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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110017/remediation-efficiency-of-three-treatments-on-water-polluted-with-endocrine-disruptors-assessment-by-means-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-techniques
#1
Juliana Polloni-Silva, Ana Valdehita, Renata Fracácio, José M Navas
Chemical substances with potential to disrupt endocrine systems have been detected in aquatic environments worldwide, making necessary the investigation about water treatments able to inhibit such potential. The present work aimed to assess the efficiency for removing endocrine disruptors (with estrogenic and androgenic activity) of three simple and inexpensive substrates that could be potentially used in sectors or regions with limited resources: powdered activated carbon (PAC), powdered natural zeolite (ZEO) (both at a concentration of 500 mg L(-1)) and natural aquatic humic substances (AHS) (at 30 mg L(-1))...
January 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107632/structural-changes-in-acetophenone-fluid-films-as-a-function-of-nano-scale-thickness
#2
Samantha L Nania, Scott K Shaw
We report experimental observations of a developing fluid-solid interface by examining acetophenone films of varying thicknesses, supported on solid silver substrates. A dynamic wetting technique provides experimental control of fluid film thickness as a function of rotational velocity. Ellipsometry and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy data are analyzed to provide absolute film thickness and details of the changing chemical environment for varying film thickness. This data is compared to theoretical models that predict fluid film thicknesses based on physical-chemical properties of the acetophenone/silver pair...
January 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106003/large-scale-self-assembly-of-uniform-submicron-silver-sulfide-material-driven-by-precise-pressure-control
#3
Juanjuan Qi, Ke Chen, Shuhao Zhang, Yun Yang, Lin Guo, Shihe Yang
The controllable self-assembly of nanosized building blocks into larger specific structures can provide an efficient method of synthesizing novel materials with excellent properties. The self-assembly of nanocrystals (NCs) by assisted means is becoming an extremely active area of research, because it provides a method of producing large-scale advanced functional materials with potential applications in the areas of energy, electronics, optics, and biologics. In this study, we applied an efficient strategy, namely, the use of ���pressure control��� to the assembly of silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanospheres (NSs) with a diameter of approximately 33 nm into large-scale, uniform Ag2S sub-microspheres (SMs) with a size of about 0...
January 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105607/tailoring-the-mesoscopic-tio2-layer-concomitant-parameters-for-enabling-high-performance-perovskite-solar-cells
#4
Taehyun Hwang, Sangheon Lee, Jinhyun Kim, Jaewon Kim, Chunjoong Kim, Byungha Shin, Byungwoo Park
Architectural control over the mesoporous TiO2 film, a common electron-transport layer for organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, is conducted by employing sub-micron sized polystyrene beads as sacrificial template. Such tailored TiO2 layer is shown to induce asymmetric enhancement of light absorption notably in the long-wavelength region with red-shifted absorption onset of perovskite, leading to ~20% increase of photocurrent and ~10% increase of power conversion efficiency. This enhancement is likely to be originated from the enlarged CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) grains residing in the sub-micron pores rather than from the effect of reduced perovskite-TiO2 interfacial area, which is supported from optical bandgap change, haze transmission of incident light, and one-diode model parameters correlated with the internal surface area of microporous TiO2 layers...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102306/high-speed-terahertz-modulator-on-the-chip-based-on-tunable-terahertz-slot-waveguide
#5
P K Singh, S Sonkusale
This paper presents an on-chip device that can perform gigahertz-rate amplitude modulation and switching of broadband terahertz electromagnetic waves. The operation of the device is based on the interaction of confined THz waves in a novel slot waveguide with an electronically tunable two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) that controls the loss of the THz wave propagating through this waveguide. A prototype device is fabricated which shows THz intensity modulation of 96% at 0.25 THz carrier frequency with low insertion loss and device length as small as 100 microns...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102198/shape-dependent-ordering-of-gold-nanocrystals-into-large-scale-superlattices
#6
Jianxiao Gong, Richmond S Newman, Michael Engel, Man Zhao, Fenggang Bian, Sharon C Glotzer, Zhiyong Tang
Self-assembly of individual building blocks into highly ordered structures, analogous to spontaneous growth of crystals from atoms, is a promising approach to realize the collective properties of nanocrystals. Yet the ability to reliably produce macroscopic assemblies is unavailable and key factors determining assembly quality/yield are not understood. Here we report the formation of highly ordered superlattice films, with single crystalline domains of up to half a millimetre in two dimensions and thickness of up to several microns from nanocrystals with tens of nanometres in diameter...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101421/structural-and-functional-human-retinal-imaging-with-a-fiber-based-visible-light-oct-ophthalmoscope
#7
Shau Poh Chong, Marcel Bernucci, Harsha Radhakrishnan, Vivek J Srinivasan
The design of a multi-functional fiber-based Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system for human retinal imaging with < 2 micron axial resolution in tissue is described. A detailed noise characterization of two supercontinuum light sources with different pulse repetition rates is presented. The higher repetition rate and lower noise source is found to enable a sensitivity of 96 dB with 0.15 mW light power at the cornea and a 98 microsecond exposure time. Using a broadband (560 ± 50 nm), 90/10, fused single-mode fiber coupler designed for visible wavelengths, the sample arm is integrated into an ophthalmoscope platform, similar to current clinical OCT systems...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101397/statistical-parametric-mapping-of-stimuli-evoked-changes-in-total-blood-flow-velocity-in-the-mouse-cortex-obtained-with-extended-focus-optical-coherence-microscopy
#8
Paul J Marchand, Arno Bouwens, Tristan Bolmont, Vincent K Shamaei, David Nguyen, Daniel Szlag, Jérôme Extermann, Theo Lasser
Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging is the current gold-standard in neuroimaging. fMRI exploits local changes in blood oxygenation to map neuronal activity over the entire brain. However, its spatial resolution is currently limited to a few hundreds of microns. Here we use extended-focus optical coherence microscopy (xfOCM) to quantitatively measure changes in blood flow velocity during functional hyperaemia at high spatio-temporal resolution in the somatosensory cortex of mice. As optical coherence microscopy acquires hundreds of depth slices simultaneously, blood flow velocity measurements can be performed over several vessels in parallel...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099847/leukocytes-breach-endothelial-barriers-by-insertion-of-nuclear-lobes-and-disassembly-of-endothelial-actin-filaments
#9
Sagi Barzilai, Sandeep Kumar Yadav, Steven Morrell, Francesco Roncato, Eugenia Klein, Liat Stoler-Barak, Ofra Golani, Sara W Feigelson, Assaf Zemel, Sussan Nourshargh, Ronen Alon
The endothelial cytoskeleton is a barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM). Mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes generate gaps of similar micron-scale size when squeezing through inflamed endothelial barriers in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate how leukocytes squeeze through these barriers, we co-tracked the endothelial actin filaments and leukocyte nuclei in real time. Nuclear squeezing involved either preexistent or de novo-generated lobes inserted into the leukocyte lamellipodia. Leukocyte nuclei reversibly bent the endothelial actin stress fibers...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098324/ionic-screening-and-dissociation-are-crucial-for-understanding-chemical-self-propulsion-in-polar-solvents
#10
Aidan T Brown, Wilson C K Poon, Christian Holm, Joost de Graaf
Polar solvents like water support the bulk dissociation of themselves and their solutes into ions, and the re-association of these ions into neutral molecules in a dynamic equilibrium, e.g., H2O2 ⇌ H(+) + HO2(-). Using continuum theory, we study the influence of these association-dissociation reactions on the self-propulsion of colloids driven by surface chemical reactions (chemical swimmers). We find that association-dissociation reactions should have a strong influence on swimmers' behaviour, and therefore should be included in future modelling...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095691/micrometer-scale-ion-current-rectification-at-polyelectrolyte-brush-modified-micropipets
#11
Xiulan He, Kailin Zhang, Ting Li, Yanan Jiang, Ping Yu, Lanqun Mao
Here we report for the first time that ion current rectification (ICR) can be observed at the micrometer scale in symmetric electrolyte solution with polyimidazolium brush (PimB)-modified micropipets, which we call micrometer-scale ion current rectification (MICR). To qualitatively understand MICR, a three-layer model including a charged layer, an electrical double layer, and a bulk layer is proposed, which could also be extended to understanding ICR at the nanoscale. Based on this model, we propose that when charges in the charged layer are comparable with those in the bulk layer, ICR would occur regardless of whether the electrical double layers are overlapped...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094977/crystallographic-mapping-of-guided-nanowires-by-second-harmonic-generation-polarimetry
#12
Lior Neeman, Regev Ben-Zvi, Katya Rechav, Ronit Popovitz-Biro, Dan Oron, Ernesto Joselevich
The growth of horizontal nanowires (NWs) guided by epitaxial and graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate is becoming increasingly attractive owing to the posibility of controlling their position, direction and crystallographic orientation. In guided NWs, as opposed to the extensively characterized vertically grown NWs, there is an increasing need for understanding the relation between structure and properties, specifically the role of the epitaxial relation with the substrate. Furthermore, the uniformity of crystallographic orientation along guided NWs and over the substrate has yet to be checked...
January 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094919/synthesis-of-3d-nanoporous-li-rich-layered-cathode-oxides-for-high-volumetric-and-power-energy-density-li-ion-batteries
#13
Bao Qiu, Chong Yin, Yonggao Xia, Zhaoping Liu
As rechargeable Li-ion batteries have expanded their applications into onboard energy storage for electric vehicles, the energy and power must be increased to meet the new demands. Li-rich layered oxides are one of the most promising candidate materials, however, they are very difficult to be compatible with high volumetric energy density and power density. Here we develop an innovative approach to synthesize three dimensional (3D) nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides Li[Li0.144Ni0.136Co0.136Mn0.544]O2, directly occurring at deep chemical delithiation with carbon dioxide...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094850/discriminating-solitary-cysts-from-soft-tissue-lesions-in-mammography-using-a-pretrained-deep-convolutional-neural-network
#14
Thijs Kooi, Bram van Ginneken, Nico Karssemeijer, Ard den Heeten
PURPOSE: It is estimated that 7% of women in the western world will develop palpable breast cysts in their lifetime. Even though cysts have been correlated with risk of developing breast cancer, many of them are benign and do not require follow-up. We develop a method to discriminate benign solitary cysts from malignant masses in digital mammography. We think a system like this can have merit in the clinic as a decision aid or complementary to specialised modalities. METHODS: We employ a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to classify cyst and mass patches...
January 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094246/development-of-sr-incorporated-biphasic-calcium-phosphate-bone-cement
#15
Hui Zhu, Dagang Guo, Wenli Qi, Kewei Xu
To follow the design strategy of traditional biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic, in the present study, strontium-doped biphasic calcium phosphate bone cement (Sr-BCPC) composites comprising Sr-β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/Sr-hydroxyapatite (HAP) had been prepared for the first time using Sr x -β-TCP/tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) as a cement powder and diluted phosphoric acid as a cement liquid. The phase composition, setting time, compressive strength, washout resistance, in vitro degradation rate, microstructure evolutions, hydration dynamics and cytotoxicity of Sr-BCPC at various Sr contents were intensively investigated...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091875/the-effect-of-veneering-on-the-marginal-fit-of-cad-cam-generated-copy-milled-and-cast-metal-copings
#16
Sabit Melih Ates, Zeynep Yesil Duymus, Ipek Caglar, Bilal Hologlu
OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study investigated the marginal fit of metal and zirconia copings before and after veneering on dies with shoulder/chamfer (s/c) finish lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using CAD/CAM, ten (n = 10) each s/c zirconia (NZ) copings and ten (n = 10) each s/c metal (MM) copings were generated. As controls, ten (n = 10) each s/c zirconia copings were copy-milled (ZZ) and ten (n = 10) each s/c metal copings were cast (CC). The vertical marginal discrepancy of the copings was measured at 20 predefined spots of the circular shoulder and chamfer finish lines in microns (μm) before and after a first and a second veneering firing using a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089934/evaluation-of-aggregate-and-silicone-oil-counts-in-pre-filled-siliconized-syringes-an-orthogonal-study-characterising-the-entire-subvisible-size-range
#17
Maryam Shah, Zahra Rattray, Katie Day, Shahid Uddin, Robin Curtis, Christopher F van der Walle, Alain Pluen
Characterisation of particulates in therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) formulations is routinely extended to the sub-visible size-range (0.1-10μm). Additionally, with the increased use of pre-filled syringes (PFS), particle differentiation is required between proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous particles such as silicone-oil droplets. Here, three orthogonal techniques: Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy (RICS), Resonance Mass Measurements (RMM) and Micro-Flow Imaging (MFI), were evaluated with respect to their sub-visible particle measurement and characterisation capabilities...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088854/conjugated-covalent-organic-frameworks-via-michael-addition%C3%A2-elimination
#18
Malakalapalli Rajeswara Rao, Yuan Fang, Steven De Feyter, Dmitrii F Perepichka
Dynamic covalent chemistry enables self-assembly of reactive building blocks into structurally complex yet robust materials, such as Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs). However, the synthetic toolbox used to prepare such materials, and thus the spectrum of attainable properties, is very limited. For π-conjugated COFs, the Schiff base condensation of aldehydes and amines is the only general dynamic reaction, but the resulting imine-linked COFs display only a moderate electron delocalization and are susceptible to hydrolysis, particularly in acidic conditions...
January 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088100/exploiting-molecular-motors-as-nanomachines-the-mechanisms-of-de-novo-and-re-engineered-cytoskeletal-motors
#19
REVIEW
Nicole V DelRosso, Nathan D Derr
Cytoskeletal molecular motors provide exciting proof that nanoscale transporters can be highly efficient, moving for microns along filamentous tracks by hydrolyzing ATP to fuel nanometer-size steps. For nanotechnology, such conversion of chemical energy into productive work serves as an enticing platform for re-purposing and re-engineering. It also provides a roadmap for successful molecular mechanisms that can be mimicked to create de novo molecular motors for nanotechnology applications. Here we focus specifically on how the mechanisms of molecular motors are being re-engineered for greater control over their transport parameters...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087488/cathepsin-k-targeted-sub-micron-particles-for-regenerative-repair-of-vascular-elastic-matrix
#20
Brenton Jennewine, Jonathan Fox, Anand Ramamurthi
: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) involve slow dilation and weakening of the aortic wall due to breakdown of structural matrix components, such as elastic fibers by chronically overexpressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), primarily, MMPs-2 and -9. Auto-regenerative repair of disrupted elastic fibers by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the AAA site is intrinsically poor and together with chronic proteolysis prevents restoration of elastin homeostasis, necessary to enable AAA growth arrest or regression to a healthy state...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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