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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933895/individual-variability-in-the-semantic-processing-of-english-compound-words
#1
Daniel Schmidtke, Julie A Van Dyke, Victor Kuperman
Semantic transparency effects during compound word recognition provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. The past 25 years of psycholinguistic research on compound semantic transparency has produced discrepant effects, leaving the existence and nature of its influence unresolved. In the present study, we examined the influence of semantic transparency and individual reading experience on eye-movement behavior during sentence reading. Eye-movement data were collected from 138 non-college-bound 16- to 26-year-old speakers of English in a sentence-reading task representing a total of 455 different compound words...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926018/assessing-the-extent-and-use-of-risk-analysis-methodologies-in-africa-using-data-derived-from-the-performance-of-veterinary-services-pvs-pathway
#2
P Bastiaensen, D Abernethy, E Etter
African countries that wish to export are increasingly faced with import risk assessments from importing countries concerned about the sources of their imported goods. Other risk analysis methodologies and approaches are also employed, which focus on animal and human health within countries and communities. Based on an analysis of evaluations conducted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the Performance of Veterinary Services Tool, the authors attempt to define current practice in Africa and degrees of compliance with the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ('SPS Agreement') and OIE standards...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922907/organ-vouchers-and-barter-markets-saving-lives-reducing-suffering-and-trading-in-human-organs
#3
Mark J Cherry
The essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy explore an innovative voucher program for encouraging kidney donation. Discussions cluster around a number of central moral and political/theoretical themes: (1) What are the direct and indirect health care costs and benefits of such a voucher system in human organs? (2) Do vouchers lead to more effective and efficient organ procurement and allocation or contribute to greater inequalities and inefficiencies in the transplantation system? (3) Do vouchers contribute to the inappropriate commodification of human body parts? (4) Is there a significant moral difference between such a voucher system and a market in human organs for transplantation? This paper argues that while kidney vouchers constitute a step in the right direction, fuller utilization of market-based incentives, including, but not limited to, barter exchanges (e...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915446/embracing-chemical-and-structural-diversity-with-uconga-a-universal-conformer-generation-and-analysis-program
#4
Nathaniel R Gunby, Sarah L Masters, Deborah L Crittenden
Molecular properties depend on molecular structure, so the first step in any computational chemistry investigation is to generate all thermally accessible conformers. Typically it is necessary to make a trade-off between the number of conformers to be explored and the accuracy of the method used to calculate their energies. Ab initio potential energy surface scans can, in principle, be applied to any molecule, but their conformational cost scales poorly with both molecular size and dimensionality of the search space...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915001/design-of-donor-polymers-with-strong-temperature-dependent-aggregation-property-for-efficient-organic-photovoltaics
#5
Huawei Hu, Philip C Y Chow, Guangye Zhang, Tingxuan Ma, Jing Liu, Guofang Yang, He Yan
Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted intensive research attention over the past two decades owing to their unique advantages including mechanical flexibility, light weight, large area, and low-cost fabrications. To date, OSC devices have achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 12%. Much of the progress was enabled by the development of high-performance donor polymers with favorable morphological, electronic, and optical properties. A key problem in morphology control of OSCs is the trade-off between achieving small domain size and high polymer crystallinity, which is especially important for the realization of efficient thick-film devices with high fill factors...
September 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913869/fast-growing-oysters-show-reduced-capacity-to-provide-a-thermal-refuge-to-intertidal-biodiversity-at-high-temperatures
#6
Dominic McAfee, Wayne A O'Connor, Melanie J Bishop
1.Ecosystem engineers that modify the thermal environment experienced by associated organisms might assist in the climate change adaptation of species. This depends upon the ability of ecosystem engineers to persist and continue to ameliorate thermal stress under changing climatic conditions - traits that may display significant intraspecific variation. 2.In the physically stressful intertidal, the complex three-dimensional structure of oysters provides shading and traps moisture during aerial exposure at low tide...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911637/safety-of-frozen-liver-for-human-consumption
#7
Ghada A K Kirrella, Azza M M Deeb, Reda Mohamed Ibrahim Abdallah
The objective of this study was to ensure and evaluate the safety of imported frozen beef liver traded in supermarkets of Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, through detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidies, Escherichia coli O157:H7, antibiotic residues, and aflatoxin B1 residue. Fifty samples of imported frozen liver were randomly collected from different shops at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate for isolation of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidies, and E. coli O157:H7. The results revealed that for both microorganisms 4% of the examined samples presumed to contain Salmonella and E...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903046/genome-scale-architecture-of-small-molecule-regulatory-networks-and-the-fundamental-trade-off-between-regulation-and-enzymatic-activity
#8
Ed Reznik, Dimitris Christodoulou, Joshua E Goldford, Emma Briars, Uwe Sauer, Daniel Segrè, Elad Noor
Metabolic flux is in part regulated by endogenous small molecules that modulate the catalytic activity of an enzyme, e.g., allosteric inhibition. In contrast to transcriptional regulation of enzymes, technical limitations have hindered the production of a genome-scale atlas of small molecule-enzyme regulatory interactions. Here, we develop a framework leveraging the vast, but fragmented, biochemical literature to reconstruct and analyze the small molecule regulatory network (SMRN) of the model organism Escherichia coli, including the primary metabolite regulators and enzyme targets...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898805/molecular-changes-in-vitellogenin-gene-of-spodoptera-exigua-after-long-time-exposure-to-cadmium-toxic-side-effect-or-microevolution
#9
Anna Płachetka-Bożek, Karolina Chwiałkowska, Maria Augustyniak
The reproduction of pest insects is a continuously ongoing issue, especially in the environmental pollution context. Natural or artificial stressing factors enforce a kind of trade-off, most often between growth/survival and reproduction, which improves fitness of the organism. Harmful factors, such as cadmium, can affect the vitellogenesis leading to reduction of yolk synthesis and egg production. The aim of this study was to assess whether 130-generational selection to cadmium in food might have induced change in vitellogenesis of Spodoptera exigua...
September 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898576/low-temperature-solution-processed-random-silver-nanowire-as-promising-replacement-for-indium-tin-oxide
#10
Arastoo Teymouri, Supriya Pillai, Zi Ouyang, Xiaojing Hao, Fangyang Liu, Chang Yan, Martin A Green
A low temperature solution-based process for depositing silver nanowire (AgNW) networks for use as transparent conductive electrode is demonstrated. These AgNWs when applied to Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells out-performed indium tin oxide as the top electrode. Thinner nanowires allow the use of lower temperatures during processing while longer wires allow lowered sheet resistance for the same surface coverage of NWs, enhancing the transmittance/conductance trade-off. Conductive atomic force microscopy and percolation theory were used to study the quality of the NW network at the microscale...
September 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888021/simultaneous-monitoring-of-single-cell-and-of-micro-organ-activity-by-pedot-pss-covered-multi-electrode-arrays
#11
Dimitrios A Koutsouras, Romain Perrier, Ariana Villarroel Marquez, Antoine Pirog, Eileen Pedraza, Eric Cloutet, Sylvie Renaud, Matthieu Raoux, George G Malliaras, Jochen Lang
Continuous and long-term monitoring of cellular and micro-organ activity is required for new insights into physiology and novel technologies such as Organs-on-Chip. Moreover, recent advances in stem cell technology and especially in the field of diabetes call for non-invasive approaches in quality testing of the large quantities of surrogate pancreatic islets to be generated. Electrical activity of such a micro-organ results in single cell action potentials (APs) of high frequency and in low frequency changes in local field potentials (slow potentials or SPs), reflecting coupled cell activity and overall organ physiology...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886712/the-effect-of-alphacypermethrin-treated-mesh-protection-against-african-horse-sickness-virus-vectors-on-jet-stall-microclimate-clinical-variables-and-faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-of-horses
#12
Patrick Page, Andre Ganswindt, Johan Schoeman, Gert Venter, Alan Guthrie
BACKGROUND: African horse sickness (AHS) is of importance to health and international trade in horses worldwide. During export from and transit through AHS endemic countries or zones, physical and chemical measures to protect horses from the vectors of AHS virus (AHSV) are recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health. Protection of containerized air transport systems for horses (jet stalls) with alphacypermethrin insecticide-treated high density polyethylene mesh is effective in reducing the Culicoides midge vector attack rate...
September 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883915/evaluation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-innate-immunity-interactions-between-commercial-broiler-f1-layer-%C3%A3-broiler-cross-and-commercial-layer-strains-selected-for-different-growth-potentials
#13
Nicky-Lee Willson, Rebecca E A Forder, Rick G Tearle, Greg S Nattrass, Robert J Hughes, Philip I Hynd
BACKGROUND: The broiler industry has undergone intense genetic selection over the past 50 yr. resulting in improvements for growth and feed efficiency, however, significant variation remains for performance and growth traits. Production improvements have been coupled with unfavourable metabolic consequences, including immunological trade-offs for growth, and excess fat deposition. To determine whether interactions between fatty acid (FA) metabolism and innate immunity may be associated with performance variations commonly seen within commercial broiler flocks, total carcass lipid %, carcass and blood FA composition, as well as genes involved with FA metabolism, immunity and cellular stress were investigated in male birds of a broiler strain, layer strain and F1 layer × broiler cross at d 14 post hatch...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883084/advances-in-risk-oriented-surgery-for-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2
#14
Andreas Machens, Henning Dralle
Genetic association studies hinge on definite clinical case definitions of the disease of interest. This is why more penetrant mutations were overrepresented in early multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2) studies, whereas less penetrant mutations went underrepresented. Enrichment of genetic association studies with advanced disease may produce a flawed understanding of disease evolution, precipitating far-reaching surgical strategies like bilateral total adrenalectomy and 4-gland parathyroidectomy in MEN2. The insight into the natural course of the disease gleaned over the past 25 years caused a paradigm shift in MEN2: from the removal of target organs at the expense of greater operative morbidity to close biochemical surveillance and targeted resection of adrenal tumors and hyperplastic parathyroid glands...
September 7, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882327/erectile-function-and-oncologic-outcomes-following-open-retropubic-and-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-results-from-the-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-robot-open-trial
#15
Prasanna Sooriakumaran, Giovanni Pini, Tommy Nyberg, Maryam Derogar, Stefan Carlsson, Johan Stranne, Anders Bjartell, Jonas Hugosson, Gunnar Steineck, Peter N Wiklund
BACKGROUND: Whether surgeons perform better utilising a robot-assisted laparoscopic technique compared with an open approach during prostate cancer surgery is debatable. OBJECTIVE: To report erectile function and early oncologic outcomes for both surgical modalities, stratified by prostate cancer risk grouping. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a prospective nonrandomised trial, we recruited 2545 men with prostate cancer from seven open (n=753) and seven robot-assisted (n=1792) Swedish centres (2008-2011)...
September 4, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869217/single-molecule-techniques-in-biophysics-a-review-of-the-progress-in-methods-and-applications
#16
Helen Miller, Zhaokun Zhou, Jack Shepherd, Adam Wollman, Mark Leake
Single-molecule biophysics has transformed our understanding of biology, but also of the physics of life. More exotic than simple soft matter, biomatter lives far from thermal equilibrium, covering multiple lengths from the nanoscale of single molecules to up several orders of magnitude to higher in cells, tissues and organisms. Biomolecules are often characterized by underlying instability: multiple metastable free energy states exist, separated by levels of just a few multiples of the thermal energy scale kBT, where kB is the Boltzmann constant and T absolute temperature, implying complex inter-conversion kinetics in the relatively hot, wet environment of active biological matter...
September 4, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868750/life-in-a-bubble-the-role-of-the-labyrinth-organ-in-determining-territory-mating-and-aggressive-behaviours-in-anabantoids
#17
REVIEW
M Tate, R E McGoran, C R White, S J Portugal
The anabantoids are a group of c. 137 species of air-breathing freshwater fishes found in Africa and southern Asia. All anabantoids have a pair of suprabranchial chambers that each house an air-breathing organ known as the labyrinth apparatus: a complex bony structure lined with thin, highly vascularised respiratory epithelium. The labyrinth apparatus allows anabantoids to extract oxygen from air and is a morpho-physiological innovation that has had a dramatic influence on the behaviour of these fishes. Air-breathing influences a wide range of anabantoid behaviours, including territorial displays, courtship and breeding and parental care and also equips these fishes to persist in hypoxic and polluted water...
September 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859420/physiological-trade-offs-in-lizards-costs-for-individuals-and-populations
#18
Geoffrey D Smith, Susannah S French
The immune system is a critical component of health and fitness, whereby organisms must maintain sufficient health to survive to reproduce. Because of the key role of immunity in an organism's fitness, the use of immunological indices is widespread. However, there is a paucity of empirical support for the best way to interpret immunological data, and the internal energetic state of the organism, as well as the external environmental pressures it faces, are often not considered concurrently. A stronger immune response is not always beneficial to the organism; a more attenuated response may ultimately lead to improved fitness if the animal incurs fewer performance costs on competing systems, especially reproduction...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859419/complex-reproductive-traits-and-whole-organism-performance
#19
T J Orr, Theodore Garland
Arnold's 1983 path-analytic paradigm, considering "morphology, performance, and fitness," has been elaborated in several ways. For example, current versions recognize the level of "behavior" (including aspects of motivation) as a filter between performance abilities (only measurable if motivation is maximal) and fitness components. Performance abilities constrain behavior, but behavioral choices may shield performance from selection. Conceptual and empirical issues remain, such as the extent to which individual variation in lower-level subordinate traits (e...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859417/predicting-life-history-trade-offs-with-whole-organism-performance
#20
Simon P Lailvaux, Jerry F Husak
Whole-organism performance traits are key intermediaries between the organism and the environment. Because performance traits are energetically costly to both build and maintain, performance will compete with other life-history traits over a limited pool of acquired energetic resources at any given time, potentially leading to trade-offs in performance expression. Although these trade-offs can have important implications for organismal fitness we currently lack a conceptual framework for predicting both where trade-offs might be expected, and which traits may be especially prone to trade-offs with other fitness-related life-history traits...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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