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Panuwan Chantawannakul, Samuel Ramsey, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Patcharin Phokasem
The risk of transmission of honey bee parasites has increased substantially as a result of trade globalization and technical developments in transportation efficacy. Great concern over honey bee decline has accelerated research on newly emerging bee pests and parasites. These organisms are likely to emerge from Asia as it is the only region where all 10 honey bee species co-occur. Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite, is a classic example of a pest that has shifted from A. cerana, a cavity nesting Asian honey bee to A...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Saikat Das, Teng Ben
In the last few years, the scientific community has capitalized on the synergy between different porous materials to develop mixed matrix- and composite membranes with unprecedented performance in gas separation. Admirably, several of these membranes have outperformed the trade-off between permeability and selectivity, and it is reasonable to suggest that these membranes owe their performance to the synergy between different porous materials that these membranes comprise. However, covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) are rather underexplored in the fabrication of composite membranes particularly due to the fabrication challenges...
May 11, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Ji Qi, Chao Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xianglong Hu, Shenglu Ji, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Dan Ding, Ben Zhong Tang
Fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging have different advantages in cancer diagnosis; however, combining effects in one agent normally requires a trade-off as the mechanisms interfere. Here, based on rational molecular design, we introduce a smart organic nanoparticle whose absorbed excitation energy can be photo-switched to the pathway of thermal deactivation for photoacoustic imaging, or to allow opposed routes for fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy. The molecule is made of a dithienylethene (DTE) core with two surrounding 2-(1-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)ethylidene)malononitrile (TPECM) units (DTE-TPECM)...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Michael C Singer, Camille Parmesan
Global transport of organisms by humans provides novel resources to wild species, which often respond maladaptively. Native herbivorous insects have been killed feeding on toxic exotic plants, which acted as 'ecological traps'1-4 . We document a novel 'eco-evolutionary trap' stemming from the opposite effect; that is, high fitness on an exotic resource despite lack of adaptation to it. Plantago lanceolata was introduced to western North America by cattle-ranching. Feeding on this exotic plant released a large, isolated population of the native butterfly Euphydryas editha from a longstanding trade-off between maternal fecundity and offspring mortality...
May 2018: Nature
Meghan Leaver, Alex Griffiths, Tom Reader
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were (a) to determine whether near-miss incidents in financial trading contain information on the operator skills and systems that detect and prevent near misses and the patterns and trends revealed by these data and (b) to explore if particular operator skills and systems are found as important for avoiding particular types of error on the trading floor. BACKGROUND: In this study, we examine a cohort of near-miss incidents collected from a financial trading organization using the Financial Incident Analysis System and report on the nontechnical skills and systems that are used to detect and prevent error in this domain...
May 1, 2018: Human Factors
L T Dauer, E Yorke, M Williamson, Y Gao, Z L Dauer, D L Miller, E Vañó
Radiation therapy of cancer patients involves a trade-off between a sufficient tumour dose for a high probability of local control and dose to organs at risk that is low enough to lead to a clinically acceptable probability of toxicity. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reviewed epidemiological evidence and provided updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury, as defined at the level of 1% incidence, in ICRP Publication 118. Particular attention was paid to cataracts and circulatory diseases...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Paul R Armsworth
Should conservation organizations focus on protecting habitats that are at imminent risk of being converted but are expensive or more remote areas that are less immediately threatened but where a large amount of land can be set aside? Variants of this trade-off commonly arise in spatial planning. We examined this trade-off using models of land use change near a deforestation frontier. The optimal choice of where to protect was determined by how decisions taken today accounted for ecological benefits and economic costs of conservation actions that would occur sometime in the future...
May 8, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Muhammad Rizwan Yaseen, Qamar Ali, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan
The road traffic accidents were responsible for material and human loss which was equal to 2.8 to 5% of gross national product (GNP). However, literature does not explore the elasticity coefficients and nexus of road traffic fatalities with foreign direct investment, health expenditures, trade openness, mobile subscriptions, the number of researchers in R&D department, and environmental particulate matter. This study filled this research gap by exploring the nexus between road traffic fatalities, foreign direct investment, health expenditures, trade openness, mobile subscriptions, the number of researchers, and environmental particulate matter in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries by using panel data from 1995 to 2015...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S Dalichau, M Giemsa, T Solbach, M Büschke, D Engel, T Möller, A Wahl-Wachendorf
BACKGROUND: 2-6 months after successful medical rehabilitation in gonarthrosis, the positive effects remit without the implementation of adequate aftercare strategies. OBJECTIVES: A prospective comparative study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent the sustainability model of knee school for the secondary preventive treatment of occupational gonarthrosis is able to maintain positive treatment effects in the medium term. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 292 male employees from the building trade went through the three-week phase 1 of the biopsychosocial knee college with a focus on ergonomics and muscle strength training...
May 3, 2018: Der Orthopäde
Ling Zhang, Jake B Bailey, Rohit H Subramanian, F Akif Tezcan
The formation of condensed matter typically involves a trade-off between structural order and flexibility. As the extent and directionality of interactions between atomic or molecular components increase, materials generally become more ordered but less compliant, and vice versa. Nevertheless, high levels of structural order and flexibility are not necessarily mutually exclusive; there are many biological (such as microtubules1,2 , flagella 3 , viruses4,5 ) and synthetic assemblies (for example, dynamic molecular crystals6-9 and frameworks10-13 ) that can undergo considerable structural transformations without losing their crystalline order and that have remarkable mechanical properties8,14,15 that are useful in diverse applications, such as selective sorption 16 , separation 17 , sensing 18 and mechanoactuation 19 ...
May 2018: Nature
Henry H Chung, Stephanie M Casillo, Spencer J Perry, Thomas R Gaborski
Porous substrates have gained increased usage in cell studies and tissue mimetic applications because they can partition distinct cell types while still allowing important biochemical crosstalk. In the presented work, we investigated how porous substrates with micron and submicron features influence early cell migration and the associated ECM establishment, which can critically affect the rate of cell coverage on the substrate and the ensuing tissue organization. We showed through time-lapse microscopy that cell speed and migratory distance on membranes with 0...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Jaroslav Mysiak, Silvia Torresan, Francesco Bosello, Malcolm Mistry, Mattia Amadio, Sepehr Marzi, Elisa Furlan, Anna Sperotto
We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity...
June 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jacob W Hinkel-Lipsker, Michael E Hahn
Gait adaptation is a task that requires fine-tuned coordination of all degrees of freedom in the lower limbs by the central nervous system. However, when individuals change their gait it is unknown how this coordination is organized, and how it can be influenced by contextual interference during practice. Such knowledge could provide information about measurement of gait adaptation during rehabilitation. Able-bodied individuals completed an acute bout of asymmetric split-belt treadmill walking, where one limb was driven at a constant velocity and the other according to one of three designed practice paradigms: serial practice, where the variable limb belt velocity increased over time; random blocked practice, where every 20 strides the variable limb belt velocity changed randomly; random practice, where every stride the variable limb belt velocity changed randomly...
April 25, 2018: Human Movement Science
Alice M Couwenberg, Martijn P W Intven, Johannes P M Burbach, Marleen J Emaus, Wilhelmina M U van Grevenstein, Helena M Verkooijen
BACKGROUND: Organ-sparing approaches, including wait-and-see and local excision, are increasingly being offered to patients with rectal cancer following a good response to neoadjuvant therapy. Preferences regarding these treatment strategies are yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the preferences and utility scores for rectal cancer treatment approaches. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was conducted at the Radiation-Oncology Department of the University Medical Center Utrecht...
April 24, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Trevor C Chopko, Craig W Lindsley
After identifying the influence of serotonergic receptors in ameliorating the negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics were developed incorporating dopamine and serotonin antagonism. Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal, was the second atypical antipsychotic developed following clozapine, but quickly became a first-line treatment for acute and chronic schizophrenia due to its preferential side effect profile. Despite initial FDA-approval 25 years ago, risperidone continues to be a fundamental treatment in schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder, and autism-related irritability...
April 25, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Gileard G Masenga, Benjamin C Shayo, Vibeke Rasch
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and risk-factors of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Tanzania are unknown. To help elucidate the problem, we assessed POP and associated risk-factors among Tanzanian women by deploying the POP-Q classification system. METHOD: A cross sectional community based study conducted in Hai, Rombo and Same Districts, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Women aged 18-90 were recruited through multi-stage random sampling from January to May 2015. Home-based questionnaire interviews were performed and the women were subsequently invited to the nearest health clinic for pelvic examination...
2018: PloS One
Yi Feng Wang, Ru Lin Qi, Ya Jun Yang, Yang Yang, Wei Dong Song, Wan Yi Mao
The paper studied the effects of altitude on reproductive characteristics in 12 populations of Saussurea przewalskii at the eastern Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau, China. The results showed that the size, reproductive organ biomass, vegetative organ biomass, capitulum number, and seed number of individual plant decreased with the increasing altitude, and the capitulum mass and hundred-grain mass increased continuously. S. przewalskii could ensure its reproduction by reducing plant body size to decrease resource consumption, and increasing the allocation of limit resources to flower biomass...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Alex Dornburg, Dan L Warren, Katerina L Zapfe, Richard Morris, Teresa L Iglesias, April Lamb, Gabriela Hogue, Laura Lukas, Richard Wong
Trade-offs associated with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) are well documented across the Tree of Life. However, studies of SSD often do not consider potential investment trade-offs between metabolically expensive structures under sexual selection and other morphological modules. Based on the expectations of the expensive tissue hypothesis, investment in one metabolically expensive structure should come at the direct cost of investment in another. Here, we examine allometric trends in the ontogeny of oyster toadfish ( Opsanus tau ) to test whether investment in structures known to have been influenced by strong sexual selection conform to these expectations...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Katharina D C Stärk, Agnieszka Pękala, Petra Muellner
Diagnostic tools for the identification and confirmation of animal diseases have been evolving rapidly over the last decade, with diseases of aquatic animals being no exception. Hence, case definitions used in surveillance may now include molecular and genomic components and ultimately be based on the entire genome of a pathogen. While the opportunities brought on by this change in our ability to define and differentiate organisms are manifold, there are also challenges. These include the need to consider typing tool characteristics during sampling design, but also the re-thinking of diagnostic protocols and standards for the meaningful interpretation of the increasingly complex data presented to surveillance managers...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Diane S Rohlman, Megan A Parish, Ginger C Hanson, Larry S Williams
OBJECTIVE: Construction workers face barriers to healthy eating, including work organization and environmental factors, that can affect productivity and lead to chronic conditions. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online nutrition training to improve knowledge and behaviors and evaluate the feasibility of conducting this training among apprentices in the highway construction trades. METHODS: A pretest-posttest control group design was used. The intervention was conducted using a Web-based electronic learning platform...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
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