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labor trafficking

Clydette Powell, Kirsten Dickins, Hanni Stoklosa
Some 21 million adults and children are labor-trafficked or sex-trafficked through force, fraud, or coercion. In recognition of the interface between trafficking victims and the healthcare setting, over the last 10 years there has been a notable increase in training of health care professionals (HCPs) on human trafficking (HT) and its health implications. Many organizations have developed curricula and offered training in various clinical settings. However, methods and content of this education on trafficking vary widely, and there is little evaluation of the impact of the training...
2017: Medical Education Online
Colleen Scanlon, Laura Krausa
Human trafficking is modern-day slavery - an insidious, criminal industry that gener- ates billions of dollars in labor trafficking alone. It knows no boundary of continent, country, race or class; it is a shattering, impartial predator that robs individuals of their basic human dignity.
July 2016: Health Progress
Erin Albright, Kate D'Adamo
In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
Abigail English
Human trafficking, including both sex and labor trafficking, has profound consequences for the safety, health, and well-being of victims and survivors. Efforts to address human trafficking through prevention, protection, and prosecution are growing but remain insufficient. Mandatory reporting has the potential to bring victims and survivors to the attention of social service and law enforcement agencies but may discourage trafficked persons from seeking help, thereby limiting the ability of health care professionals to establish trust and provide needed care...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
Samantha Sheller-Miller, Jun Lei, George Saade, Carlos Salomon, Irina Burd, Ramkumar Menon
Timing and initiation of labor are well-orchestrated by signals communicated between the fetal and maternal compartments; however, how these signals are communicated is not completely understood. Fetal exosomes, intercellular signaling vesicles, may play a key role in the process. The objective of this study was to evaluate exosome trafficking in vivo from fetal to maternal compartments. Pregnant CD-1 mice were intra-amniotically injected on gestational day 16 and 17 with exosomes isolated from primary human amnion epithelial cells fluorescently labeled with the lipophilic dye 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR)...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Corinne Schwarz, Erik Unruh, Katie Cronin, Sarah Evans-Simpson, Hannah Britton, Megha Ramaswamy
The medical sector presents a unique opportunity for identification and service to victims of human trafficking. In this article, we describe local and site-specific efforts to develop an intervention tool to be used in an urban hospital's emergency department in the midwestern United States. In the development of our tool, we focused on both identification and intervention to assist trafficked persons, through a largely collaborative process in which we engaged local stakeholders for developing site-specific points of intervention...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Kathleen W Gorman, Beth Ann Hatkevich
Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Siân Oram, Melanie Abas, Debra Bick, Adrian Boyle, Rebecca French, Sharon Jakobowitz, Mizanur Khondoker, Nicky Stanley, Kylee Trevillion, Louise Howard, Cathy Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: To investigate physical and mental health and experiences of violence among male and female trafficking survivors in a high-income country. METHODS: Our data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 150 men and women in England who were in contact with posttrafficking support services. Interviews took place over 18 months, from June 2013 to December 2014. RESULTS: Participants had been trafficked for sexual exploitation (29%), domestic servitude (29...
June 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Dana C Beck, Kristen R Choi, Michelle L Munro-Kramer, Jody R Lori
The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking...
March 31, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Huijuan Wang, Min He, Yunhua Hou, Saiying Chen, Xiaojie Zhang, Mingshun Zhang, Xiaohui Ji
OBJECTIVE: Decidual macrophages (dMΦs) have been implicated in fetal tolerance, but little information is known regarding their differentiation capacity and interactions with T cells. The present study aimed to investigate the immunological characteristics of dMΦs at mid and term pregnancy. METHODS: The dMΦs were analyzed for their phenotypes and cytokine production by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. The transendothelial trafficking model was implemented to allow the dMΦs to differentiate...
February 2016: Placenta
Joey Berlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2016: Texas Medicine
Ranit Mishori, Anita Ravi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2015: American Family Physician
Tippi C MacKenzie
Fetal surgery is a fascinating field that will continue to evolve as we develop a more refined understanding of the underlying biology of various birth defects. Since preterm labor is a frequent outcome of fetal intervention, examining the mechanisms that lead to a breakdown in maternal-fetal tolerance is vital to developing strategies to overcome this limitation. The trafficking of cells between the mother and fetus during pregnancy plays a critical role in the education of the fetal immune system and may have implications for postnatal transplantation tolerance...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Sharon E Mace
Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families...
February 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Marta Wegorzewska, Tom Le, Qizhi Tang, Tippi C MacKenzie
Fetal surgery is a promising strategy to treat fetuses with severe congenital abnormalities but its clinical applications are often limited by preterm labor. In normal pregnancy, multiple mechanisms protect the semi-allogeneic fetus from attack by maternal T cells. Maternal microchimerism (the presence of maternal cells in the fetus) has been suggested to be one mechanism of maternal-fetal tolerance in that it exposes the fetus to non-inherited maternal antigens and leads to the generation of fetal regulatory T cells that can suppress a maternal T cell response...
2014: Chimerism
Gail Hornor
Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service...
January 2015: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Nadejda Bespalova, Juliet Morgan, John Coverdale
OBJECTIVES: Because training residents and faculty to identify human trafficking victims is a major public health priority, the authors review existing assessment tools. METHODS: PubMed and Google were searched using combinations of search terms including human, trafficking, sex, labor, screening, identification, and tool. RESULTS: Nine screening tools that met the inclusion criteria were found. They varied greatly in length, format, target demographic, supporting resources, and other parameters...
February 2016: Academic Psychiatry
Gillian L Stephen, Sylvia Lui, Sarah A Hamilton, Clare L Tower, Lynda K Harris, Adam Stevens, Rebecca L Jones
PROBLEM: Inflammation is a driver of labor in myometrium and cervix; however, the involvement of decidua is poorly defined. We have reported decidual leukocyte infiltration prior to and during labor; the regulators of these inflammatory processes are unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: Choriodecidua RNA obtained after term labor or elective cesarean delivery was applied to Affymetrix GeneChips. Pathway analysis and gene validation were performed. RESULTS: Extensive inflammatory activation was identified in choriodecidua following labor, predominantly upregulation of genes regulating leukocyte trafficking and cytokine signalling...
January 2015: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Yael Mutsafi, Yael Fridmann-Sirkis, Elad Milrot, Liron Hevroni, Abraham Minsky
The discovery of giant DNA viruses and the recent realization that such viruses are diverse and abundant blurred the distinction between viruses and cells. These findings elicited lively debates on the nature and origin of viruses as well as on their potential roles in the evolution of cells. The following essay is, however, concerned with new insights into fundamental structural and physical aspects of viral replication that were derived from studies conducted on large DNA viruses. Specifically, the entirely cytoplasmic replication cycles of Mimivirus and Vaccinia are discussed in light of the highly limited trafficking of large macromolecules in the crowded cytoplasm of cells...
October 2014: Virology
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