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Female genital cutting

Elinor Clarke
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a collective term for the deliberate alteration, removal and cutting of the female genitalia. It has no known health benefits and can have negative physical and psychological consequences. The number of women and girls in the UK that are affected by FGM is unknown. Recent NHS data suggested that FGM has been evident (declared or observed) in women who have accessed health care; however, there are gaps in knowledge and a limited evidence base on the health consequences of FGM...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Sonja Vogt, Nadia Ahmed Mohmmed Zaid, Hilal El Fadil Ahmed, Ernst Fehr, Charles Efferson
As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Nicholas A Christakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Nature
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
Rehana A Salam, Anadil Faqqah, Nida Sajjad, Zohra S Lassi, Jai K Das, Miriam Kaufman, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Adolescents have special sexual and reproductive health needs (whether or not they are sexually active or married). This review assesses the impact of interventions to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health (including the interventions to prevent female genital mutilation/cutting [FGM/C]) and to prevent intimate violence. Our review findings suggest that sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and contraceptive provision are effective in increasing sexual knowledge, contraceptive use, and decreasing adolescent pregnancy...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Vincenzo Puppo
The World Health Organization reports that more than 200 million women currently alive have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) worldwide, and three million girls continue to be at risk each year. FGM/C today is women's business. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and the vestibule, with its erectile apparatus. These structures are located under the urogenital diaphragm, behind the pubic symphysis in the anterior perineal region. The clitoris is entirely an external genital organ: the glans and body covered by the prepuce are visible/free while the roots are hidden...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Kidanu Gebremariam, Demeke Assefa, Fitsum Weldegebreal
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10-24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Abiodun S Adeniran, Munirdeen A Ijaiya, Adegboyega A Fawole, Olayinka R Balogun, Kikelomo T Adesina, Abdul Waheed O Olatinwo, Adebunmi O Olarinoye, Peace I Adeniran
BACKGROUND: The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). OBJECTIVE: To determine knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among male adolescent students in Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire after consent had been obtained from them or their parents...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Robert Darby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Ema Conde, Telma Santos, Rita Leite, Carla Vicente, António Mesquita Figueiredo
Self-mutilation is understood as any willful gesture or alteration of the body tissue, without a suicidal intent. The commonest self-mutilating gestures are, to a great extent, those that are superficial or moderate, such as cuts, burns or bites. The most severe, as is the case of genital self-mutilation (GSM), are extremely rare and, in most cases, observed in patients suffering from psychosis. Furthermore, they are mostly reported from a surgical standpoint. Here, we report the case of a 20-year-old female patient who resorted to the emergency department (ED) after having amputated her clitoris with a surgical scissor...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Sophie McLaren, Michel Boulvain, Olivier Irion
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the percentage of women with female genital mutilation/cutting who request postpartum reinfibulation, and to assess outcomes after specific care and counseling. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of consecutive medical files of immigrant women with FGM/C who attended a center in Geneva, Switzerland, between April 1, 2010, and January 8, 2014. The number of postpartum reinfibulation requests and outcomes were assessed. If a patient requests postpartum reinfibulation despite receiving detailed information and counseling, a longer follow-up is arranged for further counseling...
October 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Spencer Craven, Alex Kavanagh, Rose Khavari
A 31-year-old patient with obstructive voiding symptoms and apareunia in the setting of Type III female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is presented. The patient underwent ambulatory clinic defibulation to relieve her symptoms. FGM has been shown to have serious immediate complications and many chronic complications that greatly impact patients' lives. Several case series have been published describing center-specific experience with defibulation procedures for Type III FGM/C. Here, we present the treatment of a patient with Type III FGM/C in an ambulatory urology clinic in the United States...
2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
A Arfi, J Cohen, G Canlorbe, S Bendifallah, I Thomassin-Naggara, E Darai, A Benachi, J S Arfi
INTRODUCTION: Early ultrasound fetal sex determination is of obvious interest, particularly in the context of X-linked diseases. In the human, the anogenital distance, i.e., the distance between the caudal end and the base of the genital tubercule is sexually dimorphic. This difference is apparent from 11 weeks of gestation. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of anogenital distance measurement during the first trimester ultrasound in the early determination of fetal gender...
August 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
A L Teixeira, M Lisboa
OBJECTIVES: Due to globalized migratory processes, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has spread to other countries, including countries in Europe, where, with a few exceptions, it remains a concealed problem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first national extensive study to estimate the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal. STUDY DESIGN: Prevalence estimation. METHODS: Using extrapolation of country-of-origin prevalence data and the 2011 Census data, this study estimated: the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and among all women aged ≥15 years; and the number of girls aged <15 years living in Portugal who have undergone or will probably undergo FGM/C...
June 3, 2016: Public Health
Barbara Nowak
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences...
September 2016: NASN School Nurse
Mathilde Vital, Sophie de Visme, Matthieu Hanf, Henri-Jean Philippe, Norbert Winer, Sophie Wylomanski
OBJECTIVES: Few prospective studies have evaluated sexual function in women with female genital mutilation by cutting (FGM/C) before and after clitoral reconstructive surgery, and none used a validated questionnaire. A validated questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used for the first time, to assess the impact of reconstructive surgery on sexual function in women with female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) before and after clitoral reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Women with FGM/C consulting at the Nantes University Hospital for clitoral reconstruction between 2013 and 2014 were prospectively included...
April 30, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Mimmi Koukkula, Ilmo Keskimäki, Päivikki Koponen, Mulki Mölsä, Reija Klemetti
BACKGROUND: The tradition of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has spread in Europe as a result of immigration. Although it is known to have negative health impacts, the exact prevalence of FGM/C and its health effects in Finland are unknown. This study explores the prevalence of FGM/C, the sociodemographic characteristics associated with it, and its health effects among women of Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Migrant Health and Well Being Study carried out in 2010-2012...
September 2016: Birth
Jane Werunga, Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham, Carol Ewashen
In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged...
April 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
Adriana Kaplan Marcusán, Laura Riba Singla, Mass Laye, Dodou M Secka, Mireia Utzet, Marie-Alix Le Charles
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice that affects two out of three girls in The Gambia, seriously threatening their life and well-being with severe health consequences. By tracking the reference values established in former research conducted between 2009 and 2011, the objectives of this study are to explore trends and to measure and assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among health care professionals (HCPs) in The Gambia...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Adeyinka M Akinsulure-Smith, Tracy Chu
Though the practice of female genital cutting (FGC) has been framed as a form of gender-based torture, few studies have examined the prevalence and impact of the practice among documented survivors of torture. This article presents a secondary analysis of data from 514 African-born women at an interdisciplinary clinic for survivors of torture. Results indicate few demographic differences between those who experienced FGC and those who had not, though a larger proportion of the FGC group were West African and identified as Muslim...
April 18, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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