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Shuang-An Li, Wei-Dan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Juan Yang, Xu Tang, He-Qun Shi, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary myo-inositol on the intestinal immune barrier function and related signaling pathway in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (221.33 ± 0.84 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of myo-inositol (27.0, 137.9, 286.8, 438.6, 587.7 and 737.3 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicated that compared with the optimal dietary myo-inositol level, myo-inositol deficiency (27...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Monica Raina, Amber M Bates, Carol L Fischer, Ann Progulske-Fox, Taher Abbasi, Shireen Vali, Kim A Brogden
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- or calcium-dependent proteinases involved in normal maintenance of extracellular matrix. When elevated, they contribute to the tissue destruction seen in periodontal disease. Recently, we found that human beta defensin 3 (HBD3), a cationic antimicrobial peptide, alters chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB). In this study, the hypotheses that HagB induces MMP production in dendritic cells and that HBD3 mixed with HagB prior to treatment alters HagB-induced MMP profiles were tested...
March 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Santosh K Ghosh, Zhimin Feng, Hisashi Fujioka, Renate Lux, Thomas S McCormick, Aaron Weinberg
Human beta defensins (hBDs) are small cationic peptides, expressed in mucosal epithelia and important agents of innate immunity, act as antimicrobial and chemotactic agents at mucosal barriers. In this perspective, we present evidence supporting a novel strategy by which the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum induces hBDs and other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in normal human oral epithelial cells (HOECs) and thereby protects them from other microbial pathogens. The findings stress (1) the physiological importance of hBDs, (2) that this strategy may be a mechanism that contributes to homeostasis and health in body sites constantly challenged with bacteria and (3) that novel properties identified in commensal bacteria could, one day, be harnessed as new probiotic strategies to combat colonization of opportunistic pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aruna Narula, Rajan Kumar Pandey, Nazia Khatoon, Amit Mishra, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Chikungunya infection has been a cause of countless deaths worldwide. Due to lack of permanent treatment and prevention of this disease, the mortality rate remains very high. Therefore, we followed an immunoinformatics approach for the development of multi-epitope subunit vaccine which is able to elucidate humoral, cell-mediated and innate immune responses inside the host body. Both structural and non-structural proteins of chikungunya virus were utilized for prediction of B-cell and T-cell binding epitopes along with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) inducing epitopes...
March 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mimi Ghosh, Mariel Jais, Roshni Biswas, Jason Jarin, Jason Daniels, Christopher Joy, Monika Juzumaite, Vanessa Emmanuel, Veronica Gomez-Lobo
PROBLEM: Adolescent girls are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, accounting for 22% of all new HIV infections globally. Yet little is known regarding the immune microenvironment of the adolescent female reproductive tract, especially regarding differences among sexually active and inactive girls, a critical parameter to evaluate HIV susceptibility associated with young age and sexual debut. METHODS: Cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) was collected from sexually active (10) and inactive (8) girls aged 11-19 years and analyzed by ELISA for inflammation-associated biomarkers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MIP-3α, IL-1α, IL-1β, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, as well as anti-HIV mediators, Elafin, SLPI, human beta-defensin 2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) 1 and 2...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Deivendran Rengaraj, Anh Duc Truong, Hyun S Lillehoj, Jae Yong Han, Yeong Ho Hong
Objective: Defensins are a large family of antimicrobial peptides and components of the innate immune system that invoke an immediate immune response against harmful pathogens. Defensins are classified into alpha-, beta-, and theta-defensins. Avian species only possess beta-defensins (AvBDs), and approximately 14 AvBDs (AvBD1-AvBD14) have been identified in chickens to date. Although substantial information is available on the conservation and phylogenetics, limited information is available on the expression and regulation of AvBD8 in chicken immune tissues and cells...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Ming-Qing Gao, Ruiqi Zhang, Yange Yang, Yuru Luo, Ming Jiang, Yingli Zhang, Yong Zhang, Suzhu Qing
Bovine mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland which has been generally treated by antibiotic delivery. While the increasing drug-resistant bacteria and the high consumption of the antibiotic had become a noticeable concern. In a previous study, a mammary special vector expressing human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts to produce mastitis-resistant bovine. This investigation focused on potential unintended effects of transgenic milk containing hBD3 produced by these mastitis-resistant bovine on the reproductive system of C57BL/6J mice...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Wei-Cheng Lu, Xu Zheng, Jin-Fu Liu, Wen-Chuan Wu, Xing-Yue Chen, Hai-Bo Wei, Chun-Lei Li, Ming-Jing Lin
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Bifidobacterium on the expression of β-defensin-2 (BD-2) in intestinal tissue of neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). METHODS: A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, Bifidobacterium control, NEC model, and Bifidobacterium treatment, with 10 rats in each group. A rat model of NEC was induced by hypoxia, cold stimulation, and artificial feeding. The rats in the Bifidobacterium control and Bifidobacterium treatment groups were given Bifidobacterium via the gastric tube after cold stimulation once a day for three consecutive days...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Noriho Sakamoto, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Minoru Satoh, Tomoko Hasegawa, Shin Tanaka, Atsuko Hara, Shota Nakashima, Hirokazu Yura, Takuto Miyamura, Hanako Koyama, Towako Morita, Seiko Nakamichi, Yasushi Obase, Yuji Ishimatsu, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prognostic indicator of poor outcome in myositis. Although the pathogenesis of myositis-associated ILD is not well understood, neutrophils are thought to play a pivotal role. Neutrophils store azurophil granules that contain defensins, which are antimicrobial peptides that regulate the inflammatory response. Here, we evaluated levels of the human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) α-defensin 1 through 3 in patients with myositis-associated ILD to determine whether HNPs represent disease markers and play a role in the pathogenesis of myositis-associated ILD...
March 12, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Thibaut Thery, Elke K Arendt
Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides of the immune system found in several organs during plant development. A synthetic peptide, KT43C, a linear analogue of the native Cp-thionin II found in cowpea seeds, was evaluated for its antifungal potential. It was found that KT43C displayed antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger. Like native plant defensins, KT43C showed thermostability up to 100 °C and cation sensitivity. The synthetic peptide decreased the fungal growth without inducing morphogenic changes in the fungal hyphae...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
De-Mei Meng, Yu-Jie Lv, Jing-Fang Zhao, Qing-Yan Liu, Lin-Yue Shi, Jun-Ping Wang, Yong-Hai Yang, Zhen-Chuan Fan
VpDef is a novel defensin isolated from the clam Venerupis philippinarum. Previously it was expressed in Escherichia coli; however, the E. coli-derived recombinant VpDef did not show effective antimicrobial activity against Staphyloccocus aureus or the Gram-negative bacteria tested. As such, the goal of this study was to design, express, and purify a recombinant VpDef (rVpDef) in Pichia pastoris and to determine its antibacterial potency and stability. A 6.9 KDa rVpDef was successfully expressed as a secreted peptide in P...
March 6, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Xiangjun Song, Chunxiao Li, Kezong Qi, Jian Tu, Hongmei Liu, Ting Xue
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are important pathogens that cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The PhoP/Q system is essential for APEC pathogenicity, and its mutation leads to a decrease in ybjX gene expression; but whether ybjX regulated by PhoP/Q plays a role in pathogenicity remains unclear. The role of ybjX in APEC pathogenicity was investigated using a ybjX mutant strain constructed from APEC strain AE17 by the Red recombination method. The mutant strain displayed significantly reduced adherence to and invasion of chicken embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1) cells...
March 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Xiaohui Li, Rui Yang, Haimin Chen
The Mediator complex is at the core of transcriptional regulation and plays a central role in plant immunity. The MEDIATOR25 (MED25) subunit of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates jasmonate-dependent resistance to Botrytis cinerea through interacting with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor of jasmonate signaling, MYC2. Another Mediator subunit, MED8, acts independently or together with MED25 in plant immunity. However, unlike MED25, the underlying action mechanisms of MED8 in regulating B. cinerea resistance are still unknown...
2018: PloS One
Ruben Scholten, Jetze Visser, Job L C Van Susante, Corné J M Van Loon
Background and purpose - The Synovasure lateral flow test was developed as a rapid test for the detection or exclusion of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). 3 studies have reported promising results on its diagnostic value in total joint revision surgery. We aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Synovasure test to exclude infection in patients undergoing revision surgery for suspected early aseptic loosening of a total hip or knee arthroplasty. Patients and methods - In a prospective study design, 37 patients who underwent revision surgery for suspected early aseptic loosening (< 3 years after primary arthroplasty) were included...
March 6, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica
Hakan Kamalak, Aliye Kamalak, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi
This study was performed to evaluate possible DNA damage in cells of human origin exposed to dental composites in vitro using a cytotoxic assay. Five bulk-fill composites were filled in molds and irradiated for 20 s. DPSCs were inoculated into 24-well plates. After the insert membrane was inserted and composites were added and the experiment was continued for 24/72 hours. In order to investigate the effects of the materials on DPSCs; its effect on apoptosis-regulating Bcl-2 gene, Human Beta-Defensins (HBDs 1-2) gene, Interleukin 6, 8, 10 expression level was examined...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Luisa Zupin, Vania Polesello, Ludovica Segat, Anselmo Jiro Kamada, Louise Kuhn, Sergio Crovella
INTRODUCTION: Human Beta Defensin-1 (hBD-1) is a component of the innate immune system, the first line of defence against pathogens, already reported as involved in the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in different populations. We investigated the role of DEFB1 gene (encoding for hBD-1) functional polymorphisms in the susceptibility to HIV-1 MTCT in a population from Zambia. METHODS: Four selected polymorphisms within DEFB1 gene, three at the 5' untranslated region (UTR), namely - 52G>A ( RS1799946 ), -44C>G ( RS1800972 ) and -20G>A ( RS11362 ) and one in the 3'UTR, c...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yago Santana de Oliveira, Poliana G Corrêa, Nancy Oguiura
β-Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides showing little sequence similarity but highly conserved tertiary structure stabilized by a six-cysteines-motif. Using a PCR approach, we described β-defensin sequences with two exons in three species of Colubridae snakes with high sequence similarity between them. The deduced amino acid sequence presented the characteristics of β-defensin family. The phylogenetic analysis using β-defensin coding sequences of different snakes grouped them in two main branches: genes organized in three or two exons...
February 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Deepesh Duwadi, Anishma Shrestha, Binyam Yilma, Itamar Kozlovski, Munaya Sa-Eed, Nikesh Dahal, James Jukosky
Using tBLASTn and BLASTp searches, we queried recently sequenced arthropod genomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using a database of known arthropod cecropins, defensins, and attacins. We identified and synthesized 6 potential AMPs and screened them for antimicrobial activity. Using radial diffusion assays and microtiter antimicrobial assays, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial effects of these peptides against several human pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We also conducted hemolysis assays to examine the cytotoxicity of these peptides to mammalian cells...
March 1, 2018: Peptides
Saahil Fruitwala, Darine W El-Naccache, Theresa L Chang
Defensins have been long recognized as natural antimicrobial peptides, but they also possess diverse and versatile immune functions. Defensins can both induce inflammation and suppress inflammatory responses by acting on specific cells through distinct mechanisms. Defensins can also modulate the immune response by forming a complex with cellular molecules including proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. The mechanisms of defensin-mediated immune modulation appear to be cell-type and context specific. Because the levels of human defensins are often altered in response to infection or disease states, suggesting their clinical relevance, this review summarizes the complex immune functions of human defensins and their underlying mechanisms of action, which have implications for the development of new therapeutics...
February 28, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Luisa Zupin, Fulvio Celsi, Martina Bresciani, Eva Orzan, Domenico Leonardo Grasso, Sergio Crovella
INTRODUCTION: Innate immunity molecules are known to play a pivotal role in the homeostasis of the oral mucosa, permitting the presence of commensal microflora and, at the same time, providing a first line of defense against pathogens attempting to invade the oral cavity. Tonsils represent the local immune tissue in oral cavity, being able to provide a non-specific response to pathogens; however, in the presence of microbes or foreign materials present in the mouth tonsils could became infected and develop chronic inflammation, thus leading to hypertrophy...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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