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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165392/the-tale-of-asbestos-in-sweden-1972-1986-the-pathway-to-a-near-total-ban
#1
Peter Westerholm, Bertil Remaéus, Magnus Svartengren
This paper provides a narrative of the national intervention strategy in Sweden aimed to restrict the industrial use of asbestos. For many years, asbestos was imported for widespread industrial use, resulting in large amounts throughout Swedish society. In 1972, the whistle was blown in a Communist Party parliamentary motion describing asbestos as a health hazard and requesting action to prohibit its use. Although the motion was rejected, it initiated the extensive charting of asbestos sources on a tripartite basis, involving government agencies, and employer and trade-union organizations...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154991/the-rice-constans-like-protein-oscol15-suppresses-flowering-by-promoting-ghd7-and-repressing-rid1
#2
Weixun Wu, Yingxin Zhang, Miao Zhang, Xiaodeng Zhan, Xihong Shen, Ping Yu, Daibo Chen, Qunen Liu, Sittipun Sinumporn, Kashif Hussain, Shihua Cheng, Liyong Cao
The photoperiodic flowering pathway is one of the most important regulatory networks controlling flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice is a facultative short-day (SD) plant; flowering is promoted under inductive SD conditions and delayed under non-inductive long-day (LD) conditions. In rice, flowering inhibitor genes play an important role in maintaining the trade-off between reproduction and yield. In this study, we identified a novel floral inhibitor, OsCOL15, which encodes a CONSTANS-like transcription factor...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152198/trading-heat-and-hops-for-water-dehydration-effects-on-locomotor-performance-thermal-limits-and-thermoregulatory-behavior-of-a-terrestrial-toad
#3
Rodolfo C O Anderson, Denis V Andrade
Due to their highly permeable skin and ectothermy, terrestrial amphibians are challenged by compromises between water balance and body temperature regulation. The way in which such compromises are accommodated, under a range of temperatures and dehydration levels, impacts importantly the behavior and ecology of amphibians. Thus, using the terrestrial toad Rhinella schneideri as a model organism, the goals of this study were twofold. First, we determined how the thermal sensitivity of a centrally relevant trait-locomotion-was affected by dehydration...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152189/intraspecific-trait-variation-can-weaken-interspecific-trait-correlations-when-assessing-the-whole-plant-economic-spectrum
#4
Daniel C Laughlin, Christopher H Lusk, Peter J Bellingham, David F R P Burslem, Angela H Simpson, Kris R Kramer-Walter
The worldwide plant economic spectrum hypothesis predicts that leaf, stem, and root traits are correlated across vascular plant species because carbon gain depends on leaves being adequately supplied with water and nutrients, and because construction of each organ involves a trade-off between performance and persistence. Despite its logical and intuitive appeal, this hypothesis has received mixed empirical support. If traits within species diverge in their responses to an environmental gradient, then interspecific trait correlations could be weakened when measured in natural ecosystems...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151872/evolved-pesticide-tolerance-influences-susceptibility-to-parasites-in-amphibians
#5
Jessica Hua, Vanessa P Wuerthner, Devin K Jones, Brian Mattes, Rickey D Cothran, Rick A Relyea, Jason T Hoverman
Because ecosystems throughout the globe are contaminated with pesticides, there is a need to understand how natural populations cope with pesticides and the implications for ecological interactions. From an evolutionary perspective, there is evidence that pesticide tolerance can be achieved via two mechanisms: selection for constitutive tolerance over multiple generations or by inducing tolerance within a single generation via phenotypic plasticity. While both mechanisms can allow organisms to persist in contaminated environments, they might result in different performance trade-offs including population susceptibility to parasites...
September 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149332/kidney-sales-and-market-regulation-a-reply-to-semrau
#6
Julian J Koplin
Luke Semrau argues that the documented harms of existing organ markets do not undermine the case for establishing regulated systems of paid kidney donation. He offers two arguments in support of this conclusion. First, Semrau argues that the harms of kidney selling are straightforwardly amenable to regulatory solution. Second, Semrau argues that even in existing black markets, sellers would likely have experienced greater harm if the option of selling a kidney were not available. This commentary challenges both of Semrau's claims...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148575/effects-of-spot-parameters-in-pencil-beam-scanning-treatment-planning
#7
Aafke Christine Kraan, Nicolas Depauw, Ben Clasie, Marina Giunta, Tom Madden, Hanne M Kooy
BACKGROUND: Spot size σ (in-air at isocenter), inter-spot spacing d, and spot charge q influence dose delivery efficiency and plan quality in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) treatment planning. The choice and range of parameters varies among different manufacturers. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the influence of the spot parameters on dose quality and delivery in IMPT treatment plans, to show their interdependence, and to make practitioners aware of the spot parameter values for a certain facility...
November 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140661/an-international-model-for-antibiotics-regulation
#8
Emilie Aguirre
We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140660/assessing-the-relative-influence-and-efficacy-of-public-and-private-food-safety-regulation-regimes-comparing-codex-and-global-g-a-p-standards
#9
Sam F Halabi, Ching-Fu Lin
An extensive global system of private food regulation is under construction, one that exceeds conventional regulation thought of as being driven by public authorities like FDA and USDA in the U.S. or the Food Standards Agency in the UK. Agrifood and grocer organizations, in concert with some farming groups, have been the primary designers of this new food regulatory regime. These groups have established alliances that compete with national regulators in complex ways. This article analyzes the relationship between public and private sources of food safety regulation by examining standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a food safety organization jointly run by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization and GlobalG...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127800/regulation-of-chemicals-in-children-s-products-how-u-s-and-eu-regulation-impacts-small-markets
#10
Maya Negev, Tamar Berman, Shay Reicher, Simona Balan, Anna Soehl, Shula Goulden, Ruti Ardi, Yaniv Shammai, Laura Hadar, Arlene Blum, Miriam L Diamond
Toys and children's products may contain trace metals and organic compounds that are potentially harmful to the health and development of infants and young children. Intergovernmental organizations and individual countries regulate chemicals in consumer products, but a coordinated international approach is lacking. This paper examines the implications of chemical regulation in children's products in large markets for a smaller market, namely Israel. We compared chemical regulations in children's products in the U...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127479/tall-young-females-get-ahead-size-specific-fecundity-in-wild-kangaroos-suggests-a-steep-trade-off-with-growth
#11
Louise Quesnel, Wendy J King, Graeme Coulson, Marco Festa-Bianchet
When resources are limited, organisms face allocation conflicts. Indeterminate growth creates a persistent conflict with reproduction, as growth may enhance future reproduction, but diverts resources from current reproduction. Little is known about allocation trade-offs in mammals with indeterminate growth. We studied growth and reproduction in adult female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), an iteroparous mammal with indeterminate growth. Allocation trajectories varied with age and size: for 4-year-old females, fecundity increased from 30 to 82% from shortest to average-sized individuals...
November 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122313/has-the-question-of-e-waste-opened-a-pandora-s-box-an-overview-of-unpredictable-issues-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Bouchra Bakhiyi, Sabrina Gravel, Diana Ceballos, Michael A Flynn, Joseph Zayed
Despite regulatory efforts and position papers, electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) remains ill-managed as evidenced by the extremely low rates of proper e-waste recycling (e-recycling) worldwide, ongoing illegal shipments to developing countries and constantly reported human health issues and environmental pollution. The objectives of this review are, first, to expose the complexity of e-waste problems, and then to suggest possible upstream and downstream solutions. Exploring e-waste issues is akin to opening a Pandora's box...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121512/composite-pulse-and-partially-dipolar-dephased-multicp-for-improved-quantitative-solid-state-13-c-nmr
#13
Pu Duan, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr
Improved multiple cross polarization (multiCP) pulse sequences for quickly acquiring quantitative (13)C NMR spectra of organic solids are presented. Loss of (13)C magnetization due to imperfect read-out and storage pulses in multiCP has been identified as a significant mechanism limiting polarization enhancement for (13)C sites with weak couplings to (1)H. This problem can be greatly reduced by composite 90° pulses with non-orthogonal phases that flip the magnetization onto the spin-lock field and back to the longitudinal direction for the (1)H repolarization period; the observed loss is <3% for over ±10 kHz resonance offset and up to 20% flip-angle error...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120031/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-stereological-analysis-of-the-effect-of-gingko-biloba-egb761-on-the-hippocampus-of-rats-exposed-to-long-term-cellphone-radiation
#14
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118134/temperature-effects-on-life-history-trade-offs-germline-maintenance-and-mutation-rate-under-simulated-climate-warming
#15
David Berger, Josefine Stångberg, Karl Grieshop, Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Göran Arnqvist
Mutation has a fundamental influence over evolutionary processes, but how evolutionary processes shape mutation rate remains less clear. In asexual unicellular organism, increased mutation rates have been observed in stressful environments and the reigning paradigm ascribes this increase to selection for evolvability. However, this explanation does not apply in sexually reproducing species, where little is known about how the environment affects mutation rate. Here we challenged experimental lines of seed beetle, evolved at ancestral temperature or under simulated climate warming, to repair induced mutations at ancestral and stressful temperature...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114871/the-class-politics-of-prejudice-brexit-and-the-land-of-no-hope-and-glory
#16
Lisa Mckenzie
The debates relating to social class and whether it is still a useful concept in describing a lived reality of the British population has never been far away from media, political and academic dispute. Thatcher's Britain throughout the 1980s attempted to dilute class meaning with what was called 'a home owning democracy' and thus end class collective politics through easily available credit for the working class while simultaneously attacking trade union organization, recruitment and political action. During the late 1990s and into the noughties a 'New Labour' administration attempted to exacerbate the end of class politics through an agenda of a 'cultural distinction' to class identity...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110022/german-patients-and-physicians-preferences-for-systemic-psoriasis-treatments-a-nationwide-comparative-discrete-choice-experiment-psocompare
#17
Marthe-Lisa Schaarschmidt, Raphael Herr, Mandy Gutknecht, Katharina Wroblewska, Sascha Gerdes, Michael Sticherling, Matthias Augustin, Wiebke K Ludwig-Peitsch
Systemic antipsoriatic treatment options are increasing rapidly. The aim of this nationwide discrete choice experiment was to compare patients' (n = 222) and physicians' (n = 78) preferences for outcome and process attributes of systemic antipsoriatics using the Relative Importance Score (RIS) for each attribute calculated by dividing the attribute's range by the sum of all attribute ranges times 100. Both groups considered Psoriasis Area and Severity Index 90 (PASI 90) to be most important (RIS 21...
November 7, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105089/wrinkled1-and-acyl-coa-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase1-regulate-tocochromanol-metabolism-in-arabidopsis
#18
Sébastien Pellaud, Alexandre Bory, Valentin Chabert, Joëlle Romanens, Laurie Chaisse-Leal, Anh Vu Doan, Lucas Frey, Andrea Gust, Katharina M Fromm, Laurent Mène-Saffrané
Photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae and some cyanobacteria synthesize tocochromanols, a group of compounds that encompasses tocopherols and tocotrienols and that exhibits vitamin E activity in animals. While most vitamin E biosynthetic genes have been identified in plant genomes, regulatory genes controlling tocopherol accumulation are currently unknown. We isolated by forward genetics Arabidopsis enhanced vitamin E (eve) mutants that overaccumulate the classic tocopherols and plastochromanol-8, and a tocochromanol unknown in this species...
November 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104922/an-outlook-on-lithium-ion-battery-technology
#19
REVIEW
Arumugam Manthiram
Lithium ion batteries as a power source are dominating in portable electronics, penetrating the electric vehicle market, and on the verge of entering the utility market for grid-energy storage. Depending on the application, trade-offs among the various performance parameters-energy, power, cycle life, cost, safety, and environmental impact-are often needed, which are linked to severe materials chemistry challenges. The current lithium ion battery technology is based on insertion-reaction electrodes and organic liquid electrolytes...
October 25, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101418/-the-big-data-game-on-the-ludic-constitution-of-the-collaborative-production-of-knowledge-in-high-energy-physics-at-cern
#20
Anne Dippel
This article looks at how games and play contribute to the big data-driven production of knowledge in High-Energy Physics, with a particular focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), where the author has been conducting anthropological fieldwork since 2014. The ludic (playful) aspect of knowledge production is analyzed here in three different dimensions: the Symbolic, the Ontological, and the Epistemic. The first one points towards CERN as place where a cosmological game of probability is played with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations...
December 2017: NTM
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