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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651192/efficient-photocatalytic-degradation-of-toxic-dyes-from-aqueous-environment-using-gelatin-zr-iv-phosphate-nanocomposite-and-its-antimicrobial-activity
#1
Manita Thakur, Gaurav Sharma, Tansir Ahamad, Ayman A Ghfar, Deepak Pathania, Mu Naushad
In the present study, gelatin-Zr(IV) phosphate nanocomposite (GT/ZPNC) was synthesized by sol-gel method by mixing the gelatin gel into the inorganic part Zr (IV) phosphate (ZP). The GT/ZPNC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron micron scope (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photodegradation activity of GT/ZPNC was explored for the removal of methylene blue (MB) and fast green (FG) dyes from aqueous solution...
June 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648047/high-contribution-of-non-fossil-sources-to-sub-micron-organic-aerosols-in-beijing-china
#2
Yanlin Zhang, Hong Ren, Yele Sun, Fang Cao, Yunhua Chang, Shoudong Liu, Xuhui Lee, Konstantinos Agrios, Kimitaka Kawamura, Di Liu, Lujie Ren, Wei Du, Zifa Wang, Andre S H Prevot, Soenke Szidat, Pingqing Fu
Source apportionment of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from PM1 (particulate matter with a diameter equal to or smaller than 1 μm) in Beijing, China was carried out using radiocarbon (14C) measurement. Despite a dominant fossil-fuel contribution to EC due to large emissions from traffic and coal combustion, non-fossil sources are dominant contributors of OC in Beijing throughout the year except during the winter. Primary emission was the most important contributor to fossil-fuel derived OC for all seasons...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647563/in-vitro-comparison-of-holmium-lasers-evidence-for-shorter-fragmentation-time-and-decreased-retropulsion-using-a-modern-variable-pulse-laser
#3
John Roger Bell, Kristina L Penniston, Stephen Y Nakada
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of variable and fixed pulse lasers on stone phantoms in vitro. METHODS: Seven millimeter stone phantoms were made to simulate calcium oxalate monohydrate stones using BegoStone Plus. The in vitro setting was created with a clear PVC tube. For each trial, a stone phantom was placed at the open end of the tubing. The Cook Rhapsody H-30 variable pulse laser was tested on both long and short pulse settings and compared to the Dornier H-20 fixed pulse laser, five trials were conducted for each trial arm...
June 21, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645629/production-and-characterization-of-aluminium-oxide-nanoshells-on-spray-dried-lactose
#4
Joel Hellrup, Mårten Rooth, Anders Johansson, Denny Mahlin
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables deposition of dense nanometer thick metal oxide nanoshells on powder particles with precise thickness control. This leads to products with low weight fraction coating, also when depositing on nano- or micron sized powder particles. This study aimed at investigating the aluminium oxide nanoshell thickness required to prevent moisture sorption. The nanoshells were produced with ALD on spray-dried lactose, which is amorphous and extremely hygroscopic. The particles were studied with dynamic vapor sorption between 0 to 50% RH, light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and polarized light microscopy...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642331/diagnosis-and-risk-stratification-of-barrett-s-dysplasia-by-flow-cytometric-dna-analysis-of-paraffin-embedded-tissue
#5
Won-Tak Choi, Jia-Huei Tsai, Peter S Rabinovitch, Thomas Small, Danning Huang, Aras N Mattis, Sanjay Kakar
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) can be challenging, and reliable ancillary techniques are not available. This study examines if DNA content abnormality detected by flow cytometry can serve as a diagnostic marker of dysplasia and facilitate risk stratification of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and indefinite for dysplasia (IND) patients using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) BO samples with varying degrees of dysplasia. DESIGN: DNA flow cytometry was performed on 80 FFPE BO samples with high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 38 LGD, 21 IND and 14 negative for dysplasia (ND)...
June 22, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640315/formation-and-field-driven-dynamics-of-nematic-spheroids
#6
Fred Fu, Nasser Mohieddin Abukhdeir
Unlike the canonical application of liquid crystals (LCs), LC displays, emerging technologies based on LC materials are increasingly leveraging the presence of nanoscale defects. The inherent nanoscale characteristics of LC defects present both significant opportunities as well as barriers for the application of this fascinating class of materials. Simulation-based approaches to the study of the effects of confinement and interface anchoring conditions on LC domains has resulted in significant progress over the past decade, where simulations are now able to access experimentally-relevant length scales while simultaneously capturing nanoscale defect structures...
June 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634141/one-step-preparation-of-spherical-drug-particles-by-contamination-free-dry-milling-technique-with-corn-starch-beads
#7
Toshiyuki Niwa, Maria Yoshida, Naoko Hayashi, Keita Kondo
The novel dry milling technique has been developed by using a mechanical powder processor for improving the dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. It was found that the drug crystals were well pulverized by co-processing with fine particles of corn starch (CS). The morphological observation and particle size evaluation revealed that the processed products formed the composite particles with ordered-mixed structure, having double-layered particles with a core of CS and a coating layer of phenytoin (Phe), as a model drug...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631808/fabrication-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-mediated-single-bimolecular-inclusion-complex-characterization-molecular-docking-in-vitro-release-and-bioavailability-studies-for-gefitinib-and-simvastatin-conjugate
#8
Souvik Basak, Sandip Mondal, Suddhasattya Dey, Plaban Bhattacharya, Achintya Saha, Vinay Deep Punetha, Ali Abbas, Nanda Gopal Sahoo
OBJECTIVES: Introduction of multiple molecules in a single inclusion complex, albeit cheaper, lacks conclusive attempts in earlier drug delivery reports. This manuscript emphasizes simultaneous incorporation of two anticancer drugs, gefitinib (G) and simvastatin (S), in a single molecule of β-cyclodextrin for the first time to achieve effective drug delivery. METHODS: The inclusion complex (GSBCD) was prepared by cosolvent evaporation technique using β-cyclodextrin (BCD) as carrier...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629039/time-dependent-subcellular-structure-injuries-induced-by-nano-micron-sized-calcium-oxalate-monohydrate-and-dihydrate-crystals
#9
Xin-Yuan Sun, Kai Yu, Jian-Ming Ouyang
Comparative studies were conducted to investigate the time effect of cell injury induced by nano-sized (50nm) and micron-sized (10μm) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals in African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells. The effects of nano-/micron-sized COM and COD exposure on Vero cells were investigated by detecting the cell viability, cell morphology, LDH release, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis, as well as the intracellular and extracellular crystal distribution...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628822/spatial-distribution-of-trace-element-ca-normalized-ratios-in-primary-and-permanent-human-tooth-enamel
#10
Théo Tacail, Lenka Kovačiková, Jaroslav Brůžek, Vincent Balter
The trace elements distribution embedded in tooth enamel offers a means to study exposure of toxic metals and allows the reconstruction of dietary behaviors. The quantification of most of the elements with a spatial high resolution (~50μm) is routinely achieved using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). However, the lack of a comprehensive framework of trace elements distribution in enamel jeopardizes any endorsed sampling strategy using LA-ICPMS. The present work is an effort to improve our knowledge on this issue...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628776/3d-printed-lattices-as-an-activation-and-expansion-platform-for-t-cell-therapy
#11
Bahman Delalat, Frances Harding, Batjargal Gundsambuu, Elena M De-Juan-Pardo, Felix M Wunner, Marie-Luise Wille, Marek Jasieniak, Kristen A L Malatesta, Hans J Griesser, Antonio Simula, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Nicolas H Voelcker, Simon C Barry
One of the most significant hurdles to the affordable, accessible delivery of cell therapy is the cost and difficulty of expanding cells to clinically relevant numbers. Immunotherapy to prevent autoimmune disease, tolerate organ transplants or target cancer critically relies on the expansion of specialized T cell populations. We have designed 3D-printed cell culture lattices with highly organized micron-scale architectures, functionalized via plasma polymerization to bind monoclonal antibodies that trigger cell proliferation...
June 7, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623642/particle-spallation-in-a-microfluidic-blood-processing-device-the-problem-of-using-peristaltic-pumps-and-silicon-based-microfilters
#12
Monica Faria, Yi Liu, Edward F Leonard
Peristaltic pumps rely on constant compression of elastomeric tubing from which particles may be shed, a phenomenon known as spallation. We studied spallated particles on microfluidic filtration devices with photolithographically prepared micron-level pore fields. Filtration of ultra-pure water through these pores was analyzed using either the usual peristaltic pump or a reciprocating pair of syringe pumps. Using syringe pumps, transmembrane pressure (TMP) values during filtration at 2.5 cm3/min revealed steady filtration for over 80 minutes at 2...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622824/toxicological-assessment-of-nano-and-micron-sized-tungsten-oxide-after-28days-repeated-oral-administration-to-wistar-rats
#13
Srinivas Chinde, Paramjit Grover
Tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles (NPs) are being used in various applications. However, the health consequences of WO3 NPs exposure have not been explored extensively. Hence, the goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of WO3 NPs and their microparticles (MPs) after 28days repeated oral administration in Wistar rats. The particles were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET), X- ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES)...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621129/multiscale-shear-lag-analysis-of-stiffness-enhancement-in-polymer-graphene-nanocomposites
#14
Asanka Weerasinghe, Chang-Tsan Lu, Dimitrios Maroudas, Ashwin Ramasubramaniam
Graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials are of emerging interest as functional fillers in polymer-matrix composites. In this study, we present a multiscale atomistic-to-continuum approach for modeling interfacial stress transfer in graphene-high-density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites. Via detailed characterization of atomic-level stress profiles in submicron graphene fillers, we develop a modified shear-lag model for short fillers. A key feature of our approach lies in the correct accounting of stress concentration at the ends of fillers that exhibits a power-law dependence on filler ("flaw") size, determined explicitly from atomistic simulations, without any ad hoc modeling assumptions...
June 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620668/nanoscale-spectroscopic-and-mechanical-characterization-of-individual-aerosol-particles-using-peak-force-infrared-microscopy
#15
Le Wang, Dandan Huang, Chak K Chan, Yong Jie Li, Xiaoji G Xu
Atmospheric aerosol particles of sizes less than 2.5 microns affect public health in cities. Understanding the fine structures of aerosol particles is important to decipher their source. Here, we use a novel spectroscopic and mechanical microscopy technique of 10 nm spatial resolution to reveal the nanoscale structures of individual aerosol particles.
June 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619623/intracellular-trafficking-of-particles-inside-endosomal-vesicles-is-regulated-by-particle-size
#16
Michihiko Aoyama, Yasuo Yoshioka, Yoshiyuki Arai, Haruna Hirai, Rio Ishimoto, Kazuya Nagano, Kazuma Higashisaka, Takeharu Nagai, Yasuo Tsutsumi
Little comparative information is available on the detailed intracellular dynamics (diffusion, active movement, and distribution mechanisms) of nanoparticles (≤100nm) and sub-micron particles (>100nm). Here, we quantitatively examined the intracellular movements of different-sized particles and of the endosomal vesicles containing those particles. We showed that silica nanoparticles of various sizes (30 to 100nm) had greater motility than sub-micron particles in A549 cells. Although particles of different sizes localized in the early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes in different proportions, their motilities did not vary, regardless of the vesicles in which they were localized...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619003/hydroxyapatite-as-a-nanomaterial-for-advanced-tissue-engineering-and-drug-therapy
#17
Juha Tuukkanen, Miho Nakamura
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a complicated ceramic material that varies between the way it appears in biological systems and how it is synthesized as various calcium phosphates. HAp varies in chemical composition of substituting atoms, crystallinity, grain size and electrical polarization. HAp can form solid to macro-, micro- and nanoporous structures. Also, particulate HAp can have highly porous structure. HAp can be used as coatings for metal implants in thicknesses from hundreds of microns down to hundreds of nanometers...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618635/enhanced-drainage-and-thinning-of-liquid-films-between-bubbles-and-solids-that-support-surface-waves
#18
Amihai Horesh, Matvey Morozov, Ofer Manor
We study the thinning and drainage of the intermediate liquid film between a bubble and a solid surface at close proximity in the presence of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) in the solid. Specifically, we employ the diffraction of light to observe a long air bubble confined in a solid rectangular channel filled with silicone oil. This setup, constituting a two-dimensional physical model of thin film drainage, allows us to analyze the influence of a SAW on the rate of thinning of the micron-thick liquid film separating the bubble and the solid substrate...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618631/two-coupled-driven-ising-spin-systems-working-as-an-engine
#19
Debarshi Basu, Joydip Nandi, A M Jayannavar, Rahul Marathe
Miniaturized heat engines constitute a fascinating field of current research. Many theoretical and experimental studies are being conducted that involve colloidal particles in harmonic traps as well as bacterial baths acting like thermal baths. These systems are micron-sized and are subjected to large thermal fluctuations. Hence, for these systems average thermodynamic quantities, such as work done, heat exchanged, and efficiency, lose meaning unless otherwise supported by their full probability distributions...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618614/temperature-distribution-and-heat-radiation-of-patterned-surfaces-at-short-wavelengths
#20
Thorsten Emig
We analyze the equilibrium spatial distribution of surface temperatures of patterned surfaces. The surface is exposed to a constant external heat flux and has a fixed internal temperature that is coupled to the outside heat fluxes by finite heat conductivity across the surface. It is assumed that the temperatures are sufficiently high so that the thermal wavelength (a few microns at room temperature) is short compared to all geometric length scales of the surface patterns. Hence the radiosity method can be employed...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
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