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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679928/likelihood-ratio-development-for-mixed-y-str-profiles
#1
Duncan Taylor, James Curran, John Buckleton
In this paper we introduce a new likelihood ratio method for evaluating mixed Y-STR profiles that is based on the premise that, given a haplotype has been seen in the person of interest, the most likely source of a second haplotype, matching at all or most loci, is in an individual with a recent common ancestor. We have called the new method the "Haplotype centred" (HC) method for likelihood ratio derivation. For single source, unambiguous haplotypes the HC method performs identically with the Kappa method proposed by Brenner...
April 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679797/the-effects-of-feedback-format-and-egocentric-allocentric-relative-phase-on-coordination-stability
#2
John Pickavance, Arianne Azmoodeh, Andrew D Wilson
The stability of coordinated rhythmic movement is primarily affected by the required mean relative phase. In general, symmetrical coordination is more stable than asymmetrical coordination; however, there are two ways to define relative phase and the associated symmetries. The first is in an egocentric frame of reference, with symmetry defined relative to the sagittal plane down the midline of the body. The second is in an allocentric frame of reference, with symmetry defined in terms of the relative direction of motion...
April 18, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679769/infection-status-and-risk-factors-associated-with-urinary-schistosomiasis-among-school-going-children-in-the-ndumo-area-of-umkhanyakude-district-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-two-years-post-treatment
#3
Muhubiri Kabuyaya, Moses John Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of praziquantel of infected children with Schistosoma haematobium over a 2year period in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa. METHODS: This cohort study enrolled 173 school-going children in September 2017 that participated in a baseline survey conducted in 2015 in the Ndumo area. Questionnaire interviews were conducted to collect information on the risk factors related to transmission of schistosomiasis and filtration technique was performed to detect Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679706/an-elemental-impurities-excipient-database-a-viable-tool-for-ich-q3d-drug-product-risk-assessment
#4
Ruth Boetzel, Agnieszka Ceszlak, Christopher Day, Patrick Drumm, Joan Gil Bejar, John Glennon, Laurence Harris, Crina I Heghes, Radu Horga, Peter L Jacobs, Wilfried J T M Keurentjes, Fiona King, Carlos W Lee, Nancy Lewen, Carol A Marchant, Frans A Maris, William Nye, Samuel Powell, Helmut Rockstroh, Laura Rutter, Mark Schweitzer, Elaine Shannon, Lance Smallshaw, Andrew Teasdale, Sarah Thompson, David Wilkinson
To support the practical implementation of the ICH Q3D guideline, which describes a risk-based approach to the control of elemental impurities in drug products, a consortium of pharmaceutical companies has established a database to collate the results of analytical studies of the levels of elemental impurities within pharmaceutical excipients. This database currently includes the results of 26723 elemental determinations for 201 excipients and represents the largest known, and still rapidly expanding, collection of data of this type...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679682/bitter-and-sweet-tasting-molecules-it-s-complicated
#5
REVIEW
Antonella Di Pizio, Yaron Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, John E Hayes, Masha Y Niv
"Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25 member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679678/characterisation-of-40-mg-ml-and-100-mg-ml-tobramycin-formulations-for-aerosol-therapy-with-adult-mechanical-ventilation
#6
Jayesh A Dhanani, Patrician Tang, Steven C Wallis, Suzanne L Parker, Preeti Pandey, John F Fraser, Jeremy Cohen, Adrian Barnett, Jason R Roberts, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Preservative-free tobramycin is commonly used as aerosolized therapy for ventilator associated pneumonia. The comparative delivery profile of the formulations of two different concentrations (100 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml) is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the aerosol characteristics of these tobramycin formulations in a simulated adult mechanical ventilation model. METHODS: Simulated adult mechanical ventilation set up and optimal settings were used in the study...
April 18, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679677/use-of-toxicogenomics-in-drug-safety-evaluation-current-status-and-an-industry-perspective
#7
John L Vahle, Ulf Anderson, Eric A G Blomme, Jean-Christophe Hoflack, Daniel P Stiehl
Toxicogenomics held great promise as an approach to enable early detection of toxicities induced by xenobiotics; however, there remain questions regarding the impact of the discipline on pharmaceutical nonclinical safety assessment. To understand the current state of toxicogenomics in the sector, an industry group surveyed companies to determine the frequency of toxicogenomics use in in vivo studies at various stages of drug discovery and development and to assess how toxicogenomics use has evolved over time...
April 18, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679577/editorial-comment
#8
John P Lavelle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679555/mass-spectrometric-measurement-of-urinary-kynurenine-to-tryptophan-ratio-in-children-with-and-without-urinary-tract-infection
#9
Melanie L Yarbrough, Kelleigh E Briden, John V Mitsios, Annette L Weindel, Cindy M Terrill, David A Hunstad, Dennis J Dietzen
BACKGROUND: Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the first step of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism, yielding kynurenine (Kyn) metabolites. The kynurenine-to-tryptophan (K/T) ratio is used as a surrogate for biological IDO enzyme activity. IDO expression is increased during Escherichia coli urinary tract infection (UTI). Thus, our objective was to develop a method for measurement of Kyn/Trp ratio in human blood and urine and evaluate its use as a biomarker of UTI. METHODS: A mass spectrometric method was developed to measure Trp and Kyn in serum and urine specimens...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679440/effects-of-a-prior-authorization-policy-for-extended-release-long-acting-opioids-on-utilization-and-outcomes-in-a-state-medicaid-program
#10
Shellie L Keast, Hyunjee Kim, Richard A Deyo, Luke Middleton, K John McConnell, Kun Zhang, Sharia M Ahmed, Nancy Nesser, Daniel M Hartung
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In response to the opioid overdose epidemic, USA state Medicaid programs have adopted restrictive policies for opioid analgesics, yet effects on prescribing patterns and health outcomes are uncertain. This study aimed to examine effects of a prior authorization policy for extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids on opioid use in the Oklahoma, USA state Medicaid program. DESIGN: Retrospective difference-in-differences design study comparing changes in opioid use in Oklahoma Medicaid to control (Oregon Medicaid)...
April 20, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679332/h-2-s-delivery-from-aromatic-peptide-amphiphile-hydrogels
#11
Kuljeet Kaur, Yun Qian, John B Matson
Hydrogels are materials composed mostly of water that have found use in a wide variety of applications, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Aromatic peptide amphiphiles can be designed to self-assemble in aqueous solution into one-dimensional aggregates that entangle to form hydrogels with very high water content (>99 wt. %). Here, we describe the synthesis of an aromatic peptide amphiphile designed to release hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a vital biological signaling gas with significant therapeutic potential...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679279/role-of-inositol-polyphosphates-in-programed-cell-death-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-and-its-developmental-life-cycle
#12
Qudes Al-Anbaky, Zeiyad Al-Karakooly, Richard Connor, Lisa Williams, Azure Yarbrough, John Bush, Nawab Ali
Programed cell death or apoptosis is a key developmental process that maintains tissue homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) are key signaling molecules known to regulate a variety of cellular processes including apoptosis in such organisms. The signaling role of InsPs in unicellular organisms such as Dictyostelium discoideum (D. discoideum) is not well understood. We investigated whether InsPs also play any role in apoptosis in D. discoideum and whether InsPs-mediated apoptosis follows a mechanism similar to that present in higher multicellular eukaryotes...
April 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679234/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-dose-recommendations-for-posaconazole-in-infants-and-children
#13
Sophida Boonsathorn, Iek Cheng, Frank Kloprogge, Carlos Alonso, Charmion Lee, Bilyana Doncheva, John Booth, Robert Chiesa, Adam Irwin, Joseph F Standing
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in immunocompromised children, evaluate the influence of patient characteristics on posaconazole exposure and perform simulations to recommend optimal starting doses. METHODS: Posaconazole plasma concentrations from paediatric patients undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring were extracted from a tertiary paediatric hospital database. These were merged with covariates collected from electronic sources and case-note reviews...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679193/etiology-of-stability-and-growth-of-internalizing-and-externalizing-behavior-problems-across-childhood-and-adolescence
#14
Alexander S Hatoum, Soo Hyun Rhee, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Internalizing and externalizing behaviors are heritable, and show genetic stability during childhood and adolescence. Less work has explored how genes influence individual differences in developmental trajectories. We estimated ACE biometrical latent growth curve models for the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and parent Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) internalizing and externalizing scales from ages 7 to 16 years in 408 twin pairs from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study. We found that Intercept factors were highly heritable for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors (a2 = ...
April 20, 2018: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679158/de-implementation-of-urodynamics-in-the-netherlands-after-the-value-vusis-2-results-a-nationwide-survey
#15
Bianca B Mengerink, Willianne L D M Nelen, Sanne A L van Leijsen, John P F A Heesakkers, Kirsten B Kluivers
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to estimate the level of de-implementation of preoperative routine urodynamics (UDS) before stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery in The Netherlands and to analyze facilitators and barriers. Routine UDS was performed by 37% of the medical specialists in 2010. We hypothesized that the recommendations from the recent Value of Urodynamics prior to Stress Incontinence Surgery (VUSIS) and Value of Urodynamic Evaluation (ValUE) studies would have been followed by a reduction of routine UDS...
April 20, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679090/intermediate-outcomes-of-image-guided-radiofrequency-ablation-of-renal-tumours
#16
Jasmine Me Chua, Shabana Rasheed, Apoorva Gogna, John Sp Yuen, Richard Hg Lo, Lay Guat Ng, Tsung Wen Chong, Farah Gillan Irani, Chow Wei Too, Bien Soo Tan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679060/mechanically-interlocked-functionalization-of-monoclonal-antibodies
#17
Krzysztof P Bzymek, James W Puckett, Cindy Zer, Jun Xie, Yuelong Ma, Jeremy D King, Leah H Goodstein, Kendra N Avery, David Colcher, Gagandeep Singh, David A Horne, John C Williams
Because monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have exceptional specificity and favorable pharmacology, substantial efforts have been made to functionalize them, either with potent cytotoxins, biologics, radionuclides, or fluorescent groups for therapeutic benefit and/or use as theranostic agents. To exploit our recently discovered meditope-Fab interaction as an alternative means to efficiently functionalize mAbs, we used insights from the structure to enhance the affinity and lifetime of the interaction by four orders of magnitude...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679026/computational-protein-design-with-deep-learning-neural-networks
#18
Jingxue Wang, Huali Cao, John Z H Zhang, Yifei Qi
Computational protein design has a wide variety of applications. Despite its remarkable success, designing a protein for a given structure and function is still a challenging task. On the other hand, the number of solved protein structures is rapidly increasing while the number of unique protein folds has reached a steady number, suggesting more structural information is being accumulated on each fold. Deep learning neural network is a powerful method to learn such big data set and has shown superior performance in many machine learning fields...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679025/combining-electrical-stimulation-and-tissue-engineering-to-treat-large-bone-defects-in-a-rat-model
#19
Liudmila Leppik, Han Zhihua, Sahba Mobini, Vishnu Thottakkattumana Parameswaran, Maria Eischen-Loges, Andrei Slavici, Judith Helbing, Lukas Pindur, Karla M C Oliveira, Mit B Bhavsar, Lukasz Hudak, Dirk Henrich, John H Barker
Bone Tissue engineering (BTE) has recently been introduced as an alternative to conventional treatments for large non-healing bone defects. BTE approaches mimic autologous bone grafts, by combining cells, scaffold, and growth factors, and have the added benefit of being able to manipulate these constituents to optimize healing. Electrical stimulation (ES) has long been used to successfully treat non-healing fractures and has recently been shown to stimulate bone cells to migrate, proliferate, align, differentiate, and adhere to bio compatible scaffolds, all cell behaviors that could improve BTE treatment outcomes...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679008/improving-wood-properties-for-wood-utilization-through-multi-omics-integration-in-lignin-biosynthesis
#20
Jack P Wang, Megan L Matthews, Cranos M Williams, Rui Shi, Chenmin Yang, Sermsawat Tunlaya-Anukit, Hsi-Chuan Chen, Quanzi Li, Jie Liu, Chien-Yuan Lin, Punith Naik, Ying-Hsuan Sun, Philip L Loziuk, Ting-Feng Yeh, Hoon Kim, Erica Gjersing, Todd Shollenberger, Christopher M Shuford, Jina Song, Zachary Miller, Yung-Yun Huang, Charles W Edmunds, Baoguang Liu, Yi Sun, Ying-Chung Jimmy Lin, Wei Li, Hao Chen, Ilona Peszlen, Joel J Ducoste, John Ralph, Hou-Min Chang, David C Muddiman, Mark F Davis, Chris Smith, Fikret Isik, Ronald Sederoff, Vincent L Chiang
A multi-omics quantitative integrative analysis of lignin biosynthesis can advance the strategic engineering of wood for timber, pulp, and biofuels. Lignin is polymerized from three monomers (monolignols) produced by a grid-like pathway. The pathway in wood formation of Populus trichocarpa has at least 21 genes, encoding enzymes that mediate 37 reactions on 24 metabolites, leading to lignin and affecting wood properties. We perturb these 21 pathway genes and integrate transcriptomic, proteomic, fluxomic and phenomic data from 221 lines selected from ~2000 transgenics (6-month-old)...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
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