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Doodipala Samba Reddy
Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Carmen J Zamora-Sánchez, Aylin Del Moral-Morales, Ana M Hernández-Vega, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ivan Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In these malignancies, progesterone (P4) promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion. The P4 metabolite allopregnanolone (3α-THP) similarly promotes cell proliferation in the U87 human GBM cell line. Here, we evaluated global changes in gene expression of U87 cells treated with 3α-THP, P4, and the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride (F). 3α-THP modified the expression of 137 genes, while F changed 90. Besides, both steroids regulated the expression of 69 genes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maja Johansson, Maria Månsson, Lars-Eric Lins, Bruce Scharschmidt, Magnus Doverskog, Torbjörn Bäckström
RATIONALE: GR3027 is a novel small molecule GABA-A receptor-modulating steroid antagonist, which in non-clinical studies has shown promise for treatment of human disorders due to allosteric over-activation of GABA-A receptors by neurosteroids, such as allopregnanolone. We here studied its safety, pharmacokinetics, and ability to inhibit allopregnanolone effects in humans. METHODS: Safety and pharmacokinetics were studied in healthy adult males receiving ascending single or multiple oral GR3027 vs...
February 28, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Suchitra Joshi, Jaideep Kapur
The female reproductive hormones progesterone and estrogen regulate network excitability. Fluctuations in the circulating levels of these hormones during the menstrual cycle cause frequent seizures during certain phases of the cycle in women with epilepsy. This seizure exacerbation, called catamenial epilepsy, is a dominant form of drug-refractory epilepsy in women of reproductive age. Progesterone, through its neurosteroid derivative allopregnanolone, increases γ-aminobutyric acid type-A receptor (GABAR)-mediated inhibition in the brain and keeps seizures under control...
February 23, 2018: Brain Research
Ari L Mendell, Beryl Y T Chung, Carolyn E Creighton, Bettina E Kalisch, Craig D C Bailey, Neil J MacLusky
Gonadal steroid hormones exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on the brain. Recent work suggests potential neuroprotective roles for the 3α-hydroxy, 5α-reduced metabolites of these hormones. Two such metabolites are 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol) and 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (allopregnanolone; Allo), which may contribute to the overall protection conferred by their precursors (testosterone and progesterone, respectively) through mechanisms including potentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor (GABAA R) activity...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research
Dorota Zolkowska, Chun-Yi Wu, Michael A Rogawski
Allopregnanolone (5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one) and its synthetic 3β-methyl analog, ganaxolone, are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors that exhibit antiseizure activity in diverse animal seizure models, including models of status epilepticus (SE). The 2 neuroactive steroids are being investigated as treatments for SE, including as a treatment for SE induced by chemical threat agents. Intramuscular injection is the preferred route of administration in the prehospital treatment of SE...
February 17, 2018: Epilepsia
HuaLin Cai, Xiang Zhou, George G Dougherty, Ravinder D Reddy, Gretchen L Haas, Debra M Montrose, Matcheri Keshavan, Jeffrey K Yao
Neurosteroids are both endogenous and exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interactions with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors. They are originated from cholesterol and have important implications for schizophrenia (SZ) pathophysiology and treatment strategies. Specifically, pregnenolone (PREG), progesterone (PROG) and allopregnanolone (ALLO) exhibit similar psychotropic properties. Using enzyme immunoassay, we compared the neurosteroids in PREG downstream pathways in plasma between healthy controls (HC, n = 43) and first-episode antipsychotic-naïve patients with SZ (FEAN-SZ, n = 53) before antipsychotic drug (APD) treatment...
February 7, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Paolo Bellavite, Clara Bonafini, Marta Marzotto
Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium) is traditionally used for its anxiolytic-like properties and its action mechanism in laboratory models are under scrutiny. Evidence from rodent models was reported suggesting the existence of a high sensitivity of central nervous system to anxiolytic power of Gelsemium extracts and Homeopathic dilutions. In vitro investigation of extremely low doses of this plant extract showed a modulation of gene expression of human neurocytes. These studies were criticized in a few commentaries, generated a debate in literature and were followed by further experimental studies from various laboratories...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Masahide Fujita, Taeko Fukuda, Yasuhiro Sato, Toshifumi Takasusuki, Makoto Tanaka
Background: To identify a new strategy for postoperative pain management, we investigated the analgesic effects of allopregnanolone (Allo) in an incisional pain model, and also assessed its effects on the activities of the primary afferent fibers at the dorsal horn. Methods: In experiment 1, 45 rats were assigned to Control, Allo small-dose (0.16 mg/kg), and Allo large-dose (1.6 mg/kg) groups (n = 15 in each). The weight bearing and mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the hind limb were measured before and at 2, 24, 48, and 168 h after Brennan's surgery...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
Martin Holtkamp
Patients with prolonged seizures that do not respond to intravenous benzodiazepines and a second-line anticonvulsant suffer from refractory status epilepticus and those with seizures that do not respond to continuous intravenous anesthetic anticonvulsants suffer from super-refractory status epilepticus. Both conditions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A strict pharmacological treatment regimen is urgently required, but the level of evidence for the available drugs is very low. Refractory complex focal status epilepticus generally does not require anesthetics, but all intravenous non-anesthetizing anticonvulsants may be used...
January 24, 2018: Drugs
Marzia Pesaresi, Silvia Giatti, Roberto Spezzano, Simone Romano, Silvia Diviccaro, Tiziana Borsello, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
BACKGROUND: Disruption of axonal transport plays a pivotal role in diabetic neuropathy. A sex-dimorphism exists in the incidence and symptomatology of diabetic neuropathy; however, no studies so far have addressed sex differences in axonal motor proteins expression in early diabetes as well as the possible involvement of neuroactive steroids. Interestingly, recent data point to a role for mitochondria in the sexual dimorphism of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria have a fundamental role in axonal transport by producing the motors' energy source, ATP...
January 19, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Michelle Wynn, Barry A Ball, Erin Lea Legacki, Alan Conley, Shavahn Loux, John May, Alejandro Esteller-Vico, Scott D Stanley, Kirsten Scoggin, Edward L Squires, Mats Ht Troedsson
In the latter half of gestation in the mare, progesterone concentrations decline to near undetectable levels while other 5α-reduced pregnanes are elevated. Of these, 5α-dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone have been reported to have important roles in either pregnancy maintenance or fetal quiescence. During this time, the placenta is necessary for pregnane metabolism, with the enzyme 5α-reductase being required for the conversion of progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of a 5α-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride, on pregnane metabolism (pregnenolone, progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 20α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-3-one, 5α-pregnane-3β,20α-diol, and allopregnanolone), to determine circulating dutasteride concentrations, and to assess effects of dutasteride treatment on gestational parameters...
January 16, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
F Biggio, G Talani, V Locci, M G Pisu, G Boero, B Ciarlo, D R Grayson, M Serra
Adverse maternal behaviors during pregnancy and unfavorable postnatal experiences during development are associated with an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, as well as, a vulnerability to alcohol addiction in adulthood. Here, we examined the effects of combined ethanol exposure during late pregnancy and postnatal maternal separation (MS) on HPA responsiveness, anxiety behavior and preference for alcohol consumption in adult male rats. Animals exposed to both conditions revealed a decrease in blood levels of allopregnanolone accompanied by increased anxiety behavior...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Giorgia Boero, Francesca Biggio, Maria Giuseppina Pisu, Valentina Locci, Patrizia Porcu, Mariangela Serra
Variations in maternal care in the rat influence the development of individual differences in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. This study aimed to examine the interaction between intragastric intubation during late gestation and postpartum stress, induced by pup separation, on maternal behavior and on dams' emotional state and HPA axis function. Rats received intragastric intubation of water on days 12-20 of gestation or remained untreated in their home cage (naïve dams). Pup separation was used as a model of postpartum stress...
February 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Vincent Joseph, NagaPraveena Uppari, Hayet Kouchi, Celia De Bruyn, Ryma Boukari, Aida Bairam
What is the central question of this study? What are the contributions of allopregnanolone, the neuroactive metabolite of progesterone, and nuclear (nPR) and membrane (mPR) progesterone receptors to the respiratory effect of progesterone in newborn rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Acute progesterone injection increases the apnoea frequency, whereas finasteride (which blocks the conversion of progesterone to allopregnanolone) reduces apnoea frequency. An nPR agonist decreases apnoea frequency in males and an mPR agonist decreases apnoea frequency in males and females...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Chiara Gm Gennari, Francesco Cilurzo, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Paola Minghetti, Valerio Magnaghi
AIM: This in vitro and in vivo study reports on silk fibroin (SF) scaffold, functionalized for in situ delivery of GABA and/or allopregnanolone (ALLO), as biomaterial for potential application in tissue engineering and nerve regeneration. MATERIALS & METHODS: We evaluated the feasibility to design 2D scaffolds (films) made of regenerated Bombyx mori SF, functionalized with GABA and/or ALLO to enhance in vitro biological functions, health, survival and growth of Schwann cells and sensitive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia...
November 21, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
María F Rossetti, Jorgelina Varayoud, María F Andreoli, Cora Stoker, Enrique H Luque, Jorge G Ramos
The aim of this study was to evaluate the episodic-like memory (ELM) and the transcriptional regulation of the enzymes involved in hippocampal allopregnanolone synthesis in young adult and middle-aged male and female rats. Young adult males, but not middle-aged ones, showed a good performance in the ELM task. In contrast, neither young nor middle-aged females were able to discriminate the spatial order in which the objects were presented. In females, aging decreased the transcription of steroidogenic-related genes...
November 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Matthew C Beattie, Christopher S Reguyal, Patrizia Porcu, James B Daunais, Kathleen A Grant, A Leslie Morrow
BACKGROUND: Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) are potent neuromodulators that enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, but has brain region- and species-specific effects on central nervous system levels of 3α,5α-THP. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in the hippocampus and voluntary EtOH consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of EtOH for 12 months and further examined the relationship with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function prior to EtOH exposure...
January 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Zhi-Kun Qiu, De-Sheng Zhong, Jia-Li He, Xu Liu, Ji-Sheng Chen, Hong Nie
Anxiety disorder is a serious and burdensome psychiatric illness that frequently turn into chronic clinical conditions. Puerarin have been shown to be effective in the therapy of depression. However, few studies are concerned about the anxiolytic-like effects of puerarin. The current study aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effects of puerarin and its possible mechanism. To evaluate this, the behavioral tests, i.e. Vogel-type conflict test (VTCT), elevated plus-maze test (EPMT), and open-field test (OFT) were conducted...
November 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Laura E Dichtel, Elizabeth A Lawson, Melanie Schorr, Erinne Meenaghan, Margaret Lederfine Paskal, Kamryn T Eddy, Graziano Pinna, Marianela Nelson, Ann M Rasmusson, Anne Klibanski, Karen K Miller
3α-5α-Tetrahydroprogesterone, a progesterone metabolite also known as allopregnanolone, and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, a testosterone metabolite also known as 3α-androstanediol, are neuroactive steroids and positive GABAA receptor allosteric modulators. Both anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity are complicated by affective comorbidities and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal dysregulation. However, it is not known whether neuroactive steroid levels are abnormal at the extremes of the weight spectrum. We hypothesized that serum allopregnanolone and 3α-androstanediol levels would be decreased in AN compared with healthy controls (HC) and negatively associated with affective symptoms throughout the weight spectrum, independent of body mass index (BMI)...
November 1, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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