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Roger Alexander Bennett, Haitham Etman, Hannah Hicks, Leah Richards, Chen Wu, Martin R Castell, Sarnjeet S Dhesi, Francesco Maccherozzi
The growth and reactive dewetting of ultra-thin films of iron oxides supported on Re(0001) surfaces have been imaged in-situ in real time. Initial growth forms a non-magnetic stable FeO (wüstite like) layer in a commensurate network upon which high aspect ratio nanowires of several microns length but less than 40nm width can be fabricated. The nanowires are closely aligned with the substrate crystallography and imaging by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism shows that each contain a single magnetic domain. The driving force for dewetting appears to be the minimization of strain energy of the Fe3O4 crystallites and follows the Tersoff and Tromp model in which strain is minimized at constant height by extending in one epitaxially matched direction...
March 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Kurt Wood, Myron R Szewczuk, Dérick Rousseau, Ronald J Neufeld
Pickering emulsions are colloidal dispersions stabilized by particles that either migrate to, or are formed at, the oil-water interface during emulsification. Here, we fabricated and characterized Pickering water-in-oil emulsions where molten glycerol monostearate crystallized at the surface of micron-sized water droplets and formed protective solid shells. We tested this emulsion as a reservoir delivery platform for the sustained release of low molecular weight hydrophilic molecules including sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium citrate as model compounds, and the therapeutic oseltamivir phosphate (OP), the delivery of which was the ultimate goal of this research...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Maxim Karpov, Martin H P Pfeiffer, Junqiu Liu, Anton Lukashchuk, Tobias J Kippenberg
Dissipative Kerr solitons (DKS) in optical microresonators provide a highly miniaturised, chip-integrated frequency comb source with unprecedentedly high repetition rates and spectral bandwidth. To date, such frequency comb sources have been successfully applied in the optical telecommunication band for dual-comb spectroscopy, coherent telecommunications, counting of optical frequencies and distance measurements. Yet, the range of applications could be significantly extended by operating in the near-infrared spectral domain, which is a prerequisite for biomedical and Raman imaging applications, and hosts commonly used optical atomic transitions...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Guillaume Le Saux, Avishay Edri, Yossi Keydar, Uzi Hadad, Angel Porgador, Mark Schvartzman
Studying of how different signaling pathways spatially integrate in cells requires selective manipulation and control of different transmembrane ligand-receptor pairs at the same time. This work explores a novel method for precisely arranging two arbitrarily chosen ligands on a micron-scale 2D pattern. The approach is based on lithographic patterning of Au and TiO2 films, followed by their selective functionalization with Ni-NTA/histidine and biotin/avidin chemistries, respectively. The selectivity of chemical and biological functionalizations is demonstrated by XPS and immunofluorescence imaging, respectively...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elzbieta Klimuszko, Karolina Orywal, Teresa Sierpinska, Jarosław Sidun, Maria Golebiewska
Enamel is the structure that covers the entire clinical crown of a tooth. It enables to chew and crush food, and gives a final shape to the crowns of teeth. To evaluate calcium and magnesium contents in tooth enamel and analyse relationships between the study minerals extracted human permanent teeth were cut at every 150 microns and subjected into acid biopsy. The amounts of calcium and magnesium were assessed in the laboratory using atomic absorption spectroscopy with an air/acetylene flame. The lowest calcium and magnesium contents were found on the enamel surface of the teeth...
March 19, 2018: Odontology
Astrid Hauptmann, Katja Podgoršek, Drago Kuzman, Stanko Srčič, Georg Hoelzl, Thomas Loerting
PURPOSE: This study addresses the effect of freezing and thawing on a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) solution and the corresponding buffer formulation. Particle formation, crystallization behaviour, morphology changes and cryo-concentration effects were studied after varying the freezing and thawing rates, buffer formulation and protein concentration. The impact of undergoing multiple freeze/thaw (FT)-cycles at controlled and uncontrolled temperature rates on mAb solutions was investigated in terms of particle formation...
March 19, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Alex H F Lee, Steven F Gessert, Yutao Chen, Nikolay V Sergeev, Babak Haghiri
In this work, a robust synthetic pathway for magnetic core preparation and silica surface coating of magnetic microparticles is presented. Silica-coated magnetic particles are widely used to extract DNA and RNA from various biological samples. We present a novel route for the synthesis of iron oxide silica particles (Fe3 O4 @Silica) and demonstrate their performance for extracting ZIKA viral RNA from serum. The iron (II, III) oxide (Fe3 O4 ), magnetite core is first prepared by ammonia neutralization of ferrous and ferric chloride aqueous solution under argon, followed by the addition of citrate salt to stabilize the surface of the resultant magnetic nanospheres...
March 2018: Heliyon
Zaizhi Liu, Lei Yang
An improved method of ultrasonic antisolvent precipitation was used to prepare micronized high polymeric procyanidins (HPC). Response surface methodology (Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design) was employed to predict the optimal preparation conditions and satisfactory mean particle size. Among seven parameters, three parameters (i.e., ultrasonic irradiation power, ultrasonic-stirring time, and stirring speed) were identified as the most significant variables using Plackett-Burman design; thus, these three parameters were further optimized using Box-Behnken design...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Tara Nietzold, Bradley M West, Michael Stuckelberger, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Mariana I Bertoni
The quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy maps by fitting the raw spectra to a known standard is crucial for evaluating chemical composition and elemental distribution within a material. Synchrotron-based XRF has become an integral characterization technique for a variety of research topics, particularly due to its non-destructive nature and its high sensitivity. Today, synchrotrons can acquire fluorescence data at spatial resolutions well below a micron, allowing for the evaluation of compositional variations at the nanoscale...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Giovanna Casili, Maurizio Evangelista, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Aging is a major risk factor for idiopathic PD. Several prior studies examined the neuroprotective effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), alone or combined with antioxidants, in a model of PD induced by the dopaminergic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Here, we analyzed the pretreatment effect of micronized PEA (PEAm) on neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death in the MPTP model...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Yu-Cherng Chang, Keke Liu, Florence Cabot, Sonia H Yoo, Marco Ruggeri, Arthur Ho, Jean-Marie Parel, Fabrice Manns
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers new options for imaging the ciliary muscle allowing direct in vivo visualization. However, variation in image quality along the length of the muscle prevents accurate delineation and quantification of the muscle. Quantitative analyses of the muscle are accompanied by variability in segmentation between examiners and between sessions for the same examiner. In processes such as accommodation where changes in muscle thickness may be tens of microns- the equivalent of a small number of image pixels, differences in segmentation can influence the magnitude and potentially the direction of thickness change...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Nicusor Iftimia, Jesung Park, Gopi Maguluri, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Amanda McWatters, Sharjeel H Sabir
We report the development and the pre-clinical testing of a new technology based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) for investigating tissue composition at the tip of the core biopsy needle. While ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely used to guide needle placement within a tumor, they still do not provide the resolution needed to investigate tissue cellularity (ratio between viable tumor and benign stroma) at the needle tip prior to taking a biopsy core. High resolution OCT imaging, however, can be used to investigate tissue morphology at the micron scale, and thus to determine if the biopsy core would likely have the expected composition...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Bo Cai, Xiaomin Zhai, Zeguan Wang, Yan Shen, Ronald Xu, Zachary J Smith, Quan Wen, Kaiqin Chu
Monitoring and manipulating neuronal activities with optical microscopy desires a method where light can be focused or projected over a long axial range so that large brain tissues (>100 [Formula: see text] thick) can be simultaneously imaged, and specific brain regions can be optogenetically stimulated without the need for slow optical refocusing. However, the micron-scale resolution required in neuronal imaging yields a depth of field of less than 10 [Formula: see text] in conventional imaging systems...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Hongyi Xu, Hugo Lebrette, Taimin Yang, Vivek Srinivas, Sven Hovmöller, Martin Högbom, Xiaodong Zou
Recent developments of novel electron diffraction techniques have shown to be powerful for determination of atomic resolution structures from micron- and nano-sized crystals, too small to be studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In this work, the structure of a rare lysozyme polymorph is solved and refined using continuous rotation MicroED data and standard X-ray crystallographic software. Data collection was performed on a standard 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) using a highly sensitive detector with a short readout time...
March 1, 2018: Structure
Manoj Kumar-Sarangi, Bhuwan Chandra-Joshi, Bob Ritchie
When the bioavailability of a drug increases, a corresponding increase in the levels of that drug in the bloodstream occurs. With this, drug efficacy is augmented and the dosage required to yield a specific therapeutic effect diminishes comparably. Until recently, only a few methods have proven effective in enhancing drug bioavailability, among which are the disaggregation of micronized molecules, the use of timedrelease and topical preparations, mechanization, polymorph and crystal form selection, drug solubilisation, and the use of nanotechnology...
March 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Yulong Bai, Ning Jiang, Shifeng Zhao
Nanocluster-assembled FeGa micron-scale discs prepared by low-energy cluster beam deposition were embedded into Bi5Ti3FeO15 matrices to form pseudo 1-3 heterostructure films. The microstructures and multiferroic properties were investigated. Good ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and ferromagnetic properties and giant magnetoelectric effects are achieved for the heterostructure films, which is ascribed to the depression of the clamped effect from the hard substrate for such pseudo 1-3 structures and the multi-interface coupling between the large magnetostrictive coefficient of FeGa micron-scale discs and the high piezoelectric coefficient of the circle surrounding the Bi5Ti3FeO15 matrices...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Brendan Dyett, Hao Hao, Detlef Lohse, Xuehua Zhang
The coalescence between growing droplets is important for the surface coverage and spatial arrangements of droplets on surfaces. In this work, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is utilized to in situ investigate the formation of nanodroplets around the rim of a polymer microcap, with sub-micron spatial and millisecond temporal resolution. We observe that the coalescence among droplets occurs frequently during their growth by solvent exchange. Our experimental results show that the position of the droplet from two merged droplets is related to the size of the parent droplets...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Qiang Lu, Guanghui Liu, Chuanli Xiao, Chuanzhen Hu, Shiwu Zhang, Ronald X Xu, Kaiqin Chu, Qianming Xu, Zachary J Smith
In this paper we report the development of a cost-effective, modular, open source, and fully automated slide-scanning microscope, composed entirely of easily available off-the-shelf parts, and capable of bright field and fluorescence modes. The automated X-Y stage is composed of two low-cost micrometer stages coupled to stepper motors operated in open-loop mode. The microscope is composed of a low-cost CMOS sensor and low-cost board lenses placed in a 4f configuration. The system has approximately 1 micron resolution, limited by the f/# of available board lenses...
2018: PloS One
Debanti Sengupta, Tae Jin Kim, Sepideh Almasi, Stuart Miller, Zsolt Marton, Vivek Nagarkar, Guillem Pratx
Radioluminescence microscopy is an emerging modality that can be used to image radionuclide probes with micron-scale resolution. This technique is particularly useful as a way to probe the metabolic behavior of single cells and to screen and characterize radiopharmaceuticals, but the quality of the images is critically dependent on the scintillator material used to image the cells. In this paper, we detail the development of a microscopy dish made of a thin-film scintillating material, Lu2O3:Eu, that could be used as the blueprint for a future consumable product...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
J H Bin, M Yeung, Z Gong, H Y Wang, C Kreuzer, M L Zhou, M J V Streeter, P S Foster, S Cousens, B Dromey, J Meyer-Ter-Vehn, M Zepf, J Schreiber
We report on the experimental studies of laser driven ion acceleration from a double-layer target where a near-critical density target with a few-micron thickness is coated in front of a nanometer-thin diamondlike carbon foil. A significant enhancement of proton maximum energies from 12 to ∼30  MeV is observed when a relativistic laser pulse impinges on the double-layer target under linear polarization. We attributed the enhanced acceleration to superponderomotive electrons that were simultaneously measured in the experiments with energies far beyond the free-electron ponderomotive limit...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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