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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458207/co-spray-drying-of-hygroscopic-kanamycin-with-the-hydrophobic-drug-rifampicin-to-improve-the-aerosolization-of-kanamycin-powder-for-treating-respiratory-infections
#1
Mohammad A M Momin, Ian G Tucker, Colin S Doyle, John A Denman, Shubhra Sinha, Shyamal C Das
High dose delivery of drugs to the lung using a dry powder inhaler (DPI) is an emerging approach to combat drug-resistant local infections. To achieve this, highly aerosolizable powders are required. We hypothesized that co-spray-drying kanamycin, a hydrophilic hygroscopic antibiotic, with rifampicin, a hydrophobic antibiotic, would produce inhalable particles with surfaces enriched in rifampicin. Such particles would have higher aerosolization than kanamycin alone, and minimise the mass of powder for inhalation avoiding use of non-active excipients...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458188/robust-is-not-necessarily-reliable-from-within-subjects-fmri-contrasts-to-between-subjects-comparisons
#2
Zachary P Infantolino, Katherine R Luking, Colin L Sauder, John J Curtin, Greg Hajcak
Advances in cognitive and affective neuroscience come largely from within-subjects comparisons, in which the functional significance of neural activity is determined by contrasting two or more experimental conditions. Clinical and social neuroscience studies have attempted to leverage between-subject variability in such condition differences to better understand psychopathology and other individual differences. Shifting from within-to between-subjects comparisons requires that measures have adequate internal consistency to function as individual difference variables...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458155/determining-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-and-starting-age-of-screening-based-on-lifestyle-environmental-and-genetic-factors
#3
Jihyoun Jeon, Mengmeng Du, Robert E Schoen, Michael Hoffmeister, Polly A Newcomb, Sonja I Berndt, Bette Caan, Peter T Campbell, Andrew T Chan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Graham G Giles, Jian Gong, Tabitha A Harrison, Jeroen R Huyghe, Eric J Jacobs, Li Li, Yi Lin, Loïc Le Marchand, John D Potter, Flora Qu, Stephanie A Bien, Niha Zubair, Robert J Macinnis, Daniel D Buchanan, John L Hopper, Yin Cao, Reiko Nishihara, Gad Rennert, Martha L Slattery, Duncan C Thomas, Michael O Woods, Ross L Prentice, Stephen B Gruber, Yingye Zheng, Hermann Brenner, Richard B Hayes, Emily White, Ulrike Peters, Li Hsu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. METHODS: We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005...
February 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458154/the-effect-of-endoscopic-surveillance-in-patients-with-barrett-s-esophagus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Don Chamil Codipilly, Apoorva Krishna Chandar, Siddharth Singh, Sachin Wani, Nicholas J Shaheen, John M Inadomi, Amitabh Chak, Prasad G Iyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines recommend endoscopic surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) to identify those with dysplasia (a precursor of carcinoma) or early-stage esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), who can be treated endoscopically. However, it is unclear whether surveillance increases survival times of patients with BE. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to qualitatively and quantitatively examine evidence for the association of endoscopic surveillance in patients with BE with survival and other outcomes...
February 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458141/long-non-coding-rnas-within-the-tumour-microenvironment-and-their-role-in-tumour-stroma-cross-talk
#5
Filippo Del Vecchio, Gui Han Lee, Joamir Hawezi, Rahul Bhome, Sian Pugh, Emre Sayan, Gareth Thomas, Graham Packham, John Primrose, Martin Pichler, Alexander Mirnezami, George Calin, Marc Bullock
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a diverse class of RNA transcripts which have limited protein coding potential. They perform a variety of cellular functions in health, but have also been implicated during malignant transformation. A further theme in recent years is the critical role of the tumour microenvironment and the dynamic interactions between cancer and stromal cells in promoting invasion and disease progression. Whereas the contribution of deregulated lncRNAs within cancer cells has received considerable attention, their significance within the tumour microenvironment is less well understood...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458110/investigation-of-adhesive-interactions-in-the-specific-targeting-of-triptorelin-conjugated-peg-coated-magnetite-nanoparticles-to-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Jingjie Hu, Sina Youssefian, John Obayemi, Karen Malatesta, Nima Rahbar, Winston Soboyejo
The understanding of adhesive interaction at the nanoscale between functionalized nanoparticles and biological cells is of great importance to develop effective theranostic nanocarriers for targeted cancer therapy. Here, we report a combination of experimental and computational approaches to evaluate the adhesion between Triptorelin (a Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) agonist)-conjugated poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Triptorelin-MNPs) and breast cells. The adhesion forces between Triptorelin-MNPs and normal/cancerous breast cells are obtained using atomic force microscopy...
February 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458082/beyond-pain-nurses-assessment-of-patient-suffering-dignity-and-dying-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#7
Amanda Su, Lindsay Lief, David Berlin, Zara Cooper, Daniel Ouyang, John Holmes, Renee Maciejewski, Paul K Maciejewski, Holly G Prigerson
CONTEXT: Deaths in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are increasingly common in the United States, yet little is known about patients' experiences at the end-of-life in the ICU. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine nurse assessment of symptoms experienced, and care received by ICU patients in their final week, and their associations with nurse-perceived suffering and dignity. METHODS: From September 2015 to March 2017, nurses who cared for 200 ICU patients who died were interviewed about physical and psychosocial dimensions of patients' experiences...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458038/diagnosing-distensible-venous-malformations-of-the-orbit-with-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
Evan Kalin-Hajdu, John B Colby, Oluwatobi Idowu, F Lawson Grumbine, Jessica M Kang, Kristin S Hirabayashi, Christine M Glastonbury, M Reza Vagefi, Robert C Kersten
PURPOSE: To compare the diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics of non-thrombosed distensible venous malformations of the orbit with that of other histologically-proven orbital tumors. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. METHODS: Patients with non-thrombosed distensible venous malformations of the orbit and patients with other histologically-proven orbital tumors were selected for chart review. The main outcome measure was the apparent diffusion coefficient of these lesions...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458021/increased-mortality-from-influenza-infection-in-long-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-knockout-mice
#9
Apurva Shinde, Jiadi Luo, Sivakama S Bharathi, Huifang Shi, Megan E Beck, Kevin J McHugh, John F Alcorn, Jieru Wang, Eric S Goetzman
We previously showed that the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is expressed in alveolar type II pneumocytes and that LCAD-/- mice have altered breathing mechanics and surfactant defects. Here, we hypothesized that LCAD-/- mice would be susceptible to influenza infection. Indeed, LCAD-/- mice demonstrated increased mortality following infection with 2009 pandemic influenza (A/CA/07/09). However, the mortality was not due to increased lung injury, as inflammatory cell counts, viral titers, and histology scores all showed non-significant trends toward milder injury in LCAD-/- mice...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458006/mechanistic-studies-of-formate-oxidase-from-aspergillus-oryzae-a-novel-member-of-the-glucose-methanol-choline-oxidoreductase-enzyme-superfamily-that-oxidizes-carbon-acids
#10
John M Robbins, Andreas S Bommarius, Giovanni Gadda
Formate oxidase (FOX) from Aspergillus oryzae is the only GMC member that oxidizes a carbon acid rather than alcohols; thus, its catalytic mechanism may be different from that of other GMC members. We have used pH, solvent viscosity, and deuterium kinetic isotope effects, to investigate the catalytic mechanism of FOX. The enzyme followed a Bi-Bi sequential steady-state kinetic mechanism. The kcat value was pH-independent between pH 2.8 and 6.8, suggesting lack of ionizable groups in kinetic step(s) that limit the overall turnover of the enzyme...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457976/radiosynthesis-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-11c-mpc-6827-the-first-brain-penetrant-microtubule-pet-ligand
#11
J S Dileep Kumar, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Jaya Prabhakaran, Hakeem R Oufkir, Gayathri Ramanathan, Christopher T Whitlow, Hima Dileep, Akiva Mintz, J John Mann
Abnormalities of microtubules (MTs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of many CNS diseases. Despite the potential of an MT imaging agents, no PET ligand is currently available for in vivo imaging of MTs in the brain. We radiolabeled [11C]MPC-6827, a high affinity MTA, demonstrated its specific binding in rat and mice brain using PET imaging. Our experiments show that [11C]MPC-6827 has specific binding to MT in brain, and it is the first MT-binding PET ligand.
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457951/from-staff-nurse-to-nurse-consultant-spiritual-care-part-11-atheism
#12
John Fowler
John Fowler, Educational Consultant, explores spiritual care for clinically based nurses.
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457949/nhs-compensations-payouts-balancing-the-issues
#13
John Tingle
John Tingle, Associate Professor (Teaching and Scholarship), Nottingham Trent University, calls for a more balanced view to be taken of issues in the context of the debate on the high costs of clinical negligence claims.
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457945/factors-that-influence-nurses-assessment-of-patient-acuity-and-response-to-acute-deterioration
#14
Mark Dalton, John Harrison, Anitra Malin, Conan Leavey
BACKGROUND: nurses play a crucial role in the early recognition and management of the deteriorating patient. They are responsible for the care they provide to their patients, part of which is the monitoring of vital signs (blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate and temperature), which are fundamental in the surveillance of deterioration. The aim of this study was to discover what factors influence how nurses assess patient acuity and their response to acute deterioration. METHODS: a generic qualitative approach was used...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457926/the-contribution-of-theory-to-the-design-delivery-and-evaluation-of-interprofessional-curricula-beme-guide-no-49
#15
Sarah Hean, Christopher Green, Elizabeth Anderson, Debra Morris, Carol John, Richard Pitt, Cath O'Halloran
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional curricula have often lacked explicit reference to theory despite calls for a more theoretically informed field that illuminates curricular assumptions and justifies curricular practices. AIM: To review the contributions of theory to the design, delivery, and evaluation of interprofessional curricula. METHODS: Four databases were searched (1988-2015). Studies demonstrating explicit and a high-quality contribution of theory to the design, delivery or evaluation of interprofessional curricula were included...
February 19, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457908/process-proteomics-of-beer-reveals-a-dynamic-proteome-with-extensive-modifications
#16
Benjamin L Schulz, Toan K Phung, Michele Bruschi, Agnieszka Janusz, Jeff Stewart, John Mehan, Peter Healy, Amanda S Nouwens, Glen P Fox, Claudia E Vickers
Modern beer production is a complex industrial process. However, some of its biochemical details remain unclear. Using mass spectrometry proteomics, we have performed a global untargeted analysis of the proteins present across time during nano-scale beer production. Samples included sweet wort produced by a high temperature infusion mash, hopped wort, and bright beer. This analysis identified over 200 unique proteins from barley and yeast, emphasizing the complexity of the process and product. We then used data independent SWATH-MS to quantitatively compare the relative abundance of these proteins throughout the process...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457906/optimized-phenotypic-biomarker-discovery-and-confounder-elimination-via-covariate-adjusted-projection-to-latent-structures-from-metabolic-spectroscopy-data
#17
Joram M Posma, Isabel Garcia-Perez, Timothy M D Ebbels, John C Lindon, Jeremiah Stamler, Paul Elliott, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy K Nicholson
Metabolism is altered by genetics, diet, disease status, environment and many other factors. Modelling either one of these is often done without considering the effects of the other covariates. Attributing differences in metabolic profile to one of these factors needs to be done while controlling for the metabolic influence of the rest. We describe here a data analysis framework and novel confounder-adjustment algorithm for multivariate analysis of metabolic profiling data. Using simulated data we show that similar numbers of true associations and significantly less false positives are found compared to other commonly used methods...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457895/periodic-trends-in-actinyl-thio-crown-ether-complexes
#18
Shu-Xian Hu, Jing-Jing Liu, John K Gibson, Jun Li
In-cavity complexes and their bonding features between thio-crown (TC) ethers and f-elements are unexplored so far. In this paper, actinyl(VI) (An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) complexes of TC ethers have been characterized using relativistic density functional theory. The TC ether ligands include tetrathio-12-crown-4 (12TC4), pentathio-15-crown-5 (15TC5), and hexathio-18-crown-6 (18TC6). On the basis of the calculations, it is found that the "double-decker" sandwich structure of AnO2 (12TC4)2 2+ and "side-on" structure AnO2 (12TC4)2+ are changed to "insertion" structures for AnO2 (15TC5)2+ and AnO2 (18TC6)2+ due to increased size of the TC ether ligands...
February 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457842/long-term-outcomes-of-patients-undergoing-simultaneous-liver-transplantation-and-sleeve-gastrectomy
#19
Daniel Zamora-Valdes, Kymberly D Watt, Todd A Kellogg, John J Poterucha, Sara R Di Cecco, Nicki M Francisco-Ziller, Timucin Taner, Charles B Rosen, Julie K Heimbach
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasingly common before and after liver transplantation (LT), yet optimal management remains unclear. AIM: To analyze the long term outcomes for obese patients undergoing LT including a non-invasive weight loss program and combined LT and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS: Since 2006, all patients referred for LT with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m2 were enrolled. Patients who achieved weight loss (BMI<35) underwent LT alone, and those who did not underwent simultaneous LT+SG...
February 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457796/h3b-8800-an-orally-available-small-molecule-splicing-modulator-induces-lethality-in-spliceosome-mutant-cancers
#20
Michael Seiler, Akihide Yoshimi, Rachel Darman, Betty Chan, Gregg Keaney, Michael Thomas, Anant A Agrawal, Benjamin Caleb, Alfredo Csibi, Eckley Sean, Peter Fekkes, Craig Karr, Virginia Klimek, George Lai, Linda Lee, Pavan Kumar, Stanley Chun-Wei Lee, Xiang Liu, Crystal Mackenzie, Carol Meeske, Yoshiharu Mizui, Eric Padron, Eunice Park, Ermira Pazolli, Shouyong Peng, Sudeep Prajapati, Justin Taylor, Teng Teng, John Wang, Markus Warmuth, Huilan Yao, Lihua Yu, Ping Zhu, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Peter G Smith, Silvia Buonamici
Genomic analyses of cancer have identified recurrent point mutations in the RNA splicing factor-encoding genes SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 that confer an alteration of function. Cancer cells bearing these mutations are preferentially dependent on wild-type (WT) spliceosome function, but clinically relevant means to therapeutically target the spliceosome do not currently exist. Here we describe an orally available modulator of the SF3b complex, H3B-8800, which potently and preferentially kills spliceosome-mutant epithelial and hematologic tumor cells...
February 19, 2018: Nature Medicine
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