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laminitis in horses

K A Roscher, K Failing, I Schenk, A Moritz
The reasons for this prospective experimental study were to determine a dosing scheme with loading and maintenance dose of aspirin inducing inhibition of platelet function measured by whole blood impedance aggregometry. Ten horses received aspirin orally in the morning with one loading dose of 4.7-5 mg/kg and maintenance doses of 1-1.3 mg/kg daily the following 4 days. Aggregometries (COLtest, ASPItest, ADPtest) and serum salicylic acid were measured. ASPItest showed significant difference in inhibition at 24 and 48 hr (p < ...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
S L Lewis, H M Holl, C Streeter, C Posbergh, B J Schanbacher, N J Place, M F Mallicote, M T Long, S A Brooks
Equine obesity can cause life-threatening secondary chronic conditions, similar to those in humans and other animal species. Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), primarily characterized by hyperinsulinemia, is often present in obese horses and ponies. Due to clinical similarities to conditions such as pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (formerly equine Cushing's disease), conclusive diagnosis of EMS often proves challenging. Aside from changes in diet and exercise, few targeted treatments are available for EMS, emphasizing the need for early identification of at-risk individuals to enable implementation of preventative measures...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Dariush Vosugh, Mohammad Naser Nazem, Ahmad Reza Hooshmand
Among the different breeds of horses, Asil horses with a five thousand year history have played an important role in human life. This study was designed as a result of the lack of information about the normal radiographic anatomy of this breed. Radiography of the distal phalanx and associated soft-tissue structures of the front feet of 10 healthy pure Iranian Arabian horses was performed on lateromedial radiographic projection to determine normal radiographic morphometry of this part. There were no problems in their limbs and in their history...
March 29, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
A K Gardner, A W van Eps, M R Watts, T A Burns, J K Belknap
Supporting limb laminitis (SLL) is a devastating sequela to severe unilateral lameness in equine patients. The manifestation of SLL, which usually only affects one limb, is unpredictable and the etiology is unknown. A novel, non-painful preferential weight bearing model designed to mimic the effects of severe unilateral forelimb lameness was developed to assess lamellar signaling events in the supporting limb (SL). A custom v-shaped insert was attached to the shoe of one forelimb to prevent normal weight bearing and redistribute weight onto the SL...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
S E Elzinga, B Rohleder, B Schanbacher, K McQuerry, V D Barker, A A Adams
Extracts derived from the leaves of the stevia plant (stevioside) are commonly used as sweeteners for humans and horses. Stevioside appears to be safe for human consumption, including for individuals with insulin dysregulation. In the horse, the safety or metabolic effects of stevioside on normal animals or on those with metabolic dysfunction are unknown. Furthermore, the inflammatory response to a glycemic challenge or to stevioside in horses is not well defined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the effects of stevioside and a glycemic challenge on insulin, glucose, and inflammatory responses in horses with a common metabolic dysfunction (equine metabolic syndrome or EMS) compared with non-EMS controls...
February 4, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
K Dern, M Watts, B Werle, A van Eps, C Pollitt, J Belknap
BACKGROUND: In the oligofructose (OF) model of sepsis-related laminitis (SRL), digital hypothermia ("cryotherapy") initiated before the onset of clinical signs is reported not only to limit lamellar injury, but also to cause marked inhibition of lamellar inflammatory signaling. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Because hypothermia also has been reported to be protective when not initiated until the onset of lameness in the OF model of SRL, we hypothesized that the lamellar protection conferred by hypothermia is caused by local lamellar inhibition of inflammatory signaling as described when hypothermia was initiated earlier in the disease process...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
H E Lane, T A Burns, O C Hegedus, M R Watts, P S Weber, K A Woltman, R J Geor, L J McCutcheon, S C Eades, L E Mathes, J K Belknap
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation, obesity, and exposure to high-nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) forage are risk factors for equine metabolic syndrome-associated laminitis (EMSAL); high systemic insulin concentrations in EMSAL are proposed to induce cellular dysregulation in the digital lamellae through activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. OBJECTIVES: To use a dietary challenge model (DCM) and a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) model to assess lamellar growth factor-related signalling...
January 11, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Anna Jansson, Gudrun J Stéfansdóttir, Sveinn Ragnarsson
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the variation in plasma insulin concentration (PIC) in a group of Icelandic horses in training, considered to be healthy and examined possible relationships between PIC and gender, age, body size, body condition score and management factors such as feed allowance and subjective level of fitness. RESULTS: Plasma insulin concentration ranged from 0.2 to 13.9 mU/l, body condition score from 2.3 to 4.0 and concentrate allowance from 0 to 4 kg...
November 9, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
S J Potter, N J Bamford, P A Harris, S R Bailey
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity within a population of pleasure horses and ponies in Victoria, Australia, and to compare owners' perceptions of their animals' body condition with researchers' assessments. DESIGN: An observational study plus owner questionnaire. METHODS: Ten Pony Club rallies in different regions of Victoria were attended. Information regarding 229 horses and ponies were obtained from owner questionnaires, and owners' perceptions of the current body condition of their animals were assessed using a visual analogue scale...
November 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Rasmus B Jensen, Signe H Danielsen, Anne-Helene Tauson
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Mathieu Spriet, Pablo Espinosa, Andre Z Kyme, Pavel Stepanov, Val Zavarzin, Stephen Schaeffer, Scott A Katzman, Larry D Galuppo, David Beylin
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive, noninvasive imaging technique for quantifying biological functions of tissues. However, at the time of this study, PET imaging applications had not been reported in the horse. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether a portable high-resolution PET scanner could be used to image the equine distal limb. Images of the front feet and fetlocks of three research horses, with known lesions localized to the distal front limbs, were acquired under general anesthesia after administration of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG), with doses ranging from 1...
November 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Ruth A Morgan, John A Keen, Brian R Walker, Patrick W F Hadoke
Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL) is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6) and horses with EL (n = 6) destined for euthanasia were recruited...
2016: PloS One
M A de Laat, B A Hampson, M N Sillence, C C Pollitt
BACKGROUND: Obesity in horses is increasing in prevalence and can be associated with insulin insensitivity and laminitis. Current treatment strategies for obesity include dietary restriction and exercise. However, whether exercise alone is effective for decreasing body fat is uncertain. HYPOTHESIS: Our hypothesis was that twice daily use of a dynamic feeding system for 3 months would induce sustained, low-intensity exercise thereby decreasing adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity (SI)...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Barbara Padalino, Sharanne L Raidal, Evelyn Hall, Peter Knight, Pietro Celi, Leo Jeffcott, Gary Muscatello
An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents' demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents' details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic...
2016: PloS One
Claire E Welsh, Marco Duz, Timothy D H Parkin, John F Marshall
The average age of the global human population is increasing, leading to increased interest in the effects of chronic disease and multimorbidity on health resources and patient welfare. It has been posited that the average age of the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK is also increasing, and therefore it could be assumed that chronic diseases and multimorbidity would pose an increasing risk here also. However, evidence for this trend in ageing is very limited, and the current prevalence of many chronic diseases, and of multimorbidity, is unknown...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Emanuela Dalla Costa, Diana Stucke, Francesca Dai, Michela Minero, Matthew C Leach, Dirk Lebelt
Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain, both acutely and chronically. The Obel grading system is the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of laminitis by equine practitioners, however this method requires movement (walk and trot) of the horse, causing further intense pain. The recently developed Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, may offer a more effective means of assessing the pain associated with acute laminitis...
August 3, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Jennifer D Godman, Teresa A Burns, Carlin S Kelly, Mauria R Watts, Britta S Leise, Eric L Schroeder, Andrew W van Eps, James K Belknap
Sepsis-related laminitis (SRL) is a common complication in the septic/endotoxemic critically-ill equine patient, in which lamellar injury and failure commonly lead to crippling distal displacement of the distal phalanx. Similar to organ injury in human sepsis, lamellar injury in SRL has been associated with inflammatory events, including the influx of leukocytes into the lamellar tissue and markedly increased expression of a wide array of inflammatory mediators at the onset of Obel grade 1 (OG1) laminitis. The only treatment reported both clinically and experimentally to protect the lamellae in SRL, local hypothermia ("cryotherapy"), has been demonstrated to effectively inhibit lamellar expression of multiple inflammatory mediators when initiated at the time of administration of a carbohydrate overload in experimental models of SRL...
October 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Andy E Durham
Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Paul René van Weeren, Willem Back
Musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent health problem in aging horses. They are not life threatening, but are painful and an important welfare issue. Chronic joint disease (osteoarthritis) and chronic laminitis are the most prevalent. Treating osteoarthritis in the elderly horse is similar to treating performance horses, but aims at providing a stable situation with optimal comfort. Immediate medical treatment of flare-ups, long-term pain management, and adaptation of exercise and living conditions are the mainstays of treatment...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
N J Bamford, S J Potter, C L Baskerville, P A Harris, S R Bailey
The relationships between diet, obesity and insulin dysregulation in equids require further investigation due to their association with laminitis. This study examined the effect of dietary glycaemic load and increased adiposity on insulin sensitivity and adipokine concentrations in different equine breeds. Equal numbers of Standardbred horses, mixed-breed ponies and Andalusian horses were provided with ad libitum hay plus either cereal-rich (CHO; n = 12), fat-rich (FAT; n = 12) or control (CON; n = 9) meals over 20 weeks...
August 2016: Veterinary Journal
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