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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545965/comparative-evaluation-of-micron-and-nano-sized-intracanal-medicaments-on-penetration-and-fracture-resistance-of-root-dentin-an-in-vitro-study
#1
Abburi Sireesha, R Jayasree, Sampath Vidhya, Sekar Mahalaxmi, V Sujatha, T S Sampath Kumar
Intracanal medicaments play a vital role in disinfection of root canal system. The aim of this study was to evaluate intratubular penetration and fracture resistance of roots filled with micron- and nano-sized intracanal medicaments: calcium hydroxide (CH), nanocalcium hydroxide (NCH), chitosan (CS) and nanochitosan (NCS). Their antibacterial effect on E. faecalis was tested using agar diffusion method. NCH and NCS were prepared by precipitation method and ionic crosslinking respectively. NCH and NCS particles were spherical, with an average particle size of 102±11...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545099/fine-particles-in-homes-of-predominantly-low-income-families-with-children-and-smokers-key-physical-and-behavioral-determinants-to-inform-indoor-air-quality-interventions
#2
Neil E Klepeis, John Bellettiere, Suzanne C Hughes, Benjamin Nguyen, Vincent Berardi, Sandy Liles, Saori Obayashi, C Richard Hofstetter, Elaine Blumberg, Melbourne F Hovell
Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544506/photocatalytic-nanosheet-lithography-a-new-concept-for-photolithography-based-on-organically-modified-photoactive-2d-nanosheets
#3
Pirmin Ganter, Bettina Valeska Lotsch
Harvesting the properties of nanosheets is not only crucial from a fundamental perspective, but also for the development of novel functional devices based on 2D nanosheets. Here, we demonstrate the processing of organically modified TBAxH1-xCa2Nb3O10 nanosheets into photonic thin films and study their colorimetric sensing properties in response to various aqueous and organic solvent vapors. Building on the enhanced solvent accessibility of TBA-containing nanosheets and their photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation, we develop a new concept for photocatalytic lithography using TBAxH1-xCa2Nb3O10 nanosheets as a negative photoresist to obtain high-fidelity micron-scale patterns of robust inorganic nanosheets...
May 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540739/hypoxia-imaging-and-radiotherapy-bridging-the-resolution-gap
#4
David Robert Grimes, Daniel R Warren, Samantha Warren
Oxygen distribution is a major determinant of treatment success in radiotherapy, with well-oxygenated tumour regions responding by up to a factor of three relative to anoxic volumes. Conversely, tumour hypoxia is associated with treatment resistance and negative prognosis. Tumour oxygenation is highly heterogeneous and difficult to measure directly. The recent advent of functional hypoxia imaging modalities such as fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography have shown promise in non-invasively determining regions of low oxygen tension...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540723/a-high-throughput-fabrication-method-to-produce-a-silver-nanoparticles-doped-nanoclay-polymer-composite-with-novel-synergistic-antibacterial-effects-at-the-material-interface
#5
Shaobo Cai, Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Elizabeth G Loboa
In this study, we report a high throughput fabrication method at industrial pilot scale to produce a silver nanoparticles-doped-nanoclay/polylactic acid composite with a novel synergistic antibacterial effect. The obtained nanocomposite has a significantly lower affinity for bacterial adhesion, allowing the loading amount of silver nanoparticles to be tremendously reduced while maintaining satisfactory antibacterial efficacy at the material interface. This is a great advantage for many antibacterial applications where cost is a consideration...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539423/mnemonic-encoding-and-cortical-organization-in-parietal-and-prefrontal-cortices
#6
Nicolas Y Masse, Jonathan M Hodnefield, David J Freedman
Persistent activity within the frontoparietal network is consistently observed during tasks which require working memory. However, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying persistent neuronal encoding within this network remain unresolved. Here, we ask how neural circuits support persistent activity by examining population recordings from posterior parietal (PPC) and prefrontal (PFC) cortices in two male monkeys that performed spatial and motion direction based tasks that required working memory. While spatially selective persistent activity was observed in both areas, robust selective persistent activity for motion direction was only observed in PFC...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538681/human-thalamic-somatosensory-nucleus-ventral-caudal-vc-as-a-locus-for-stimulation-by-inputs-from-tactile-noxious-and-thermal-sensors-on-an-active-prosthesis
#7
REVIEW
Jui Hong Chien, Anna Korzeniewska, Luana Colloca, Claudia Campbell, Patrick Dougherty, Frederick Lenz
The forebrain somatic sensory locus for input from sensors on the surface of an active prosthesis is an important component of the Brain Machine Interface. We now review the neuronal responses to controlled cutaneous stimuli and the sensations produced by Threshold Stimulation at Microampere current levels (TMIS) in such a locus, the human thalamic Ventral Caudal nucleus (Vc). The responses of these neurons to tactile stimuli mirror those for the corresponding class of tactile mechanoreceptor fiber in the peripheral nerve, and TMIS can evoke sensations like those produced by the stimuli that optimally activate each class...
May 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538585/reply-mechanical-micronization-of-lipoaspirates-squeeze-and-emulsification-techniques
#8
Takanobu Mashiko, Szu-Hsien Wu, Jingwei Feng, Koji Kanayama, Kotaro Yoshimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537732/rapid-flame-synthesis-of-atomically-thin-moo3-down-to-monolayer-thickness-for-effective-hole-doping-of-wse2
#9
Lili Cai, Connor J McClellan, Ai Leen Koh, Hong Li, Eilam Yalon, Eric Pop, Xiaolin Zheng
Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) with mono- or few-layer thickness can potentially advance many applications, ranging from optoelectronics, catalysis, sensors, and batteries to electrochromic devices. Such ultrathin MoO3 sheets can also be integrated with other 2D materials (e.g., as dopants) to realize new or improved electronic devices. However, there is lack of a rapid and scalable method to controllably grow mono- or few-layer MoO3. Here, we report the first demonstration of using a rapid (<2 minutes) flame synthesis method to deposit mono- and few-layer MoO3 sheets (several microns in lateral dimension) on a wide variety of layered materials, including mica, MoS2, graphene and WSe2, based on van der Waals epitaxy...
May 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537490/the-magnetic-field-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-systems-does-not-affect-cells-labeled-with-micrometer-sized-iron-oxide-particles
#10
Martin Kluge, Annekatrin Leder, Karl Herbert Hillebrandt, Benjamin Struecker, Dominik Geisel, Timm Denecke, Rebeka Dalma Major, Anja Reutzel-Selke, Peter Tang, Steffen Lippert, Christian Schmidt, Johann Pratschke, Igor M Sauer, Nathanael Raschzok
INTRODUCTION: Labeling using iron oxide particles enables cell tracking via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the magnetic field can affect the particle-labeled cells. Here, we investigated the effects of a clinical MRI system on primary human hepatocytes labeled using micrometer-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs). METHODS: HuH7 tumor cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of biocompatible, silica-based, micron-sized iron oxide-containing particles (sMPIO; 40 - 160 particles/cell)...
May 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537386/tuning-the-morphology-of-li2o2-by-noble-and-3d-metals-a-planar-model-electrode-study-for-li-o2-battery
#11
Yao Yang, Wei Liu, Nian Wu, Xiaochen Wang, Tao Zhang, Linfeng Chen, Rui Zeng, Yingming Wang, Juntao Lu, Lei Fu, Li Xiao, Lin Zhuang
In this work, a planar model electrode method has been used to investigate the structure-activity relationship of multiple noble and 3d metal catalysts for the cathode reaction of Li-O2 battery. The result shows that the battery performance (discharge/charge over-potential) strongly depends not only on the type of catalysts, but also on the morphology of the discharge product (Li2O2). Specifically, according to electro-chemical characterization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, noble metals (Pd, Pt, Ru, Ir and Au) show excellent battery performance (smaller discharge/charge over-potential), with worm-like Li2O2 particles with size less than 200 nm on their surfaces...
May 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537248/measuring-the-orbital-angular-momentum-spectrum-of-an-electron-beam
#12
Vincenzo Grillo, Amir H Tavabi, Federico Venturi, Hugo Larocque, Roberto Balboni, Gian Carlo Gazzadi, Stefano Frabboni, Peng-Han Lu, Erfan Mafakheri, Frédéric Bouchard, Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski, Robert W Boyd, Martin P J Lavery, Miles J Padgett, Ebrahim Karimi
Electron waves that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) are characterized by a quantized and unbounded magnetic dipole moment parallel to their propagation direction. When interacting with magnetic materials, the wavefunctions of such electrons are inherently modified. Such variations therefore motivate the need to analyse electron wavefunctions, especially their wavefronts, to obtain information regarding the material's structure. Here, we propose, design and demonstrate the performance of a device based on nanoscale holograms for measuring an electron's OAM components by spatially separating them...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533030/core-shell-silica-particles-with-dendritic-pore-channels-impregnated-with-zeolite-imidazolate-framework-8-for-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-separation
#13
Qishu Qu, Han Xuan, Kehua Zhang, Xiaoming Chen, Yi Ding, Shaojie Feng, Qin Xu
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been emerged as promising stationary phases for separations. However, the irregular shapes and wide size distribution of MOF particles have led to the high column backpressure and low column efficiency. We described here a kinetic controlling method to deposit zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) onto the pore surface using core-shell silica spheres as support. By varying the volume ratio of N,N-dimethylformamide and methanol, the formation speed of ZIF-8 crystals were greatly suppressed, resulting in the growth of very thin layer (∼3...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532530/automated-image-acquisition-for-low-dose-stem-at-atomic-resolution
#14
Andreas Mittelberger, Christian Kramberger, Christoph Hofer, Clemens Mangler, Jannik C Meyer
Beam damage is a major limitation in electron microscopy that becomes increasingly severe at higher resolution. One possible route to circumvent radiation damage, which forms the basis for single-particle electron microscopy and related techniques, is to distribute the dose over many identical copies of an object. For the acquisition of low-dose data, ideally no dose should be applied to the region of interest before the acquisition of data. We present an automated approach that can collect large amounts of data efficiently by acquiring images in a user-defined area-of-interest with atomic resolution...
May 23, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531975/chemical-manipulation-of-oxygen-vacancy-and-antibacterial-activity-in-zno
#15
Lakshmi Prasanna V, Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan
Pure and doped ZnO (cation and anion doping) compositions have been designed in order to manipulate oxygen vacancy and antibacterial activity of ZnO. In this connection, we have synthesized and characterized micron sized ZnO, N doped micron sized ZnO, nano ZnO, nano Na and La doped ZnO. The intrinsic vacancies in pure ZnO and the vacancies created by N and Na doping in ZnO have been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS) and Photoluminiscence Spectroscopy(PL). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and H2O2 responsible for antibacterial activity have been estimated by PL, UV-Vis spectroscopy and KMnO4 titrations respectively...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530404/role-of-crystallization-in-the-morphology-of-polymer-non-fullerene-acceptor-bulk-heterojunctions
#16
Kathryn A O'Hara, David P Ostrowski, Unsal Koldemir, Christopher J Takacs, Sean E Shaheen, Alan Sellinger, Michael L Chabinyc
Many high efficiency organic photovoltaics use fullerene-based acceptors despite their high production cost, weak optical absorption in the visible range, and limited synthetic variability of electronic and optical properties. To circumvent this deficiency, non-fullerene small-molecule acceptors have been developed that have good synthetic flexibility, allowing for precise tuning of optoelectronic properties, leading to enhanced absorption of the solar spectrum and increased open-circuit voltages (VOC). We examined the detailed morphology of bulk heterojunctions of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and the small-molecule acceptor HPI-BT to reveal structural changes that lead to improvements in the fill factor of solar cells upon thermal annealing...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530283/composite-cd-mof-nanocrystals-containing-microspheres-for-sustained-drug-delivery
#17
Haiyan Li, Nana Lv, Xue Li, Botao Liu, Jing Feng, Xiaohong Ren, Tao Guo, Dawei Chen, J Fraser Stoddart, Ruxandra Gref, Jiwen Zhang
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are typically embedded in polymer matrices as composites, are emerging as a new class of carriers for sustained drug delivery. Most of the MOFs and the polymers used so far in these composites, however, are not pharmaceutically acceptable. In the investigation reported herein, composites of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD)-based MOFs (CD-MOFs) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were prepared by a solid in oil-in-oil (s/o/o) emulsifying solvent evaporation method. A modified hydrothermal protocol has been established which produces efficiently at 50 °C in 6 h micron (5-10 μm) and nanometer (500-700 nm) diameter CD-MOF particles of uniform size with smooth surfaces and powder X-ray diffraction patterns that are identical with those reported in the literature...
May 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529821/fabrication-of-silicon-films-from-patterned-protruded-seeds
#18
Huang Zeng, Wei Zhang, Jizhou Li, Cong Wang, Hui Yang, Yigang Chen, Xiaoyuan Chen, Dongfang Liu
Thin, flexible silicon crystals are starting up applications such as light-weighted flexible solar cells, SOI, flexible IC chips, 3D ICs imagers and 3D CMOS imagers on the demand of high performance with low cost. Kerfless wafering technology by direct conversion of source gases into mono-crystalline wafers on reusable substrates is highly cost-effective and feedstock-effective route to cheap wafers with the thickness down to several microns. Here we show a prototype for direct conversion of silicon source gases to wafers by using the substrate with protruded seeds...
May 2017: AIP Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528628/millisecond-time-resolution-correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy-for-dynamic-cellular-processes
#19
Ludek Stepanek, Gaia Pigino
Molecular motors propel cellular components at velocities up to microns per second with nanometer precision. Imaging techniques combining high temporal and spatial resolution are therefore indispensable to understand the cellular mechanics at the molecular level. For example, intraflagellar transport (IFT) trains constantly shuttle ciliary components between the base and tip of the eukaryotic cilium. 3-D electron microscopy has revealed IFT train morphology and position, but was unable to correlate these features with the direction of train movement...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527910/radiative-decay-engineering-8-coupled-emission-microscopy-for-lens-free-high-throughput-fluorescence-detection
#20
Liangfu Zhu, Ramachandram Badugu, Douguo Zhang, Ruxue Wang, Emiliano Descrovi, Joseph R Lakowicz
Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging are now used throughout the biosciences. Fluorescence microscopes, spectrofluorometers, microwell plate readers and microarray imagers all use multiple optical components to collect, redirect and focus the emission onto single point or array imaging detectors. For almost all biological samples, except those with regular nanoscale features, emission occurs in all directions. With the exception of complex microscope objectives with large collection angles (NA ≤ 0.5), all these instruments collect only a small fraction of the total emission...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
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