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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231637/preen-oil-and-bird-fitness-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#1
Gregorio Moreno-Rueda
The uropygial gland is a holocrine complex exclusive to birds that produces an oleaginous secretion (preen oil) whose function is still debated. Herein, I examine critically the evidence for the many hypotheses of potential functions of this gland. The main conclusion is that our understanding of this gland is still in its infancy. Even for functions that are considered valid by most researchers, real evidence is scarce. Although it seems clear that preen oil contributes to plumage maintenance, we do not know whether this is due to a role in reducing mechanical abrasion or in reducing feather degradation by keratinophilic organisms...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221872/analysis-of-food-safety-and-security-challenges-in-emerging-african-food-producing-areas-through-a-one-health-lens-the-dairy-chains-in-mali
#2
Rachel Cheng, Alberto Mantovani, Chiara Frazzoli
Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215324/bacillus-probiotic-enzymes-external-auxiliary-apparatus-to-avoid-digestive-deficiencies-water-pollution-diseases-and-economic-problems-in-marine-cultivated-animals
#3
Jorge Olmos Soto
Exploitation of marine fishes is the main source of several life-supporting feed compounds such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that maintain the production of most trading marine organisms by aquaculture. However, at this rate the marine inventory will go to the end soon, since fishery resources are finite. In this sense, the availability of the principal ingredients obtained from marine fishes is going to decrease considerably, increasing the diet prices and affecting the economy of this activity. Therefore, aquaculture industry needs to find nonexpensive land unconventional resources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids and use bacterial probiotics to improve digestion-assimilation of these unfamiliar compounds...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213964/when-sensing-is-gambling-an-experimental-system-reveals-how-plasticity-can-generate-tunable-bet-hedging-strategies
#4
Colin S Maxwell, Paul M Magwene
Genotypes can persist in unpredictable environments by 'hedging their bets' and producing diverse phenotypes. Theoretical studies have shown that the phenotypic variability needed for a bet-hedging strategy can be generated by factors either inside or outside an organism. However, sensing the environment and bet hedging are frequently treated as distinct evolutionary strategies. Furthermore, nearly all empirical studies of the molecular underpinnings of bet-hedging strategies to date have focused on internal sources of variability...
February 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213391/the-politics-and-policies-of-regulating-generics-in-latin-america-a-survey-of-seventeen-states
#5
Cassandra M Sweet
When patents expire, are equivalent generic alternatives available to citizens? This article contributes to current discussion on access to medicine in the aftermath of the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The focus is on off-patent or "generic" medicines: their product definitions, quality standards and prescription procedures. Drawing from a survey conducted of seventeen countries across the Latin American region, this article examines the differences in definition of off-patent products and the paradox of their relatively lower consumption across multiple developing states...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212677/fit-for-purpose-perspectives-on-rapid-reviews-from-end-user-interviews
#6
Lisa Hartling, Jeanne-Marie Guise, Susanne Hempel, Robin Featherstone, Matthew D Mitchell, Makalapua L Motu'apuaka, Karen A Robinson, Karen Schoelles, Annette Totten, Evelyn Whitlock, Timothy J Wilt, Johanna Anderson, Elise Berliner, Aysegul Gozu, Elisabeth Kato, Robin Paynter, Craig A Umscheid
BACKGROUND: There is increasing demand for rapid reviews and timely evidence synthesis. The goal of this project was to understand end-user perspectives on the utility and limitations of rapid products including evidence inventories, rapid responses, and rapid reviews. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with key informants representing: guideline developers (n = 3), health care providers/health system organizations (n = 3), research funders (n = 1), and payers/health insurers (n = 1)...
February 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211525/focus-on-pna-flexibility-and-rna-binding-using-molecular-dynamics-and-metadynamics
#7
Massimiliano Donato Verona, Vincenzo Verdolino, Ferruccio Palazzesi, Roberto Corradini
Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) can efficiently target DNA or RNA acting as chemical tools for gene regulation. Their backbone modification and functionalization is often used to increase the affinity for a particular sequence improving selectivity. The understanding of the trading forces that lead the single strand PNA to bind the DNA or RNA sequence is preparatory for any further rational design, but a clear and unique description of this process is still not complete. In this paper we report further insights into this subject, by a computational investigation aiming at the characterization of the conformations of a single strand PNA and how these can be correlated to its capability in binding DNA/RNA...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208096/how-the-structure-of-agro-food-systems-shapes-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-carbon-fluxes-the-generalized-representation-of-agro-food-system-applied-at-the-regional-scale-in-france
#8
Julia Le Noë, Gilles Billen, Josette Garnier
The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual framework to analyze the agro-food system of French agricultural regions from the angle of N, P and C circulation through five major compartments (cropland, grassland, livestock biomass, local population and potential environmental losses). To reach that goal we extended the Generalized Representation of Agro-Food System approach to P and C and applied it to French regions. Using this methodology we analyzed the relation between production pattern and N surplus, P budget, and efficient organic carbon inputs (OCeff), assuming these three indicators to be good proxies for (i) N losses to waterbodies and the atmosphere, (ii) P accumulation or depletion in soils, and (iii) potential additional C sequestration in soils, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207306/a-comprehensive-review-of-spirit-drink-safety-standards-and-regulations-from-an-international-perspective
#9
Xiao-Na Pang, Zhao-Jie Li, Jing-Yu Chen, Li-Juan Gao, Bei-Zhong Han
Standards and regulations related to spirit drinks have been established by different countries and international organizations to ensure the safety and quality of spirits. Here, we introduce the principles of food safety and quality standards for alcoholic beverages and then compare the key indicators used in the distinct standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the United States, Canada, and Australia. We also discuss in detail the "maximum level" of the following main contaminants of spirit drinks: methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl carbamate, hydrocyanic acid, heavy metals, mycotoxins, phthalates, and aldehydes...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205528/reversed-thermo-switchable-molecular-sieving-membranes-composed-of-two-dimensional-metal-organic-nanosheets-for-gas-separation
#10
Xuerui Wang, Chenglong Chi, Kang Zhang, Yuhong Qian, Krishna M Gupta, Zixi Kang, Jianwen Jiang, Dan Zhao
It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198181/mineralogical-plasticity-acts-as-a-compensatory-mechanism-to-the-impacts-of-ocean-acidification
#11
Jonathan Y S Leung, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell
Calcifying organisms are considered particularly susceptible to the future impacts of ocean acidification (OA), but recent evidence suggests that they may be able to maintain calcification and overall fitness. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but may be attributed to mineralogical plasticity, which modifies the energetic cost of calcification. To test the hypothesis that mineralogical plasticity enables the maintenance of shell growth and functionality under OA conditions, we assessed the biological performance of a gastropod (respiration rate, feeding rate, somatic growth, and shell growth of Austrocochlea constricta) and analyzed its shell mechanical and geochemical properties (shell hardness, elastic modulus, amorphous calcium carbonate, calcite to aragonite ratio, and magnesium to calcium ratio)...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197550/sexually-dimorphic-risk-mitigation-strategies-in-rats
#12
Blake A Pellman, Bryan P Schuessler, Mohini Tellakat, Jeansok J Kim
The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety-in both normal and pathological forms-is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal's behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky "closed economy" system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197154/cowpea-and-groundnut-haulms-fodder-trading-and-its-lessons-for-multidimensional-cowpea-improvement-for-mixed-crop-livestock-systems-in-west-africa
#13
Anandan Samireddypalle, Ousmane Boukar, Elaine Grings, Christian A Fatokun, Prasad Kodukula, Ravi Devulapalli, Iheanacho Okike, Michael Blümmel
Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195535/the-unfair-trade-why-organ-sale-is-indefensible
#14
Siby K George
This paper argues against the proposal of a system of compensated living donation in the global south, especially India, without recourse to essentialist ethics. It relies on the anti-essentialist ethical-ontology of Levinas for the claim that it is the concrete vulnerability of the suffering other, rather than any absolute moral imperative, that makes a market for organs unethical.
January 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195029/the-problem-of-epistemic-jurisdiction-in-global-governance-the-case-of-sustainability-standards-for-biofuels
#15
David E Winickoff, Matthieu Mondou
While there is ample scholarly work on regulatory science within the state, or single-sited global institutions, there is less on its operation within complex modes of global governance that are decentered, overlapping, multi-sectorial and multi-leveled. Using a co-productionist framework, this study identifies 'epistemic jurisdiction' - the power to produce or warrant technical knowledge for a given political community, topical arena or geographical territory - as a central problem for regulatory science in complex governance...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192384/lucae-s-springy-pressure-probe-to-mobilize-the-ossicular-chain-rise-and-fall-of-an-ingenious-instrument
#16
Rinze Anthony Tange, Albert Mudry
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESES: In 1884, Johann Constantin August Lucae (1835-1911), a German otologist from Berlin, introduced a new "method to mechanically treat chronic troubles of the mobility of the hearing organ transmission apparatus." It consisted in the use of a springy pressure probe to directly mobilize the handle of the malleus. The aim of this study is to trace the invention, clinical use, technological modifications, and ultimate extinction of this instrument. METHOD: Review of Lucae's publications, comments by his colleagues, and trade catalogues published between 1880 and 1940...
March 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185558/economic-importance-taxonomic-representation-and-scientific-priority-as-drivers-of-genome-sequencing-projects
#17
Geneviève C Vallée, Daniella Santos Muñoz, David Sankoff
BACKGROUND: Of the approximately two hundred sequenced plant genomes, how many and which ones were sequenced motivated by strictly or largely scientific considerations, and how many by chiefly economic, in a wide sense, incentives? And how large a role does publication opportunity play? RESULTS: In an integration of multiple disparate databases and other sources of information, we collect and analyze data on the size (number of species) in the plant orders and families containing sequenced genomes, on the trade value of these species, and of all the same-family or same-order species, and on the publication priority within the family and order...
November 11, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177424/nitrous-oxide-and-ammonia-emissions-from-injected-and-broadcast-applied-dairy-slurry
#18
E W Duncan, C J Dell, P J A Kleinman, D B Beegle
Trade-offs associated with surface application or injection of manure pose important environmental and agronomic concerns. Manure injection can conserve nitrogen (N) by decreasing ammonia (NH) volatilization. However, the injection band also creates conditions that potentially favor nitrous oxide (NO) production: an abundant organic substrate-promoting microbial activity, anaerobic conditions favoring denitrification, and large local concentrations of N. We assessed differences in NH volatilization and NO emissions with broadcast application versus shallow disk injection of dairy slurry during the 2011 to 2013 growing seasons on a well-drained silt loam that received average manure-N application rates of 180 kg N ha via injection or 200 kg N ha via broadcast...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174306/a-mobile-element-in-muts-drives-hypermutation-in-a-marine-vibrio
#19
Nathaniel D Chu, Sean A Clarke, Sonia Timberlake, Martin F Polz, Alan D Grossman, Eric J Alm
: Bacteria face a trade-off between genetic fidelity, which reduces deleterious mistakes in the genome, and genetic innovation, which allows organisms to adapt. Evidence suggests that many bacteria balance this trade-off by modulating their mutation rates, but few mechanisms have been described for such modulation. Following experimental evolution and whole-genome resequencing of the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus 12B01, we discovered one such mechanism, which allows this bacterium to switch to an elevated mutation rate...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163785/efficient-estimation-of-the-maximum-metabolic-productivity-of-batch-systems
#20
Peter C St John, Michael F Crowley, Yannick J Bomble
BACKGROUND: Production of chemicals from engineered organisms in a batch culture involves an inherent trade-off between productivity, yield, and titer. Existing strategies for strain design typically focus on designing mutations that achieve the highest yield possible while maintaining growth viability. While these methods are computationally tractable, an optimum productivity could be achieved by a dynamic strategy in which the intracellular division of resources is permitted to change with time...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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