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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551256/authenticity-testing-of-environment-friendly-korean-rice-oryza-sativa-l-using-carbon-and-nitrogen-stable-isotope-ratio-analysis
#1
Ill-Min Chung, Sung-Kyu Park, Kyoung-Jin Lee, Min-Jeong An, Ji-Hee Lee, Yong-Taek Oh, Seung-Hyun Kim
The increasing demand for organic foods creates, in turn, a pressing need for the development of more accurate tools for the authentication of organic food in order to ensure both fair trade and food safety. This study examines the feasibility of δ(13)C and δ(15)N analyses as potential tools for authentication of environment-friendly rice sold in Korea. δ(13)C and δ(15)N examination in different rice grains showed that environment-friendly rice can be successfully distinguished from conventional rice. No multi-residue pesticides were detected in the examined rice samples, including conventional rice...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541931/the-role-of-constructed-wetlands-for-biomass-production-within-the-water-soil-waste-nexus
#2
C T Avellan, R Ardakanian, P Gremillion
The use of constructed wetlands for water pollution control has a long standing tradition in urban, peri-urban, rural, agricultural and mining environments. The capacity of wetland plants to take up nutrients and to filter organic matter has been widely discussed and presented in diverse fora and published in hundreds of articles. In an ever increasingly complex global world, constructed wetlands not only play a role in providing safe sanitation in decentralized settings, shelter for biodiversity, and cleansing of polluted sites, in addition, they produce biomass that can be harvested and used for the production of fodder and fuel...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535592/stream-salinization-and-fungal-mediated-leaf-decomposition-a-microcosm-study
#3
Cristina Canhoto, Sara Simões, Ana Lúcia Gonçalves, Lúcia Guilhermino, Felix Bärlocher
Salinization is of major global concern due to its effect on stream biota, and ecosystem functions and services. In small streams, litter decomposition is a key ecosystem-level process driven by decomposers, mainly fungi (aquatic hyphomycetes), which link litter and invertebrates. Here we assessed the effects of an environmentally relevant range of salt additions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16gL(-1) NaCl) on (1) fungal growth and species-specific reproductive output and (2) fungal mediated-decomposition of Quercus robur leaves...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513143/interactive-effects-of-corrosion-copper-and-chloramines-on-legionella-and-mycobacteria-in-hot-water-plumbing
#4
William J Rhoads, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards
Complexities associated with drinking water plumbing systems can result in undesirable interactions among plumbing components, undermining engineering controls for opportunistic pathogens (OPs). In this study, we examine the effects of plumbing system materials and two commonly applied disinfectants, copper and chloramines, on water chemistry and the growth of Legionella and mycobacteria across a transect of bench- and pilot-scale hot water experiments carried out with the same municipal water supply. We discovered that copper released from corrosion of plumbing materials can initiate evolution of >1,100 times more hydrogen (H2) from water heater sacrificial anode rods than does presence of copper dosed as soluble cupric ions...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507663/molecular-engineering-and-sequential-cosensitization-for-preventing-the-trade-off-effect-with-photovoltaic-enhancement
#5
Weiwei Zhang, Yongzhen Wu, Xin Li, Erpeng Li, Xiongrong Song, Huiyun Jiang, Chao Shen, Hao Zhang, He Tian, Wei-Hong Zhu
In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), it is essential to use rational molecular design to obtain promising photosensitizers with well-matched energy levels and narrow optical band gaps. However, the "trade-off" effect between the photocurrent and photovoltage is still a challenge. Here we report four benzoxidazole based D-A-π-A metal-free organic dyes (WS-66, WS-67, WS-68 and WS-69) with different combinations of π-spacer units and anchoring-acceptor groups. Either extending the π-spacer or enhancing the electron acceptor can efficiently modulate the molecular energy levels, leading to a red-shift in the absorption spectra...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497849/differential-investment-in-body-girths-by-sex-evidence-from-3d-photonic-scanning-in-a-thai-cohort
#6
Meghan K Shirley, Tim J Cole, Supiya Charoensiriwath, Philip Treleaven, Jonathan C K Wells
OBJECTIVES: Life history trade-offs may manifest between competing organs and tissues in the body. Sexual dimorphism in tissue investment is well-established in humans, with sex-associated body shape differences linked to natural and sexual selection. This study uses three-dimensional (3D) photonic scanning to test whether males and females differentially invest energy in various body regions in relation to two independent proxies of growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body shape data (multiple girths) came from a Thai cohort (n = 11,610; 53% female; age range 21-88 years)...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495866/sources-of-variance-in-immunological-traits-evidence-of-congruent-latitudinal-trends-across-species
#7
Hendrik Meister, Toomas Tammaru, Siiri-Lii Sandre, Dalial Freitak
Among-population differences in immunological traits allow to assess both evolutionary and plastic changes in organisms' resistance to pathogens. Such knowledge also provides information necessary to predict responses of such traits to environmental changes. Studies on latitudinal trends in insect immunity have so far yielded contradictory results, suggesting that multispecies approaches with highly standardised experimental conditions are needed. Here, we studied among-population differences of two parameters reflecting constitutive immunity - phenoloxidase (PO) and lytic activity - using common garden design on three distantly related moth species represented by populations ranging from northern Finland to Georgia (Caucasus)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495700/visualizing-dynamic-microvillar-search-and-stabilization-during-ligand-detection-by-t-cells
#8
En Cai, Kyle Marchuk, Peter Beemiller, Casey Beppler, Matthew G Rubashkin, Valerie M Weaver, Audrey Gérard, Tsung-Li Liu, Bi-Chang Chen, Eric Betzig, Frederic Bartumeus, Matthew F Krummel
During immune surveillance, T cells survey the surface of antigen-presenting cells. In searching for peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs), they must solve a classic trade-off between speed and sensitivity. It has long been supposed that microvilli on T cells act as sensory organs to enable search, but their strategy has been unknown. We used lattice light-sheet and quantum dot-enabled synaptic contact mapping microscopy to show that anomalous diffusion and fractal organization of microvilli survey the majority of opposing surfaces within 1 minute...
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494313/heavy-metals-translocation-and-accumulation-from-the-rhizosphere-soils-to-the-edible-parts-of-the-medicinal-plant-fengdan-paeonia-ostii-grown-on-a-metal-mining-area-china
#9
Zhang Jun Shen, De Cong Xu, Yan Song Chen, Zhen Zhang
Fengdan (Paeonia ostii) is one of Chinese 34 famous medicinal materials. This study investigated the concentrations of Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc (Zn) in rhizosphere soils, cortex mouton and seeds of Fengdan planted in a metal mining area, China. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Zn in the rhizosphere soils were above the limits set by the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995). The contamination factor (CF) of Cd was >5, while it was >2for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in all the soils...
May 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493848/investigating-multi-objective-fluence-and-beam-orientation-imrt-optimization
#10
Peter Simon Potrebko, Jason Fiege, Matthew Biagioli, Jan Poleszczuk
Radiation Oncology treatment planning requires compromises to be made between clinical objectives that are invariably in conflict. It would be beneficial to have a "bird's-eye-view" perspective of the full spectrum of treatment plans that represent the possible trade-offs between delivering the intended dose to the planning target volume (PTV) while optimally sparing the organs-at-risk (OARs). In this work, the authors demonstrate Pareto-Aware Radiotherapy Evolutionary Treatment Optimization (PARETO), a multi-objective tool featuring such bird's-eye-view functionality, which optimizes fluence patterns and beam angles for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning...
May 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491028/resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-network-analysis-of-cerebellum-with-respect-to-crystallized-iq-and-gender
#11
Vasileios C Pezoulas, Michalis Zervakis, Sifis Michelogiannis, Manousos A Klados
During the last years, it has been established that the prefrontal and posterior parietal brain lobes, which are mostly related to intelligence, have many connections to cerebellum. However, there is a limited research investigating cerebellum's relationship with cognitive processes. In this study, the network of cerebellum was analyzed in order to investigate its overall organization in individuals with low and high crystallized Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were selected from 136 subjects in resting-state from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database and were further separated into two IQ groups composed of 69 low-IQ and 67 high-IQ subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490604/the-evolution-of-lossy-compression
#12
Sarah E Marzen, Simon DeDeo
In complex environments, there are costs to both ignorance and perception. An organism needs to track fitness-relevant information about its world, but the more information it tracks, the more resources it must devote to perception. As a first step towards a general understanding of this trade-off, we use a tool from information theory, rate-distortion theory, to study large, unstructured environments with fixed, randomly drawn penalties for stimuli confusion ('distortions'). We identify two distinct regimes for organisms in these environments: a high-fidelity regime where perceptual costs grow linearly with environmental complexity, and a low-fidelity regime where perceptual costs are, remarkably, independent of the number of environmental states...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490601/optimizing-mating-encounters-by-sexually-dimorphic-movements
#13
Nobuaki Mizumoto, Masato S Abe, Shigeto Dobata
All organisms with sexual reproduction undergo a process of mating, which essentially involves the encounter of two individuals belonging to different sexes. During mate search, both sexes should mutually optimize their encounters, thus raising a question of how they achieve this. Here, we show that a population with sexually dimorphic movement patterns achieves the highest individual mating success under a limited lifespan. Extensive simulations found and analytical approximations corroborated the existence of conditions under which sexual dimorphism in the movement patterns (i...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490539/physiological-redundancy-and-the-integrative-responses-to-exercise
#14
Michael J Joyner, Jerome A Dempsey
The biological responses to acute and chronic exercise are marked by a high level of physiological redundancy that operates at various levels of integration, including the molecular, cellular, organ-system, and whole-body scale. During acute exercise, this redundancy protects whole-body homeostasis in the face of 10-fold or more increases in whole-body metabolic rate. In some cases, there are "trade-offs" between optimizing the performance of a given organ or system versus whole-body performance. Physiological redundancy also plays a key role in the adaptive responses to exercise training and high levels of habitual physical activity, including the positive effects of regular exercise on health...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488750/computing-the-extended-synthesis-mapping-the-dynamics-and-conceptual-structure-of-the-evolvability-research-front
#15
Laura Nuño de la Rosa
Since the late 1970s, the field of evolutionary biology has undergone empirical and theoretical developments that have threaten the pillars of evolutionary theory. Some evolutionary biologists have recently argued that evolutionary biology is not experiencing a paradigm shift, but an expansion of the modern synthesis. Philosophers of biology focusing on scientific practices seem to agree with this pluralistic interpretation and have argued that evolutionary theory should rather be seen as an organized network of multiple problem agendas with diverse disciplinary contributors...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487686/ecological-stoichiometry-beyond-redfield-an-ionomic-perspective-on-elemental-homeostasis
#16
Punidan D Jeyasingh, Jared M Goos, Seth K Thompson, Casey M Godwin, James B Cotner
Elemental homeostasis has been largely characterized using three important elements that were part of the Redfield ratio (i.e., carbon: nitrogen: phosphorus). These efforts have revealed substantial diversity in homeostasis among taxonomic groups and even within populations. Understanding the evolutionary basis, and ecological consequences of such diversity is a central challenge. Here, we propose that a more complete understanding of homeostasis necessitates the consideration of other elements beyond C, N, and P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486131/large-cytoplasm-is-linked-to-the-error-prone-nature-of-oocytes
#17
Hirohisa Kyogoku, Tomoya S Kitajima
Chromosome segregation during meiosis in oocytes is error prone. The uniquely large cytoplasmic size of oocytes, which provides support for embryogenesis after fertilization, might be a predisposing factor for meiotic errors. However, this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we show that cytoplasmic size affects the functionality of the acentrosomal spindle. Artificially decreasing the cytoplasmic size in mouse oocytes allows the acentrosomal spindle poles to have a better-focused distribution of microtubule-organizing centers and to biorient chromosomes more efficiently, whereas enlargement of the cytoplasmic size has the opposite effects...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481398/evolutionary-trade-offs-in-kidney-injury-and-repair
#18
REVIEW
Yutian Lei, Hans-Joachim Anders
Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease...
May 8, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480014/maximum-thermal-tolerance-trades-off-with-chronic-tolerance-of-high-temperature-in-contrasting-thermal-populations-of-radix-balthica
#19
Magnus P Johansson, Anssi Laurila
Thermal adaptation theory predicts that thermal specialists evolve in environments with low temporal and high spatial thermal variation, whereas thermal generalists are favored in environments with high temporal and low spatial variation. The thermal environment of many organisms is predicted to change with globally increasing temperatures and thermal specialists are presumably at higher risk than thermal generalists. Here we investigated critical thermal maximum (CT max) and preferred temperature (Tp) in populations of the common pond snail (Radix balthica) originating from a small-scale system of geothermal springs in northern Iceland, where stable cold (ca...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479999/mitochondrial-function-and-bioenergetic-trade-offs-during-lactation-in-the-house-mouse-mus-musculus
#20
Annelise V Mowry, Zachary S Donoviel, Andreas N Kavazis, Wendy R Hood
Energy allocation theory predicts that a lactating female should alter the energetic demands of its organ systems in a manner that maximizes nutrient allocation to reproduction while reducing nutrient use for tasks that are not vital to immediate survival. We posit that organ-specific plasticity in the function of mitochondria plays a key role in mediating these energetic trade-offs. The goal of this project was to evaluate mitochondrial changes that occur in response to lactation in two of the most energetically demanding organs in the body of a rodent, the liver and skeletal muscle...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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