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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649628/a-hitchhiker-s-guide-to-an-iss-experiment-in-under-9-months
#1
Andrei James Nadir, Kevin Sato
The International Space Station National Laboratory gives students a platform to conduct space-flight science experiments. To successfully take advantage of this opportunity, students and their mentors must have an understanding of how to develop and then conduct a science project on international space station within a school year. Many factors influence the speed in which a project progresses. The first step is to develop a science plan, including defining a hypothesis, developing science objectives, and defining a concept of operation for conducting the flight experiment...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646748/the-influence-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-upon-the-adsorption-of-organic-matter-on-magnetic-powdered-activated-carbon
#2
Kim Maren Lompe, David Menard, Benoit Barbeau
Combining powdered activated carbon (PAC) with magnetic iron oxides has been proposed in the past to produce adsorbents for natural organic matter (NOM) removal that can be easily separated using a magnetic field. However, the trade-off between the iron oxides' benefits and the reduced carbon content, porosity, and surface area has not yet been investigated systematically. We produced 3 magnetic powdered activated carbons (MPAC) with mass fractions of 10%, 38% and 54% maghemite nanoparticles and compared them to bare PAC and pure nanoparticles with respect to NOM adsorption kinetics and isotherms...
June 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642345/evolution-of-nonspectral-rhodopsin-function-at-high-altitudes
#3
Gianni M Castiglione, Frances E Hauser, Brian S Liao, Nathan K Lujan, Alexander Van Nynatten, James M Morrow, Ryan K Schott, Nihar Bhattacharyya, Sarah Z Dungan, Belinda S W Chang
High-altitude environments present a range of biochemical and physiological challenges for organisms through decreases in oxygen, pressure, and temperature relative to lowland habitats. Protein-level adaptations to hypoxic high-altitude conditions have been identified in multiple terrestrial endotherms; however, comparable adaptations in aquatic ectotherms, such as fishes, have not been as extensively characterized. In enzyme proteins, cold adaptation is attained through functional trade-offs between stability and activity, often mediated by substitutions outside the active site...
June 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640816/topographic-independent-component-analysis-reveals-random-scrambling-of-orientation-in-visual-space
#4
Marina Martinez-Garcia, Luis M Martinez, Jesús Malo
Neurons at primary visual cortex (V1) in humans and other species are edge filters organized in orientation maps. In these maps, neurons with similar orientation preference are clustered together in iso-orientation domains. These maps have two fundamental properties: (1) retinotopy, i.e. correspondence between displacements at the image space and displacements at the cortical surface, and (2) a trade-off between good coverage of the visual field with all orientations and continuity of iso-orientation domains in the cortical space...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637860/higher-order-neural-processing-tunes-motion-neurons-to-visual-ecology-in-three-species-of-hawkmoths
#5
A L Stöckl, D O'Carroll, E J Warrant
To sample information optimally, sensory systems must adapt to the ecological demands of each animal species. These adaptations can occur peripherally, in the anatomical structures of sensory organs and their receptors; and centrally, as higher-order neural processing in the brain. While a rich body of investigations has focused on peripheral adaptations, our understanding is sparse when it comes to central mechanisms. We quantified how peripheral adaptations in the eyes, and central adaptations in the wide-field motion vision system, set the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity in three species of hawkmoths active at very different light levels: nocturnal Deilephila elpenor, crepuscular Manduca sexta, and diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632741/aging-mortality-and-the-fast-growth-trade-off-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#6
Hidenori Nakaoka, Yuichi Wakamoto
Replicative aging has been demonstrated in asymmetrically dividing unicellular organisms, seemingly caused by unequal damage partitioning. Although asymmetric segregation and inheritance of potential aging factors also occur in symmetrically dividing species, it nevertheless remains controversial whether this results in aging. Based on large-scale single-cell lineage data obtained by time-lapse microscopy with a microfluidic device, in this report, we demonstrate the absence of replicative aging in old-pole cell lineages of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cultured under constant favorable conditions...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630533/smoke-screen-the-globalization-of-production-transnational-lobbying-and-the-international-political-economy-of-plain-tobacco-packaging
#7
Louise Curran, Jappe Eckhardt
In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence...
2017: Rev Int Polit Econ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626750/quantifying-preferences-of-farmers-and-veterinarians-for-national-animal-health-programs-the-example-of-bovine-mastitis-and-antimicrobial-usage-in-switzerland
#8
Bart H P van den Borne, Felix J S van Soest, Martin Reist, Henk Hogeveen
Bovine udder health in Switzerland is of a relatively high level. However, antimicrobial usage (AMU) seems high in comparison to other European countries also. A new udder health and AMU improvement program could improve this situation but it is uncertain whether there is support from the field. This study aimed to quantify preferences of dairy farmers and veterinarians for the start and design characteristics of a new national udder health and AMU improvement program in Switzerland. A total of 478 dairy farmers and 98 veterinarians completed an online questionnaire...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622920/post-9-11-sarcoidosis-in-wtc-exposed-firefighters-and-emergency-medical-service-workers
#9
Mayris P Webber, Jennifer Yip, Rachel Zeig-Owens, William Moir, Patompong Ungprasert, Cynthia S Crowson, Charles B Hall, Nadia Jaber, Michael D Weiden, Eric L Matteson, David J Prezant
INTRODUCTION: The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released a huge quantity and variety of toxicants into the environment. To-date, studies from each of the three major cohorts of WTC-exposed workers have suggested "greater than expected" numbers of post-9/11 cases in some workers. We undertook this study to estimate the incidence of post-9/11 sarcoidosis in ∼13,000 male firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in The Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) WTC Health Program; to compare FDNY incidence to rates from unexposed, demographically similar men in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP); and, to examine rates by level of WTC exposure...
June 7, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622767/praziquantel-decreases-fecundity-in-schistosoma-mansoni-adult-worms-that-survive-treatment-evidence-from-a-laboratory-life-history-trade-offs-selection-study
#10
Poppy H L Lamberton, Christina L Faust, Joanne P Webster
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration of praziquantel is the World Health Organization's endorsed control strategy for schistosomiasis. A decade of annual treatments across sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in significant reductions of infection prevalence and intensity levels, although 'hotspots' remain. Repeated drug treatments place strong selective pressures on parasites, which may affect life-history traits that impact transmission dynamics. Understanding drug treatment responses and the evolution of such traits can help inform on how to minimise the risk of drug resistance developing, maximise sustainable control programme success, and improve diagnostic protocols...
June 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622374/large-scale-modulation-of-reconstituted-min-protein-patterns-and-gradients-by-defined-mutations-in-mine-s-membrane-targeting-sequence
#11
Simon Kretschmer, Katja Zieske, Petra Schwille
The E. coli MinDE oscillator is a paradigm for protein self-organization and gradient formation. Previously, we reconstituted Min protein wave patterns on flat membranes as well as gradient-forming pole-to-pole oscillations in cell-shaped PDMS microcompartments. These oscillations appeared to require direct membrane interaction of the ATPase activating protein MinE. However, it remained unclear how exactly Min protein dynamics are regulated by MinE membrane binding. Here, we dissect the role of MinE's membrane targeting sequence (MTS) by reconstituting various MinE mutants in 2D and 3D geometries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622344/protecting-an-island-nation-from-extreme-pandemic-threats-proof-of-concept-around-border-closure-as-an-intervention
#12
Matt Boyd, Michael G Baker, Osman D Mansoor, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: Countries are well advised to prepare for future pandemic risks (e.g., pandemic influenza, novel emerging agents or synthetic bioweapons). These preparations do not typically include planning for complete border closure. Even though border closure may not be instituted in time, and can fail, there might still plausible chances of success for well organized island nations. OBJECTIVE: To estimate costs and benefits of complete border closure in response to new pandemic threats, at an initial proof-of-concept level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619023/potential-for-adaptation-to-climate-change-family-level-variation-in-fitness-related-traits-and-their-responses-to-heat-waves-in-a-snail-population
#13
Katja Leicht, Katri Seppälä, Otto Seppälä
BACKGROUND: On-going global climate change poses a serious threat for natural populations unless they are able to evolutionarily adapt to changing environmental conditions (e.g. increasing average temperatures, occurrence of extreme weather events). A prerequisite for evolutionary change is within-population heritable genetic variation in traits subject to selection. In relation to climate change, mainly phenological traits as well as heat and desiccation resistance have been examined for such variation...
June 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618580/entropy-of-international-trades
#14
Chang-Young Oh, D-S Lee
The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616066/the-evolutionary-trade-off-between-stem-cell-niche-size-aging-%C3%A2-and-tumorigenesis
#15
Vincent L Cannataro, Scott A McKinley, Colette M St Mary
Many epithelial tissues within multicellular organisms are continually replenished by small independent populations of stem cells largely responsible for maintaining tissue homeostasis. These continually dividing populations are subject to mutations that can lead to tumorigenesis but also contribute to aging. Mutations accumulate in stem cell niches and change the rate of cell division and differentiation; the pace of this process and the fate of specific mutations depend strongly on niche population size. Here, we create a mathematical model of the intestinal stem cell niche, crypt system, and epithelium...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610587/the-use-of-birds-as-pets-in-mexico
#16
Blanca Roldán-Clarà, Víctor M Toledo, Ileana Espejel
BACKGROUND: The use of birds as pets has been a historical tradition in Mexico since prehispanic times. It has survived through bird traders, called pajareros, which is a local name given to the trade (derived from pájaro, the Spanish word for bird). However, the trade of birds has not been sufficiently described; therefore, the goal of this paper is to analyze the bird trade in Mexico using the components of an ethnoecology scheme known as kosmos-corpus-praxis complex. METHODS: Qualitative research techniques were used, including ethnographic immersion, participative research, and interviews of 79 pajareros in 22 localities in nine Mexican states...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605722/functional-trade-off-between-strength-and-thermal-capacity-of-dermal-armor-insights-from-girdled-lizards
#17
Chris Broeckhoven, Anton du Plessis, Cang Hui
The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588766/how-externalities-impact-an-evaluation-of-strategies-to-prevent-antimicrobial-resistance-in-health-care-organizations
#18
REVIEW
Jenine R Leal, John Conly, Elizabeth Ann Henderson, Braden J Manns
BACKGROUND: The rates of antimicrobial-resistant organisms (ARO) continue to increase for both hospitalized and community patients. Few resources have been allocated to reduce the spread of resistance on global, national and local levels, in part because the broader economic impact of antimicrobial resistance (i.e. the externality) is not fully considered when determining how much to invest to prevent AROs, including strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance, such as antimicrobial stewardship programs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584270/ambient-anthropogenic-noise-but-not-light-is-associated-with-the-ecophysiology-of-free-living-songbird-nestlings
#19
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Giulia Casasole, Nina Dehnhard, Marcel Eens
Urbanization is associated with dramatic increases in noise and light pollution, which affect animal behaviour, physiology and fitness. However, few studies have examined these stressors simultaneously. Moreover, effects of urbanization during early-life may be detrimental but are largely unknown. In developing great tits (Parus major), a frequently-used model species, we determined important indicators of immunity and physiological condition: plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx) concentration. We also determined fledging mass, an indicator for current health and survival...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583969/organizational-change-management-for-health-equity-perspectives-from-the-disparities-leadership-program
#20
Joseph R Betancourt, Aswita Tan-McGrory, Karey S Kenst, Thuy Hoai Phan, Lenny Lopez
Leaders of health care organizations need to be prepared to improve quality and achieve equity in today's health care environment characterized by a focus on achieving value and addressing disparities in a diverse population. To help address this need, the Disparities Solutions Center at Massachusetts General Hospital launched the Disparities Leadership Program in 2007. The leadership program is an ongoing, year-long, executive education initiative that trains leaders from hospitals, health plans, and health centers to improve quality and eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health care...
June 1, 2017: Health Affairs
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