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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107051/the-size-dependence-of-phytoplankton-growth-rates-a-trade-off-between-nutrient-uptake-and-metabolism
#1
Ben A Ward, Emilio Marañón, Boris Sauterey, Jonathan Rault, David Claessen
Rates of metabolism and population growth are often assumed to decrease universally with increasing organism size. Recent observations have shown, however, that maximum population growth rates among phytoplankton smaller than ∼6 μm in diameter tend to increase with organism size. Here we bring together observations and theory to demonstrate that the observed change in slope is attributable to a trade-off between nutrient uptake and the potential rate of internal metabolism. Specifically, we apply an established model of phytoplankton growth to explore a trade-off between the ability of cells to replenish their internal quota (which increases with size) and their ability to synthesize new biomass (which decreases with size)...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098155/the-geometric-nature-of-weights-in-real-complex-networks
#2
Antoine Allard, M Ángeles Serrano, Guillermo García-Pérez, Marián Boguñá
The topology of many real complex networks has been conjectured to be embedded in hidden metric spaces, where distances between nodes encode their likelihood of being connected. Besides of providing a natural geometrical interpretation of their complex topologies, this hypothesis yields the recipe for sustainable Internet's routing protocols, sheds light on the hierarchical organization of biochemical pathways in cells, and allows for a rich characterization of the evolution of international trade. Here we present empirical evidence that this geometric interpretation also applies to the weighted organization of real complex networks...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080833/from-distillation-to-standardization-a-french-perspective-on-the-shaping-of-turpentine-spirit-1909-1976
#3
Marcin Krasnodebski
Turpentine is a complex substance of pine resin origin, widely used as a solvent in multiple industries. Attempts to define it, even when elaborated by scientists, have been marked by a whole range of extra-scientific market considerations. While the Pine Institute, a resin chemistry research centre in Bordeaux, succeeded in stabilizing the meaning of the word "turpentine" on the national level in France, its expertise was contested abroad. When the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Committee 35 tried to establish a new international standard for turpentine, France was accused of protecting its industry by twisting scientific definitions for its own needs...
January 12, 2017: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076409/an-efficient-antioxidant-system-in-a-long-lived-termite-queen
#4
Eisuke Tasaki, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura, Yoshihito Iuchi
The trade-off between reproduction and longevity is known in wide variety of animals. Social insect queens are rare organisms that can achieve a long lifespan without sacrificing fecundity. The extended longevity of social insect queens, which contradicts the trade-off, has attracted much attention because it implies the existence of an extraordinary anti-aging mechanism. Here, we show that queens of the termite Reticulitermes speratus incur significantly lower oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipid and have higher activity of antioxidant enzymes than non-reproductive individuals (workers and soldiers)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058252/risk-assessment-in-the-recovery-of-food-for-social-solidarity-purposes-preliminary-data
#5
Vesna Milicevic, Giampaolo Colavita, Marta Castrica, Sabrina Ratti, Antonella Baldi, Claudia M Balzaretti
The most recent study, conducted by Politecnico of Milan, on food surplus management in Italy shows that in the Italian food supply chain the food surplus is around 5.5 million tons/year, and the amount of food wasted is around 5.1 million tons/year. During 2015, the charitable organizations (COs) belonging to the Italian Food Bank Network, active in recovering and distributing food for social solidarity's purposes, reused 381,345 tons of food from 2292 donors. The main supplying sources of the Banco Alimentare Network are: food industries, organized large-scale retail trade and collective catering service...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056210/cooperation-between-occupational-health-services-and-small-scale-enterprises-in-norway-and-sweden
#6
Stig Vinberg, Lisa Torsdatter Markussen, Bodil J Landstad
Although small-scale enterprises (SSEs) dominate the private enterprise sector, knowledge about support for these organizations from occupational health services (OHSs) is insufficient. The aim of this research was to study OHS services provided and staff cooperation with SSEs in Norway and Sweden. In total, 87 Norwegian and 51 Swedish OHS providers answered a survey on their experiences providing requested services from and cooperation with SSEs. Based on survey questions and constructed indices, providers in the two countries were compared using independent sample t tests and non-parametric tests...
December 1, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053059/parsing-the-life-shortening-effects-of-dietary-protein-effects-of-individual-amino-acids
#7
Sara Arganda, Sofia Bouchebti, Sepideh Bazazi, Sophie Le Hesran, Camille Puga, Gérard Latil, Stephen J Simpson, Audrey Dussutour
High-protein diets shorten lifespan in many organisms. Is it because protein digestion is energetically costly or because the final products (the amino acids) are harmful? To answer this question while circumventing the life-history trade-off between reproduction and longevity, we fed sterile ant workers on diets based on whole proteins or free amino acids. We found that (i) free amino acids shortened lifespan even more than proteins; (ii) the higher the amino acid-to-carbohydrate ratio, the shorter ants lived and the lower their lipid reserves; (iii) for the same amino acid-to-carbohydrate ratio, ants eating free amino acids had more lipid reserves than those eating whole proteins; and (iv) on whole protein diets, ants seem to regulate food intake by prioritizing sugar, while on free amino acid diets, they seem to prioritize amino acids...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048617/su-f-t-342-dosimetric-constraint-prediction-guided-automatic-mulit-objective-optimization-for-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy
#8
T Song, Y Li, L Zhou
PURPOSE: For intensity modulated radiotherapy, the plan optimization is time consuming with difficulties of selecting objectives and constraints, and their relative weights. A fast and automatic multi-objective optimization algorithm with abilities to predict optimal constraints and manager their trade-offs can help to solve this problem. Our purpose is to develop such a framework and algorithm for a general inverse planning. METHODS: There are three main components contained in this proposed multi-objective optimization framework: prediction of initial dosimetric constraints, further adjustment of constraints and plan optimization...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048034/tu-ab-209-03-identifying-useful-features-for-visual-search-model-observers
#9
H Gifford
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a limited-angle tomographic technique by its nature has multiple optimal system configurations, which can lead to many potential changes to the existing and new DBT systems entering the US market. With the availability of computational tools such as for modeling imaging physics, it is becoming increasingly important to conduct virtual trials for a rigorous, preclinical and task-based assessment of DBT. For such virtual assessment to be successful, it is critical to: (1) develop model-observer approaches that can account for patient data statistics stemming from realistic or real breast backgrounds as well as lesion characteristics, thereby performing given tasks effectively and (2) validate the model-observer approaches and their performance trends/levels with physical measurements from a prototype or real DBT system and a physical phantom ensemble...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047981/tu-ab-209-00-model-observer-design-and-its-validation-for-task-based-evaluation-of-digital-breast-tomosynthesis
#10
Stephen Glick
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a limited-angle tomographic technique by its nature has multiple optimal system configurations, which can lead to many potential changes to the existing and new DBT systems entering the US market. With the availability of computational tools such as for modeling imaging physics, it is becoming increasingly important to conduct virtual trials for a rigorous, preclinical and task-based assessment of DBT. For such virtual assessment to be successful, it is critical to: (1) develop model-observer approaches that can account for patient data statistics stemming from realistic or real breast backgrounds as well as lesion characteristics, thereby performing given tasks effectively and (2) validate the model-observer approaches and their performance trends/levels with physical measurements from a prototype or real DBT system and a physical phantom ensemble...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047368/tu-ab-209-04-practical-examples-of-model-observer-applications-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis
#11
H Bosmans
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a limited-angle tomographic technique by its nature has multiple optimal system configurations, which can lead to many potential changes to the existing and new DBT systems entering the US market. With the availability of computational tools such as for modeling imaging physics, it is becoming increasingly important to conduct virtual trials for a rigorous, preclinical and task-based assessment of DBT. For such virtual assessment to be successful, it is critical to: (1) develop model-observer approaches that can account for patient data statistics stemming from realistic or real breast backgrounds as well as lesion characteristics, thereby performing given tasks effectively and (2) validate the model-observer approaches and their performance trends/levels with physical measurements from a prototype or real DBT system and a physical phantom ensemble...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047311/tu-ab-209-01-virtual-and-physical-breast-phantoms-that-mimic-patients
#12
J Lo
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a limited-angle tomographic technique by its nature has multiple optimal system configurations, which can lead to many potential changes to the existing and new DBT systems entering the US market. With the availability of computational tools such as for modeling imaging physics, it is becoming increasingly important to conduct virtual trials for a rigorous, preclinical and task-based assessment of DBT. For such virtual assessment to be successful, it is critical to: (1) develop model-observer approaches that can account for patient data statistics stemming from realistic or real breast backgrounds as well as lesion characteristics, thereby performing given tasks effectively and (2) validate the model-observer approaches and their performance trends/levels with physical measurements from a prototype or real DBT system and a physical phantom ensemble...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046640/tu-ab-209-02-designing-model-observers-for-signal-known-exactly-tasks-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis
#13
S Park
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a limited-angle tomographic technique by its nature has multiple optimal system configurations, which can lead to many potential changes to the existing and new DBT systems entering the US market. With the availability of computational tools such as for modeling imaging physics, it is becoming increasingly important to conduct virtual trials for a rigorous, preclinical and task-based assessment of DBT. For such virtual assessment to be successful, it is critical to: (1) develop model-observer approaches that can account for patient data statistics stemming from realistic or real breast backgrounds as well as lesion characteristics, thereby performing given tasks effectively and (2) validate the model-observer approaches and their performance trends/levels with physical measurements from a prototype or real DBT system and a physical phantom ensemble...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046565/su-f-t-341-generate-clinical-acceptable-trade-off-options-in-brain-imrt-planning-by-local-multi-criteria-optimization-mco-method
#14
L Yuan, Y Ge, Y Sheng, Q Jackie Wu
PURPOSE: we present a method to generate a set of treatment plans with clinical manageable dosimetric tradeoff options in brain IMRT planning guided by knowledge model prediction. METHODS: Multi-criteria optimization (MCO) methods have been developed in RT planning to help physicians make the complex clinical tradeoff decision among different organ sparing goals. In local MCO method, a clinical acceptable tradeoff range is first predicted based on past planning experiences and the specific patient's anatomy...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046472/th-cd-202-12-online-inter-beam-replanning-based-on-real-time-dose-reconstruction
#15
C P Kamerling, M F Fast, P Ziegenhein, S Nill, U Oelfke
PURPOSE: This work provides a proof-of-concept study for online replanning during treatment delivery for step-and-shoot prostate SBRT, based on real-time dose reconstruction. Online replanning is expected to improve the trade-off between target coverage and organ-at-risk dose in the presence of intra-fractional motion. METHODS: We have implemented an online replanning workflow on top of our previously reported real-time dose reconstruction software which connects to an Elekta research linac...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046451/th-cd-209-04-fuzzy-robust-optimization-in-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-planning-to-account-for-range-and-patient-setup-uncertainties
#16
Y An, M Bues, S Schild, W Liu
PURPOSE: We propose to apply a robust optimization model based on fuzzy-logic constraints in the intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) planning subject to range and patient setup uncertainties. The purpose is to ensure the plan robustness under uncertainty and obtain the best trade-off between tumor dose coverage and organ-at-risk(OAR) sparing. METHODS: Two IMPT plans were generated for 3 head-and-neck cancer patients: one used the planning target volume(PTV) method; the other used the fuzzy robust optimization method...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044325/robust-treatment-planning-with-conditional-value-at-risk-chance-constraints-in-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy
#17
Yu An, Jianming Liang, Steven E Schild, Martin Bues, Wei Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is highly sensitive to range uncertainties and uncertainties caused by setup variation. The conventional inverse treatment planning of IMPT based on the planning target volume (PTV) is not often sufficient to ensure robustness of treatment plans. We applied a probabilistic framework (chance-constrained optimization) in IMPT planning to hedge against the influence of uncertainties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively selected one patient with lung cancer, one patient with head and neck (H&N) cancer, and one with prostate cancer for this analysis...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040211/plumage-micro-organisms-and-preen-gland-size-in-an-urbanizing-context
#18
Mathieu Giraudeau, Ryan Stikeleather, Jennifer McKenna, Pierce Hutton, Kevin J McGraw
Urbanization of Earth's habitats has led to considerable loss of biodiversity, but the driving ecological mechanism(s) are not always clear. Vertebrates like birds typically experience urban alterations to diet, habitat availability, and levels of predation or competition, but may also be exposed to greater or more pathogenic communities of microbes. Birds have been popular subjects of urban ecological research but, to our knowledge, no study has assessed how urban conditions influence the microbial communities on bird plumage...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035278/mating-and-longevity-in-ant-males
#19
Sina Metzler, Jürgen Heinze, Alexandra Schrempf
Across multicellular organisms, the costs of reproduction and self-maintenance result in a life history trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Queens of perennial social Hymenoptera are both highly fertile and long-lived, and thus, this fundamental trade-off is lacking. Whether social insect males similarly evade the fecundity/longevity trade-off remains largely unstudied. Wingless males of the ant genus Cardiocondyla stay in their natal colonies throughout their relatively long lives and mate with multiple female sexuals...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028815/metabolic-systems-biology-a-brief-primer
#20
REVIEW
Lindsay M Edwards
In the early to mid 20(th) Century, reductionism as a concept in biology was challenged by key thinkers, including Ludwig Von Bertalanffy. He proposed that living organisms were specific examples of complex systems and, as such, they should display characteristics including hierarchical organisation and emergent behaviour. Yet the true study of complete biological systems (for example, metabolism) was not possible until technological advances that occurred 60 years later. Technology now exists that permits the measurement of complete levels of the biological hierarchy, for example the genome and transcriptome...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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