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Elisabeth Hurliman, Brian Zelickson, Jeffrey Kenkel
<p>BACKGROUND: Fractional ablative lasers have been shown to be safe and effective for improving wrinkles, scars, skin texture, and dyspigmentation. However, the exact effects of this technology in vivo on epidermal and dermal skin constituents have not been delineated. This study evaluated the in vivo histological effects over time of treatment with a fractional ablative CO2 system, using different treatment parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy adult volunteers were enrolled in this multicenter clinical study...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Yun Wang, Timothy Lee, Francesco De Lucia, Muhammad I M Abdul Khudus, Pier J A Sazio, Martynas Beresna, Gilberto Brambilla
We simulate and experimentally demonstrate deep ultraviolet generation from a 1550 nm laser source in a fully fiberized system by cascading second- and third-harmonic generation using a periodically poled silica fiber and an optical sub-micron diameter fiber. Harmonic generation is achieved by harnessing intermodal phase matching in optical microfibers and a permanent χ((2)) induced via thermal poling. As a result, efficient nonlinear processes can be observed, despite the low third-order nonlinear susceptibility of silica glass...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Jun Xuan Li, Yu Feng Li, Li Wei Liu, Guang Hua Cui
Submicron structures of Ni(II)/Co(II)-based coordination polymers (CPs) [Ni(L1)(mip)·H2O]n (1) and {[Co(L2)(mip)]·0·.5H2O}n(2) (L1=1,6-bis(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole)hexane, L2=1,6-bis(benzimidazole)hexane, H2mip=5-methylisophthalic acid) were obtained by ultrasonic irradiation and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Structural analysis show that two CPs feature uninodal 3-connected 2D hcb layer, whilst CP 2 is further extended into a 3D complicated supramolecular network by C14-H14⋯O2 hydrogen bonds...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Carrie J Nobles, Enrique F Schisterman, Sandie Ha, Germaine M Buck Louis, Seth Sherman, Pauline Mendola
STUDY QUESTION: Does ambient air pollution affect fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: While cycle-average air pollution exposure was not associated with fecundability, we observed some associations for acute exposure around ovulation and implantation with fecundability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and decrements in semen quality. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The LIFE study (2005-2009), a prospective time-to-pregnancy study, enrolled 501 couples who were followed for up to one year of attempting pregnancy...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
Kanokrat Kangwankai, Sarah Sani, Piyaphong Panpisut, Wendy Xia, Paul Ashley, Haralampos Petridis, Anne Margaret Young
PURPOSE: The aim was to assess monomer conversion, dimensional stability, flexural strength / modulus, surface apatite precipitation and wear of mono / tri calcium phosphate (CaP) and polylysine (PLS)-containing dental composites. These were formulated using a new, high molecular weight, fluid monomer phase that requires no polymerisation activator. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urethane and Polypropylene Glycol Dimethacrylates were combined with low levels of an adhesion promoting monomer and a light activated initiator...
2017: PloS One
Paul A Baker, David R Goodloe, Yogesh K Vohra
The purpose of this study is to understand the basic mechanisms responsible for the synthesis of nanostructured diamond films in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) process and to identify plasma chemistry suitable for controlling the morphology and electrical properties of deposited films. The nanostructured diamond films were synthesized by MPCVD on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates using H₂/CH₄/N₂ precursor gases and the plasma chemistry was monitored by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES)...
November 14, 2017: Materials
Alicja Kosik-Kozioł, Marco Costantini, Tomasz Bolek, Krisztina Szöke, Andrea Barbetta, Jan Brinchmann, Wojciech Święszkowski
In this study, we present an innovative strategy to reinforce 3D-printed hydrogel constructs for cartilage tissue engineering by formulating composite bioinks containing alginate and short sub-micron polylactide (PLA) fibers. We demonstrate that Young's modulus obtained for pristine alginate constructs (6.9 ± 1.7 kPa) can be increased threefold (up to 25.1 ± 3.8 kPa) with the addition of PLA short fibers. Furthermore, to assess the performance of such materials in cartilage tissue engineering, we loaded the bioinks with human chondrocytes and cultured in vitro the bioprinted constructs for up to 14 days...
November 14, 2017: Biofabrication
Fernando C S de Oliveira, Dinorath Olvera, Michael J Sawkins, Sally-Ann Cryan, Scott D Kimmins, Tatiane Eufrasio da Silva, Daniel J Kelly, Garry P Duffy, Cathal Kearney, Andreas Heise
Electrospinning is considered a relatively simple and versatile technique to form high porosity porous scaffolds with micron to nanoscale fibers for biomedical applications. Here, electrospinning of unsaturated aliphatic polyglobalide (PGl) into well-defined fibers with an average diameter of 9 μm is demonstrated. Addition of a dithiol cross-linker and a photoinitiator to the polymer solution enabled the UV-triggered intracross-linking of the fibers during the spinning process. The in situ cross-linking of the fibers resulted in amorphous material able to swell up to 14% in tetrahydrofurane (THF) without losing the fiber morphology...
November 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
A Brunaugh, H D C Smyth
Process control and optimization is a critical aspect of process analytical technology (PAT), quality by design (QbD), and the implementation of continuous manufacturing procedures. While process control and optimization techniques have been utilized in other manufacturing industries for decades, the pharmaceutical industry has only recently begun to adopt these procedures. Micronization, particularly milling, is a generally low-yield, high-energy consumption process that is well suited for a process optimization mindset...
November 13, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Julianna C Simon, Oleg A Sapozhnikov, Wayne Kreider, Michael Breshock, James C Williams, Michael R Bailey
The color Doppler ultrasound twinkling artifact, which highlights kidney stones with rapidly changing color, has the potential to improve stone detection; however, its inconsistent appearance has limited its clinical utility. Recently, it was proposed stable crevice bubbles on the kidney stone surface cause twinkling; however, the hypothesis is not fully accepted because the bubbles have not been directly observed. In this paper, the micron or submicron-sized bubbles predicted by the crevice bubble hypothesis are enlarged in kidney stones of five primary compositions by exposure to acoustic rarefaction pulses or hypobaric static pressures in order to simultaneously capture their appearance by high-speed photography and ultrasound imaging...
November 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Shlomi Lightman, Gilad Hurvitz, Raz Gvishi, Ady Arie
Conversion of a Gaussian beam into a top-hat beam or to an annular beam is demonstrated using 3D direct laser printing. Micron-scale refractive phase elements were designed and printed directly on standard commercially available lenses. These structures modify the phase of the incoming beam into either three intensity-flattened profiles, having line, square, or circular shapes, or to an annular beam profile. This method to functionalize lenses opens new and exciting opportunities for compact and robust beam shaping, as well as for reduction of the aberrations of the lens itself...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Martin Jirka, Ondrej Klimo, Marija Vranic, Stefan Weber, Georg Korn
The intensities of the order of 10(23-24) W/cm(2) are required to efficiently generate electron-positron pairs in laser-matter interaction when multiple laser beam collision is employed. To achieve such intense laser fields with the upcoming generation of 10 PW laser beams, focusing to sub-micron spot size is required. In this paper, the possibility of pair production cascade development is studied for the case of a standing wave created by two tightly focused colliding laser pulses. Even though the stronger ponderomotive force expels the seed particles from the interaction volume when a tightly focused laser beam is used, tight focusing allows to achieve cascade pair production due to the higher intensity in the focal spot...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tuan Anh Ho, Jeffery A Greathouse, Yifeng Wang, Louise J Criscenti
The porosity of clay aggregates is an important property governing chemical reactions and fluid flow in low-permeability geologic formations and clay-based engineered barrier systems. Pore spaces in clays include interlayer and interparticle pores. Under compaction and dewatering, the size and geometry of such pore spaces may vary significantly (sub-nanometer to microns) depending on ambient physical and chemical conditions. Here we report a molecular dynamics simulation method to construct a complex and realistic clay-like nanoparticle aggregate with interparticle pores and grain boundaries...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joe W Tavacoli, Julien Heuvingh, Olivia Du Roure
In this communication we outline how the bespoke arrangements and design of micron-sized superparamagnetic shapes provide levers to modulate their assembly under homogeneous magnetic fields. We label this new approach, 'assembly modulated by particle position and shape' (APPS). Specifically, using rectangular lattices of superparamagnetic micron-sized cuboids, we construct distinct microstructures by adjusting lattice pitch and angle of array with respect to a magnetic field. Broadly, we find two modes of assembly: (1) immediate 2D jamming of the cuboids as they rotate to align with the applied field (rotation-induced jamming) and (2) aggregation via translation after their full alignment (dipole-dipole assembly)...
November 10, 2017: Materials
Yu-Jiao Zhang, Jin Qu, Shu-Meng Hao, Wei Chang, Qiu-Yu Ji, Zhong-Zhen Yu
Increasing demands for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high energy density and high power density require highly reversible electrochemical reactions to enhance the cyclability and capacities of electrodes. As the reversible formation/decomposition of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film during the lithiation/delithiation process of Fe3S4 could bring about a higher capacity than its theoretical value, in the present work, synthesized Fe3S4 nanoparticles are sandwich wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) to fabricate highly reversible and long cycling life anode materials for high-performance LIBs...
November 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Po-Chieh Chiang, Kevin Tanady, Ling-Ting Huang, Ling Chao
Being able to directly obtain micron-sized cell blebs, giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), with native membrane proteins and deposit them on a planar support to form supported plasma membranes could allow the membrane proteins to be studied by various surface analytical tools in native-like bilayer environments. However, GPMVs do not easily rupture on conventional supports because of their high protein and cholesterol contents. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of using compression generated by the air-water interface to efficiently rupture GPMVs to form micron-sized supported membranes with native plasma membrane proteins...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joseph Chamieh, Laurent Leclercq, Michel Martin, Sofia Slaoui, Henrik Jensen, Jesper Ostergaard, Hervé Cottet
Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) is an absolute method (no calibration needed) for the determination of the molecular diffusion coefficient (D) based on the band broadening of a solute in a laminar flow. TDA is virtually applicable to any solute with size ranging from angstrom to sub-micron. The higher sizing limit is restricted by the occurrence of possibly two regimes: convective and hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) regimes, which have different physical origins that should not be confused. This work aims at clearly defining the experimental conditions for which these two regimes can play a role, alone or concomitantly...
November 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Nurlia P Sari, Dipak Dutta, Anif Jamaluddin, Jeng-Kuei Chang, Ching-Yuan Su
Supercapacitors constructed from three-dimensional (3D) graphene electrodes with high ion-accessible surface area and durable mechanical flexibility have great potential for wearable devices. For the development of a highly efficient graphene electrode for electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs), proper control over not only the specific surface area but also the type of pore (macro-, meso- and micro-porous networks) adapted for an appropriate type of electrolyte is crucial to ensure an ideal performance in terms of both energy density and power delivery rate...
November 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Andres Ruland, Rouhollah Jalili, Attila J Mozer, Gordon G Wallace
This work presents a study on a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C4D) for micron-sized fibers. Following a previous report on the qualitative application of C4D for fibers, the present study provides a thorough analysis of the signal response to fiber conductivity. Using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) fibers, the detector response as a function of fiber length, cross-sectional area and resistance has been investigated. To study the effect of insulating coatings, Parylene-coated RGO fibers were also investigated...
November 9, 2017: Analyst
Robert Krysiak, Witold Szkróbka, Bogusław Okopień
Background Levothyroxine and selenomethionine were found to reduce thyroid antibody titers in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The same effect was produced by intensive statin therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess whether hypolipidemic agents modulate the impact of thyroid hormone supplementation and selenomethionine on thyroid autoimmunity. Methods The study included 62 women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis treated for at least 6 months with levothyroxine and selenomethionine. On the basis of plasma lipids, women were divided into three groups: women with isolated hypercholesterolemia (group A; n=20), women with isolated hypertriglyceridemia (group B; n=17), and women with normal plasma lipids (group C; n=25)...
November 8, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
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