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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327267/antimicrobial-peptide-gene-bdpho-responds-to-peptidoglycan-infection-and-mating-stimulation-in-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#1
Shi-Huo Liu, Hong-Fei Li, Yang Yang, Dong Wei, Hong-Bo Jiang, Wei Dou, Guo-Rui Yuan, Jin-Jun Wang
Phormicins belong to defensin family, which are important antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in insects. These AMPs are inducible upon challenging by immune triggers. In the present study, we identified the cDNA of a phormicin gene (BdPho) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a ruinous agricultural pest causing great economic losses to fruits and vegetables. The cDNA of BdPho contains a 282 bp open reading frame encoding 93 amino acid residues, and the predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of BdPho peptide were 9...
January 11, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317604/beta-defensin-1-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-plasma-kynurenine-in-major-depressive-disorder-metabolomics-informed-genomics
#2
Duan Liu, Balmiki Ray, Drew R Neavin, Jiabin Zhang, Arjun P Athreya, Joanna M Biernacka, William V Bobo, Daniel K Hall-Flavin, Michelle K Skime, Hongjie Zhu, Gregory D Jenkins, Anthony Batzler, Krishna R Kalari, Felix Boakye-Agyeman, Wayne R Matson, Swati S Bhasin, Taisei Mushiroda, Yusuke Nakamura, Michiaki Kubo, Ravishankar K Iyer, Liewei Wang, Mark A Frye, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Richard M Weinshilboum
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous disease. Efforts to identify biomarkers for sub-classifying MDD and antidepressant therapy by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) alone have generally yielded disappointing results. We applied a metabolomics-informed genomic research strategy to study the contribution of genetic variation to MDD pathophysiology by assaying 31 metabolites, including compounds from the tryptophan, tyrosine, and purine pathways, in plasma samples from 290 MDD patients. Associations of metabolite concentrations with depressive symptoms were determined, followed by GWAS for selected metabolites and functional validation studies of the genes identified...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317500/macrocyclic-%C3%AE-defensins-suppress-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-tnf-%C3%AE-shedding-by-inhibition-of-tnf-%C3%AE-converting-enzyme
#3
Justin B Schaal, Thorsten Maretzky, Dat Q Tran, Patti A Tran, Prasad Tongaonkar, Carl P Blobel, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Theta-defensins (θ-defensins) are macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in granulocytes and selected epithelia of Old World monkeys.  They contribute to anti-pathogen host defense responses by directly killing a diverse range of microbes.  Of note, θ-defensins also modulate microbe-induced inflammation by affecting the production of soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF) and other proinflammatory cytokines.  Here, we report that natural rhesus macaque θ-defensin (RTD) isoforms regulate sTNF cellular release by inhibiting TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE; also known as a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17; ADAM17), the primary pro-TNF sheddase...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311494/immunohistochemical-study-on-the-distribution-of-%C3%AE-defensin-1-and-%C3%AE-defensin-2-throughout-the-respiratory-tract-of-healthy-rats
#4
Natsumi Masuda, Youhei Mantani, Hideto Yuasa, Chiaki Yoshitomi, Masaya Arai, Miho Nishida, Wang-Mei Qi, Junichi Kawano, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The distributions of β-defensin 1 and 2 in secretory host defense system throughout respiratory tract of healthy rats were immunohistochemically investigated. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NCs) were immunopositive for both β-defensin 1 and 2, whereas a small number of goblet cells (GCs) were immunopositive only for β-defensin 1. Beta-defensin 2-immunopositive GCs were few. In the nasal glands, a small number of acinar cells and a large number of ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both β-defensins...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310642/urban-particulate-matter-pm-suppresses-airway-antibacterial-defence
#5
Xiaoyan Chen, Jinguo Liu, Jian Zhou, Jian Wang, Cuicui Chen, Yuanlin Song, Jue Pan
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that urban particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of respiratory infection. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. PM has been postulated to suppress the activation of airway epithelial innate defence in response to infection. METHODS: The effects of PM on antibacterial defence were studied using an in vitro infection model. The levels of antimicrobial peptides were measured using RT-PCR and ELISA...
January 8, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310427/towards-the-application-of-human-defensins-as-antivirals
#6
REVIEW
Mee Sook Park, Jin Il Kim, Ilseob Lee, Sehee Park, Joon-Yong Bae, Man-Seong Park
Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that participate in the innate immunity of hosts. Humans constitutively and/or inducibly express α- and β-defensins, which are known for their antiviral and antibacterial activities. This review describes the application of human defensins. We discuss the extant experimental results, limited though they are, to consider the potential applicability of human defensins as antiviral agents. Given their antiviral effects, we propose that basic research be conducted on human defensins that focuses on RNA viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and dengue virus (DENV), which are considered serious human pathogens but have posed huge challenges for vaccine development for different reasons...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305453/synovasure-quick-test-is-not-as-accurate-as-the-laboratory-based-%C3%AE-defensin-immunoassay-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
K Suen, M Keeka, R Ailabouni, P Tran
AIMS: α-defensin is a biomarker which has been described as having a high degree of accuracy in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Current meta-analyses are based on the α-defensin laboratory-based immunoassay rather than the quick on-table lateral flow test kit. This study is the first meta-analysis to compare the accuracy of the α-defensin laboratory-based immunoassay and the lateral flow test kit for the diagnosis of PJI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298271/high-fidelity-point-of-care-diagnostic-test-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection-commentary-on-an-article-by-thorsten-gehrke-md-et-al-the-accuracy-of-the-alpha-defensin-lateral-flow-device-for-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-comparison-with-a-gold
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298259/the-accuracy-of-the-alpha-defensin-lateral-flow-device-for-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-comparison-with-a-gold-standard
#9
Thorsten Gehrke, Christian Lausmann, Mustafa Citak, Tommaso Bonanzinga, Lars Frommelt, Akos Zahar
BACKGROUND: Alpha defensin is a new biomarker that has been shown to have a very high accuracy to rule out periprosthetic joint infection. Recently, a new rapid lateral flow version of the alpha defensin test was developed and introduced to detect high levels of alpha defensin in synovial fluid quickly and with ease. We conducted a single-center prospective clinical study to compare the results of the Synovasure Alpha Defensin Test with those of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, which are considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291214/in-silico-design-and-molecular-docking-evaluation-of-peptides-derivatives-from-bacteriocins-and-porcine-beta-defensin-2-as-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-e-virus-capsid-protein
#10
Carolina Quintero-Gil, Jaime Parra-Suescún, Albeiro Lopez-Herrera, Sergio Orduz
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered the main etiological agent that causes acute hepatitis. It is estimated that 20 million cases occur annually worldwide, reaching mortality rates of 28% in pregnant women. To date, available treatments and vaccines have not been entirely effective. In this study, six antiviral peptides derived from the sequences of porcine Beta-Defensin-2 and bacteriocins Nisin and Subtilosin were generate using in silico tools in order to propose new antiviral agents. Through the use of molecular docking, interactions between the HEV capsid protein and the six new antiviral peptide candidates were evaluated...
September 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290431/targeting-antimicrobial-defenses-of-the-udder-through-an-intrinsic-cellular-pathway
#11
Corwin D Nelson, Kathryn E Merriman, Michael B Poindexter, Mercedes F Kweh, Leslie P Blakely
The bovine innate immune system has a strong repertoire of antimicrobial defenses to rapidly attack infectious pathogens that evade physical barriers of the udder. Exploration of the intracrine vitamin D pathway of bovine macrophages has improved understanding of the signals that initiate antimicrobial defenses that protect the udder. In the intracrine vitamin D pathway, pathogen recognition receptors upregulate CYP27B1 mRNA that encodes for the enzyme that converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] to the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290146/multifunctional-role-of-35-kilodalton-hyaluronan-in-promoting-defense-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#12
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Kourtney P Nickerson, Aaron C Petrey, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against orally acquired pathogens. Dysregulation of this protective barrier is a primary driver of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis) and also infant gastrointestinal infections. Previously, our lab reported that hyaluronan (HA) isolated from human milk induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin in vivo and protects against Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated that commercially available 35 kDa size HA induces the expression of β-defensin, upregulates the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and attenuates murine Citrobacter rodentium infection in vivo...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286377/the-organoid-reconstitution-assay-ora-for-the-functional-analysis-of-intestinal-stem-and-niche-cells
#13
Matthias Schewe, Andrea Sacchetti, Mark Schmitt, Riccardo Fodde
The intestinal epithelium is characterized by an extremely rapid turnover rate. In mammals, the entire epithelial lining is renewed within 4 - 5 days. Adult intestinal stem cells reside at the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkühn, are earmarked by expression of the Lgr5 gene, and preserve homeostasis through their characteristic high proliferative rate1. Throughout the small intestine, Lgr5+ stem cells are intermingled with specialized secretory cells called Paneth cells. Paneth cells secrete antibacterial compounds (i...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278736/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-defensin-from-asian-green-mussel-perna-viridis
#14
Yuting Wang, Zhiyong Zeng, Xinhui Zhang, Qiong Shi, Chaogang Wang, Zhangli Hu, Hui Li
Defensin is one of the most diversified groups of antimicrobial peptides in invertebrate. In the present study, a novel defensin member referred as Pv-Def was identified and characterized from Asian green mussel Perna viridis. Using in silico survey of several EST databases released from diverse tissues of P. viridis, a single peptide referred as Pv-Def was predicted as defensin homologue with Mytilus counterparts. Further analysis on gene structure revealed that Pv-Def was 1001 nt in length and consisted of 3 exons and 2 introns...
December 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273721/topographical-diversity-of-common-skin-microflora-and-its-association-with-skin-environment-type-an-observational-study-in-chinese-women
#15
Xi Li, Chao Yuan, Licong Xing, Philippe Humbert
This study evaluated cutaneous microbial distribution, and microbial co-occurrence at different body sites and skin environments in Chinese women (39.6 ± 11.9 years, N = 100) during the winter season. Microbial distribution (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonadaceae, and Malassezia furfur), association with biomarkers (antimicrobial peptides: LL-37, β-defensins [HBD-2, HBD-3]), and claudin-1) and skin biophysical parameters (transepidermal water loss, pH, skin scaliness and roughness, sebum and hydration levels) were also determined...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273450/helicobacter-pylori-depletes-cholesterol-in-gastric-glands-to-prevent-interferon-gamma-signaling-and-escape-the-inflammatory-response
#16
Pau Morey, Lennart Pfannkuch, Ervinna Pang, Francesco Boccellato, Michael Sigal, Aki Imai-Matsushima, Victoria Dyer, Manuel Koch, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, Philipp Schlaermann, Thomas F Meyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite inducing an inflammatory response, Helicobacter pylori can persist in the gastric mucosa for decades. H pylori expression of cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase (encoded by cgt) is required for gastric colonization and T-cell activation. We investigated how cgt affects gastric epithelial cells and the host immune response. METHODS: MKN45 gastric epithelial cells, AGS cells, and human primary gastric epithelial cells (obtained from patients undergoing gastrectomy or sleeve resection or gastric antral organoids) were incubated with interferon gamma (IFNG) or IFNB and exposed to H pylori, including cagPAI and cgt mutant strains...
December 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250559/beta-defensin-2-and-beta-defensin-3-reduce-intestinal-damage-caused-by-salmonella-typhimurium-modulating-the-expression-of-cytokines-and-enhancing-the-probiotic-activity-of-enterococcus-faecium
#17
Alessandra Fusco, Vittoria Savio, Marcella Cammarota, Alberto Alfano, Chiara Schiraldi, Giovanna Donnarumma
The intestinal microbiota is a major factor in human health and disease. This microbial community includes autochthonous (permanent inhabitants) and allochthonous (transient inhabitants) microorganisms that contribute to maintaining the integrity of the intestinal wall, modulating responses to pathogenic noxae and representing a key factor in the maturation of the immune system. If this healthy microbiota is disrupted by antibiotics, chemotherapy, or a change in diet, intestinal colonization by pathogenic bacteria or viruses may occur, leading to disease...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248453/reishi-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum-modulates-iga-production-and-alpha-defensin-expression-in-the-rat-small-intestine
#18
Atsuhito Kubota, Masaki Kobayashi, Sota Sarashina, Reiko Takeno, Keisuke Okamoto, Katsuya Narumi, Ayako Furugen, Yuji Suzuki, Natsuko Takahashi, Ken Iseki
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion and alpha-defensins play a role in the innate immune system to protect against infection. Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (Reishi) is a well-known mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. This study aimed to determine the effects of Reishi on IgA secretion from Peyer's patch (PP) cells and alpha-defensin-5 (RD-5) and RD-6 expression in the rat small intestine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats received an oral injection of 0...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247243/leukotriene-b4-is-essential-for-lung-host-defence-and-alpha-defensin-1-production-during-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-infection
#19
Morgana K B Prado, Gisele A Locachevic, Karina F Zoccal, Francisco W G Paula-Silva, Caroline Fontanari, Joseane C Ferreira, Priscilla A T Pereira, Luiz G Gardinassi, Simone G Ramos, Carlos A Sorgi, Ana Lúcia C Darini, Lúcia H Faccioli
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is essential for host immune defence. It increases neutrophil recruitment, phagocytosis and pathogen clearance, and decreases oedema and inflammasome activation. The host response and the role of LTB4 during Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection remain unexplored. Wild-type (129sv) and LTB4 deficient (Alox5 -/-) mice were intratracheally infected with A. xylosoxidans. Wild-type 129sv infected mice survived beyond the 8th day post-infection, exhibited increased levels of LTB4 in the lung on the 1st day, while levels of PGE2 increased on the 7th day post-infection...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246811/chemotactic-effect-of-%C3%AE-defensin-1-on-macrophages-in-megalobrama-amblycephala
#20
He Jiang, Yazhen Hu, Xiaolei Wei, Xun Xiao, Ivan Jakovlić, Xiaoling Liu, Jianguo Su, Gailing Yuan
Besides their function as a physical barrier against pathogens, β-defensins possess the ability to induce direct or indirect chemotaxis in leukocytes of mammals. However little is known about the ability of defensins to guide the migration of macrophages in fish. The objective of our study was to investigate whether β-defensin 1 (maBD1) can recruit leukocytes (specifically macrophages) in vivo and in vitro in a farmed cyprinid fish Megalobrama amblycephala. The M. amblycephala β-defensin 1 (maBD1) gene was amplified from the head-kidney transcriptome...
December 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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