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Yibeltal Assefa, Peter S Hill, Owain D Williams
At September's 2017 United Nations General Assembly, a state-of-the-art HIV medicine was announced to be made available at just $75 per person per year. There have been a number of strategies that the global AIDS community and countries have utilized to reduce prices and make antiretrovirals (ARVs) accessible for people living with HIV/AIDS. There appears to be an opportunity for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to benefit from the often painful and laboured history of driving down the prices of ARVs...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
S K Abdrakhmanov, S B Tyulegenov, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, I I Sytnik, K K Beisembaev, A A Bainiyazov, A E Munsey, A M Perez, K VanderWaal
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) poses a significant obstacle to international trade and economic development, and for that reason, FMD prevention, control and eradication are major goals guiding animal health policy in most countries. The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective spatiotemporal analysis of FMD outbreaks among livestock in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) from 1955 to 2013. During that time, several FMD control strategies were implemented in RK, which culminated with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recognition of RK as a country that is FMD-free with partial vaccination (2015)...
March 15, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Sarah L Bornbusch, Jonathan S Lefcheck, J Emmett Duffy
Eusociality, one of the most complex forms of social organization, is thought to have evolved in several animal clades in response to competition for resources and reproductive opportunities. Several species of snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus, the only marine organisms known to exhibit eusociality, form colonies characterized by high reproductive skew, and aggressive territoriality coupled with cooperative defense. In eusocial Synalpheus colonies, individual reproduction is limited to female 'queens', whose fecundity dictates colony growth...
2018: PloS One
Ellen Fm 't Hoen, Jacquelyn Veraldi, Brigit Toebes, Hans V Hogerzeil
Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement and Public Health. The declaration recognized the implications of intellectual property rights for both new medicine development and the price of medicines. The declaration outlined measures, known as TRIPS flexibilities, that WTO Members can take to ensure access to medicines for all...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Ewa Juresic, Gary P Liney, Robba Rai, Joseph Descalar, Mark Lee, Karen Wong, Daniel Moses, Jacqueline Veera, Lois Holloway
INTRODUCTION: A magnetic resonance (MR) scanner for radiotherapy treatment simulation was commissioned in our department in June 2013. Practical set up and MR image quality trade-offs using a variety of patient positions and immobilisation devices routinely used in the treatment planning of rectal cancer patients were considered. The study also aimed to investigate the MR compatibility of the device materials with a focus on temperature changes during routine clinical examinations. METHODS: Ten volunteers were scanned: (1) Prone on a Civco Contoura Bellyboard (BBB), (2) Prone on a Civco MR Series Bellyboard (WBB), (3) Prone with no bellyboard and (4) Supine...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Kanjanee Phanphairoj, Ritzmond Loa
Background: Health is influenced by numerous factors that affect the health service system and health status of the people in every country. This article aims to compare the determinants of the health service system and the health status of the people in Thailand, the Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia; and to recommend policies that impact the population's health and the country's development. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature from a variety of online search and academic databases, and synthesis of previous study was used in this paper...
December 2017: Current Psychiatry Reviews
Paul Whitehead, Gianbattista Bussi, Mohammed Abed Hossain, Michaela Dolk, Partho Das, Sean Comber, Rebecca Peters, Katrina J Charles, Rob Hope, Sarwar Hossain
River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ebenezer Durojaye
The Tobacco Convention was adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003. Nikogosian and Kickbusch examine the five potential impacts of the Tobacco Convention and its Protocol on public health. These include the adoption of the Convention would seem to unlock the treaty-making powers of WHO; the impact of the Convention in the global health architecture has been phenomenal globally; the Convention has facilitated the adoption of further instruments to strengthen its implementation at the national level; the Convention has led to the adoption of appropriate legal framework to combat the use of tobacco at the national level and that the impact of the Convention would seem to go beyond public health but has also led to the adoption of the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Alexander G Toth, Ojmarrh Mitchell
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to utilize unique qualitative data to determine the effects of sporadic international drug interdictions on drug trafficking, and to assess whether the responses of drug traffickers align with rational choice theory. METHODS: Qualitative data obtained from 23 high-level United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informants, who are embedded in international drug trafficking groups, are examined to identify common responses to drug interdiction operations...
March 7, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Xin Zhang, Yi Rong, Steven Morrill, Jian Fang, Ganesh Narayanasamy, Edvaldo Galhardo, Sanjay Maraboyina, Christopher Croft, Fen Xia, Jose Penagaricano
Robust optimization generates scenario-based plans by a minimax optimization method to find optimal scenario for the trade-off between target coverage robustness and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. In this study, 20 lung cancer patients with tumors located at various anatomical regions within the lungs were selected and robust optimization photon treatment plans including intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated. The plan robustness was analyzed using perturbed doses with setup error boundary of ±3 mm in anterior/posterior (AP), ±3 mm in left/right (LR), and ±5 mm in inferior/superior (IS) directions from isocenter...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Victor Mittelstädt, Jeff Miller, Andrea Kiesel
In the present study, we introduce a novel, self-organized task-switching paradigm that can be used to study more directly the determinants of switching. Instead of instructing participants to randomly switch between tasks, as in the classic voluntary task-switching paradigm (Arrington & Logan, 2004), we instructed participants to optimize their task performance in a voluntary task-switching environment in which the stimulus associated with the previously selected task appeared in each trial after a delay...
March 9, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Xiaoli Wu, Yifan Li, Xulin Cui, Jingtao Wang, Xingzhong Cao, Peng Zhang, Lingyun Zheng
Thin-film composite (TFC) membranes show exceptional permeation properties of key importance for many separations. However, their design and development need ultrathin and defect-free nanofilm as active layer to alleviate the bottleneck of permeation-rejection trade-off. Here a 25 nm-thick film is fabricated on porous support by introducing polydopamine (PDA) as an adsorption layer, imparting a unique adsorption-assisted interfacial polymerization (IP) strategy. PDA layer efficiently captures and enriches amine monomers even from ultra-dilute solution towards uniform stacking on the support, thus generating ultrathin and defect-free film after polymerization...
March 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Corrine Jacobs, Roi Holzman
Suction feeding is a widespread prey capture strategy among aquatic vertebrates. It is almost omnipresent across fishes, and has repeatedly evolved in other aquatic vertebrates. By rapidly expanding the mouth cavity, suction-feeders generate a fluid flow outside of their mouth, drawing prey inside. Fish and other suction feeding organisms display remarkable trophic diversity, echoed in the diversity of their skull and mouth morphologies. Yet, it is unclear how variable suction flows are across species, and whether variation in suction flows supports trophic diversity...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
E V Sherstneva
The organization of curative institutions and their medicinal support was one of the main tasks of the departments (prikaz) of public charity. With this purpose hospital pharmacies were organized as pharmacies with free trading of medicinals to population oriented both to supplying prikaz institutions with medicinals and returning of income from selling medicinals to citizen. The medicinal support of prikaz hospitals was strictly regulated and restricted by strict financial limits. So, the prikaz institutions had no significant success in development of free trade of medicinals...
July 2017: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Tim K Mackey, John Annaloro
The withdrawal of the UK from the European Union (EU) is a complicated event. Although implications vary by industry, the biotechnology sector is especially vulnerable to the consequences of Brexit. Accordingly, here we evaluate potential repercussions under four post-Brexit political pathways: European Economic Area (EEA) affiliation (Norwegian Model); (negotiated bilateral access (Swiss Model); limited participation in EU Customs Union (Turkish Model); or independence under the World Trade Organization (WTO) designation...
March 1, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
A M Faria, A F Lopes, C S E Silva, S C Novais, M F L Lemos, E J Gonçalves
Fishes are currently facing novel types of anthropogenic stressors that have never experienced in their evolutionary history, such as ocean acidification. Under these stressful conditions, energetically costly processes, such as reproduction, may be sacrificed for increased chances of survival. This trade-off does not only affect the organism itself but may result in reduced offspring fitness. In the present study, the effects of exposure to high pCO2 levels were tested on the reproductive performance of a temperate species, the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens...
February 24, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Simon Maccracken Stump, Evan Curtis Johnson, Zepeng Sun, Christopher A Klausmeier
The ubiquity of cooperative cross-feeding (a resource-exchange mutualism) raises two related questions: Why is cross-feeding favored over self-sufficiency, and how are cross-feeders protected from non-producing cheaters? The Black Queen Hypothesis suggests that if leaky resources are costly, then there should be selection for either gene loss or self-sufficiency, but selection against mutualistic inter-dependency. Localized interactions have been shown to protect mutualists against cheaters, though their effects in the presence of self-sufficient organisms are not well understood...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Raphael Royauté, Elisabeth S Wilson, Bryan R Helm, Rachel E Mallinger, Jarrad Prasifka, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
Structures such as nests and burrows are an essential component of many organisms' life-cycle and requires a complex sequence of behaviors. Because behaviors can vary consistently among individuals and be correlated with one another, we hypothesized that these structures would 1) show evidence of among-individual variation, 2) be organized into distinct functional modules, and 3) show evidence of trade-offs among functional modules due to limits on energy budgets. We tested these hypotheses using the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, a solitary bee and important crop pollinator...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Srini Chary
Methadone for pain management in this article describes briefly pain, methadone as a Level 3 World Health Organization ladder opioid in the context of India and rest of the world, as well as the relationship to past, present, and future possibilities of pain management. Acute pain is proportional to the injury most of the times, and such proportionality may not exist in chronic pain. Pain management over decades has changed because of knowledge and availability of molecules and compounds to reduce chronic pain...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Leonardo Henriques Portes, Cristiani Vieira Machado, Silvana Rubano Barretto Turci
This study analyzes Brazil's tobacco control policy from 1986 to 2016, seeking to describe the policy's history and discuss its achievements, limits, and challenges. The study adopted a political economics approach and contributions from public policy analysis. Data were based on a search of the literature, documents, and secondary sources and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in the policy. Factors related to the domestic and international contexts, the political process, and the policy's content influenced the institutional characteristics of tobacco control in the country...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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