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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318976/assembly-of-cns-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-nerves-is-promoted-by-the-axon-cytoskeleton
#1
Veronica Brivio, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Elior Peles, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system [1]. Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes [2]...
March 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284582/the-association-of-cntnap2-rs7794745-gene-polymorphism-and-autism-in-iranian-population
#2
Sahar Zare, Farhad Mashayekhi, Elham Bidabadi
Autism is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease that results from the interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. Several studies showed that many of genes that play role in autism are component of signaling networks that regulate growth and synaptic plasticity, play an important role in the etiology of autism. Contactin associated-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene is a member of the superfamily of synaptic adhesion proteins and encodes a scaffold protein called CASPR2 that is involved in the interaction of neuron-glia and clusters K(+) channels in myelinated axons...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284337/autoimmune-limbic-encephalitis-with-anti-contactin-associated-protein-like-2-antibody-secondary-to-pembrolizumab-therapy
#3
Michael P Brown, Pravin Hissaria, Amy Hc Hsieh, Christopher Kneebone, Wilson Vallat
Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as Pembrolizumab are used to restore antitumour immune response. It is important to be vigilant of immune mediated adverse events related to such therapy. We report a case of autoimmune limbic encephalitis with Contactin-Associated Protein-like 2 (CASPR2) antibody secondary to Pembrolizumab therapy for metastatic melanoma.
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281572/genome-wide-copy-number-variation-analysis-in-a-chinese-autism-spectrum-disorder-cohort
#4
Hui Guo, Yu Peng, Zhengmao Hu, Ying Li, Guanglei Xun, Jianjun Ou, Liangdan Sun, Zhimin Xiong, Yanling Liu, Tianyun Wang, Jingjing Chen, Lu Xia, Ting Bai, Yidong Shen, Qi Tian, Yiqiao Hu, Lu Shen, Rongjuan Zhao, Xuejun Zhang, Fengyu Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Xiaobing Zou, Kun Xia
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with high heritability, although the underlying genetic determinants of ASDs remain largely unknown. Large-scale whole-genome studies of copy number variation in Han Chinese samples are still lacking. We performed a genome-wide copy number variation analysis of 343 ASD trios, 203 patients with sporadic cases and 988 controls in a Chinese population using Illumina genotyping platforms to identify CNVs and related genes that may contribute to ASD risk...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272206/limbic-encephalitis-associated-with-anti-nh2-terminal-of-%C3%AE-enolase-antibodies-a-clinical-subtype-of-hashimoto-encephalopathy
#5
Toru Kishitani, Akiko Matsunaga, Masamichi Ikawa, Kouji Hayashi, Osamu Yamamura, Tadanori Hamano, Osamu Watanabe, Keiko Tanaka, Yasunari Nakamoto, Makoto Yoneda
Several types of autoantibodies have been reported in autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE), such as antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex including leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1). We recently reported a patient with autoimmune LE and serum anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) antibodies, a specific diagnostic marker for Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE), who was diagnosed with HE based on the presence of antithyroid antibodies and responsiveness to immunotherapy. This case suggests that LE patients with antibodies to both the thyroid and NAE could be diagnosed with HE and respond to immunotherapy...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255461/dynamic-control-of-synaptic-adhesion-and-organizing-molecules-in-synaptic-plasticity
#6
REVIEW
Gabby Rudenko
Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, forming trans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft or cis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251919/netrin-1-receptor-antibodies-in-thymoma-associated-neuromyotonia-with-myasthenia-gravis
#7
Estefanía Torres-Vega, Nuria Mancheño, Arantxa Cebrián-Silla, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, María J Chumillas, Germán Moris, Bastien Joubert, Jérôme Honnorat, Teresa Sevilla, Juan J Vílchez, Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Luis Bataller
OBJECTIVE: To identify cell-surface antibodies in patients with neuromyotonia and to describe the main clinical implications. METHODS: Sera of 3 patients with thymoma-associated neuromyotonia and myasthenia gravis were used to immunoprecipitate and characterize neuronal cell-surface antigens using reported techniques. The clinical significance of antibodies against precipitated proteins was assessed with sera of 98 patients (neuromyotonia 46, myasthenia gravis 52, thymoma 42; 33 of them with overlapping syndromes) and 219 controls (other neurologic diseases, cancer, and healthy volunteers)...
March 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248701/autoimmune-encephalitis-with-anti-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-or-anti-contactin-associated-protein-like-2-antibodies-formerly-called-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-antibodies
#8
Anna E M Bastiaansen, Agnes van Sonderen, Maarten J Titulaer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Twenty years since the discovery of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-related autoimmunity; it is currently known that the antibodies are not directed at the VGKC itself but to two closely associated proteins, anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2). Antibodies to LGI1 and Caspr2 give well-described clinical phenotypes. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients mostly have limbic symptoms, and anti-Caspr2 patients have variable syndromes with both central and peripheral symptoms...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243115/rnai-for-contactin-2-inhibits-proliferation-of-u87-glioma-stem-cells-by-downregulating-aicd-egfr-and-hes1
#9
Yang Guo, Peidong Zhang, Hongtian Zhang, Peng Zhang, Ruxiang Xu
Glioblastoma is the most common form of malignant brain tumors and has a poor prognosis. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are thought to be responsible for the aberrant proliferation and invasion. Targeting the signaling pathways that promote proliferation in GSCs is one of the strategies for glioma treatment. In this study, we found increased expression of contactin 2 (CNTN2) and amyloid β precursor protein (APP) in U87-derived GSCs (U87-GSCs). RNA interference (RNAi) for CNTN2 downregulated the expression of APP intracellular domain (AICD), which is the proteolytic product of APP...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222587/contactin-1-a-promising-progression-biomarker-and-therapeutic-target-of-carcinoma
#10
Ruijie Zhang, Lihua Xie, Chun Liu, Honghui Yang, Hua Lin, Qiang Zhang, Wenxiang Tang, Fuyun Ji, Shenghua Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135886/contactin-2-tag-1-active-on-the-front-line-for-three-decades
#11
Tomoyuki Masuda
Contactin-2/transiently expressed axonal surface glycoprotein-1 (TAG-1) is a cell adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). It has six immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains and four fibronectin III-like ones, with anchoring to the cell membrane through glycosylphosphatidyl inositol. Contactin-2/TAG-1 is expressed in specific neurons transiently on the axonal surface during the fetal period. In postnatal stages, Contactin-2/TAG-1 is expressed in cerebellar granule cells, hippocampal pyramidal cells, and the juxtaparanodal regions of myelinated nerve fibers...
January 31, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115996/genotype-and-sex-dependent-effects-of-altered-cntnap2-expression-on-the-function-of-visual-cortical-areas
#12
Leah B Townsend, Spencer L Smith
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heritable, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that is four times more likely to affect males than females. Despite this overt sex bias, it is unclear how genetic mutations associated with ASD alter cortical circuitry to produce the behavioral phenotypes by which ASD is diagnosed. Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) is an ASD-associated gene, and while Cntnap2 knockout (KO) mice recapitulate many of the features of ASD, the effect on cortical circuitry is poorly understood...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115688/sex-specific-gene-environment-interactions-underlying-asd-like-behaviors
#13
Sara M Schaafsma, Khatuna Gagnidze, Anny Reyes, Natalie Norstedt, Karl Månsson, Kerel Francis, Donald W Pfaff
The male bias in the incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is one of the most notable characteristics of this group of neurodevelopmental disorders. The etiology of this sex bias is far from known, but pivotal for understanding the etiology of ASDs in general. Here we investigate whether a "three-hit" (genetic load × environmental factor × sex) theory of autism may help explain the male predominance. We found that LPS-induced maternal immune activation caused male-specific deficits in certain social responses in the contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2) mouse model for ASD...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115470/intracellular-and-non-neuronal-targets-of-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-antibodies
#14
Bethan Lang, Mateusz Makuch, Teresa Moloney, Inga Dettmann, Swantje Mindorf, Christian Probst, Winfried Stoecker, Camilla Buckley, Charles R Newton, M Isabel Leite, Paul Maddison, Lars Komorowski, Jane Adcock, Angela Vincent, Patrick Waters, Sarosh R Irani
OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies against the extracellular domains of the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex proteins, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2), are found in patients with limbic encephalitis, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, Morvan's syndrome and neuromyotonia. However, in routine testing, VGKC complex antibodies without LGI1 or CASPR2 reactivities (double-negative) are more common than LGI1 or CASPR2 specificities. Therefore, the target(s) and clinical associations of double-negative antibodies need to be determined...
April 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105002/erratum-association-of-cell-adhesion-molecules-contactin-6-and-latrophilin-1-regulates-neuronal-apoptosis
#15
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 143 in vol. 9, PMID: 28018171.].
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074486/introduction-of-steered-molecular-dynamics-into-unres-coarse-grained-simulations-package
#16
Adam K Sieradzan, Rafał Jakubowski
In this article, an implementation of steered molecular dynamics (SMD) in coarse-grain UNited RESidue (UNRES) simulations package is presented. Two variants of SMD have been implemented: with a constant force and a constant velocity. The huge advantage of SMD implementation in the UNRES force field is that it allows to pull with the speed significantly lower than the accessible pulling speed in simulations with all-atom representation of a system, with respect to a reasonable computational time. Therefore, obtaining pulling speed closer to those which appear in the atomic force spectroscopy is possible...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064060/a-current-view-on-contactin-4-5-and-6-implications-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Oguro-Ando Asami, Amila Zuko, Kristel T E Kleijer, J Peter H Burbach
Contactins (Cntns) are a six-member subgroup of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule superfamily (IgCAMs) with pronounced brain expression and function. Recent genetic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders have pinpointed contactin-4 (CNTN4), contactin-5 (CNTN5) and contactin-6 (CNTN6) as candidate genes in neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but also in intellectual disability, schizophrenia (SCZ), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and anorexia nervosa (AN)...
January 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043063/investigation-of-neuronal-auto-antibodies-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-with-epilepsy
#18
Zerrin Karaaslan, Esme Ekizoğlu, Pınar Tektürk, Ece Erdağ, Erdem Tüzün, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Betül Baykan
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is an important feature for neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with unknown mechanism. Our aim was to investigate the presence of neuronal auto-antibodies (NAbs) in neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). METHODS: Eighteen SLE patients (17 females, 1 male) experiencing recurrent seizures were enrolled to this study. Their clinical characteristics, EEG and MRI findings and follow-up information were evaluated from their files...
December 14, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038945/role-of-the-adhesion-molecule-f3-contactin-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#19
REVIEW
Walter Gulisano, Antonella Bizzoca, Gianfranco Gennarini, Agostino Palmeri, Daniela Puzzo
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have a pivotal role in building and maintaining synaptic structures during brain development participating in axonal elongation and pathfinding, glial guidance of neuronal migration, as well as myelination. CAMs expression persists in the adult brain particularly in structures undergoing postnatal neurogenesis and involved in synaptic plasticity and memory as the hippocampus. Among the neural CAMs, we have recently focused on F3/Contactin, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, involved in neuronal development, synaptic maintenance and organization of neuronal networks...
December 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025742/loss-of-function-of-ptpr-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-observed-in-sporadic-schizophrenia-causes-brain-region-specific-deregulation-of-monoamine-levels-and-altered-behavior-in-mice
#20
Arnaud Cressant, Veronique Dubreuil, Jing Kong, Thorsten Manfred Kranz, Francoise Lazarini, Jean-Marie Launay, Jacques Callebert, Jan Sap, Dolores Malaspina, Sylvie Granon, Sheila Harroch
RATIONALE: The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRG has been genetically associated with psychiatric disorders and is a ligand for members of the contactin family, which are themselves linked to autism spectrum disorders. OBJECTIVE: Based on our finding of a phosphatase-null de novo mutation in PTPRG associated with a case of sporadic schizophrenia, we used PTPRG knockout (KO) mice to model the effect of a loss-of-function mutation. We compared the results with loss-of-function in its close paralogue PTPRZ, previously associated with schizophrenia...
December 26, 2016: Psychopharmacology
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