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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920570/brain-relevant-antibodies-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-matched-case-control-study
#1
Fiona Gaughran, John Lally, Katherine Beck, Ruaidhri McCormack, Poonam Gardner-Sood, Ester Coutinho, Leslie Jacobson, Bethan Lang, Ricardo Sainz-Fuertes, Evangelos Papanastasiou, Marta Di Forti, Tim Nicholson, Angela Vincent, Robin M Murray
BACKGROUND: There has been much recent excitement about the possibility that some cases of psychosis may be wholly due to brain-reactive antibodies, with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex reported in a few patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: Participants were recruited from psychiatric services in South London, UK, from 2009 to 2011 as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study...
September 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901288/multiple-conserved-cell-adhesion-protein-interactions-mediate-neural-wiring-of-a-sensory-circuit-in-c-elegans
#2
Byunghyuk Kim, Scott W Emmons
Nervous system function relies on precise synaptic connections. A number of widely-conserved cell adhesion proteins are implicated in cell recognition between synaptic partners, but how these proteins act as a group to specify a complex neural network is poorly understood. Taking advantage of known connectivity in C. elegans, we identified and studied cell adhesion genes expressed in three interacting neurons in the mating circuits of the adult male. Two interacting pairs of cell surface proteins independently promote fasciculation between sensory neuron HOA and its postsynaptic target interneuron AVG: BAM-2/neurexin-related in HOA binds to CASY-1/calsyntenin in AVG; SAX-7/L1CAM in sensory neuron PHC binds to RIG-6/contactin in AVG...
September 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861035/molecular-disorganization-of-axons-adjacent-to-human-cortical-microinfarcts
#3
Hamza Coban, Spencer Tung, Bryan Yoo, Harry V Vinters, Jason D Hinman
Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are microscopically identified wedge-shaped ischemic lesions that occur at or near the cortical surface and result from occlusion of penetrating arterioles. These microscopic lesions can be observed with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in aging brains and in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Recent studies have suggested that strategically located microinfarcts strongly correlate with cognitive deficits, which can contribute to Alzheimer's disease as well as other forms of dementia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860054/detection-of-contactin-2-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-using-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy-fcs
#4
Madhurima Chatterjee, Bernd Nöding, Eline A J Willemse, Marleen J A Koel-Simmelink, Wiesje M van der Flier, Detlev Schild, Charlotte E Teunissen
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the world. As many AD biomarkers occur at rather low abundances in CSF or blood, techniques of very high sensitivity and accuracy are important as diagnostic tools in the clinic. Here, we aimed to provide proof of concept of the use of a single molecule detection technique, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) for detection of novel candidate biomarkers for AD. DESIGN AND METHODS: FCS detects the diffusion times of the antigen-antibody complexes in highly diluted sample solutions, thus eliminating the need of large sample volumes and allows estimating the concentration of the target antigen...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821864/nanomechanics-of-multidomain-neuronal-cell-adhesion-protein-contactin-revealed-by-single-molecule-afm-and-smd
#5
K Mikulska-Ruminska, A J Kulik, C Benadiba, I Bahar, G Dietler, W Nowak
Contactin-4 (CNTN4) is a complex cell adhesion molecule (CAM) localized at neuronal membranes, playing a key role in maintaining the mechanical integrity and signaling properties of the synapse. CNTN4 consists of six immunoglobulin C2 type (IgC2) domains and four fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains that are shared with many other CAMs. Mutations in CNTN4 gene have been linked to various psychiatric disorders. Toward elucidating the response of this modular protein to mechanical stress, we studied its force-induced unfolding using single molecule atomic force microscopy (smAFM) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821283/gene-expression-profiling-of-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonias-iips-identification-of-potential-diagnostic-markers-and-therapeutic-targets
#6
Yasushi Horimasu, Nobuhisa Ishikawa, Masaya Taniwaki, Kakuhiro Yamaguchi, Kosuke Hamai, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Hironobu Hamada, Noboru Hattori, Morihito Okada, Koji Arihiro, Yuji Ohtsuki, Nobuoki Kohno
BACKGROUND: Chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is characterized by alveolar epithelial damage, activation of fibroblast proliferation, and loss of normal pulmonary architecture and function. This study aims to investigate the genetic backgrounds of IIP through gene expression profiling and pathway analysis, and to identify potential biomarkers that can aid in diagnosis and serve as novel therapeutic targets. METHODS: RNA extracted from lung specimens of 12 patients with chronic fibrosing IIP was profiled using Illumina Human WG-6 v3 BeadChips, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was performed to identify altered functional and canonical signaling pathways...
August 18, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819062/nodes-paranodes-and-neuropathies
#7
REVIEW
Janev Fehmi, Steven S Scherer, Hugh J Willison, Simon Rinaldi
This review summarises recent evidence supporting the involvement of the specialised nodal and perinodal domains (the paranode and juxtaparanode) of myelinated axons in the pathology of acquired, inflammatory, peripheral neuropathies.The identification of new target antigens in the inflammatory neuropathies heralds a revolution in diagnosis, and has already begun to inform increasingly targeted and individualised therapies. Rapid progress in our basic understanding of the highly specialised nodal regions of peripheral nerves serves to strengthen the links between their unique microstructural identities, functions and pathologies...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781169/satb1-regulates-contactin-5-to-pattern-dendrites-of-a-mammalian-retinal-ganglion-cell
#8
Yi-Rong Peng, Nicholas M Tran, Arjun Krishnaswamy, Dimitar Kostadinov, Emily M Martersteck, Joshua R Sanes
The size and shape of dendritic arbors are prime determinants of neuronal connectivity and function. We asked how ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells (ooDSGCs) in mouse retina acquire their bistratified dendrites, in which responses to light onset and light offset are segregated to distinct strata. We found that the transcriptional regulator Satb1 is selectively expressed by ooDSGCs. In Satb1 mutant mice, ooDSGC dendrites lack ON arbors, and the cells selectively lose ON responses. Satb1 regulates expression of a homophilic adhesion molecule, Contactin 5 (Cntn5)...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762105/disorganization-of-oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-layer-ii-iii-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-causes-motor-coordination-dysfunction-in-a-model-of-white-matter-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#9
Yoshitomo Ueda, Sachiyo Misumi, Mina Suzuki, Shino Ogawa, Ruriko Nishigaki, Akimasa Ishida, Cha-Gyun Jung, Hideki Hida
We previously established neonatal white matter injury (WMI) model rat that is made by right common carotid artery dissection at postnatal day 3, followed by 6% hypoxia for 60 min. This model has fewer oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and reduced myelin basic protein (MBP) positive areas in the sensorimotor cortex, but shows no apparent neuronal loss. However, how motor deficits are induced in this model is unclear. To elucidate the relationship between myelination disturbance and concomitant motor deficits, we first performed motor function tests (gait analysis, grip test, horizontal ladder test) and then analyzed myelination patterns in the sensorimotor cortex using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Contactin associated protein 1 (Caspr) staining in the neonatal WMI rats in adulthood...
July 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713908/comparison-of-gene-expression-profiles-between-dental-pulp-and-periodontal-ligament-tissues-in-humans
#10
Ai-Xiu Gong, Jing-Han Zhang, Jing Li, Jun Wu, Lin Wang, Deng-Shun Miao
There are anatomical and functional differences between human dental pulp (DP) and periodontal ligament (PDL). However, the molecular biological differences and function of these tissues are poorly understood. In the present study, we employed a cDNA microarray array to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between human DP and PDL tissues, and used the online software WebGestalt to perform the functional analysis of the DEGs. In addition, the STRING database and KEGG pathway analysis were applied for interaction network and pathway analysis of the DEGs...
September 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713821/comparative-analysis-of-the-cell-fates-of-induced-schwann-cells-from-subcutaneous-fat-tissue-and-na%C3%A3-ve-schwann-cells-in-the-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#11
Mingzi Zhang, Mei Hua Jiang, Dae-Wook Kim, Woosung Ahn, Eunkyung Chung, Youngsook Son, Guangfan Chi
PURPOSE: The fate and function of the induced Schwann cells (iSCs) like cells from adipose tissue have not been critically evaluated in vivo after transplantation. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of iSCs with naïve SCs (nSCs) after transplantation into the lesion sites of sciatic nerve, respectively. METHODS: Adipose-derived stem cells from eGFP-expressing transgenic rat's subcutaneous fat were induced to iSCs in vitro. iSCs were injected to the sciatic nerve lesion area after crush injury and the cells fate was comparatively analyzed with that of nSCs from the same rat...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682959/paraneoplastic-neuropathies
#12
Jean-Christophe Antoine, Jean-Philippe Camdessanché
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in paraneoplastic neuropathies with emphasis on their definition, different forms and therapeutic development. RECENT FINDINGS: A strict definition of definite paraneoplastic neuropathies is necessary to avoid confusion. With carcinoma, seronegative sensory neuronopathies and neuronopathies and anti-Hu and anti-CV2/Contactin Response Mediator Protein 5 antibodies are the most frequent. With lymphomas, most neuropathies occur with monoclonal gammopathy including AL amyloidosis, Polyneuropathy-Organomegaly-Endocrinopathy-M component-Skin changes (POEMS) syndrome, type I cryoglobulinemia and antimyelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathies and Waldenström's disease...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681401/prevalence-and-outcome-of-late-onset-seizures-due-to-autoimmune-etiology-a-prospective-observational-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Felix von Podewils, Marie Suesse, Julia Geithner, Bernadette Gaida, Zhong I Wang, Julia Lange, Alexander Dressel, Matthias Grothe, Christof Kessler, Soenke Langner, Uwe Runge, Christian G Bien
OBJECTIVE: The increasing incidence of new-onset seizures with age is well known. Often, the etiology cannot be clarified. In the present study, patients with unprovoked late-onset seizures and without known neoplasm, who might have had paraneoplastic encephalitis, were investigated for a potentially underlying autoimmunity. METHODS: Sixty-six consecutive patients (36 women; aged ≥55 years) after having at least one seizure or seizures for ≤6 months were prospectively identified over a period of 4...
September 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680318/clinical-electrophysiological-and-serological-evaluation-of-patients-with-cramp-fasciculation-syndrome
#14
Mürüvvet Poyraz, Zeliha Matur, Fikret Aysal, Erdem Tüzün, Lütfü Hanoğlu, A Emre Öge
INTRODUCTION: Cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) is a rare peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome. There are only a few reports on clinical and serological profile of a CFS cohort that was followed up by a single outpatient clinic. METHODS: Clinical, electrophysiological, and serological features of 6 CFS patients (5 men, 1 woman; 27-65 years old) were investigated. RESULTS: All patients presented with cramps, fasciculations, muscle pain, and autonomic symptoms, and 2 also reported numbness and burning sensation in limbs, suggestive of neuropathic pain...
June 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651183/investigating-the-effect-of-different-transducer-stiffness-values-on-the-contactin-complex-detachment-by-steered-molecular-dynamics
#15
Parnian Kianfar, Nabiollah Abolfathi, Navid Zarif Karimi
This study investigated the adhesion behavior of Contactin4 (CNTN4), a member of Immunoglobulin Super Family (Ig-SF) of cell adhesion molecules. Contactin4 plays a crucial role in the formation, maintenance, and plasticity of neuronal networks. Contactin in its complex configuration with protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPRG) was selected for simulation. By utilizing Steered Molecular Dynamics (SMD), the uniaxial force was applied to induce unbinding of the complex, and the force-induced detachment of complex components was probed...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638854/autoimmune-episodic-ataxia-in-patients-with-anti-caspr2-antibody-associated-encephalitis
#16
Bastien Joubert, Florent Gobert, Laure Thomas, Margaux Saint-Martin, Virginie Desestret, Philippe Convers, Véronique Rogemond, Géraldine Picard, François Ducray, Dimitri Psimaras, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Jean-Yves Delattre, Jérôme Honnorat
OBJECTIVE: To report paroxysmal episodes of cerebellar ataxia in a patient with anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) antibody-related autoimmune encephalitis and to search for similar paroxysmal ataxia in a cohort of patients with anti-CASPR2 antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis. METHODS: We report a patient with paroxysmal episodes of cerebellar ataxia observed during autoimmune encephalitis with anti-CASPR2 antibodies. In addition, clinical analysis was performed in a retrospective cohort of 37 patients with anti-CASPR2 antibodies to search for transient episodes of ataxia...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601286/autoantibody-responses-to-nodal-and-paranodal-antigens-in-chronic-inflammatory-neuropathies
#17
E K Mathey, N Garg, S B Park, T Nguyen, S Baker, N Yuki, C Yiannikas, C S Lin, J M Spies, R Ghaoui, M H Barnett, S Vucic, J D Pollard, M C Kiernan
Autoantibodies to nodal/paranodal proteins have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). To determine the frequency of anti-paranodal antibodies in our cohort of CIDP patients and to validate the presence anti-nodal antibodies in MMN, sera were screened for IgG against human neurofascin 155, contactin-1, neurofascin 186 and gliomedin using ELISA. In CIDP patients, 7% were anti-NF155 IgG4 positive and 7% were anti-CNTN1 IgG4 positive...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588433/intragenic-cntnap2-deletions-a-bridge-too-far
#18
REVIEW
Martin Poot
Intragenic deletions of the contactin-associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2) have been found in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, intellectual disability (ID), obsessive compulsive disorder, cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy syndrome, autism, schizophrenia, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, stuttering, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A variety of molecular mechanisms, such as loss of transcription factor binding sites and perturbation of penetrance and expressivity, have been proposed to account for the phenotypic variability resulting from CNTNAP2 mutations...
May 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575198/autoantibodies-to-nodal-isoforms-of-neurofascin-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#19
Emilien Delmont, Constance Manso, Luis Querol, Andrea Cortese, Angela Berardinelli, Alessandro Lozza, Maya Belghazi, Pauline Malissart, Pierre Labauge, Guillaume Taieb, Nobuhiro Yuki, Isabel Illa, Shahram Attarian, Jérôme J Devaux
Chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy is a heterogeneous and treatable immune-mediated disorder that lacks biomarkers to support diagnosis. Recent evidence indicates that paranodal proteins (contactin 1, contactin-associated protein 1, and neurofascin-155) are the targets of autoantibodies in subsets of patients showing distinct clinical presentations. Here, we identified neurofascin-186 and neurofascin-140 as the main targets of autoantibodies in five patients presenting IgG reactivity against the nodes of Ranvier...
July 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572274/caspr2-autoantibodies-are-raised-during-pregnancy-in-mothers-of-children-with-mental-retardation-and-disorders-of-psychological-development-but-not-autism
#20
Ester Coutinho, Leslie Jacobson, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Michael Eriksen Benros, Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen, Preben Bo Mortensen, Paul J Harrison, Angela Vincent
BACKGROUND, METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal autoantibodies to neuronal proteins may be one cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. This exploratory study used the Danish archived midgestational sera and their nationwide registers to search for antibodies to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) in maternal sera, and to relate them to subsequent psychiatric diagnoses in the woman or her child. RESULTS: In a sample of 192 women, there was no association between antibody status and subsequent psychosis in the mothers...
September 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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