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Andrea Locci, Patrizia Porcu, Giuseppe Talani, Francesca Santoru, Roberta Berretti, Elisa Giunti, Valentina Licheri, Enrico Sanna, Alessandra Concas
Exposure of female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period has profound effects on GABAergic neurotransmission that are crucial to establish sexually dimorphic brain characteristics. We previously showed that neonatal β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB) treatment decreases brain concentrations of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, a potent positive modulator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR). We thus evaluated whether neonatal EB treatment affects GABAAR expression and function in the hippocampus of adult female rats...
October 18, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Amit Modgil, Manasa L Parakala, Mike A Ackley, James J Doherty, Stephen J Moss, Paul A Davies
The neuroactive steroid (NAS) tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) increases protein kinase C (PKC) mediated phosphorylation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits leading to increased surface expression of α4/β3 subunit-containing extrasynaptic GABAARs, leading to a sustained increase in GABAAR tonic current density. Whether other naturally occurring and synthetic NASs share both an allosteric and metabotropic action on GABAARs is unknown. Here, we examine the allosteric and metabotropic properties of allopregnanolone (ALLO), and synthetic NASs SGE-516 and ganaxolone...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Emily L Newman, Georgia Gunner, Polly Huynh, Darrel Gachette, Stephen J Moss, Trevor G Smart, Uwe Rudolph, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2-subunit in humans. Deficient GABAergic functioning is linked to impulse control disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and to drug abuse and dependence, yet it remains unclear whether α2-containing GABAA receptor sensitivity to endogenous ligands is involved in excessive alcohol drinking. METHODS: Male wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6J and point-mutated mice rendered insensitive to GABAergic modulation by benzodiazepines (BZD; H101R), allopregnanolone (ALLO) or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC; Q241M), or high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (S270H/L277A) at α2-containing GABAA receptors were assessed for their binge-like, moderate, or escalated chronic drinking using drinking in the dark, continuous access (CA) and intermittent access (IA) to alcohol protocols, respectively...
September 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Chun-Ta Huang, Seu-Hwa Chen, June-Horng Lue, Chi-Fen Chang, Wen-Hsin Wen, Yi-Ju Tsai
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain relief by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone remain uncertain. We investigated if allopregnanolone attenuates glial extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) concomitant with neuropathic pain relief in median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model rats. METHODS: We examined the time course and cellular localization of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) in CN after CCI. We subsequently employed microinjection of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (ERK kinase) inhibitor, PD98059, to clarify the role of ERK phosphorylation in neuropathic pain development...
September 23, 2016: Anesthesiology
Richard J Servatius, Christine E Marx, Swamini Sinha, Pelin Avcu, Jason D Kilts, Jennifer C Naylor, Kevin C H Pang
Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Makoto Ishikawa, Takeshi Yoshitomi, Douglas F Covey, Charles F Zorumski, Yukitoshi Izumi
We previously reported that elevated pressure induces axonal swelling and facilitates the synthesis of the neurosteroid, allopregnanolone (AlloP), in the ex vivo rat retina. Exogenously applied AlloP attenuates the axonal swelling, suggesting that the neurosteroid plays a neuroprotective role against glaucomatous pressure-induced injuries, although mechanisms underlying neurosteroidogenesis have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to determine whether AlloP synthesis involves activation of translocator protein 18 kD (TSPO) and whether TSPO modulates pressure-induced retinal injury...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Maria Claudia Gonzalez Deniselle, Philippe Liere, Antoine Pianos, Maria Meyer, Fanny Aprahamian, Annie Cambourg, Noelia P Di Giorgio, Michael Schumacher, Alejandro F De Nicola, Rachida Guennoun
The The Wobbler mouse is an animal model for human motoneuron diseases, especially amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), used in the investigation of both pathology and therapeutic treatment. ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the selective and progressive death of motoneurons, leading to progressive paralysis. Previous limited studies have reported steroidal hormone dysregulation in Wobbler mouse and in ALS patients, suggesting endocrine dysfunctions which may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease...
August 29, 2016: Endocrinology
Erin L Legacki, C J Corbin, B A Ball, M Wynn, S Loux, S D Stanley, A J Conley
Mammalian pregnancies need progestogenic support and birth requires progestin withdrawal. The absence of progesterone in pregnant mares, and the progestogenic bioactivity of 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP), led us to reexamine progestin withdrawal at foaling. Systemic pregnane concentrations (DHP, allopregnanolone, pregnenolone, 5α-pregnane-3β, 20α-diol (3β,20αDHP), 20α-hydroxy-5α-dihydroprogesterone (20αDHP)) and progesterone) were monitored in mares for 10days before foaling (n=7) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
October 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Berthold Drexler, Monika Balk, Bernd Antkowiak
BACKGROUND: The neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) is an endogenous allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. There is evidence that ALLO, at physiologically relevant concentrations, modulates GABAA receptor function in the cerebral cortex. The widely used anesthetic agent propofol and ALLO share a similar mode of molecular action. Here, we ask how GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition and action potential firing of neurons in cultured cortical slices are altered by either ALLO or propofol or by coapplying both agents...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Chase Matthew Carver, Shu-Hui Chuang, Doodipala Samba Reddy
UNLABELLED: Zinc (Zn(2+)) is an essential cofactor in mammalian cells and neurons. Zn(2+) is released from synaptic vesicles of certain nerve terminals in the hippocampus during neuronal activity. Zn(2+) has been shown to inhibit synaptic GABAA receptors and alter the hippocampal network excitability. However, the ability of Zn(2+) to block extrasynaptic receptors remains unclear. Endogenous neurosteroids, such as allopregnanolone (AP), regulate neuronal excitability by allosteric activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nicola Pluchino, Marinella Russo, Andrea R Genazzani
Progesterone and allopregnanolone have crucial and different roles in brain development, function and recovery after injury. Pregnancy is characterized by an increased synthesis of progesterone and its neuro-active metabolites by the placenta, maternal and fetal brain. This supports the critical role of these steroids in maternal brain adaptation during pregnancy and development of the fetal brain. Moreover, allopregnanolone may play a brain-protective role during complications of pregnancy, complications of pregnancy, such as preterm delivery or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), by reducing the impact of hypoxia and excitotoxic brain damage or impairment myelination...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Hwei-Ming Peng, Sang-Choul Im, Naw May Pearl, Adina F Turcu, Juilee Rege, Lucy Waskell, Richard J Auchus
Human cytochrome P450 17A1 is required for all androgen biosynthesis and is the target of abiraterone, a drug used widely to treat advanced prostate cancer. P450 17A1 catalyzes both 17-hydroxylation and subsequent 17,20-lyase reactions with pregnenolone, progesterone, and allopregnanolone. The presence of cytochrome b5 (b5) markedly stimulates the 17,20-lyase reaction, with little effect on 17-hydroxylation; however, the mechanism of this b5 effect is not known. We determined the influence of b5 on coupling efficiency-defined as the ratio of product formation to NADPH consumption-in a reconstituted system using these 3 pairs of substrates for the 2 reactions...
August 9, 2016: Biochemistry
Yasuhiro Ishihara, Noriko Fujitani, Hikaru Sakurai, Takuya Takemoto, Nami Ikeda-Ishihara, Kanami Mori-Yasumoto, Tatsuo Nehira, Atsuhiko Ishida, Takeshi Yamazaki
In this study, protective actions of the sex steroid hormones, progesterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol, against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation-induced neuronal cell death were examined using rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Progesterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol significantly attenuated neuronal cell death elicited by OGD/reoxygenation. While the neuroprotection conferred by progesterone was not affected by SU-10603, an inhibitor of cytochrome P45017α, finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor that blocks the conversion of progesterone to allopregnanolone, partially reversed the neuroprotection induced by progesterone...
September 2016: Steroids
Alain Y Dury, Yuyong Ke, Fernand Labrie
A series of steroids present in the brain have been named "neurosteroids" following the possibility of their role in the central nervous system impairments such as anxiety disorders, depression, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), addiction, or even neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Study of their potential role requires a sensitive and accurate assay of their concentration in the monkey brain, the closest model to the human. We have thus developed a robust, precise and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the assay of pregnenolone, pregnanolone, epipregnanolone, allopregnanolone, epiallopregnanolone, and androsterone in the cynomolgus monkey brain...
September 2016: Steroids
Cindy Acon-Chen, Jeffrey A Koenig, Garrett R Smith, Amber R Truitt, Thaddeus P Thomas, Tsung-Ming Shih
Organophosphorus nerve agents such as soman (GD) inhibit acetylcholinesterase, producing an excess of acetylcholine (ACh), which results in respiratory distress, convulsions and status epilepticus that leads to neuropathology. Several drugs (topiramate, clobazam, pregnanolone, allopregnanolone, UBP 302, cyclopentyladenosine [CPA], ketamine, midazolam and scopolamine) have been identified as potential neuroprotectants that may terminate seizures and reduce brain damage. To systematically evaluate their efficacy, this study employed in vivo striatal microdialysis and liquid chromatography to respectively collect and analyze extracellular ACh in freely moving rats treated with these drugs 20 min after seizure onset induced by a high dose of GD...
June 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Meng Zhang, Jia Liu, Meng-Meng Zhou, Honghai Wu, Yanning Hou, Yun-Feng Li, Yuxin Yin, Lemin Zheng, Feng-Yu Liu, Ming Yi, You Wan
Neurosteroids are synthesized in the nervous system from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from peripheral sources. These compounds are important allosteric modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABAARs), which play a vital role in pain modulation in the lateral thalamus, a main gate where somatosensory information enters the cerebral cortex. Using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, we found increased levels of neurosteroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, allopregnanolone, and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone) in the chronic stage of neuropathic pain (28 days after spared nerve injury) in rats...
August 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Zhi-Kun Qiu, Chun-Hui Liu, Zhuo-Wei Gao, Jia-Li He, Xu Liu, Qing-Lan Wei, Ji-Sheng Chen
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric condition. The allopregnanolone biosynthesis has been implicated as one of the possible contributors to PTSD. Inulin-type oligosaccharides of morinda officinalis (IOMO) had been shown to be effective in the therapy of depression. However, few studies concern the anti-PTSD-like effects of IOMO. To evaluate this, the single prolonged stress (SPS) model was used in the present study. It had been shown that the behavioral deficits of SPS-treated rats were reversed by IOMO (25...
October 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
M F Rossetti, M J Cambiasso, M A Holschbach, R Cabrera
When steroids, such as pregnenolone, progesterone and oestrogen, are synthesised de novo in neural tissues, they are more specifically referred to as neurosteroids. These neurosteroids bind specific receptors to promote essential brain functions. Pregnenolone supports cognition and protects mouse hippocampal cells against glutamate and amyloid peptide-induced cell death. Progesterone promotes myelination, spinogenesis, synaptogenesis, neuronal survival and dendritic growth. Allopregnanolone increases hippocampal neurogenesis, neuronal survival and cognitive functions...
July 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Hui Zhang, Li Ma, Yan-Ling Yin, Lian-Qiang Dong, Gang-Ge Cheng, Ya-Qun Ma, Yun-Feng Li, Bai-Nan Xu
The translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) is closely related to regulation of immune/inflammatory response. However, the putative role and signaling mechanisms of TSPO in regulation of neuroinflammation remain unclear. GV287 lentiviral vectors mediating TSPO over-expression were injected into bilateral hippocampal CA1 areas to test whether TSPO over-expression was neuroprotective in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice model. Finasteride, a blocker of allopregnanolone production, was used to test whether the protective effects were related to steroideogenesis...
September 1, 2016: Brain Research
Mona Karout, Michel Miesch, Philippe Geoffroy, Stephanie Kraft, Hans-Dieter Hofmann, Ayikoe-Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Matthias Kirsch
The natural neurosteroid allopregnanolone exerts beneficial effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, nervous system injury and peripheral neuropathies. It has anti-apoptotic activity but also promotes proliferation of progenitor cells. With respect to using it as a therapeutic tool, such pleiotropic actions might create unwanted side effects. Therefore, we have synthesized allopregnanolone analogs and analyzed their neuroprotective and proliferative effects to identify compounds with higher efficiency and less ambiguous biological actions...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
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