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Chanjuan Wang, Aiwei Li, Shuo Yang, Rui Qiao, Xi Zhu, Jie Zhang
The emergence of chemoresistance greatly increases the recurrence risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients, which is still a big concern of clinicians. Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance is of great significance for preventing and reversing it. We showed here that CXC motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) was overexpressed in mitomycin C-resistant bladder cancer cell line M-RT4. Meanwhile, parental RT4 cell treated with recombinant human CXCL5 (rhCXCL5) reduced its sensitivity to mitomycin C...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hung-Ju Chen, Chin Lin, Cho-Hao Lee, Yi-Hao Chen
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab combined with antimetabolite as an adjunctive therapy in primary trabeculectomy for glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials. Efficacy was evaluated by the postoperative mean intraocular pressure (IOP), complete success, and qualified success rates. Safety was evaluated by postoperative complications and surgical interventions...
March 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
Musemma K Muhammed, Mette L Olsen, Witold Kot, Horst Neve, Josué L Castro-Mejía, Thomas Janzen, Lars H Hansen, Dennis S Nielsen, Søren J Sørensen, Knut J Heller, Finn K Vogensen
To investigate the notion that starter cultures can be a reservoir of bacteriophages (phages) in the dairy environment, strains of three DL-starters (undefined mesophilic mixed-strain starters containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc species) were selected and induced by mitomycin C, and the whole starters were induced spontaneously as well as by mitomycin C. Frequency of induction of 17%, 26% and 12% was estimated among the isolates of the three starters, with majority of the induced phages mostly showing morphological similarity to known P335 phages, and with a fraction of them showing atypical features...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Willem Oosterlinck, Karel Decaestecker
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a highly recurrent disease. Early bladder chemotherapy instillation (EBCI) after transurethral resection (TURB) is an efficient way to diminish recurrence. However, this method is often challenged. Areas covered: There was a recent publication of a large meta-analysis with the original patient data and the largest study ever on EBCI. Both brought new evidence on EBCI. Also the results of the 2 trials of EBCI with apaziquone appeared. EBCI is discussed among other methods to decrease recurrence...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Gaurav Mathur, Narottama Sindhu, Deependra Vikram Singh, Gurpreet Singh Garcha
PURPOSE: To present a unique case of decompression retinochoroidopathy presenting with intraretinal, subretinal and preretinal hemorrhages. METHODS: A 65-year-old hypertensive female presented with diminution of vision in right eye of 1-week duration. She had been a known case of primary open-angle glaucoma and had undergone trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in right eye 1 week back. Her day 1 postoperative intraocular pressure was 6 mmHg. Her left eye had undergone Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery for the same 2 years back...
March 10, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Philip Kelleher, Jennifer Mahony, Katharina Schweinlin, Horst Neve, Charles M Franz, Douwe van Sinderen
Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium that is intensively and globally exploited in commercial dairy food fermentations. Though the presence of prophages in lactococcal genomes is widely reported, only limited studies pertaining to the stability of prophages in lactococcal genomes have been performed. The current study reports on the complete genome exploration of thirty lactococcal strains for the presence of potentially intact prophages, so as to assess their genomic diversity and the associated risk or benefit of harbouring such prophages...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Min Zhou, Xinjian Liu, Zonghai Li, Qian Huang, Fang Li, Chuan-Yuan Li
Caspase-3 (CASP3) is a major mediator of apoptosis activated during cellular exposure to cytotoxic drugs, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy. It is often used as a marker for efficacy of cancer therapy. However, recent reports indicate that caspase-3 also has non-apoptotic roles such as promotion of tumor relapse and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, the roles of caspase-3 in tumor progression remains to be defined clearly. In this study, we established caspase-3 knockout (KO) colon cancer cell lines by use of the CRISPR technology...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Sarita Pandey, Anurag Kirti, Arvind Kumar, Hema Rajaram
The ubiquitous SbcCD exonuclease complex has been shown to perform an important role in DNA repair across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, they have remained uncharacterized in the ancient and stress-tolerant cyanobacteria. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120, SbcC and SbcD homologs, defined on the basis of the presence of corresponding functional domains, are annotated as hypothetical proteins, namely Alr3988 and All4463 respectively. Unlike the presence of sbcC and sbcD genes in a bicistronic operon in most organisms, these genes were distantly placed on the chromosome in Anabaena, and found to be negatively regulated by LexA...
March 9, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rafal Woycicki, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Gerlinde A S Metz, Olga Kovalchuk
Recent advances in cancer treatments have led to significant increases in cure rates. Most cancer patients are treated with various cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. These treatment modalities are mutagenic and genotoxic and cause a wide array of late-occurring health problems, and even exert a deleterious influence on future offspring. The adverse effects from exposed parents on offspring are referred to as transgenerational effects, and currently little is known about chemotherapy-induced transgenerational effects...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Michael McGee, Nicholas Whitehead, Jennifer Martin, Nicholas Collins
INTRODUCTION: While pulmonary arterial hypertension remains an uncommon diagnosis, various therapeutic agents are recognized as important associations. These agents are typically categorized into "definite", "likely", "possible", or "unlikely" to cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, based on the strength of evidence. OBJECTIVE: This review will focus on those therapeutic agents where there is sufficient literature to adequately comment on the role of the agent in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
William Aguilar, Manuel Paz, Anayatzinc Vargas, Shu-Yuan Cheng, Cristina C Clement, Elise Champeil
Mitomycin C (MC), a potent antitumor drug, and decarbamoylmitomycin C (DMC), a derivative lacking the carbamoyl group, form highly cytotoxic DNA interstrand crosslinks. The major interstrand crosslink formed by DMC is the C1'' epimer of the major crosslink formed by MC. The molecular basis for the stereochemical configuration exhibited by DMC was investigated using biomimetic synthesis. The formation of DNA-DNA crosslinks by DMC is diastereospecific and diastereodivergent: Only the 1''S- diastereomer of the initially formed monoadduct can form crosslinks at GpC sequences, and only the 1''R- diastereomer of the monoadduct can form crosslinks at CpG sequences...
March 5, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yu Deng, Fulun Li, Pinglin He, Yafei Yang, Jin Yang, Yamei Zhang, Junying Liu, Yongping Tong, Qingfeng Li, Xian Mei, Zengyi Shu, Qi Zhao
Triptolide is an active component from a Chinese herb, Tripterygium wilfordii which has been applied for treating immune-related diseases over centuries. Recently, it was reported that a variety of cancer cell lines could be sensitized to DNA-damage based chemotherapy drugs in combination with Triptolide treatment. In the present study, we show that a short time exposure (3 hours) to Triptolide,which did not trigger apoptosis, could specifically increase breast cancer cells sensitivity to Doxorubicin rather than other chemotherapy drugs including Paclitaxel, Fluorouracil, and Mitomycin ...
March 3, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
W-D U Böhm, R Koch, S Wenzel, M P Wirth, M Toma
Adjuvant therapy with different bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) preparations is a well-established guideline-endorsed treatment for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Our observational study demonstrates equality between BCG and mitomycin C (MMC) treatment based on the oncological outcome. However, there were significant toxicity differences with higher rates in the BCG treatment group. The potential adverse effects of BCG in terms of a BCGitis are controversially discussed regarding their occurrence...
March 2, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
W Y Mansour, P Tennstedt, J Volquardsen, C Oing, M Kluth, C Hube-Magg, K Borgmann, R Simon, C Petersen, E Dikomey, K Rothkamm
Here we report that PTEN contributes to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination (HR), as evidenced by (i) inhibition of HR in a reporter plasmid assay, (ii) enhanced sensitivity to mitomycin-C or olaparib and (iii) reduced RAD51 loading at IR-induced DSBs upon PTEN knockdown. No association was observed between PTEN-status and RAD51 expression either in-vitro or in-vivo in a tissue microarray of 1500 PTEN-deficient prostate cancer (PC) samples. PTEN depletion and sustained activation of AKT sequestered CHK1 in the cytoplasm, thus impairing the G2/M-checkpoint after irradiation...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Martin, Panagiotis Balermpas, Ria Winkelmann, Franz Rödel, Claus Rödel, Emmanouil Fokas
Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is associated with infection with high-risk strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 70-90% of cases and a rise in incidence has been observed in the last decades. Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C constitutes the standard treatment for localized disease, but about 30% of patients do not respond or relapse locally. Phase I/II trials testing targeted agents, such as epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, have failed to improve clinical outcome and resulted in increased toxicities...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Yooni Yi, Angela Wu, Anne P Cameron
INTRODUCTION: Nephrogenic adenoma (NA) was first described by Davis in 1949 as a "hamartoma" of the bladder. There are many proposed predisposing factors for NA including chronic inflammation, renal transplantation, and bladder cancer. We examined our experience with NA to determine predisposing factors and determine if there was any increased risk for development of subsequent malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with a pathologic diagnosis of bladder NA from 2001-2013 were included...
March 1, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Otilia Leon, Oskar Hagberg, Anders Johnsson
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is radiotherapy (RT) combined with chemotherapy, that is, chemoradiation (CRT). Primary surgery has a limited role, but is a recommended treatment for small well differentiated SCCA localized in the anal margin, with re-excision or postoperative RT/CRT in case of involved surgical margins. The evidence supporting these strategies is limited. AIM: To study the recurrence patterns and survival outcomes in patients treated with surgery alone compared with surgery followed by postoperative RT/CRT...
March 1, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Thanaa Helmy Mohamed, Abdelrahman Gaber Salman, Riham Fawzy Elshinawy
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of collagen matrix implant [Ologen (OLO) implant] versus mitomycin C (MMC) with subscleral trabeculectomy (SST) for the surgical treatment of congenital glaucoma (CG) in Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS). METHODS: A prospective comparative randomized study of 20 eyes of 16 patients with CG associated with SWS was divided into two groups. The first group (MMC Group) included 10 eyes that were subjected to SST with MMC. The second group (OLO Group) included 10 eyes that were subjected to trabeculectomy with a collagen matrix implant (OLO implant)...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Ali Abbas El Salhy, Rabab Mohamed Elseht, Ahmed Fekry Al Maria, Saied Mohamed Abd El-Wahab Shalaby, Tarek Ragaee Hossein
AIM: To study the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in the assessment of the bleb function after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including all cases had undergone trabeculectomy with MMC 0.2 mg/mL for 3min. Participants were recruited from the follow-up cases at Department of Ophthalmology, Tanta University in the period from August 2015 to August 2016. Full history taking and ophthalmological examination were performed...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Gyu-Nam Kim, Min-Ho Shin, Ja-Young Ahn, Yong-Seop Han, In-Young Chung, Seong-Wook Seo, Jong-Moon Park, Ji-Myong Yoo, Seong-Jae Kim
PURPOSE: We report the occurrence of an extensive submacular hemorrhage after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in a patient with an occult choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 66-year-old male patient had a 3 year history of primary open angle glaucoma in the left eye, which had been treated with topical antiglaucoma medication. The patient had age-related macular degeneration with an occult CNVM, for which he had received five intravitreal injections of ranibizumab and five intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in the left eye over a 3 year period...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
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