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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135456/probiotics-and-their-use-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129600/mabp1-targeting-interleukin-1alpha-for-moderate-to-severe-hidradenitis-suppurativa-not-eligible-for-adalimumab-a-randomized-study
#2
Theodora Kanni, Maria Argyropoulou, Themistoklis Spyridopoulos, Aikaterini Pistiki, Michael Stecher, Charles A Dinarello, John Simard, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
BACKGROUND: Patients with moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) failing adalimumab therapy, or those ineligible to receive it, remain a population with an unmet need. METHODS: 20 patients not eligible for adalimumab were randomized to receive 12 weeks blind treatment with placebo or MABp1, a true human antibody targeting interleukin (IL)-1alpha. HS clinical response score at week 12 was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: The primary endpoint was met in 10% and 60% of placebo- and MABp1-treated patients respectively (odds ratio 13...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128927/toll-like-receptors-participate-in-naegleria-fowleri-recognition
#3
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo, José Manuel Galván-Moroyoqui, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri is a protozoan that invades the central nervous system and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. It has been reported that N. fowleri induces an important inflammatory response during the infection. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of Toll-like receptors in the recognition of N. fowleri trophozoites by human mucoepithelial cells, analyzing the expression and production of innate immune response mediators. After amoebic interactions with NCI-H292 cells, the expression and production levels of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, and human beta defensin-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and dot blot assays, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117233/dietary-amino-acid-and-vitamin-complex-protects-honey-bee-from-immunosuppression-caused-by-nosema-ceranae
#4
Uros Glavinic, Biljana Stankovic, Vladimir Draskovic, Jevrosima Stevanovic, Tamas Petrovic, Nada Lakic, Zoran Stanimirovic
Microsporidium Nosema ceranae is well known for exerting a negative impact on honey bee health, including down-regulation of immunoregulatory genes. Protein nutrition has been proven to have beneficial effects on bee immunity and other aspects of bee health. Bearing this in mind, the aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of a dietary amino acid and vitamin complex "BEEWELL AminoPlus" to protect honey bees from immunosuppression induced by N. ceranae. In a laboratory experiment bees were infected with N...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115396/cryptdin-2-predicts-intestinal-injury-during-heatstroke-in-mice
#5
Jingjing Ji, Zhengtao Gu, Hui Li, Lei Su, Zhifeng Liu
Intestinal injury-induced bacterial translocation and endotoxemia are important in the pathophysiological process of heatstroke. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Previous studies using 2D-gel electrophoresis found that defensin-related cryptdin-2 (Cry-2), an intestinal α-defensin, is upregulated in intestinal tissues during heatstroke in mice, and that treatment with ulinastatin, a multivalent enzyme inhibitor, reduced heat-induced acute lung injury. To investigate the association between Cry-2 and heat stress (HS)-induced intestinal injury and the probable protective role of ulinastatin, the present study examined the intestinal expression of Cry-2 via histopathologic analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in mice with heatstroke...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112157/vitamin-d-axis-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-role-current-uses-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Rita Del Pinto, Claudio Ferri, Fabio Cominelli
Increasing evidence supports the concept that the vitamin D axis possesses immunoregulatory functions, with vitamin D receptor (VDR) status representing the major determinant of vitamin D's pleiotropic effects. Vitamin D promotes the production of anti-microbial peptides, including β-defensins and cathelicidins, the shift towards Th2 immune responses, and regulates autophagy and epithelial barrier integrity. Impairment of vitamin D-mediated pathways are associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109411/structural-basis-for-receptor-recognition-of-pollen-tube-attraction-peptides
#7
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Weijia Liu, Takuya T Nagae, Hidenori Takeuchi, Heqiao Zhang, Zhifu Han, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Jijie Chai
Transportation of the immobile sperms directed by pollen tubes to the ovule-enclosed female gametophytes is important for plant sexual reproduction. The defensin-like (DEFL) cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) LUREs play an essential role in pollen tube attraction to the ovule, though their receptors still remain controversial. Here we provide several lines of biochemical evidence showing that the extracellular domain of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) PRK6 from Arabidopsis thaliana directly interacts with AtLURE1 peptides...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109389/overlooked-short-toxin-like-proteins-a-shortcut-to-drug-design
#8
Michal Linial, Nadav Rappoport, Dan Ofer
Short stable peptides have huge potential for novel therapies and biosimilars. Cysteine-rich short proteins are characterized by multiple disulfide bridges in a compact structure. Many of these metazoan proteins are processed, folded, and secreted as soluble stable folds. These properties are shared by both marine and terrestrial animal toxins. These stable short proteins are promising sources for new drug development. We developed ClanTox (classifier of animal toxins) to identify toxin-like proteins (TOLIPs) using machine learning models trained on a large-scale proteomic database...
October 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105595/host-defense-peptide-expression-in-human-cervical-cells-and-regulation-by-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-in-the-presence-of-cytokines-and-bacterial-endotoxin
#9
Evonne C Chin-Smith, Natasha L Hezelgrave, Rachel M Tribe
Host defense peptides (HDPs) in the pregnant female reproductive tract provide protection against infection. The relationship between HDPs and infection/inflammation is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of HDPs by 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2) in the presence/absence of infectious/inflammatory agents. Endocervical epithelial cells (END1/E6E7, n = 6) were exposed to 1,25-(OH)2, calcipotriol, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), granulate-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-GSF), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104999/spore-load-and-immune-response-of-honey-bees-naturally-infected-by-nosema-ceranae
#10
Wenfeng Li, Jay D Evans, Jianghong Li, Songkun Su, Michele Hamilton, Yanping Chen
Nosema ceranae causes widespread infection in adult workers of European honey bees, Apis mellifera, and has often been linked to honey bee colony losses worldwide. Previous investigations of honey bee immune response to N. ceranae infection were largely based on laboratory experiment, however, little is known about the immune response of honey bees that are naturally infected by N. ceranae. Here, we compared the infection levels of N. ceranae in three different categories of adult bees (emergent bees, nurses, and foragers) and detected the host immune response to the N...
November 6, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104569/a-linear-19-mer-plant-defensin-derived-peptide-acts-synergistically-with-caspofungin-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#11
Tanne L Cools, Caroline Struyfs, Jan W Drijfhout, Soňa Kucharíková, Celia Lobo Romero, Patrick Van Dijck, Marcelo H S Ramada, Carlos Bloch, Bruno P A Cammue, Karin Thevissen
Public health problems are associated with device-associated biofilm infections, with Candida albicans being the major fungal pathogen. We previously identified potent antibiofilm combination treatment in which the antifungal plant defensin HsAFP1 is co-administered with caspofungin, the preferred antimycotic to treat such infections. In this study, we identified the smallest linear HsAFP1-derived peptide that acts synergistically with caspofungin or anidulafungin against C. albicans as HsLin06_18, a 19-mer peptide derived from the C-terminal part of HsAFP1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079530/identification-and-function-of-camp-response-element-binding-protein-in-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#12
Jin Gao, Yu Sun, Yuxuan Sun, Chen Chen, Saima Kausar, Jiwu Tian, Baojian Zhu, Chaoliang Liu
Cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) proteins participate in the regulation of many biological processes. However, little is known about their role in immune regulation in the Oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi). In this study, a CREB gene was identified in A. pernyi and its role in immune regulation was investigated. ApCREB shares conserved signature motifs with other CREB proteins, and includes a typical leucine zipper domain, specific DNA-binding site, nuclear localisation signal (NLS) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077172/the-significance-of-hbd-3-and-fluorescent-composite-carriers-in-the-processof-bone-formation-in-rats-infected-with-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
C Zhu, S-Y Fang, R Kong, K-R Wu, R Xia, X-F Shang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to explore the significance of human β-defensin 3 (HBD-3) through establishment and evaluation of the model of implant-related biofilm infection of the femoral condyle of the outer knee using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age-matched SD rats were divided into three groups, the HBD-3 group, HBD-3 fluorescent liposome group, and the HBD-3 liposome-microbubble fluorescent composite carrier group...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076508/challenging-metastatic-breast-cancer-with-the-natural-defensin-pvd1
#14
Tiago N Figueira, Filipa D Oliveira, Inês Almeida, Érica O Mello, Valdirene M Gomes, Miguel A R B Castanho, Diana Gaspar
Metastatic breast cancer is a very serious life threatening condition that poses many challenges for the pharmaceutical development of effective chemotherapeutics. As the therapeutics targeted to the localized masses in breast improve, metastatic lesions in the brain slowly increase in their incidence compromising successful treatment outcomes overall. The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is one important obstacle for the management of breast cancer brain metastases. New therapeutic approaches are in demand for overcoming the BBB's breaching by breast tumor cells...
November 9, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067026/characterization-of-rabbit-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-1-nod1-and-the-role-of-nod1-signaling-pathway-during-bacterial-infection
#15
Mengjiao Guo, Fahao Wu, Zhongfang Zhang, Guangen Hao, Rong Li, Ning Li, Yingli Shang, Liangmeng Wei, Tongjie Chai
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is the most prominent of all NOD-like receptors, which in the mammalian innate immune system, serve as intracellular receptors for pathogens and endogenous molecules during tissue injury. From rabbit kidney cells, we cloned rabbit NOD1 (rNOD1) and identified an N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain, a central NACHT domain, and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domains. rNOD1 was expressed in all tested tissues; infection with Escherichia coli induced significantly higher expression in the spleen, liver, and kidney compared to other tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066578/r-spondin1-expands-paneth-cells-and-prevents-dysbiosis-induced-by-graft-versus-host-disease
#16
Eiko Hayase, Daigo Hashimoto, Kiminori Nakamura, Clara Noizat, Reiki Ogasawara, Shuichiro Takahashi, Hiroyuki Ohigashi, Yuki Yokoi, Rina Sugimoto, Satomi Matsuoka, Takahide Ara, Emi Yokoyama, Tomohiro Yamakawa, Ko Ebata, Takeshi Kondo, Rina Hiramine, Tomoyasu Aizawa, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Kazuma Tomizuka, Tokiyoshi Ayabe, Takanori Teshima
The intestinal microbial ecosystem is actively regulated by Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptides such as α-defensins. Various disorders, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), disrupt Paneth cell functions, resulting in unfavorably altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis), which further accelerates the underlying diseases. Current strategies to restore the gut ecosystem are bacteriotherapy such as fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics, and no physiological approach has been developed so far...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065709/direct-effects-of-fermented-cow-s-milk-product-with-lactobacillus-paracasei-cba-l74-on-human-enterocytes
#17
L Paparo, R Aitoro, R Nocerino, C Fierro, C Bruno, R Berni Canani
Cow's milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 (FM-CBAL74) exerts a preventive effect against infectious diseases in children. We evaluated if this effect is at least in part related to a direct modulation of non-immune and immune defence mechanisms in human enterocytes. Human enterocytes (Caco-2) were stimulated for 48 h with FM-CBAL74 at different concentrations. Cell growth was assessed by colorimetric assay; cell differentiation (assessed by lactase expression), tight junction proteins (zonula occludens1 and occludin), mucin 2, and toll-like receptor (TRL) pathways were analysed by real-time PCR; innate immunity peptide synthesis, beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) and cathelicidin (LL-37) were evaluated by ELISA...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062897/synergistic-activity-between-two-antifungal-proteins-the-plant-defensin-nad1-and-the-bovine-pancreatic-trypsin-inhibitor
#18
Mark R Bleackley, Charlotte S Dawson, James A McKenna, Pedro Quimbar, Brigitte M E Hayes, Nicole L van der Weerden, Marilyn A Anderson
Defensins are a large family of small, cationic, cysteine-rich proteins that are part of the defense arsenal that plants use for protection against potentially damaging fungal infections. The plant defensin NaD1 from Nicotiana alata is a potent antifungal protein that inhibits growth and kills a variety of fungal pathogens that affect both plant and animal (human) hosts. Some serine protease inhibitors have also been reported to be antifungal molecules, while others have no inhibitory activity against fungi...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059113/the-diagnostic-utility-of-synovial-fluid-markers-in-periprosthetic-joint-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Anas Saleh, Deepak Ramanathan, Marcelo Bogliolo P Siqueira, Alison K Klika, Wael K Barsoum, Carlos A Higuera Rueda
INTRODUCTION: This study is a systematic review of all reported synovial fluid markers for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection and a meta-analysis of the most frequently reported markers to identify those of greatest diagnostic utility. METHODS: A search of six databases was conducted to identify all studies evaluating the utility of synovial fluid markers in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. Two observers assessed methodologic quality and extracted data independently...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057887/antimicrobial-peptides-secreted-from-human-cryopreserved-viable-amniotic-membrane-contribute-to-its-antibacterial-activity
#20
Yong Mao, Tyler Hoffman, Anya Singh-Varma, Yi Duan-Arnold, Matthew Moorman, Alla Danilkovitch, Joachim Kohn
Chronic wounds remain a large problem in the field of medicine and are often associated with risk of infection and amputation. Recently, a commercially available human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (hCVAM) has been shown to effectively promote wound closure and reduce wound-related infections. A sprevious study indicates that hCVAM can inhibit the growth of bacteria associated with chronic wounds. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of hCVAM antimicrobial activity. Our data demonstrate that antimicrobial activities against common pathogens in chronic wounds such as P...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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