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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773800/x-ray-structure-of-a-carpet-like-antimicrobial-defensin-phospholipid-membrane-disruption-complex
#1
Michael Järvå, Fung T Lay, Thanh Kha Phan, Cassandra Humble, Ivan K H Poon, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson, Mark D Hulett, Marc Kvansakul
Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides expressed throughout the plant and animal kingdoms as a first line of defense against pathogens. Membrane targeting and disruption is a crucial function of many defensins, however the precise mechanism remains unclear. Certain plant defensins form dimers that specifically bind the membrane phospholipids phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, thereby triggering the assembly of defensin-lipid oligomers that permeabilize cell membranes. To understand this permeabilization mechanism, here we determine the crystal structure of the plant defensin NaD1 bound to PA...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773109/recombinant-%C3%AB-defensin-126-promotes-bull-sperm-binding-to-bovine-oviductal-epithelia
#2
A Lyons, F Narciandi, E Donnellan, J Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, C O' Farrelly, P Lonergan, K G Meade, S Fair
Primate β-defensin 126 regulates the ability of spermatozoa to bind to oviductal epithelial cells invitro. Bovine β-defensin 126 (BBD126) exhibits preferential expression in the cauda epididymis of the bull, but there have been few studies on its functional role in cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of BBD126 in bull sperm binding to bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) explants. BBD126 has been shown to be highly resistant to the standard methods of dissociation used in other species and, as a result, corpus epididymal spermatozoa, which have not been exposed to the protein, were used to study the functional role of BBD126...
May 18, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770867/dietary-supplementation-with-an-amino-acid-blend-enhances-intestinal-function-in-piglets
#3
Dan Yi, Baocheng Li, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Ying Zhou, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761905/stress-related-salivary-proteins-affect-the-production-of-volatile-sulfur-compounds-by-oral-bacteria
#4
Patricia Oliveira de Lima, Bruno Dias Nani, Barbara Almeida, Fernanda Klein Marcondes, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Antonio Bento Alves de Moraes, Michelle Franz-Montan, Karina Cogo-Müller
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether stress-related substances and sex hormones influence the growth and in vitro production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by Solobacterium moorei and Fusobacterium nucleatum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacteria growth and VSCs production were evaluated in the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-defensin-2, mucin, estradiol, and progesterone. Growth was evaluated by colony counting, and the production of the VSCs hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3 SH) was measured using the Oral Chroma™ instrument...
May 15, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753928/dynamic-changes-of-th1-th2-th17-cytokines-and-human-beta-defensin-2-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-oral-candidiasis-during-the-first-year-of-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy
#5
Xiangzhi Yong, Zhenmin Liu, Lanlan Jiang, Renchuan Tao, Wei Liu, Linlin Zhang, Yuanyuan Peng, Xuefang Lin, Yuxiao Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and human beta defensin 2 (HBD-2) in HIV-infected patients with oral candidiasis (OC) and gather information about OC-specific immunity. DESIGN: During the 1st year of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), 25 HIV-infected patients were followed up at the baseline, 3rd, 6th, 12th month. At each visit, oral manifestations were examined; oral rinses were collected and cultured for Candida; peripheral venous blood was taken to determine CD4 + T cell counts and HIV RNA viral load (VL); both unstimulated whole saliva and peripheral venous blood were taken to determine cytokine (IL-4, IL-17(A/F), IFN-γ) and HBD-2 levels...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753474/intramammary-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-3-treatment-modulates-innate-immune-responses-to-endotoxin-induced-mastitis
#6
Kathryn E Merriman, Jessi L Powell, Jose E P Santos, Corwin D Nelson
Vitamin D signaling in response to pathogen-associated molecules contributes to activation of innate immune responses of bovine monocytes. We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy cows activates the vitamin D pathway in innate immune cells of the udder and that increasing availability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3 ] would augment expression of vitamin D-associated genes. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of intramammary LPS and 25(OH)D3 treatments on activation of the vitamin D pathway and innate immune responses of mammary immune cells...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738776/neutralization-of-pseudomonas-auruginosa-exotoxin-a-by-human-neutrophil-peptide-1
#7
Guozhang Zou, Erik de Leeuw
Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a large number of virulence factors, including the extracellular protein, Exotoxin A (ETA). Human Neutrophil Peptide 1 (HNP1) neutralizes the Exotoxin A. HNP1 belongs to the family of α-defensins, small effector peptides of the innate immune system that combat against microbial infections. Neutralization of bacterial toxins such as ETA by HNP1 is a novel biological function in addition to direct killing of bacteria. In this study, we report on the interaction between HNP-1 and Exotoxin A at the molecular level to allow for the design and development of potent antibacterial peptides as alternatives to classical antibiotics...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733960/effects-of-dietary-glucose-and-starch-levels-on-the-growth-apparent-digestibility-and-skin-associated-mucosal-non-specific-immune-parameters-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#8
Si-Lei Xia, Xiang-Fei Li, Kenneth Prudence Abasubong, Chao Xu, Hua-Juan Shi, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang
A 10-week feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of different types and levels of carbohydrates in growth performance, apparent digestibility coefficients and skin-associated mucosal non-specific immune parameters in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish were randomly fed four diets containing two carbohydrates (glucose and starch) diets and two carbohydrates levels (330 and 440 g kg-1 ). High carbohydrate levels remarkably increased the weight gain rate (WGR), apparent digestibility of dry matters, protein and carbohydrates, body crud protein content, plasma levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), and skin-associated mucosal levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM), HDL cholesterol, lysozyme (LZM), advanced the transcriptions of mucin 2 (Muc2), mucin 5b (Muc5b) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma levels of IgM, skin-associated mucosal levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and β-Defensins, and the transcriptions of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60)...
May 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733023/identification-and-bioactivity-analysis-of-a-newly-identified-defensin-from-the-oyster-magallana-gigas
#9
Yubo Zhang, Pengfei Cui, Yashuo Wang, Shicui Zhang
The relatively conserved sequences of signal peptides and proregions that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) contain have been successfully used to search for and identify novel AMPs from databases within the same lineages of fish and amphibians and across different animal classes. If such an approach is applicable to invertebrate species such as oyster has not yet been tested so far. In this study, we found a cDNA from the digestive gland of the oyster Magallana gigas, designated Mgdefdg, which contains two exons interspaced by one intron...
August 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725321/induction-of-avian-%C3%AE-defensin-2-is-possibly-mediated-by-the-p38-mapk-signal-pathway-in-chicken-embryo-fibroblasts-after-newcastle-disease-virus-infection
#10
Chenggang Liu, Lei Jiang, Liangliang Liu, Li Sun, Wenjun Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Tianming Qi, Zongxi Han, Yuhao Shao, Shengwang Liu, Deying Ma
The study was conducted to evaluate whether avian β-defensins (AvBDs) could be induced by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection, and to investigate the potential signaling pathway of AvBD2 induction in response to NDV infection as well. First, mRNA expression of AvBDs (1-14) was evaluated in the chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) infected with NDV strain F48E9 at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h post-inoculation (hpi), respectively. The results demonstrated a significant induction of AvBD2 in CEFs elicited by the NDV strain...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723492/microbial-host-interactions-and-impaired-wound-healing-in-mice-and-humans-defining-a-role-for-bd14-and-nod2
#11
Helen Williams, Laura Campbell, Rachel A Crompton, Gurdeep Singh, Brian J McHugh, Donald J Davidson, Andrew J McBain, Sheena M Cruickshank, Matthew J Hardman
Chronic wounds cause significant patient morbidity and mortality. A key factor in their etiology is microbial infection, yet skin host-microbiota interactions during wound repair remain poorly understood. Microbiome profiles of non-infected human chronic wounds are associated with subsequent healing outcome. Furthermore, poor clinical healing outcome was associated with increased local expression of the pattern recognition receptor NOD2. To investigate NOD2 function in the context of cutaneous healing, we treated mice with the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and analyzed wound repair parameters and expression of anti-microbial peptides...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715222/alpha-defensin-lateral-flow-test-for-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-not-a-screening-but-a-confirmatory-test
#12
Nora Renz, Katsiaryna Yermak, Carsten Perka, Andrej Trampuz
BACKGROUND: Determination of alpha defensin in synovial fluid has shown promising results for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The purposes of our study were to assess the performance of alpha defensin lateral flow (ADLF) test for the diagnosis of acute and chronic PJI using 3 classification systems and to compare its performance with the synovial fluid leukocyte count. METHODS: Patients in whom aspiration of a prosthetic hip or knee joint was performed before revision arthroplasty were prospectively included...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713888/gingival-crevicular-fluid-levels-of-human-beta-defensin-1-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-periodontitis
#13
Dogukan Yilmaz, Feriha Caglayan, Esra Buber, Eija Könönen, Yasemin Aksoy, Ulvi Kahraman Gursoy, Guliz N Guncu
OBJECTIVES: Human β-defensin (hBD)-1 is an important gatekeeper of the gingiva against constant bacterial challenge, and glucose levels are involved in its optimal expression. The aims of the study were to investigate hBD-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and to compare these levels between type 2 diabetics with or without periodontitis and healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Altogether, 81 subjects were included in the study: 21 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) suffering from generalized periodontitis (T2DM + GP), 18 systemically healthy generalized periodontitis patients (GP), 18 periodontally healthy T2DM subjects (T2DM + H), and 24 systemically and periodontally healthy subjects (control)...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708969/microdeletion-on-chromosome-8p23-1-in-a-familial-form-of-severe-buruli-ulcer
#14
Quentin B Vincent, Aziz Belkadi, Cindy Fayard, Estelle Marion, Ambroise Adeye, Marie-Françoise Ardant, Christian R Johnson, Didier Agossadou, Lazaro Lorenzo, Julien Guergnon, Christine Bole-Feysot, Jeremy Manry, Patrick Nitschké, Ioannis Theodorou, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Laurent Marsollier, Annick Chauty, Laurent Abel, Alexandre Alcaïs
Buruli ulcer (BU), the third most frequent mycobacteriosis worldwide, is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. We report the clinical description and extensive genetic analysis of a consanguineous family from Benin comprising two cases of unusually severe non-ulcerative BU. The index case was the most severe of over 2,000 BU cases treated at the Centre de Dépistage et de Traitement de la Lèpre et de l'Ulcère de Buruli, Pobe, Benin, since its opening in 2003. The infection spread to all limbs with PCR-confirmed skin, bone and joint infections...
April 30, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706289/urinary-antimicrobial-peptides-potential-novel-biomarkers-of-obstructive-uropathy
#15
S Gupta, A R Jackson, D G DaJusta, D J McLeod, S A Alpert, V R Jayanthi, K McHugh, A R Schwaderer, B Becknell, C B Ching
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have historically been evaluated for their role in protecting against uropathogens. However, there is mounting evidence to support their expression in noninfectious injury, with unclear meaning as to their function. It is possible that AMPs represent urothelial injury. Urinary tract obstruction is known to alter the urothelium; however, AMPs have not been evaluated for expression in this noninfectious injury. OBJECTIVE: A pilot study to compare urinary AMP expression in children undergoing surgical intervention for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with nonobstructed controls...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701912/gut-microbiota-as-a-modulator-of-paneth-cells-during-parenteral-nutrition-in-mice
#16
Jiwei Wang, Feng Tian, Peng Wang, Huijun Zheng, Ying Zhang, Hao Tian, Li Zhang, Xuejin Gao, Xinying Wang
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to decreased production of Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptides and is accompanied by dysbiosis of the gut. The role of gut microbiota in regulating Paneth cell function during PN is unknown. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received either an antibiotic cocktail (Abx) or nothing (Normal) in their drinking water for 2 weeks before being fed either standard laboratory chow (Abx-Chow and Normal-Chow) or a continuous infusion of PN solution (Abx-PN and Normal-PN) for 7 days...
April 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701691/paneth-cells-during-viral-infection-and-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Mayumi K Holly, Jason G Smith
Paneth cells are major secretory cells located in the crypts of Lieberkühn in the small intestine. Our understanding of the diverse roles that Paneth cells play in homeostasis and disease has grown substantially since their discovery over a hundred years ago. Classically, Paneth cells have been characterized as a significant source of antimicrobial peptides and proteins important in host defense and shaping the composition of the commensal microbiota. More recently, Paneth cells have been shown to supply key developmental and homeostatic signals to intestinal stem cells in the crypt base...
April 26, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697652/-the-distribution-of-interleukins-and-cytokines-in-the-mucous-membranes-of-the-nose-and-the-nasopharynx-in-the-patients-presenting-with-the-post-nasal-drip-syndrome
#18
G Sumeraga, M Pielmane, L Kise
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the distribution of interleukins and cytokines in the mucous membranes of the nose and the nasopharynx in the patients presenting with the post-nasal drip syndrome. The study included 20 patients with this pathological condition and 20 volunteers who comprised the control group. The samples of the mucous membranes of the nose and the nasopharynx were examined with the use of the immunohistochemical methods to identify the protein gene product 9.5, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, the tumour necrosis factor-alpha, nuclear factor-kB, and beta-defensin...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691908/expression-of-cutaneous-immunity-markers-during-infant-skin-maturation
#19
Frank Kirchner, Kimberly A Capone, M Catherine Mack, Georgios N Stamatas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infant skin undergoes a maturation process during the early years of life. Little is known about the skin's innate immunity. We investigated the dynamics of innate immunity markers collected from the surface of infant skin during the first 36 months of life. METHODS: A total of 117 healthy infants aged 3-36 months participated in the study. We extracted human beta defensin-1 and interleukin 1 alpha and its receptor antagonist using transdermal analysis patches from the skin surface of the posterior lower leg area...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688543/natural-selection-and-origin-of-a-melanistic-allele-in-north-american-gray-wolves
#20
Rena M Schweizer, Arun Durvasula, Joel Smith, Samuel H Vohr, Daniel R Stahler, Marco Galaverni, Olaf Thalmann, Douglas W Smith, Ettore Randi, Elaine A Ostrander, Richard E Green, Kirk E Lohmueller, John Novembre, Robert K Wayne
Pigmentation is often used to understand how natural selection affects genetic variation in wild populations since it can have a simple genetic basis, and can affect a variety of fitness-related traits (e.g., camouflage, thermoregulation, and sexual display). In gray wolves, the K locus, a β-defensin gene, causes black coat color via a dominantly inherited KB allele. The allele is derived from dog-wolf hybridization and is at high frequency in North American wolf populations. We designed a DNA capture array to probe the geographic origin, age, and number of introgression events of the KB allele in a panel of 331 wolves and 20 dogs...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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