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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534113/cysteine-rich-low-molecular-weight-antimicrobial-peptides-from-brevibacillus-and-related-genera-for-biotechnological-applications
#1
REVIEW
Piyush Baindara, Anoop Kapoor, Suresh Korpole, Vishakha Grover
The production of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is an innate immunity trait of all life forms including eukaryotes and prokaryotes. While these AMPs are usually called as defensins in eukaryotes, they are known as bacteriocins in prokaryotes. Bacteriocins are more diverse AMPs considering their varied composition and posttranslational modifications. Accordingly, this review is focused on cysteine-rich AMPs resembling eukaryotic defensins such as laterosporulin from Brevibacillus spp. and associated peptides secreted by the members of related genera...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532798/effects-of-intravaginal-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-bovine-endometrium-implications-in-uterine-health
#2
Sandra Genís, Àlex Bach, Anna Arís
Infection and inflammation of the endometrium after calving compromise uterine health, contributing to decreased reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Twenty multiparous cows were distributed in two groups and treated intra-vaginally with a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) composed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pedioccocus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus reuteri, or with a sterile carrier (CON) twice per week during 3 wk. At the slaughterhouse, vaginal and endometrial swabs were taken for E. coli and Lactobacillus quantification...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528214/nmr-structure-conformational-dynamics-and-biological-activity-of-psdef1-defensin-from-pinus-sylvestris
#3
Bulat I Khairutdinov, Elena A Ermakova, Yuri M Yusypovych, Elena K Bessolicina, Nadezhda B Tarasova, Yana Y Toporkova, Valentina Kovaleva, Yuriy F Zuev, Irina V Nesmelova
Plants have developed a complex defense response system against pests and pathogens. Defensins, produced by plants as part of their innate immune response, form the family of small, basic, cysteine-rich proteins with activity primarily directed against fungal pathogens. In addition, plant defensins can show antibacterial activity and protease and insect amylase inhibitory activities. However, in gymnosperms, only antifungal activity of defensins has been described thus far. Here, we report antibacterial and insect α-amylase inhibition activities for defensin PsDef1 from P...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526374/impact-of-high-dose-vitamin-d3-on-plasma-free-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-antimicrobial-peptides-in-critically-ill-mechanically-ventilated-adults
#4
Jenny E Han, Jessica A Alvarez, Jennifer L Jones, Vin Tangpricha, Mona A Brown, Li Hao, Lou Ann S Brown, Greg S Martin, Thomas R Ziegler
OBJECTIVES: High-dose vitamin D3 increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3 on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521337/perspectives-for-clinical-use-of-engineered-human-host-defense-antimicrobial-peptides
#5
María Eugenia Pachón-Ibáñez, Younes Smani, Jerónimo Pachón, Javier Sánchez-Céspedes
Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistance mechanisms, especially among bacteria, threatens the efficacy of all current antimicrobial agents, some of them already ineffective. As a result, there is an urgent need for new antimicrobial drugs. Host defense antimicrobial peptides (HDPs) are natural occurring and well-conserved peptides of innate immunity, broadly active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521031/expression-of-host-defense-peptides-in-the-intestine-of-eimeria-challenged-chickens
#6
S Su, D M Dwyer, K B Miska, R H Fetterer, M C Jenkins, E A Wong
Avian coccidiosis is caused by the intracellular protozoan Eimeria, which produces intestinal lesions leading to weight gain depression. Current control methods include vaccination and anticoccidial drugs. An alternative approach involves modulating the immune system. The objective of this study was to profile the expression of host defense peptides such as avian beta-defensins (AvBDs) and liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), which are part of the innate immune system. The mRNA expression of AvBD family members 1, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 13 and LEAP2 was examined in chickens challenged with either E...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513981/exposure-to-fermentation-supernatant-of-staphylococcus-aureus-accelerated-dedifferentiation-of-chondrocytes-and-production-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#7
Shuaijun Li, Yun Zhang, Yidan Sun, Weigang Cao, Lei Cui
Staphylococcus aureus is the most popular pathogen found in septic arthritis. Despite bacteria was eradicated from joint cavity during acute infection, destruction of articular cartilage often continues for years, leading to permanent joint damage. The mechanism responsible for this consistent catabolic reaction in septic arthritis remains unclear. Here, we found that fermentation supernatant (FS) of Staphylococcus aureus accelerated dedifferentiation of chondrocytes and induced expression of catabolic factors including A Disintegrin-like and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin-1 motifs 5, NO synthase 2, matrix metalloproteinase -3, -13...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510190/chilling-susceptibility-in-mungbean-varieties-is-associated-with-their-differentially-expressed-genes
#8
Li-Ru Chen, Chia-Yun Ko, William R Folk, Tsai-Yun Lin
BACKGROUND: Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is an economically important legume of high nutritional value, however, its cultivation is limited by susceptibility to chilling. Varieties NM94 and VC1973A, with differential susceptibility to stress, serve as good materials for uncovering how they differ in chilling tolerance. This study aimed to identify the ultrastructural, physiological and molecular changes to provide new insights on the differential susceptibility to chilling between varieties VC1973A and NM94...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509877/human-beta-defensin-2-selectively-inhibits-hiv-1-in-highly-permissive-ccr6%C3%A2-%C2%BAcd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cells
#9
Mark K Lafferty, Lingling Sun, Aaron Christensen-Quick, Wuyuan Lu, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
Chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)⁺CD4⁺ T cells are preferentially infected and depleted during HIV disease progression, but are preserved in non-progressors. CCR6 is expressed on a heterogeneous population of memory CD4⁺ T cells that are critical to mucosal immunity. Preferential infection of these cells is associated, in part, with high surface expression of CCR5, CXCR4, and α4β7. In addition, CCR6⁺CD4⁺ T cells harbor elevated levels of integrated viral DNA and high levels of proliferation markers...
May 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508168/distinct-histone-modifications-modulate-defb1-expression-in-human-vaginal-keratinocytes-in-response-to-lactobacillus-spp
#10
Jaehyouk Lee, Ara Jang, Jin Wook Kim, Jun Hyun Han, Byung Hee Chun, Hye Su Jung, Che Ok Jeon, Soon Chul Myung
Vaginal commensal lactobacilli are considered to contribute significantly to the control of vaginal microbiota by competing with other microflora for adherence to the vaginal epithelium and by producing antimicrobial compounds. However, the molecular mechanisms of symbiotic prokaryotic-eukaryotic communication in the vaginal ecosystem remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that both DNA methylation and histone modifications were associated with expression of the DEFB1 gene, which encodes the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-1, in vaginal keratinocyte VK2/E6E7 cells...
May 15, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489911/human-%C3%AE-defensin-2-production-upon-viral-and-bacterial-co-infection-is-attenuated-in-copd
#11
Jason W Arnason, James C Murphy, Cora Kooi, Shahina Wiehler, Suzanne L Traves, Christopher Shelfoon, Barbara Maciejewski, Curtis J Dumonceaux, W Shawn Lewenza, David Proud, Richard Leigh
Viral-bacterial co-infections are associated with severe exacerbations of COPD. Epithelial antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), are integral to innate host defenses. In this study, we examined how co-infection of airway epithelial cells with rhinovirus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates HBD-2 expression, and whether these responses are attenuated by cigarette smoke and in epithelial cells obtained by bronchial brushings from smokers with normal lung function or from COPD patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487283/bile-acids-deoxycholic-acid-and-ursodeoxycholic-acid-differentially-regulate-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-and-2-secretion-by-colonic-epithelial-cells
#12
Natalia K Lajczak, Vinciane Saint-Criq, Aoife M O'Dwyer, Alessia Perino, Luciano Adorini, Kristina Schoonjans, Stephen J Keely
Bile acids and epithelial-derived human β-defensins (HβDs) are known to be important factors in the regulation of colonic mucosal barrier function and inflammation. We hypothesized that bile acids regulate colonic HβD expression and aimed to test this by investigating the effects of deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid on the expression and release of HβD1 and HβD2 from colonic epithelial cells and mucosal tissues. DCA (10-150 µM) stimulated the release of both HβD1 and HβD2 from epithelial cell monolayers and human colonic mucosal tissue in vitro In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid (50-200 µM) inhibited both basal and DCA-induced defensin release...
May 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485077/ltf-and-defb1-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-susceptibility-towards-chronic-periodontitis-development
#13
Luisa Zupin, Antonietta Robino, Chiara Ottavia Navarra, Nicola Pirastu, Roberto Di Lenarda, Paolo Gasparini, Sergio Crovella, Lorenzo Bevilacqua
OBJECTIVES: Chronic periodontitis is a common pathological condition that affects the supporting tissue of the teeth, leading to progressive alveolar bone destruction and teeth loss. The disease is caused by bacteria and derives from an altered host immune and inflammatory response, also involving different factors such as the oral hygiene, smoking, genetic background etc. The innate immune response, the first line of host defense, could also play an important role in the susceptibility to chronic periodontitis...
May 9, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484864/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-loci-associated-with-resistance-to-viral-nervous-necrosis-disease-in-asian-seabass
#14
Le Wang, Peng Liu, Shuqing Huang, Baoqing Ye, Elaine Chua, Zi Yi Wan, Gen Hua Yue
Viral nervous necrosis disease (VNN), caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), is one major threat to mariculture. Identifying loci and understanding the mechanisms associated with resistance to VNN are important in selective breeding programs. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to study the genomic architecture of resistance to NNV infection in Asian seabass. We genotyped 986 individuals from 43 families produced by 15 founders with 44498 bi-allelic genetic variants using GBS...
May 8, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483878/similarities-between-reproductive-and-immune-pistil-transcriptomes-of-arabidopsis-species
#15
Mariana Mondragon, Ajay John-Arputharaj, Maria Pallmann, Thomas Dresselhaus
Independent lines of evidence suggest that members from ancient and polymorphic gene families such as defensins and receptor-like kinases mediate intercellular communication both during the immune response and reproduction. Here we report a large scale analysis to investigate the extent of overlap between these processes by comparing differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the pistil transcriptomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis halleri during self- and interspecific pollination, and during infection with Fusarium graminearum...
May 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478826/novel-aspects-of-defensins-involvement-in-virus-induced-autoimmunity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Evangelos I Kazakos, Jannis Kountouras, Stergios A Polyzos, Georgia Deretzi
Recent research on re-circulation of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma to the periphery and its inferred importance in immune surveillance dysregulation are changing our conceptualization of the pathophysiology of virus-induced autoimmunity. In this context, it is necessary to reassess the immunomodulatory properties of human defensins that are variably expressed by cerebral microglia, astrocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells and exhibit complex and often confounding roles in neuroinflammatory processes...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472309/impact-on-experimental-colitis-of-vitamin-d-receptor-deletion-in-intestinal-epithelial-or-myeloid-cells
#17
Carlien Leyssens, Lieve Verlinden, Gert De Hertogh, Shigeaki Kato, Conny Gysemans, Chantal Mathieu, Geert Carmeliet, Annemieke Verstuyf
Inflammatory bowel diseases are gastrointestinal diseases including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The chronic inflammation is thought to result from an excessive inflammatory response to environmental factors such as luminal bacteria in genetically predisposed individuals. Studies revealed that mice with impaired vitamin D signaling are more susceptible to experimental colitis. To better understand the contribution of vitamin D signaling in different cells of the gut to this disease, we investigated the effects of intestinal-specific or myeloid vitamin D receptor deletion...
May 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469609/guardians-of-the-gut-enteric-defensins
#18
REVIEW
Sumathi Sankaran-Walters, Ronald Hart, Chantelle Dills
Enteric defensins likely play a key role in the management of the human microbiome throughout development. The functional and mechanistic diversity of defensins is much greater than was initially thought. Defensin expression and overall Paneth cell physiology likely plays a key role in the development of colitis and other inflammatory or dysbiotic diseases of the gut. As our understanding of enteric defensins grows, their potential as tools of clinical intervention becomes more apparent. In this review, we focus on the function and activity of Paneth Cell defensins and highlight their role in disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468269/new-disulfide-stabilized-fold-provides-sea-anemone-peptide-to-exhibit-both-antimicrobial-and-trpa1-potentiating-properties
#19
Yulia A Logashina, Runar Gjerp Solstad, Konstantin S Mineev, Yuliya V Korolkova, Irina V Mosharova, Igor A Dyachenko, Victor A Palikov, Yulia A Palikova, Arkadii N Murashev, Alexander S Arseniev, Sergey A Kozlov, Klara Stensvåg, Tor Haug, Yaroslav A Andreev
A novel bioactive peptide named τ-AnmTx Ueq 12-1 (short name Ueq 12-1) was isolated and characterized from the sea anemone Urticina eques. Ueq 12-1 is unique among the variety of known sea anemone peptides in terms of its primary and spatial structure. It consists of 45 amino acids including 10 cysteine residues with an unusual distribution and represents a new group of sea anemone peptides. The 3D structure of Ueq 12-1, determined by NMR spectroscopy, represents a new disulfide-stabilized fold partly similar to the defensin-like fold...
April 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465471/alpha-ketoglutarate-akg-lowers-body-weight-and-affects-intestinal-innate-immunity-through-influencing-intestinal-microbiota
#20
Shuai Chen, Peng Bin, Wenkai Ren, Wei Gao, Gang Liu, Jie Yin, Jielin Duan, Yinghui Li, Kang Yao, Ruilin Huang, Bie Tan, Yulong Yin
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of glutamate and a critical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, shows beneficial effects on intestinal function. However, the influence of AKG on the intestinal innate immune system and intestinal microbiota is unknown. This study explores the effect of oral AKG administration in drinking water (10 g/L) on intestinal innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in a mouse model. Mouse water intake, feed intake and body weight were recorded throughout the entire experiment...
April 16, 2017: Oncotarget
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