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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320450/nitrogen-nutrition-of-fruit-trees-to-reconcile-productivity-and-environmental-concerns
#1
Corina Carranca, Gustavo Brunetto, Massimo Tagliavini
Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314554/going-from-evidence-to-recommendations-can-grade-get-us-there
#2
Mathew Mercuri, Brian Baigrie, Ross E G Upshur
The evidence based medicine movement has championed the need for objective and transparent methods of clinical guideline development. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was developed for that purpose. Central to this framework is criteria for assessing the quality of evidence from clinical studies and the impact that body of evidence should have on our confidence in the clinical effectiveness of a therapy under examination. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation has been adopted by a number of professional medical societies and organizations as a means for orienting the development of clinical guidelines...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311701/equal-fitness-paradigm-explained-by-a-trade-off-between-generation-time-and-energy-production-rate
#3
James H Brown, Charles A S Hall, Richard M Sibly
Most plant, animal and microbial species of widely varying body size and lifestyle are nearly equally fit as evidenced by their coexistence and persistence through millions of years. All organisms compete for a limited supply of organic chemical energy, derived mostly from photosynthesis, to invest in the two components of fitness: survival and production. All organisms are mortal because molecular and cellular damage accumulates over the lifetime; life persists only because parents produce offspring. We call this the equal fitness paradigm...
January 8, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303479/intrinsic-adaptive-value-and-early-fate-of-gene-duplication-revealed-by-a-bottom-up-approach
#4
Guillermo Rodrigo, Mario A Fares
The population genetic mechanisms governing the preservation of gene duplicates, especially in the critical very initial phase, have remained largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that gene duplication confers per se a weak selective advantage in scenarios of fitness trade-offs. Through a precise quantitative description of a model system, we show that a second gene copy serves to reduce gene expression inaccuracies derived from pervasive molecular noise and suboptimal gene regulation. We then reveal that such an accuracy in the phenotype yields a selective advantage in the order of 0...
January 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302776/epidemiological-situation-of-transboundary-animal-diseases-in-north-african-countries-proposition-of-a-regional-control-strategy
#5
REVIEW
Moustafa Kardjadj
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) defined transboundary animal diseases (TADs) as those that are of significant economic, trade, and food security importance for a considerable number of countries. TADs can easily spread to other countries, reach epidemic proportions, and where control, management, or exclusion is required cooperation between several countries. The North African countries are vulnerable to several TADs by virtue of its geographical location, its borders with the Sahel region, and peculiar control constraints on the budgets of the national veterinary services of each country and on the livelihoods of livestock owners across the region...
January 5, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301686/is-there-an-effect-of-environmental-temperature-on-the-response-to-an-antigen-and-the-metabolic-rate-in-pups-of-the-rodent-octodon-degus
#6
Natalia Ramirez-Otarola, Janyra Espinoza, Alexis M Kalergis, Pablo Sabat
Environmental temperature is a variable that influences all aspects of organisms, from physiological, e.g. immune function, and morphological traits to behavior. Recent studies have reported that environmental temperature modulates organisms' thermoregulatory capacity and immune response, suggesting that trade-offs must be made between thermoregulation and immune function. Despite this, studies that evaluate this trade-off in developing endotherms are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental temperature experienced during development on the response to an antigen and its energetic costs in the precocial rodent Octodon degus...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287994/exploring-the-existence-of-better-hands-for-manipulation-than-the-human-hand-based-on-hand-proportions
#7
Di Hu, Cai-Hua Xiong, Ming-Jin Liu
Human exhibits the most dexterous manual manipulation among the anthropoids. The sophisticated dexterity of human hand has been linked to its distinctive morphology compared to the nonhuman anthropoids. The human hand is derived from the ancestral hands after longtime evolution. However, there are more possible morphologies that the hands could take during the evolutionary process. It remains unknown whether better hands for manipulation than the human hand exist among these possible hands. To answer the question, the relationship between the manipulative capability and hand morphology need to be investigated in the region of more possible hands...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278928/exploring-plant-tissue-culture-in-withania-somnifera-l-dunal-in-vitro-propagation-and-secondary-metabolite-production
#8
Shasmita, Manoj K Rai, Soumendra K Naik
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves...
December 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251425/regular-aligned-1d-single-crystalline-supramolecular-arrays-for-photodetectors
#9
Yun Liu, Jiangang Feng, Bo Zhang, Yuchen Wu, Yong Chen, Lei Jiang
Solution-processed semiconductor single-crystal patterns possess unique advantages of large scale and low cost, leading to potential applications toward high-performance optoelectronic devices. To integrate organic semiconductor micro/nanostructures into devices, various patterning techniques have been developed. However, previous patterning techniques suffer from trade-offs between precision, scalability, crystallinity, and orientation. Herein, a patterning method is reported based on an asymmetric-wettability micropillar-structured template...
December 18, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246432/adolescents-exposed-to-the-world-trade-center-collapse-have-elevated-serum-dioxin-and-furan-concentrations-more-than-12years-later
#10
Linda G Kahn, Xiaoxia Han, Tony T Koshy, Yongzhao Shao, Dinh Binh Chu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Leonardo Trasande
BACKGROUND: The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 released a dust cloud containing numerous environmental contaminants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PCDD/Fs are toxic and are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including cancer, diabetes, and impaired reproductive and immunologic function. Prior studies have found adults exposed to the WTC disaster to have elevated levels of PCDD/Fs...
December 2, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238118/mechanisms-and-model-diversity-of-trade-wind-shallow-cumulus-cloud-feedbacks-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Jessica Vial, Sandrine Bony, Bjorn Stevens, Raphaela Vogel
Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has emerged as an important topic of investigation. We review physical understanding of these key controlling factors and discuss the value of the different approaches that have been developed so far, based on global and high-resolution model experimentations and process-oriented analyses across a range of models and for observations...
2017: Surveys in Geophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236241/set-organic-pollution-as-an-impact-category-to-achieve-more-comprehensive-evaluation-of-life-cycle-assessment-in-wastewater-related-issues
#12
Xinyue Zhao, Jixian Yang, Fang Ma
For wastewater-related issues (WRI), life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to evaluate environmental impacts and derive optimization strategies. To promote the application of LCA for WRI, it is critical to incorporate local impact of water pollutants. Organic pollution, a main type of water pollution, has not been given much consideration in current LCA systems. This paper investigates the necessity of setting a regionalized impact category to reflect the local impact of organic pollution. A case study is conducted concerning an upgraded wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in China, which is assumed to meet different sewage control strategies...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230502/-acceptance-of-post-mortem-organ-donation-in-germany-representative-cross-sectional-study
#13
E Tackmann, S Dettmer
BACKGROUND: The German post-mortem organ donation rate has dropped by one third since 2010. Furthermore, 958 patients died in 2015 in Germany while waiting for an organ. To decrease organ shortage, an amendment of the transplantation law was established in 2012. An information package including an organ donor card is sent to all German citizens via the postal service. A voluntary national transplantation register was introduced in 2016 to improve transparency in the organ donation process...
December 11, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230402/animal-health-surveillance-in-scotland-in-2030-using-scenario-planning-to-develop-strategies-in-the-context-of-brexit
#14
Lisa A Boden, Harriet Auty, Aaron Reeves, Gustaf Rydevik, Paul Bessell, Iain J McKendrick
Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227644/molecular-building-block-based-electronic-charges-for-high-throughput-screening-of-mofs-for-adsorption-applications
#15
Edwin Argueta, Jeena Shaji, Arun Gopalan, Peilin Liao, Randall Q Snurr, Diego A Gomez-Gualdron
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials with attractive properties for gas separation and storage. Their remarkable tunability makes it possible to create millions of MOF variations, but creates the need for fast material screening to identify promising structures. Computational high-throughput screening (HTS) is a possible solution, but its usefulness is tied to accurate predictions of MOF adsorption properties. Accurate adsorption simulations often require an accurate description of electrostatic interactions, which depend on the electronic charges of the MOF atoms...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226479/metabolite-profiling-and-isolation-of-biologically-active-compounds-from-scadoxus-puniceus-a-highly-traded-south-african-medicinal-plant
#16
Devashan Naidoo, Lenka Poštová Slavětínská, Adeyemi O Aremu, Jiri Gruz, Ondrej Biba, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden, Jeffrey F Finnie
Scadoxus puniceus (Amaryllidaceae), a medicinal plant of high value in South Africa, is used as a component of a traditional herbal tonic prescribed to treat several ailments. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantified the phenolic compounds in different organs of S. puniceus. Gravity column chromatography was used to separate fractions and active compounds. The structure of these compounds was determined using 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques...
December 11, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207350/mobile-genetic-elements-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-mine-soil-amended-with-organic-wastes
#17
Carlos Garbisu, Olatz Garaiyurrebaso, Anders Lanzén, Itxaso Álvarez-Rodríguez, Lide Arana, Fernando Blanco, Kornelia Smalla, Elisabeth Grohmann, Itziar Alkorta
Metal resistance has been associated with antibiotic resistance due to co- or cross-resistance mechanisms. Here, metal contaminated mine soil treated with organic wastes was screened for the presence of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The occurrence of conjugative IncP-1 and mobilizable IncQ plasmids, as well as of class 1 integrons, was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization, suggesting that bacteria from these soils have gene-mobilizing capacity with implications for the dissemination of resistance factors...
December 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202413/alteration-of-host-pathogen-interactions-in-the-wake-of-climate-change-increasing-risk-for-shellfish-associated-infections
#18
REVIEW
Bodil E Hernroth, Susanne P Baden
The potential for climate-related spread of infectious diseases through marine systems has been highlighted in several reports. With this review we want to draw attention to less recognized mechanisms behind vector-borne transmission pathways to humans. We have focused on how the immune systems of edible marine shellfish, the blue mussels and Norway lobsters, are affected by climate related environmental stressors. Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming due to climate change constitute a gradually increasing persistent stress with negative trade-off for many organisms...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198316/exploring-innovative-radiation-shielding-approaches-in-space-a-material-and-design-study-for-a-wearable-radiation-protection-spacesuit
#19
M Vuolo, G Baiocco, S Barbieri, L Bocchini, M Giraudo, T Gheysens, C Lobascio, A Ottolenghi
We present a design study for a wearable radiation-shielding spacesuit, designed to protect astronauts' most radiosensitive organs. The suit could be used in an emergency, to perform necessary interventions outside a radiation shelter in the space habitat in case of a Solar Proton Event (SPE). A wearable shielding system of the kind we propose has the potential to prevent the onset of acute radiation effects in this scenario. In this work, selection of materials for the spacesuit elements is performed based on the results of dedicated GRAS/Geant4 1-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, and after a trade-off analysis between shielding performance and availability of resources in the space habitat...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195914/early-fluid-loading-for-septic-patients-any-safety-limit-needed
#20
REVIEW
Yi-Chun Gong, Jing-Tao Liu, Peng-Lin Ma
Early adequate fluid loading was the corner stone of hemodynamic optimization for sepsis and septic shock. Meanwhile, recent recommended protocol for fluid resuscitation was increasingly debated on hemodynamic stability vs risk of overloading. In recent publications, it was found that a priority was often given to hemodynamic stability rather than organ function alternation in the early fluid resuscitation of sepsis. However, no safety limits were used at all in most of these reports. In this article, the rationality and safety of early aggressive fluid loading for septic patients were discussed...
November 8, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
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