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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642103/chimeric-analogs-of-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-and-%C3%AE-defensin-disrupt-pre-established-bacterial-biofilms
#1
Basil Mathew, Sudar Olli, Ankeeta Guru, Ramakrishanan Nagaraj
Antibiofilm activity of several human defensin analogs that have the ability to kill planktonic bacteria, against pre-established biofilms of Escherichia coli MG1655 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8530 were examined. Linear and linear fatty acylated analogs did not show any activity while disulfide constrained analogs disrupted pre-established S. aureus biofilms. Chimeric analogs of human β-defensin 1 and θ-defensin, hBTD-1 and [d]hBTD-1 were highly active against S. aureus biofilms. Among the analogs tested, only the d-enantiomer [d]hBTD-1 showed activity against E...
June 12, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637910/excellent-diagnostic-characteristics-for-ultra-fast-gene-profiling-of-defa1-il1b-ltf-in-the-detection-of-prosthetic-joint-infections
#2
Regina Fillerova, Jiri Gallo, Martin Radvansky, Veronika Kraiczova, Milos Kudelka, Eva Kriegova
The timely and exact diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is crucial for surgical decision-making. Intra-operatively, delivery of the result within an hour is required. Alpha-defensin lateral immunoassay of joint fluid (JF) is precise in the intra-operative exclusion of PJI, however in patients with a limited amount of JF and/or when the JF is bloody this test is unhelpful. Important information is hidden in the periprosthetic tissues that could much better reflect the current status of implant pathology...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635669/modulation-of-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-production-by-viruses
#3
REVIEW
Lisa Kathleen Ryan, Gill Diamond
While initially identified as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide, constitutively expressed in epithelia, human β-defensin (hBD)-1 is now recognized to have a more complex pattern of expression of its gene, DEFB1, as well as activities that extend beyond direct antimicrobial. These observations suggest a complex role for hBD-1 in the host defense against viral infections, as evidenced by its expression in cells involved in viral defense, and its gene regulation in response to viral challenge. This regulation is observed both in vitro and in vivo in humans, as well as with the murine homolog, mBD-1...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634035/psoriasis-associated-late-cornified-envelope-lce-proteins-have-antibacterial-activity
#4
Hanna Niehues, Lam C Tsoi, Danique A van der Krieken, Patrick A M Jansen, Merel A W Oortveld, Diana Rodijk-Olthuis, Ivonne M J J van Vlijmen, Wiljan J A J Hendriks, Richard W Helder, Joke A Bouwstra, Ellen H van den Bogaard, Philip E Stuart, Rajan P Nair, James T Elder, Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Joost Schalkwijk
Terminally differentiating epidermal keratinocytes express a large number of structural and antimicrobial proteins that are involved in the physical barrier function of the stratum corneum and provide innate cutaneous host defense. Late cornified envelope (LCE) genes, located in the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1, encode a family of 18 proteins of unknown function, whose expression is largely restricted to epidermis. Deletion of two members, LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3B/C-del), is a widely replicated psoriasis risk factor that interacts with the major psoriasis-psoriasis risk gene HLA-C*06...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632755/potassium-is-a-key-signal-in-host-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-periodontitis
#5
Susan Yost, Ana E Duran-Pinedo, Keerthana Krishnan, Jorge Frias-Lopez
Dysbiosis, or the imbalance in the structural and/or functional properties of the microbiome, is at the origin of important infectious inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and periodontal disease. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that affects a large proportion of the world's population and has been associated with a wide variety of systemic health conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Dysbiosis has been identified as a key element in the development of the disease...
June 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629201/systemic-induction-of-the-defensin-and-phytoalexin-pisatin-pathways-in-pea-pisum-sativum-against-aphanomyces-euteiches-by-acetylated-and-nonacetylated-oligogalacturonides
#6
Sameh Selim, Jean Sanssené, Stéphanie Rossard, Josiane Courtois
Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are known for their powerful ability to stimulate the plant immune system but little is known about their mode of action in pea (Pisum sativum). In the present study, we investigated the elicitor activity of two fractions of OGs, with polymerization degrees (DPs) of 2-25, in pea against Aphanomyces euteiches. One fraction was nonacetylated (OGs - Ac) whereas the second one was 30% acetylated (OGs + Ac). OGs were applied by injecting the upper two rachises of the plants at three- and/or four-weeks-old...
June 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627688/danger-recognizing-proteins-%C3%AE-defensin-128-and-histatin-3-as-potential-biomarkers-of-recurrent-coronary-events
#7
Madankumar Ghatge, Ankit Sharma, Sangeeta Maity, Vijay V Kakkar, Rajani Kanth Vangala
Conventional risk factors have limited ability to predict recurrent events in subjects with first-time coronary artery disease (CAD). This aim of this study was to identify novel biomarkers using comparative global proteome analysis to improve the risk assessment for recurrent coronary events. We used samples from phase-I of the Indian Atherosclerosis Research Study (IARS), consisting of 2,332 subjects, of whom 772 were CAD-affected subjects, including 152 with recurrent events identified during a 5-year follow-up period...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624494/antibacterial-activity-and-phospholipid-recognition-of-the-recombinant-defensin-j1-1-from-capsicum-genus
#8
Francisco Guillén-Chable, Iván Arenas-Sosa, Ignacio Islas-Flores, Gerardo Corzo, Cynthia Martinez-Liu, Georgina Estrada
The gene of the four disulfide-bridged defensin J1-1 from Capsicum was cloned into the expression vector pQE30 containing a 6His-tag as fusion protein. This construct was transfected into Origami strain of Escherichia coli and expressed after induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). The level of expression was 4 mg/L of culture medium, and the His-tagged recombinant defensin (HisXarJ1-1) was expressed exclusively into inclusion bodies. After solubilization, HisXarJ1-1 was purified by affinity and hydrophobic interaction chromatography...
June 15, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622549/immunological-and-epidemiological-factors-affecting-candidiasis-in-hiv-patients-beginning-antiretroviral-therapy-in-an-asian-clinic
#9
Endah A T Wulandari, Henny Saraswati, Robiatul Adawiyah, Samsuridjal Djauzi, Retno Wahyuningsih, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVES: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is common in HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here we address the response to ART, and the roles of poor oral hygiene and defects in local innate immunity with a focus on salivary β-defensins, as they are implicated in control of candidiasis but have not been investigated in this context. DESIGN: ART naïve HIV-infected adults (n=82) with <200 CD4(+) T-cells/mm(3) attending clinics at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, were examined at the commencement of ART, and 73 were re-examined after 3 months...
June 3, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622393/giardia-co-infection-promotes-the-secretion-of-antimicrobial-peptides-beta-defensin-2-and-trefoil-factor-3-and-attenuates-attaching-and-effacing-bacteria-induced-intestinal-disease
#10
Anna Manko, Jean-Paul Motta, James A Cotton, Troy Feener, Ayodele Oyeyemi, Bruce A Vallance, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Our understanding of polymicrobial gastrointestinal infections and their effects on host biology remains incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Concomitant infections with Giardia and other gastrointestinal pathogens commonly occur. In countries with poor sanitation, Giardia infection has been associated with decreased incidence of diarrheal disease and fever, and reduced serum inflammatory markers release, via mechanisms that remain obscure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622386/alpha-defensin-dependent-enhancement-of-enteric-viral-infection
#11
Sarah S Wilson, Beth A Bromme, Mayumi K Holly, Mayim E Wiens, Anshu P Gounder, Youngmee Sul, Jason G Smith
The small intestinal epithelium produces numerous antimicrobial peptides and proteins, including abundant enteric α-defensins. Although they most commonly function as potent antivirals in cell culture, enteric α-defensins have also been shown to enhance some viral infections in vitro. Efforts to determine the physiologic relevance of enhanced infection have been limited by the absence of a suitable cell culture system. To address this issue, here we use primary stem cell-derived small intestinal enteroids to examine the impact of naturally secreted α-defensins on infection by the enteric mouse pathogen, mouse adenovirus 2 (MAdV-2)...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617190/experimental-and-theoretical-studies-of-cadmium-ions-absorption-by-a-new-reduced-recombinant-defensin
#12
Karim Mahnam, Samira Foruzandeh, Neda Mirakhorli, Behnaz Saffar
Heavy metal pollutants such as Cd, Hg, Pb, As and Se are considered as both a global problem and a growing threat to the humanity. Being strongly poisonous to the metal-sensitive enzymes and leading to the growth inhibition and death of organisms, these metals have a toxic impact on the plants and animals. Inducing the metal-binding cysteine-rich peptides such as metallothioneins, phytochelatins, and defensins, higher organisms like plants and animals usually react to the heavy metal stress. In this study, a recombinant defensin protein was expressed in bean and its ability in the cadmium absorption was determined...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605157/different-mechanisms-of-trichoderma-virens-mediated-resistance-in-tomato-against-fusarium-wilt-involve-the-jasmonic-and-salicylic-acid-pathways
#13
Sudisha Jogaiah, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Shin-Ichi Ito
In the present study, we investigated the role of Trichoderma virens (TriV_JSB100) spores or cell-free culture filtrate in regulating the growth and activating the defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by developing a biocontrol-plant-pathogen interaction system. Two-week-old tomato seedlings primed with TriV_JSB100 spores cultured on barley grains (BGS) or cell-free culture filtrate (CF) were inoculated with Fusarium pathogen under greenhouse conditions; this resulted in significant lower disease incidence in tomato Oogata-Fukuju plants treated with BGS than in CF-treated plants...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593905/targeting-and-inactivation-of-bacterial-toxins-by-human-defensins
#14
REVIEW
Elena Kudryashova, Stephanie M Seveau, Dmitri S Kudryashov
Defensins, as a prominent family of antimicrobial peptides (AMP), are major effectors of the innate immunity with a broad range of immune modulatory and antimicrobial activities. In particular, defensins are the only recognized fast-response molecules that can neutralize a broad range of bacterial toxins, many of which are among the deadliest compounds on the planet. For a decade, the mystery of how a small and structurally conserved group of peptides can neutralize a heterogeneous group of toxins with little to no sequential and structural similarity remained unresolved...
June 14, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591806/quantitative-proteomics-of-intestinal-mucosa-from-male-mice-lacking-intestinal-epithelial-insulin-receptors
#15
Stina Rikke Jensen, Erwin M Schoof, Sarah E Wheeler, Henning Hvid, Jonas Ahnfelt-Rønne, Bo Falck Hansen, Erica Nishimura, Grith Skytte Olsen, Thomas Kislinger, Patricia L Brubaker
The goal of the present study was to determine whether loss of the insulin receptor alters the molecular landscape of the intestinal mucosa, using intestinal-epithelial insulin receptor knockout (IE-irKO) mice and both genetic (IRfl/fl and Villin-cre) controls. Quantitative proteomic analysis by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied to jejunal and colonic mucosa from mice fed a chow- or Western diet (WD). Jejunal mucosa from IE-irKO mice demonstrated alterations in all intestinal cell linages, Paneth, goblet, absorptive and enteroendocrine cells, whereas only goblet and absorptive cells were affected in the colon...
June 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591238/salivary-protein-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-dental-caries-a-systematic-review
#16
Andrea Lips, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Antunes, Andrea Vaz Braga Pintor, Diana Amado Baptista Dos Santos, Rober Bachinski, Erika Calvano Küchler, Gutemberg Gomes Alves
Dental caries is an oral pathology associated with both lifestyle and genetic factors. The caries process can be influenced by salivary composition, which includes ions and proteins. Studies have described associations between salivary protein polymorphisms and dental caries experience, while others have shown no association with salivary proteins genetic variability. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of salivary protein polymorphisms on the risk of dental caries by means of a systematic review of the current literature...
June 5, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587382/effect-of-vbc-1814-7j-a-poly-phytocompound-on-a-non-infectious-model-of-pharyngitis
#17
Junji Uemura, Ravinder Nagpal, Nicola Zerbinati, Birbal Singh, Massimiliano Marcellino, Dheeraj Mohania, Francesco Marotta, Fang He, Antonio Ayala, Yasuhiro Kasugai, Roberto Catanzaro
Pharyngitis presents as an inflammation of the oropharynx, and clinical examination often shows evidence of nasopharyngitis. In numerous cases the condition occurs as a self-limiting illness of non-infectious aetiology, whose clinical management remains a matter for debate given the inappropriateness of antibiotics, the reported worsening following steroid use and the recent discouragement of the use of Chinese herbal medicine. The aim of the present study was thus to test VBC-1814/7J, a poly-phytocompound with known anti-inflammatory and immune-response enhancing properties, in an experimental model of non-infectious pharyngitis...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584636/atp-serves-an-anti-inflammatory-role-by-enhancing-%C3%AE-defensin-2-response-in-acute-pneumonia-of-rat
#18
Zhenwei Shen, Yun Zhou, Le Qu, Han Lei
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of ATP on the expression of rat β-defensin-2 (rBD-2) in a time-dependent manner, as well as its therapeutic value in an acute pneumonia rat model. A total of 30 rats as a treatment group and 30 as a control group were treated with the same dose of ATP and normal saline, respectively, lung tissues were isolated from rat and expression of rBD-2 mRNA was assessed with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) at 12, 24 and 36 h following treatment...
June 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584210/atopic-dermatitis-like-graft-versus-host-disease-and-lichen-planus-like-graft-versus-host-disease-alterations-in-skin-barrier-function-and-related-molecules
#19
Kun Li, Zhang-Lei Mu, Xue Chen, Guang-Dong Wen, Yan Zhao, Jian-Zhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Skin barrier disruption could induce thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression, and the expression of TSLP was increased in lesions of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like GVHD and lichen planus (LP)-like GVHD. This study attempted to investigate the skin barrier function of AD-like GVHD and LP-like GVHD and possible mechanisms. METHODS: Eighteen AD-like GVHD patients, 12 LP-like GVHD patients, and 14 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583124/newborn-sex-specific-transcriptome-signatures-and-gestational-exposure-to-fine-particles-findings-from-the-environage-birth-cohort
#20
Ellen Winckelmans, Karen Vrijens, Maria Tsamou, Bram G Janssen, Nelly D Saenen, Harry A Roels, Jos Kleinjans, Wouter Lefebvre, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Theo M de Kok, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes and health problems later in life. We investigated sex-specific transcriptomic responses to gestational long- and short-term exposure to particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in order to elucidate potential underlying mechanisms of action. METHODS: Whole genome gene expression was investigated in cord blood of 142 mother-newborn pairs that were enrolled in the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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