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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090003/structure-and-function-of-the-contactin-associated-protein-family-in-myelinated-axons-and-their-relationship-with-nerve-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Yan Zou, Wei-Feng Zhang, Hai-Ying Liu, Xia Li, Xing Zhang, Xiao-Fang Ma, Yang Sun, Shi-Yi Jiang, Quan-Hong Ma, De-En Xu
The contactin-associated protein (Caspr) family participates in nerve excitation and conduction, and neurotransmitter release in myelinated axons. We analyzed the structures and functions of the Caspr family-CNTNAP1 (Caspr1), CNTNAP2 (Caspr2), CNTNAP3 (Caspr3), CNTNAP4 (Caspr4) and CNTNAP5 (Caspr5), Caspr1-5 is not only involved in the formation of myelinated axons, but also participates in maintaining the stability of adjacent connections. Caspr1 participates in the formation, differentiation, and proliferation of neurons and astrocytes, and in motor control and cognitive function...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089585/antibodies-against-peripheral-nerve-antigens-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyradiculoneuropathy
#2
Luis Querol, Ana M Siles, Roser Alba-Rovira, Agustín Jáuregui, Jérôme Devaux, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Josefa Araque, Ricard Rojas-Garcia, Jordi Diaz-Manera, Elena Cortés-Vicente, Gisela Nogales-Gadea, Miquel Navas-Madroñal, Eduard Gallardo, Isabel Illa
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a heterogeneous disease in which diverse autoantibodies have been described but systematic screening has never been performed. Detection of CIDP-specific antibodies may be clinically useful. We developed a screening protocol to uncover novel reactivities in CIDP. Sixty-five CIDP patients and 28 controls were included in our study. Three patients (4.6%) had antibodies against neurofascin 155, four (6.2%) against contactin-1 and one (1.5%) against the contactin-1/contactin-associated protein-1 complex...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075658/improving-the-antibody-based-evaluation-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#3
Lindsey McCracken, Junxian Zhang, Maxwell Greene, Anne Crivaro, Joyce Gonzalez, Malek Kamoun, Eric Lancaster
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether antibody screening samples of patients with suspected autoimmune encephalitis with additional research assays would improve the detection of autoimmune encephalitis compared with standard clinical testing alone. METHODS: We examined 731 samples (333 CSF, 182 sera, and 108 pairs) from a cohort of 623 patients who were tested for CNS autoantibodies by the University of Pennsylvania clinical laboratory over a 24-month period with cell-based assays (CBAs) on commercially obtained slides of fixed cells for antibodies to NMDA receptor (NMDAR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65)...
November 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055902/lgi1-caspr2-and-related-antibodies-a-molecular-evolution-of-the-phenotypes
#4
REVIEW
Sophie N M Binks, Christopher J Klein, Patrick Waters, Sean J Pittock, Sarosh R Irani
Recent biochemical observations have helped redefine antigenic components within the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. The related autoantibodies may be now divided into likely pathogenic entities, which target the extracellular domains of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), and species that target intracellular neuronal components and are likely non-pathogenic. This distinction has enhanced clinical practice as direct determination of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies offers optimal sensitivity and specificity...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968899/cntnap4-impacts-epilepsy-through-gabaa-receptors-regulation-evidence-from-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-mouse-models
#5
Yafei Shangguan, Xin Xu, Baigalimaa Ganbat, Yun Li, Wei Wang, Yong Yang, Xi Lu, Chao Du, Xin Tian, Xuefeng Wang
Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The exact etiology of epilepsy is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of contactin-associated protein-like 4 (CNTNAP4) was decreased in the temporal neocortex of epileptic patients and in the hippocampus and cortex of epileptic mice. Lentivirus-mediated knock-down of CNTNAP4 in the hippocampus increased mice susceptibility to epilepsy. Conversely, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of CNTNAP4 decreased epileptic behavior in mice...
August 22, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966979/developmental-disruption-of-gabaar-meditated-inhibition-in-cntnap2-ko-mice
#6
Morgan S Bridi, Su Mi Park, Shiyong Huang
GABA released from presynaptic sites induces short-lived phasic inhibition mediated by synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and longer-duration tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA or GABAB receptors (GABABRs). A number of studies have found that contactin-associated protein 2 (Cntnap2) knockout (KO) mice, a well-established mouse model of autism, exhibit reduced interneuron numbers and aberrant phasic inhibition. However, little is known about whether tonic inhibition is disrupted in Cntnap2 KO mice and when the disruption of inhibition begins to occur during postnatal development...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947766/neurons-define-non-myelinated-axon-segments-by-the-regulation-of-galectin-4-containing-axon-membrane-domains
#7
Natalia Díez-Revuelta, Alonso M Higuero, Silvia Velasco, María Peñas-de-la-Iglesia, Hans-Joachim Gabius, José Abad-Rodríguez
The mechanism underlying selective myelination of axons versus dendrites or neuronal somata relies on the expression of somatodendritic membrane myelination inhibitors (i.e. JAM2). However, axons still present long unmyelinated segments proposed to contribute to axonal plasticity and higher order brain functions. Why these segments remain unmyelinated is still an unresolved issue. The bifunctional lectin galectin-4 (Gal-4) organizes the transport of axon glycoproteins by binding to N-acetyllactosamine (LacNac) termini of N-glycans...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941200/decreased-neuro-axonal-proteins-in-csf-at-first-attack-of-suspected-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Marcel P Stoop, Tessel F Runia, Christoph Stingl, Roos M van der Vuurst de Vries, Theo M Luider, Rogier Q Hintzen
The pathology of multiple sclerosis is located in the central nervous system, therefore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an attractive biofluid for biomarker research for proteins related to the early stages of this disease. In this study, the CSF proteome of patients with a clinically isolated syndrome of demyelination (CIS, a first attack of multiple sclerosis) is compared to the CSF proteome of control patients to identify differentially abundant proteins. CSF samples of 47 CIS patients and 45 control subjects are enzymatically digested and subsequently measured by LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap)...
September 20, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938490/expression-of-contactin-4-is-associated-with-malignant-behavior-in-pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas
#9
Lucie Evenepoel, Francien H van Nederveen, Lindsey Oudijk, Thomas G Papathomas, David F Restuccia, Eric J T Belt, Wouter W de Herder, Richard A Feelders, Gaston J H Franssen, Marc Hamoir, Dominique Maiter, Aurel Perren, Henri J L M Timmers, Susanne van Eeden, Laurent Vroonen, Selda Aydin, Mercedes Robledo, Miikka Vikkula, Ronald R de Krijger, Winand N M Dinjens, Alexandre Persu, Esther Korpershoek
Context: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine, usually benign tumors. Currently, the only reliable criterion of malignancy is the presence of metastases. Objective: The aim was to identify genes associated with malignancy in PPGL. Design: Transcriptomic profiling was performed on 40 benign and 11 malignant PPGL. Genes showing a significantly different expression between benign and malignant PPGL with a ratio ≥ 4 were confirmed, and subsequently tested in an independent series by qRT-PCR...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934754/cntn-1-enhances-chemoresistance-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-through-induction-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-targeting-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#10
Ruijie Zhang, Shenghua Sun, Fuyun Ji, Chun Liu, Hua Lin, Lihua Xie, Honghui Yang, Wenxiang Tang, Yan Zhou, Jianping Xu, Pei Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chemoresistance has been a major obstacle to the effective treatment of lung cancer. Previously, we found that contactin-1 (CNTN-1) is related to cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism behind the role of CNTN-1 in cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: EMT-associated phenotypes, including alterations in cellular morphology and marker (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin) expression, were compared between A549 cells and A549/DDP cells (a cisplatin-resistant cell line of lung adenocarcinoma with abnormal CNTN-1 expression) by using real-time time PCR and Western blotting...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920570/brain-relevant-antibodies-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-matched-case-control-study
#11
Fiona Gaughran, John Lally, Katherine Beck, Ruaidhri McCormack, Poonam Gardner-Sood, Ester Coutinho, Leslie Jacobson, Bethan Lang, Ricardo Sainz-Fuertes, Evangelos Papanastasiou, Marta Di Forti, Tim Nicholson, Angela Vincent, Robin M Murray
BACKGROUND: There has been much recent excitement about the possibility that some cases of psychosis may be wholly due to brain-reactive antibodies, with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex reported in a few patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: Participants were recruited from psychiatric services in South London, UK, from 2009 to 2011 as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study...
September 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901288/multiple-conserved-cell-adhesion-protein-interactions-mediate-neural-wiring-of-a-sensory-circuit-in-c-elegans
#12
Byunghyuk Kim, Scott W Emmons
Nervous system function relies on precise synaptic connections. A number of widely-conserved cell adhesion proteins are implicated in cell recognition between synaptic partners, but how these proteins act as a group to specify a complex neural network is poorly understood. Taking advantage of known connectivity in C. elegans, we identified and studied cell adhesion genes expressed in three interacting neurons in the mating circuits of the adult male. Two interacting pairs of cell surface proteins independently promote fasciculation between sensory neuron HOA and its postsynaptic target interneuron AVG: BAM-2/neurexin-related in HOA binds to CASY-1/calsyntenin in AVG; SAX-7/L1CAM in sensory neuron PHC binds to RIG-6/contactin in AVG...
September 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861035/molecular-disorganization-of-axons-adjacent-to-human-cortical-microinfarcts
#13
Hamza Coban, Spencer Tung, Bryan Yoo, Harry V Vinters, Jason D Hinman
Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are microscopically identified wedge-shaped ischemic lesions that occur at or near the cortical surface and result from occlusion of penetrating arterioles. These microscopic lesions can be observed with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in aging brains and in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Recent studies have suggested that strategically located microinfarcts strongly correlate with cognitive deficits, which can contribute to Alzheimer's disease as well as other forms of dementia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860054/detection-of-contactin-2-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-using-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy-fcs
#14
Madhurima Chatterjee, Bernd Nöding, Eline A J Willemse, Marleen J A Koel-Simmelink, Wiesje M van der Flier, Detlev Schild, Charlotte E Teunissen
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the world. As many AD biomarkers occur at rather low abundances in CSF or blood, techniques of very high sensitivity and accuracy are important as diagnostic tools in the clinic. Here, we aimed to provide proof of concept of the use of a single molecule detection technique, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) for detection of novel candidate biomarkers for AD. DESIGN AND METHODS: FCS detects the diffusion times of the antigen-antibody complexes in highly diluted sample solutions, thus eliminating the need of large sample volumes and allows estimating the concentration of the target antigen...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821864/nanomechanics-of-multidomain-neuronal-cell-adhesion-protein-contactin-revealed-by-single-molecule-afm-and-smd
#15
K Mikulska-Ruminska, A J Kulik, C Benadiba, I Bahar, G Dietler, W Nowak
Contactin-4 (CNTN4) is a complex cell adhesion molecule (CAM) localized at neuronal membranes, playing a key role in maintaining the mechanical integrity and signaling properties of the synapse. CNTN4 consists of six immunoglobulin C2 type (IgC2) domains and four fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains that are shared with many other CAMs. Mutations in CNTN4 gene have been linked to various psychiatric disorders. Toward elucidating the response of this modular protein to mechanical stress, we studied its force-induced unfolding using single molecule atomic force microscopy (smAFM) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821283/gene-expression-profiling-of-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonias-iips-identification-of-potential-diagnostic-markers-and-therapeutic-targets
#16
Yasushi Horimasu, Nobuhisa Ishikawa, Masaya Taniwaki, Kakuhiro Yamaguchi, Kosuke Hamai, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Hironobu Hamada, Noboru Hattori, Morihito Okada, Koji Arihiro, Yuji Ohtsuki, Nobuoki Kohno
BACKGROUND: Chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is characterized by alveolar epithelial damage, activation of fibroblast proliferation, and loss of normal pulmonary architecture and function. This study aims to investigate the genetic backgrounds of IIP through gene expression profiling and pathway analysis, and to identify potential biomarkers that can aid in diagnosis and serve as novel therapeutic targets. METHODS: RNA extracted from lung specimens of 12 patients with chronic fibrosing IIP was profiled using Illumina Human WG-6 v3 BeadChips, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was performed to identify altered functional and canonical signaling pathways...
August 18, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819062/nodes-paranodes-and-neuropathies
#17
REVIEW
Janev Fehmi, Steven S Scherer, Hugh J Willison, Simon Rinaldi
This review summarises recent evidence supporting the involvement of the specialised nodal and perinodal domains (the paranode and juxtaparanode) of myelinated axons in the pathology of acquired, inflammatory, peripheral neuropathies.The identification of new target antigens in the inflammatory neuropathies heralds a revolution in diagnosis, and has already begun to inform increasingly targeted and individualised therapies. Rapid progress in our basic understanding of the highly specialised nodal regions of peripheral nerves serves to strengthen the links between their unique microstructural identities, functions and pathologies...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781169/satb1-regulates-contactin-5-to-pattern-dendrites-of-a-mammalian-retinal-ganglion-cell
#18
Yi-Rong Peng, Nicholas M Tran, Arjun Krishnaswamy, Dimitar Kostadinov, Emily M Martersteck, Joshua R Sanes
The size and shape of dendritic arbors are prime determinants of neuronal connectivity and function. We asked how ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells (ooDSGCs) in mouse retina acquire their bistratified dendrites, in which responses to light onset and light offset are segregated to distinct strata. We found that the transcriptional regulator Satb1 is selectively expressed by ooDSGCs. In Satb1 mutant mice, ooDSGC dendrites lack ON arbors, and the cells selectively lose ON responses. Satb1 regulates expression of a homophilic adhesion molecule, Contactin 5 (Cntn5)...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762105/disorganization-of-oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-layer-ii-iii-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-causes-motor-coordination-dysfunction-in-a-model-of-white-matter-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#19
Yoshitomo Ueda, Sachiyo Misumi, Mina Suzuki, Shino Ogawa, Ruriko Nishigaki, Akimasa Ishida, Cha-Gyun Jung, Hideki Hida
We previously established neonatal white matter injury (WMI) model rat that is made by right common carotid artery dissection at postnatal day 3, followed by 6% hypoxia for 60 min. This model has fewer oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and reduced myelin basic protein (MBP) positive areas in the sensorimotor cortex, but shows no apparent neuronal loss. However, how motor deficits are induced in this model is unclear. To elucidate the relationship between myelination disturbance and concomitant motor deficits, we first performed motor function tests (gait analysis, grip test, horizontal ladder test) and then analyzed myelination patterns in the sensorimotor cortex using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Contactin associated protein 1 (Caspr) staining in the neonatal WMI rats in adulthood...
July 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713908/comparison-of-gene-expression-profiles-between-dental-pulp-and-periodontal-ligament-tissues-in-humans
#20
Ai-Xiu Gong, Jing-Han Zhang, Jing Li, Jun Wu, Lin Wang, Deng-Shun Miao
There are anatomical and functional differences between human dental pulp (DP) and periodontal ligament (PDL). However, the molecular biological differences and function of these tissues are poorly understood. In the present study, we employed a cDNA microarray array to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between human DP and PDL tissues, and used the online software WebGestalt to perform the functional analysis of the DEGs. In addition, the STRING database and KEGG pathway analysis were applied for interaction network and pathway analysis of the DEGs...
September 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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