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labor trafficking

Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Siân Oram, Melanie Abas, Debra Bick, Adrian Boyle, Rebecca French, Sharon Jakobowitz, Mizanur Khondoker, Nicky Stanley, Kylee Trevillion, Louise Howard, Cathy Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: To investigate physical and mental health and experiences of violence among male and female trafficking survivors in a high-income country. METHODS: Our data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 150 men and women in England who were in contact with posttrafficking support services. Interviews took place over 18 months, from June 2013 to December 2014. RESULTS: Participants had been trafficked for sexual exploitation (29%), domestic servitude (29...
June 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Dana C Beck, Kristen R Choi, Michelle L Munro-Kramer, Jody R Lori
The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking...
March 31, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Huijuan Wang, Min He, Yunhua Hou, Saiying Chen, Xiaojie Zhang, Mingshun Zhang, Xiaohui Ji
OBJECTIVE: Decidual macrophages (dMΦs) have been implicated in fetal tolerance, but little information is known regarding their differentiation capacity and interactions with T cells. The present study aimed to investigate the immunological characteristics of dMΦs at mid and term pregnancy. METHODS: The dMΦs were analyzed for their phenotypes and cytokine production by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. The transendothelial trafficking model was implemented to allow the dMΦs to differentiate...
February 2016: Placenta
Joey Berlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Texas Medicine
Ranit Mishori, Anita Ravi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2015: American Family Physician
Tippi C MacKenzie
Fetal surgery is a fascinating field that will continue to evolve as we develop a more refined understanding of the underlying biology of various birth defects. Since preterm labor is a frequent outcome of fetal intervention, examining the mechanisms that lead to a breakdown in maternal-fetal tolerance is vital to developing strategies to overcome this limitation. The trafficking of cells between the mother and fetus during pregnancy plays a critical role in the education of the fetal immune system and may have implications for postnatal transplantation tolerance...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Sharon E Mace
Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families...
February 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Marta Wegorzewska, Tom Le, Qizhi Tang, Tippi C MacKenzie
Fetal surgery is a promising strategy to treat fetuses with severe congenital abnormalities but its clinical applications are often limited by preterm labor. In normal pregnancy, multiple mechanisms protect the semi-allogeneic fetus from attack by maternal T cells. Maternal microchimerism (the presence of maternal cells in the fetus) has been suggested to be one mechanism of maternal-fetal tolerance in that it exposes the fetus to non-inherited maternal antigens and leads to the generation of fetal regulatory T cells that can suppress a maternal T cell response...
2014: Chimerism
Gail Hornor
Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service...
January 2015: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Nadejda Bespalova, Juliet Morgan, John Coverdale
OBJECTIVES: Because training residents and faculty to identify human trafficking victims is a major public health priority, the authors review existing assessment tools. METHODS: PubMed and Google were searched using combinations of search terms including human, trafficking, sex, labor, screening, identification, and tool. RESULTS: Nine screening tools that met the inclusion criteria were found. They varied greatly in length, format, target demographic, supporting resources, and other parameters...
February 2016: Academic Psychiatry
Gillian L Stephen, Sylvia Lui, Sarah A Hamilton, Clare L Tower, Lynda K Harris, Adam Stevens, Rebecca L Jones
PROBLEM: Inflammation is a driver of labor in myometrium and cervix; however, the involvement of decidua is poorly defined. We have reported decidual leukocyte infiltration prior to and during labor; the regulators of these inflammatory processes are unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: Choriodecidua RNA obtained after term labor or elective cesarean delivery was applied to Affymetrix GeneChips. Pathway analysis and gene validation were performed. RESULTS: Extensive inflammatory activation was identified in choriodecidua following labor, predominantly upregulation of genes regulating leukocyte trafficking and cytokine signalling...
January 2015: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Yael Mutsafi, Yael Fridmann-Sirkis, Elad Milrot, Liron Hevroni, Abraham Minsky
The discovery of giant DNA viruses and the recent realization that such viruses are diverse and abundant blurred the distinction between viruses and cells. These findings elicited lively debates on the nature and origin of viruses as well as on their potential roles in the evolution of cells. The following essay is, however, concerned with new insights into fundamental structural and physical aspects of viral replication that were derived from studies conducted on large DNA viruses. Specifically, the entirely cytoplasmic replication cycles of Mimivirus and Vaccinia are discussed in light of the highly limited trafficking of large macromolecules in the crowded cytoplasm of cells...
October 2014: Virology
Stefan Matysiak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2014: Kinderkrankenschwester: Organ der Sektion Kinderkrankenpflege
Tiffany A Richards
Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population.
April 2014: Nursing for Women's Health
Pin-I Chen, Kristine Schauer, Chen Kong, Andrew R Harding, Bruno Goud, Philip D Stahl
Rab5, the prototypical Rab GTPase and master regulator of the endocytic pathway, is encoded as three differentially expressed isoforms, Rab5A, Rab5B and Rab5C. Here, we examined the differential effects of Rab5 isoform silencing on cell motility and report that Rab5C, but neither Rab5A nor Rab5B, is selectively associated with the growth factor-activation of Rac1 and with enhanced cell motility. Initial observations revealed that silencing of Rab5C expression, but neither Rab5A nor Rab5C, led to spindle-shaped cells that displayed reduced formation of membrane ruffles...
2014: PloS One
Marta Wegorzewska, Amar Nijagal, Charissa M Wong, Tom Le, Ninnia Lescano, Qizhi Tang, Tippi C MacKenzie
Fetal interventions to diagnose and treat congenital anomalies are growing in popularity but often lead to preterm labor. The possible contribution of the maternal adaptive immune system to postsurgical pregnancy complications has not been explored. We recently showed that fetal intervention in mice increases maternal T cell trafficking into the fetus and hypothesized that this process also may lead to increased maternal T cell recognition of the foreign conceptus and subsequent breakdown in maternal-fetal tolerance...
February 15, 2014: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Isidore A Udoh
In most of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is driven by endemic structural problems such as unemployment, poverty, forced migration, sexual exploitation, and concurrent sexual partnerships. In the Niger Delta of Nigeria, the epidemic is exacerbated by recurring regional conflict and negative environmental externalities resulting from 50 years of oil exploration. This article seeks to identify and analyze potential barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment from oil pollution and other environmental stressors in Nigeria's Niger Delta...
2013: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Sarah Steele
Many southern African economies are dependent on the extractive industries. These industries rely on low-cost labor, often supplied by migrants, typically acquired through labor brokers. Very little attention has so far been paid to trafficking of men into extractive industries or its connection with trafficked women in the region's mining hubs. Recent reports suggest that labor-brokering practices foster human trafficking, both by exposing migrant men to lack of pay and exploitative conditions and by creating male migratory patterns that generate demand for sex workers and associated trafficking of women and girls...
2013: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
David Stuckler, Sarah Steele, Mark Lurie, Sanjay Basu
Mineral mining is among the world's most hazardous occupations. It is especially dangerous in southern Africa, where mining activity is a leading cause of HIV and tuberculosis epidemics. Inside mines, silica dust exposure causes long-term pulmonary damage. Living conditions are often substandard; poorly ventilated living quarters facilitate tuberculosis and airborne disease spread, and high rates of alcohol and tobacco use compromise immune responses. Family segregation, a legacy of apartheid's migrational labor system, increases the likelihood of risky sexual activity...
2013: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
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