-horses-with-endocrinopathic-laminitis
#5
Ruth A Morgan, John A Keen, Brian R Walker, Patrick W F Hadoke
Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL) is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6) and horses with EL (n = 6) destined for euthanasia were recruited...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639952/sustained-low-intensity-exercise-achieved-by-a-dynamic-feeding-system-decreases-body-fat-in-ponies
#6
M A de Laat, B A Hampson, M N Sillence, C C Pollitt
BACKGROUND: Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. HYPOTHESIS: Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI)...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588689/a-survey-on-transport-management-practices-associated-with-injuries-and-health-problems-in-horses
#7
Barbara Padalino, Sharanne L Raidal, Evelyn Hall, Peter Knight, Pietro Celi, Leo Jeffcott, Gary Muscatello
An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents' demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents' details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544263/prevalence-survival-analysis-and-multimorbidity-of-chronic-diseases-in-the-general-veterinarian-attended-horse-population-of-the-uk
#8
Claire E Welsh, Marco Duz, Timothy D H Parkin, John F Marshall
The average age of the global human population is increasing, leading to increased interest in the effects of chronic disease and multimorbidity on health resources and patient welfare. It has been posited that the average age of the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK is also increasing, and therefore it could be assumed that chronic diseases and multimorbidity would pose an increasing risk here also. However, evidence for this trend in ageing is very limited, and the current prevalence of many chronic diseases, and of multimorbidity, is unknown...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527224/using-the-horse-grimace-scale-hgs-to-assess-pain-associated-with-acute-laminitis-in-horses-equus-caballus
#9
Emanuela Dalla Costa, Diana Stucke, Francesca Dai, Michela Minero, Matthew C Leach, Dirk Lebelt
Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain, both acutely and chronically. The Obel grading system is the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of laminitis by equine practitioners, however this method requires movement (walk and trot) of the horse, causing further intense pain. The recently developed Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, may offer a more effective means of assessing the pain associated with acute laminitis...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496739/the-effect-of-hypothermia-on-influx-of-leukocytes-in-the-digital-lamellae-of-horses-with-oligofructose-induced-laminitis
#10
Jennifer D Godman, Teresa A Burns, Carlin S Kelly, Mauria R Watts, Britta S Leise, Eric L Schroeder, Andrew W van Eps, James K Belknap
Sepsis-related laminitis (SRL) is a common complication in the septic/endotoxemic critically-ill equine patient, in which lamellar injury and failure commonly lead to crippling distal displacement of the distal phalanx. Similar to organ injury in human sepsis, lamellar injury in SRL has been associated with inflammatory events, including the influx of leukocytes into the lamellar tissue and markedly increased expression of a wide array of inflammatory mediators at the onset of Obel grade 1 (OG1) laminitis. The only treatment reported both clinically and experimentally to protect the lamellae in SRL, local hypothermia ("cryotherapy"), has been demonstrated to effectively inhibit lamellar expression of multiple inflammatory mediators when initiated at the time of administration of a carbohydrate overload in experimental models of SRL...
October 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449391/endocrine-disease-in-aged-horses
#11
REVIEW
Andy E Durham
Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449390/musculoskeletal-disease-in-aged-horses-and-its-management
#12
REVIEW
Paul René van Weeren, Willem Back
Musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent health problem in aging horses. They are not life threatening, but are painful and an important welfare issue. Chronic joint disease (osteoarthritis) and chronic laminitis are the most prevalent. Treating osteoarthritis in the elderly horse is similar to treating performance horses, but aims at providing a stable situation with optimal comfort. Immediate medical treatment of flare-ups, long-term pain management, and adaptation of exercise and living conditions are the mainstays of treatment...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387720/effect-of-increased-adiposity-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-adipokine-concentrations-in-different-equine-breeds-adapted-to-cereal-rich-or-fat-rich-meals
#13
N J Bamford, S J Potter, C L Baskerville, P A Harris, S R Bailey
The relationships between diet, obesity and insulin dysregulation in equids require further investigation due to their association with laminitis. This study examined the effect of dietary glycaemic load and increased adiposity on insulin sensitivity and adipokine concentrations in different equine breeds. Equal numbers of Standardbred horses, mixed-breed ponies and Andalusian horses were provided with ad libitum hay plus either cereal-rich (CHO; n = 12), fat-rich (FAT; n = 12) or control (CON; n = 9) meals over 20 weeks...
August 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338788/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-activity-and-pharmacologic-inhibition-in-horses-with-chronic-severe-laminitis
#14
A Guedes, L Galuppo, D Hood, S H Hwang, C Morisseau, B D Hammock
BACKGROUND: The roles of soluble epoxide hydrolase and lipid mediators in inflammatory and neuropathic pain could be relevant in laminitis pain management. OBJECTIVES: To determine soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) activity in the digital laminae, sEH inhibitor potency in vitro, and efficacy of a sEH inhibitor as an adjunct analgesic therapy in chronic laminitic horses. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro experiments and clinical case series. METHODS: sEH activity was measured in digital laminae from euthanised healthy and laminitic horses (n = 5-6/group)...
June 24, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090627/effects-of-polyphenols-including-curcuminoids-resveratrol-quercetin-pterostilbene-and-hydroxypterostilbene-on-lymphocyte-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-of-senior-horses-in-vitro
#15
Melissa H Siard, Kellie E McMurry, Amanda A Adams
Senior horses (aged ≥ 20 years) exhibit increased chronic, low-grade inflammation systemically, termed inflamm-aging. Inflammation is associated with many afflictions common to the horse, including laminitis and osteoarthritis, which are commonly treated with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone. Although these NSAIDs are effective in treating acute inflammatory problems, long-term treatment with NSAIDs can result in negative side effects. Thus, bioactive polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene were investigated to determine their effectiveness as anti-inflammatory agents in vitro...
May 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023602/fumonisin-b%C3%A2-fb%C3%A2-induces-lamellar-separation-and-alters-sphingolipid-metabolism-of-in-vitro-cultured-hoof-explants
#16
Nicole Reisinger, Ilse Dohnal, Veronika Nagl, Simone Schaumberger, Gerd Schatzmayr, Elisabeth Mayer
One of the most important hoof diseases is laminitis. Yet, the pathology of laminitis is not fully understood. Different bacterial toxins, e.g. endotoxins or exotoxins, seem to play an important role. Additionally, ingestion of mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, might contribute to the onset of laminitis. In this respect, fumonsins are of special interest since horses are regarded as species most susceptible to this group of mycotoxins. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) on primary isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells, as well as on the lamellar tissue integrity and sphingolipid metabolism of hoof explants in vitro...
April 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969668/decision-tree-analysis-of-clinical-data-to-aid-diagnostic-reasoning-for-equine-laminitis-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
C E Wylie, D J Shaw, K L P Verheyen, J R Newton
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of selected clinical signs in laminitis cases and non-laminitic but lame controls to evaluate their capability to discriminate laminitis from other causes of lameness. Participating veterinary practitioners completed a checklist of laminitis-associated clinical signs identified by literature review. Cases were defined as horses/ponies with veterinary-diagnosed, clinically apparent laminitis; controls were horses/ponies with any lameness other than laminitis...
April 23, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26964719/oxidative-stress-in-hoof-laminar-tissue-of-horses-with-lethal-gastrointestinal-diseases
#18
Luciane Maria Laskoski, Rosangela Locatelli Dittrich, Carlos Augusto Araújo Valadão, Juliana Sperotto Brum, Yara Brandão, Harald Fernando Vicente Brito, Renato Silva de Sousa
Tissue damage caused by oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases in animals and man, and is believed to play a role in the development of laminitis in horses. The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress associated with laminar lesions in horses with lethal gastrointestinal disorders. Laminar tissue samples of the hoof of 30 horses were used. Tissue samples were divided as follows: six healthy horses (control group-CG), and 24 horses that died after complications of gastrointestinal diseases (group suffering from gastrointestinal disorders-GDG)...
March 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831169/systematic-pain-assessment-in-horses
#19
REVIEW
J C de Grauw, J P A M van Loon
Accurate recognition and quantification of pain in horses is imperative for adequate pain management. The past decade has seen a much needed surge in formal development of systematic pain assessment tools for the objective monitoring of pain in equine patients. This narrative review describes parameters that can be used to detect pain in horses, provides an overview of the various pain scales developed (visual analogue scales, simple descriptive scales, numerical rating scales, time budget analysis, composite pain scales and grimace scales), and highlights their strengths and weaknesses for potential clinical implementation...
March 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26773366/prolonged-hyperinsulinemia-affects-metabolic-signal-transduction-markers-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#20
A Campolo, M A de Laat, L Keith, K J Gruntmeir, V A Lacombe
Insulin dysregulation is common in horses although the mechanisms of metabolic dysfunction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that insulin signaling in striated (cardiac and skeletal) muscle and lamellae may be mediated through different receptors as a result of receptor content, and that transcriptional regulation of downstream signal transduction and glucose transport may also differ between tissues sites during hyperinsulinemia. Archived samples from horses treated with a prolonged insulin infusion or a balanced electrolyte solution were used...
April 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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