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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857965/endocrine-disorders-of-the-equine-athlete
#1
REVIEW
Nicholas Frank
Equine athletes are affected by 2 major endocrine/metabolic disorders, insulin dysregulation (ID) and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. ID is a risk factor for laminitis in horses, which poses the greatest threat to performance because of the damage that it causes to hoof structures. This article includes an in-depth discussion of ID and other risk factors for laminitis that are grouped together as equine metabolic syndrome. As horses age, the risk of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction increases, and this endocrine disorder may exacerbate preexisting ID and further increase the risk of laminitis...
May 29, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761574/association-between-hyperinsulinemia-and-laminitis-severity-at-the-time-of-pituitary-pars-intermedia-dysfunction-diagnosis
#2
E M Tadros, J G Fowlie, K R Refsal, J Marteniuk, H C Schott
BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinemia is the suspected component of insulin dysregulation having the strongest association with laminitis and occurs variably in equids with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that magnitude of hyperinsulinemia correlates with laminitis severity in PPID-affected equids. Furthermore, we hypothesised that owners can be unaware of chronic endocrinopathic laminitis. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
May 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758109/ex-vivo-effects-of-insulin-on-the-structural-integrity-of-equine-digital-lamellae
#3
C Sandow, L A Fugler, B Leise, L Riggs, W T Monroe, N Totaro, J Belknap, S Eades
BACKGROUND: Laminitis has a considerable impact on the equine industry. Endocrinopathic laminitis is the most common form and affected horses often have hyperinsulinaemia due to an underlying metabolic disorder. OBJECTIVES: To determine if insulin weakens the structural integrity of digital lamellae and to develop an ex vivo model for the study of hyperinsulinaemia-induced lamellar failure. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo experiment. METHODS: Biomechanical testing was used to assess the structural integrity of lamellar explants exposed to either medium alone (control) or medium supplemented with insulin...
May 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751248/evaluation-of-glucose-and-insulin-response-to-haylage-diets-with-different-content-of-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-2-breeds-of-horses
#4
S Lindåse, C Müller, K Nostell, J Bröjer
Information about the effect of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in forage on the postprandial glucose and insulin response in horses is scarce. This is of interest as postprandial hyperinsulinemia in horses is a risk factor for laminitis. In addition, insulin sensitivity (IS) differs between breeds. The aim was to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different NSC content in horses of 2 different breeds and to evaluate the relationship between the postprandial insulin response and measures of IS derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT)...
April 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716602/lower-plasma-trans-4-hydroxyproline-and-methionine-sulfoxide-levels-are-associated-with-insulin-dysregulation-in-horses
#5
Ákos Kenéz, Tobias Warnken, Karsten Feige, Korinna Huber
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation in horses is a metabolic condition defined by high insulin concentrations in the blood and peripheral insulin resistance. This hyperinsulinemia is often associated with severe damage in the hooves, resulting in laminitis. However, we currently lack detailed information regarding the potential involvement of particular metabolic pathways in pathophysiological causes and consequences of equine insulin dysregulation. This study aimed to assess the dynamic metabolic responses given to an oral glucose test (OGT) in insulin-sensitive and insulin-dysregulated horses by a targeted metabolomics approach to identify novel metabolites associated with insulin dysregulation...
May 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704935/epidemiology-of-pituitary-pars-intermedia-dysfunction-a-systematic-literature-review-of-clinical-presentation-disease-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#6
REVIEW
J L Ireland, C M McGowan
Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is caused by an age-related degenerative disease of dopaminergic neurones. Despite its importance in equine practice, available information regarding its epidemiology is limited. This systematic review aimed to assess published literature to evaluate available evidence regarding the clinical presentation, prevalence and risk factors for PPID in horses and ponies. Electronic database searches were undertaken using a range of terms, and English language publications published prior to August 2016 were included...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678227/humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-to-influenza-vaccination-in-equine-metabolic-syndrome-ems-horses
#7
Sarah Elzinga, Stephanie Reedy, Virginia D Barker, Thomas M Chambers, Amanda A Adams
Obesity is an increasing problem in the equine population with recent reports indicating that the percentage of overweight horses may range anywhere from 20.6-51%. Obesity in horses has been linked to more serious health concerns such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is a serious problem in the equine industry given its defining characteristics of insulin dysregualtion and obesity, as well as the involvement of laminitis. Little research however has been conducted to determine the effects of EMS on routine healthcare of these horses, in particular how they respond to vaccination...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665061/contracting-for-care-the-construction-of-the-farrier-role-in-supporting-horse-owners-to-prevent-laminitis
#8
J Lynden, J Ogden, T Hollands
BACKGROUND: Emerging research highlights how, due to demographic changes in horse owner populations in Western societies, complex owner-horse relationships are leading to inappropriate horse care, including overnutrition, which in turn can lead to laminitis. Farriers, due to their regular visits, may be in a position to support owners in dealing with this problem. OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether UK farriers have a role in working with horse owners to support horse welfare and prevent laminitis...
April 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502360/glucagon-like-peptide-2-a-potential-role-in-equine-insulin-dysregulation
#9
M A de Laat, D M Fitzgerald, M N Sillence, R J Spence
BACKGROUND: Equine insulin dysregulation (ID) is a common and poorly understood disorder that increases the risk of laminitis. Recent data show that the condition may be associated with alteration of the enteroinsular axis and enhanced glucose bioavailability. Upregulation of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), an intestinotrophic peptide, leads to enhanced nutrient uptake and metabolic dysfunction in other species. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to 1) determine whether GLP-2 is differentially expressed in insulin-dysregulated ponies, compared with healthy ponies, and 2) confirm intestinal expression of the GLP-2 receptor in horses (eGLP-2R)...
March 4, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426709/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-undifferentiated-and-infectious-acute-diarrhea-in-the-adult-horse
#10
REVIEW
Sarah D Shaw, Henry Stämpfli
Acute, infectious, diarrhea in adult horses is a major cause of morbidity and is associated with numerous complications. Common causes include salmonellosis, clostridiosis, Coronavirus, and infection with Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). Treatment is empirical and supportive until results of specific diagnostic tests are available. Supportive care is aimed at restoring hydration, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and limiting the systemic inflammatory response. The mainstays of therapy are intravenous fluid therapy, electrolyte supplementation where necessary, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and nutritional support...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421480/advanced-nutritional-and-stem-cells-approaches-to-prevent-equine-metabolic-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Krzysztof Marycz, Izabela Michalak, Katarzyna Kornicka
Horses metabolic disorders have become an important problem of modern veterinary medicine. Pathological obesity, insulin resistance and predisposition toward laminitis are associated with Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS). Based on pathogenesis of EMS, dietary and cell therapy management may significantly reduce development of this disorder. Special attention has been paid to the diet supplementation with highly bioavailable minerals and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which increase insulin sensitivity. In nutrition, there is a great interests in natural algae enriched via biosorption process with micro- and macroelements...
January 31, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397426/the-role-of-neutrophils-in-equine-laminitis
#12
REVIEW
Britta Leise
Equine laminitis is a devastating disease in which failure of the adhesion between the digital dermal and epidermal laminae at the basement membrane results in crippling lameness and structural damage to the foot of the horse. Laminitis occurring secondary to sepsis is known to result from a significant inflammatory response that includes leukocyte emigration into the lamellar tissue. These leukocytes, in particular the neutrophil, have been extensively evaluated in experimental models of sepsis-related laminitis in the horse...
March 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344364/novel-dry-cryotherapy-system-for-cooling-the-equine-digit
#13
Jessica Morgan, Darko Stefanovski, Margret Lenfest, Sraboni Chatterjee, James Orsini
Objectives: Digital cryotherapy is commonly used for laminitis prophylaxis and treatment. Currently validated methods for distal limb cryotherapy involve wet application or compression technology. There is a need for a practical, affordable, dry cryotherapy method that effectively cools the digit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hoof wall surface temperatures (HWSTs) achieved with a novel dry cryotherapy technology. Design: Repeated-measures in vivo experimental study...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287187/evaluation-of-oral-sugar-test-response-for-detection-of-equine-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-crioulo-horses
#14
C Cantarelli, S L Dau, S Stefanello, M S Azevedo, G R De Bastiani, H E Palma, K E Brass, F D De La Côrte
Owing to the high prevalence of obesity in Crioulo horses, information allowing early diagnosis of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) and prevention of the associated laminitis is of great value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of EMS and the response to an oral sugar test (OST) in obese Crioulo horses. Twenty-two Crioulo horses were allocated into 3 groups according to their body condition score (BCS out of 9) and presence or absence of laminitis as follows: CON (6/22), BCS < 7; OB (8/22), BCS ≥ 7; and LAM (8/22), BCS ≥7 with clinical and/or radiographic signs of laminitis...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282770/effect-of-continuous-digital-hypothermia-on-lamellar-inflammatory-signaling-when-applied-at-a-clinically-relevant-timepoint-in-the-oligofructose-laminitis-model
#15
K Dern, A van Eps, T Wittum, M Watts, C Pollitt, J Belknap
BACKGROUND: Although continuous digital hypothermia (CDH) protects lamellae from injury in the oligofructose (OF) model of sepsis-related laminitis (SRL), conflicting results exist from these studies regarding effects of CDH on lamellar inflammatory events. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of CDH on lamellar inflammatory events in normal and OF-treated horses when instituted at a clinically relevant time point (onset of clinical signs of sepsis in this model)...
January 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034249/misoprostol-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-by-equine-leukocytes
#16
Emily Medlin Martin, Kristen M Messenger, Mary Katherine Sheats, Samuel L Jones
Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 are potent immune mediators that exacerbate multiple equine diseases such as sepsis and laminitis. Unfortunately, safe and effective cytokine-targeting therapies are lacking in horses; therefore, novel mechanisms of inhibiting cytokine production are critically needed. One potential mechanism for inhibiting cytokine synthesis is elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). In human leukocytes, intracellular cAMP production is induced by activation of E-prostanoid (EP) receptors 2 and 4...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034248/misoprostol-inhibits-equine-neutrophil-adhesion-migration-and-respiratory-burst-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-inflammation
#17
Emily Medlin Martin, Rebecca Louise Till, Mary Katherine Sheats, Samuel L Jones
In many equine inflammatory disease states, neutrophil activities, such as adhesion, migration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production become dysregulated. Dysregulated neutrophil activation causes tissue damage in horses with asthma, colitis, laminitis, and gastric glandular disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not adequately inhibit neutrophil inflammatory functions and can lead to dangerous adverse effects. Therefore, novel therapies that target mechanisms of neutrophil-mediated tissue damage are needed...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019941/the-contribution-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-platelet-rich-plasma-to-the-treatment-of-chronic-equine-laminitis-a-proof-of-concept
#18
Mario Angelone, Virna Conti, Cristiano Biacca, Beatrice Battaglia, Laura Pecorari, Francesco Piana, Giacomo Gnudi, Fabio Leonardi, Roberto Ramoni, Giuseppina Basini, Silvia Dotti, Sabrina Renzi, Maura Ferrari, Stefano Grolli
Laminitis, a highly debilitating disease of the foot in ungulates, is characterized by pathological changes of the complex lamellar structures that maintain the appendicular skeleton within the hoof. Laminitis is a multifactorial disease that involves perturbation of the vascular, hematological, and inflammatory homeostasis of the foot. Interestingly, the pathogenesis of the disease resembles what is observed in metabolic syndromes and sepsis-induced organ failure in humans and animals. We hypothesized that local administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) might contribute to establishing an anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic environment, and could stimulate the injured tissue in order to restore its functional integrity...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955162/characteristic-findings-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-and-computed-tomography-ct-for-severe-chronic-laminitis-in-a-thoroughbred-horse
#19
Kazutaka Yamada, Tomohiro Inui, Megumi Itoh, Masashi Yanagawa, Fumio Sato, Masataka Tominari, Fumiaki Mizobe, Miori Kishimoto, Naoki Sasaki
A Thoroughbred horse with severe chronic laminitis of both forelimbs was evaluated on the same day with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Both MRI and CT revealed loss of the dorsal aspect of the cortical bone of the 3rd phalanx and sclerosis. CT reflected the status of the horny layer and bone of the affected feet, while MRI depicted inflammation of the laminar corium, together with tendon edema. On the 3-dimensional CT venogram, vessels were visualized in both the right and left forelimbs, although there was a difference in the vasculature of the coronary plexus and circumflex vessels between the right and left forelimbs...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948628/incidence-of-laminitis-and-survey-of-dietary-and-management-practices-in-pleasure-horses-and-ponies-in-south-eastern-australia
#20
S J Potter, N J Bamford, P A Harris, S R Bailey
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to (1) report the incidence of laminitis among a population of horses and ponies attending Pony Clubs in Victoria, Australia, and (2) describe the dietary and management practices of the sample population. METHODS: Researchers visited 10 Pony Clubs over a 10-month period. Horse and pony owners completed a questionnaire to provide information on management relating to diet and exercise. Owners were also asked to report their animal's history of laminitis, if any...
October 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
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