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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319119/evaluating-the-combined-effects-of-ballast-water-management-and-trade-dynamics-on-transfers-of-marine-organisms-by-ships
#1
Katharine J Carney, Mark S Minton, Kimberly K Holzer, A Whitman Miller, Linda D McCann, Gregory M Ruiz
Global trade by merchant ships is a leading mechanism for the unintentional transfer of marine organisms, including non-indigenous species, to bays and estuaries worldwide. To reduce the likelihood of new invasions, ships are increasingly being required to manage their ballast water (BW) prior to discharge in coastal waters. In the United States, most overseas arrivals have been required to manage BW discharge since 2004, primarily through ballast water exchange (BWE), which flushes out ballast tanks in the open ocean (>200 miles from shore)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316972/prediction-of-pig-trade-movements-in-different-european-production-systems-using-exponential-random-graph-models
#2
Anne Relun, Vladimir Grosbois, Tsviatko Alexandrov, Jose M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Agnes Waret-Szkuta, Sophie Molia, Eric Marcel Charles Etter, Beatriz Martínez-López
In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303526/a-herbivore-tag-and-trace-system-reveals-contact-and-density-dependent-repellence-of-a-root-toxin
#3
Zoe Bont, Carla Arce, Meret Huber, Wei Huang, Adrien Mestrot, Craig J Sturrock, Matthias Erb
Foraging behavior of root feeding organisms strongly affects plant-environment-interactions and ecosystem processes. However, the impact of plant chemistry on root herbivore movement in the soil is poorly understood. Here, we apply a simple technique to trace the movement of soil-dwelling insects in their habitats without disturbing or restricting their interactions with host plants. We tagged the root feeding larvae of Melolontha melolontha with a copper ring and repeatedly located their position in relation to their preferred host plant, Taraxacum officinale, using a commercial metal detector...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303294/sustainability-evaluation
#4
Heinz Stichnothe
The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world...
March 17, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295823/natural-variation-in-life-history-strategy-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-determines-stress-responses-to-drought-and-insects-of-different-feeding-guilds
#5
Nelson H Davila Olivas, Enric Frago, Manus P M Thoen, Karen J Kloth, Frank F M Becker, Joop J A van Loon, Gerrit Gort, Joost J B Keurentjes, Joost van Heerwaarden, Marcel Dicke
Plants are sessile organisms and, consequently, are exposed to a plethora of stresses in their local habitat. As a result, different populations of a species are subject to different selection pressures leading to adaptation to local conditions and intraspecific divergence. The annual brassicaceous plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an attractive model for ecologists and evolutionary biologists due to the availability of a large collection of re-sequenced natural accessions. Accessions of A. thaliana display one of two different life-cycle strategies: summer and winter annuals...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288351/the-response-of-soil-microbial-diversity-and-abundance-to-long-term-application-of-biosolids
#6
Abdul-Wahab Mossa, Matthew J Dickinson, Helen M West, Scott D Young, Neil M J Crout
The disposal of biosolids poses a major environmental and economic problem. Agricultural use is generally regarded as the best means of disposal. However, its impact on soil ecosystems remains uncertain. Biosolids can improve soil properties by supplying nutrients and increasing organic matter content but there is also a potentially detrimental effect arising from the introduction of heavy metals into soils. To assess the balance between these competing effects on soil health, we investigated soil bacterial and fungal diversity and community structure at a site that has been dedicated to the disposal of sewage sludge for over 100 years...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286713/when-moult-overlaps-migration-moult-related-changes-in-plasma-biochemistry-of-migrating-common-snipe
#7
Patrycja Podlaszczuk, Radosław Włodarczyk, Tomasz Janiszewski, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, Piotr Minias
Moult of feathers entails considerable physiological and energetic costs to an avian organism. Even under favourable feeding conditions, endogenous body stores and energy reserves of moulting birds are usually severely depleted. Thus, most species of birds separate moult from other energy-demanding activities, such as migration or reproduction. Common snipe Gallinago gallinago is an exception, as during the first autumn migration many young snipe initiate the post-juvenile moult, which includes replacement of body feathers, lesser and median wing coverts, tertials, and rectrices...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281640/kinetic-15-n-isotope-effects-on-algal-growth
#8
Eivydas Andriukonis, Elena Gorokhova
Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in (15)N-enriched media. With increasing (15)N concentration (0...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279508/tuberculosis-elimination-and-the-challenge-of-latent-tuberculosis
#9
Alberto Matteelli, Giorgia Sulis, Susanna Capone, Lia D'Ambrosio, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Haileyesus Getahun
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) affects one third to one fourth of the human population and is the reservoir for a significant proportion of emerging active tuberculosis (TB) cases, especially in low incidence countries. The World Health Organization launched in 2015 the END-TB strategy that aims at TB elimination and promotes, for the first time ever, the management of LTBI. The preventive package, basically consisting of testing and treatment for LTBI in groups at high risk of reactivation, is a mainstay of the first pillar of the strategy, alongside prompt diagnosis and early treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB disease...
March 6, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262951/nutrient-acquisition-soil-phosphorus-partitioning-and-competition-among-trees-in-a-lowland-tropical-rain-forest
#10
Megan K Nasto, Brooke B Osborne, Ylva Lekberg, Gregory P Asner, Christopher S Balzotti, Stephen Porder, Philip G Taylor, Alan R Townsend, Cory C Cleveland
We hypothesized that dinitrogen (N2 )- and non-N2 -fixing tropical trees would have distinct phosphorus (P) acquisition strategies allowing them to exploit different P sources, reducing competition. We measured root phosphatase activity and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization among two N2 - and two non-N2 -fixing seedlings, and grew them alone and in competition with different inorganic and organic P forms to assess potential P partitioning. We found an inverse relationship between root phosphatase activity and AM colonization in field-collected seedlings, indicative of a trade-off in P acquisition strategies...
March 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262512/collective-infectious-units-in-viruses
#11
REVIEW
Rafael Sanjuán
Increasing evidence indicates that viruses do not simply propagate as independent virions among cells, organs, and hosts. Instead, viral spread is often mediated by structures that simultaneously transport groups of viral genomes, such as polyploid virions, aggregates of virions, virion-containing proteinaceous structures, secreted lipid vesicles, and virus-induced cell-cell contacts. These structures increase the multiplicity of infection, independently of viral population density and transmission bottlenecks...
March 3, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250951/metal-organic-frameworks-for-h2-and-ch4-storage-insights-on-the-pore-geometry-sorption-energetics-relationship
#12
Mohamed H Alkordi, Youssef Belmabkhout, Amy Cairns, Mohamed Eddaoudi
This study aims to assess the possibility of improving H2 and CH4 binding affinity to the aromatic walls of a designed new Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) through simultaneous dispersive interactions. It is suggested here that desirable H2 and CH4 storage media at low pressures require narrow uniform pores associated with large surface area, a trade-off that is challenging to achieve.
March 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250806/cancer-a-disease-at-the-crossroads-of-trade-offs
#13
Camille Jacqueline, Peter A Biro, Christa Beckmann, Anders Pape Moller, François Renaud, Gabriele Sorci, Aurélie Tasiemski, Beata Ujvari, Frédéric Thomas
Central to evolutionary theory is the idea that living organisms face phenotypic and/or genetic trade-offs when allocating resources to competing life-history demands, such as growth, survival, and reproduction. These trade-offs are increasingly considered to be crucial to further our understanding of cancer. First, evidences suggest that neoplastic cells, as any living entities subject to natural selection, are governed by trade-offs such as between survival and proliferation. Second, selection might also have shaped trade-offs at the organismal level, especially regarding protective mechanisms against cancer...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248316/reducing-pesticide-use-while-preserving-crop-productivity-and-profitability-on-arable-farms
#14
Martin Lechenet, Fabrice Dessaint, Guillaume Py, David Makowski, Nicolas Munier-Jolain
Achieving sustainable crop production while feeding an increasing world population is one of the most ambitious challenges of this century(1). Meeting this challenge will necessarily imply a drastic reduction of adverse environmental effects arising from agricultural activities(2). The reduction of pesticide use is one of the critical drivers to preserve the environment and human health. Pesticide use could be reduced through the adoption of new production strategies(3-5); however, whether substantial reductions of pesticide use are possible without impacting crop productivity and profitability is debatable(6-17)...
March 1, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242195/trade-off-between-dimethyl-sulfide-and-isoprene-emissions-from-marine-phytoplankton
#15
REVIEW
K G Srikanta Dani, Francesco Loreto
Marine phytoplankton emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and isoprene that influence air quality, cloud dynamics, and planetary albedo. We show that globally (i) marine phytoplankton taxa tend to emit either DMS or isoprene, and (ii) sea-water surface concentration and emission hotspots of DMS and isoprene have opposite latitudinal gradients. We argue that a convergence of antioxidant functions between DMS and isoprene is possible, driven by potential metabolic competition for photosynthetic substrates...
February 24, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241803/predator-cues-reduce-intraspecific-trait-variability-in-a-marine-dinoflagellate
#16
Sylke Wohlrab, Erik Selander, U John
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic plasticity is commonplace and enables an organism to respond to variations in the environment. Plastic responses often modify a suite of traits and can be triggered by both abiotic and biotic changes. Here we analysed the plastic response towards a grazer of two genotypes of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, evaluated the similarity of this response and discuss potential strain-specific trade-offs. We compared the expression of the known inducible defensive traits paralytic shellfish toxin content, and chain length...
February 27, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240356/density-dependent-selection-on-mate-search-and-evolution-of-allee-effects
#17
Luděk Berec, Andrew M Kramer, Veronika Bernhauerová, John M Drake
Sexually reproducing organisms require males and females to find each other. Increased difficulty of females finding mates as male density declines is the most frequently reported mechanism of Allee effects in animals. Evolving more effective mate search may alleviate Allee effects, but may depend on density regimes a population experiences. In particular, high density populations may evolve mechanisms that induce Allee effects which become detrimental when populations are reduced and maintained at a low density...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239954/spread-rate-of-lumpy-skin-disease-in-the-balkans-2015-2016
#18
A Mercier, E Arsevska, L Bournez, A Bronner, D Calavas, J Cauchard, S Falala, P Caufour, C Tisseuil, T Lefrançois, R Lancelot
After its introduction in Turkey in November 2013 and subsequent spread in this country, lumpy skin disease (LSD) was first reported in the western Turkey in May 2015. It was observed in cattle in Greece and reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) in August 2015. From May 2015 to August 2016, 1,092 outbreaks of lumpy skin disease were reported in cattle from western Turkey and eight Balkan countries: Greece, Bulgaria, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania...
February 26, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231637/preen-oil-and-bird-fitness-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#19
Gregorio Moreno-Rueda
The uropygial gland is a holocrine complex exclusive to birds that produces an oleaginous secretion (preen oil) whose function is still debated. Herein, I examine critically the evidence for the many hypotheses of potential functions of this gland. The main conclusion is that our understanding of this gland is still in its infancy. Even for functions that are considered valid by most researchers, real evidence is scarce. Although it seems clear that preen oil contributes to plumage maintenance, we do not know whether this is due to a role in reducing mechanical abrasion or in reducing feather degradation by keratinophilic organisms...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221872/analysis-of-food-safety-and-security-challenges-in-emerging-african-food-producing-areas-through-a-one-health-lens-the-dairy-chains-in-mali
#20
Rachel Cheng, Alberto Mantovani, Chiara Frazzoli
Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
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