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Florian Junne, Martina Michaelis, Eva Rothermund, Felicitas Stuber, Harald Gündel, Stephan Zipfel, Monika A Rieger
Objectives : This study analyses the perceived relevance of stress-dimensions in work-settings from the differential views of Human Resource Managers (HRM), Occupational Physicians (OP), Primary Care Physicians (PCP) and Psychotherapists (PT) in Germany. Methods : Cross-sectional study design, using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive measures and explorative bivariate methods were applied for group-comparisons. Results are presented as rankings of perceived importance and as polarity profiles of contrasting views...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tsuyoshi Sasaki, Hitoshi Shitara, Atsushi Yamamoto, Noritaka Hamano, Tsuyoshi Ichinose, Daisuke Shimoyama, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Toshihisa Osawa, Yoshito Tsushima, Kenji Takagishi, Hirotaka Chikuda
BACKGROUND: Supraspinatus muscle atrophy is typically assessed by the occupation ratio of the cross-sectional area of the muscle belly to the supraspinatus fossa at the medial border of the coracoid process in a slice along the oblique-sagittal plane on MRI. Previous studies have shown that the occupation ratio of the supraspinatus changed soon after rotator cuff repair compared with before surgery. However, no studies have examined the perioperative change in the muscle volume assessed with 3-dimensional measurement...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Hui Hu, Boyi Zhang, Adam Luxon, Thais Scott, Baoshan Wang, Carol A Parish
The 9,10-didehydroanthracene is an aromatic diradical produced by the Bergman cyclization of a benzannulated 10-membered enediyne. It is a 1,4 diradical, similar to para-benzyne. Here we study the spin state occupancy of the ground state of 9,10-didehydroanthracene by employing multireference methods (MR-CISD and MR-AQCC) with different basis sets (cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ) and active space sizes (CAS (2,2) through CAS (8,8)). At the CAS (8,8) MR-AQCC/cc-pVDZ level of theory, we find a two-configurational singlet ground state with an adiabatic EST of 6...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Anisha Garg, Karen B Mulloy
OBJECTIVES: Pilot study incorporating environmental and occupational health (EOH) learning objectives into medical school curriculum using problem based learning approach. METHODS: 184 Case Western Reserve University medical students participated in problem based learning curriculum emphasizing EOH topics. Multiple choice (MCQ), short essay (SEQ), and summative short essay (SSEQ) questions assessed student knowledge. Two rating scale questions and one open-ended question determined student attitudes and confidence...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
William Blenkhorn, Stefan Schulz, Daniel Tanner, Rachel Oliver, Menno J Kappers, Colin J Humphreys, Philip Dawson
In this paper we report on changes in the form of the low temperature (12K) photoluminescence spectra of an InGaN/GaN quantum well structure as a function of excitation photon energy. As the photon energy is progressively reduced we observe at a critical energy a change in the form of the spectra from one which is determined by the occupation of the complete distribution of hole localisation centres to one which is determined by the resonant excitation of specific localisations sites. This change is governed by an effective mobility edge whereby the photo-excited holes remain localised at their initial energy and are prevented from scattering to other localisation sites...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Angel M Dzhambov, Donka D Dimitrova
Multiple risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been studied, but there is a dearth of research on occupational noise, which is highly prevalent in the United States (U.S.). This study aimed to determine whether occupational noise exposure was associated with an elevated risk of prevalent RA in the U.S. general population. Data from the 2011 to 2012 cross-sectional, population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used for secondary analysis. Self-reported lifetime exposure to very loud noise was linked to self-reported doctor-diagnosed RA in a sample of 4192 participants...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Mimi M Li, Mohamad S Hamady, Colin D Bicknell, Celia V Riga
Flexible robotic catheters are an emerging technology which provide an elegant solution to the challenges of conventional endovascular intervention. Originally developed for interventional cardiology and electrophysiology procedures, remotely steerable robotic catheters such as the Magellan system enable greater precision and enhanced stability during target vessel navigation. These technical advantages facilitate improved treatment of disease in the arterial tree, as well as allowing execution of otherwise unfeasible procedures...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Daksha P Trivedi, Andreas Braun, Angela Dickinson, Heather Gage, Laura Hamilton, Claire Goodman, Kunle Ashaye, Steve Iliffe, Jill Manthorpe
Background Two-thirds of people living with dementia live at home in the UK and many experience distressing behavioural and psychological symptoms. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms among community-dwelling people living with dementia. Methods This two-stage review undertook an initial mapping of the literature followed by a systematic review of relevant randomised controlled trials. We searched electronic databases for pertinent studies reporting outcomes from interventions from January 2000 to March 2015 and updated searches in October 2016...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Christopher Sames, Desmond F Gorman, Simon J Mitchell, Lifeng Zhou
AIM: To determine whether long-term engagement in occupational diving causes significant changes in spirometric measurements. METHOD: All divers with adequate spirometric records spanning at least 10 years were identified from the New Zealand occupational diver database. Changes in lung function over time were compared with normative values derived using published prediction equations. Any significant changes were tested for correlation with age, duration of occupational diving, gender, smoking history and body mass index (BMI)...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Christopher B Lietz, Thomas Toneff, Charles Mosier, Sonia Podvin, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Vivian Hook
Neuropeptides are vital for cell-cell communication and function in the regulation of the nervous and endocrine systems. They are generated by post-translational modification (PTM) steps resulting in small active peptides generated from prohormone precursors. Phosphorylation is a significant PTM for the bioactivity of neuropeptides. From the known diversity of distinct neuropeptide functions, it is hypothesized that the extent of phosphorylation varies among different neuropeptides. To assess this hypothesis, neuropeptide-containing dense core secretory vesicles from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells were subjected to global phosphopeptidomics analyses by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Jonathan Davies, Sarah Sullivan, Stanley Zammit
PURPOSE: To investigate whether psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms at ages 12 and 18 years are associated with adverse life outcomes across a range of functional domains between 16 and 20 years of age. METHODS: Data were gathered from ALSPAC, a UK birth cohort. Individuals were assessed with the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview and the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at ages 12 and 18 years. Logistic regression was used to explore associations with outcomes in education, occupation, social functioning, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, smoking, and other drugs), and illegal behaviour between the ages of 16 and 20 years...
March 19, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Maryam Parvareh, Asrin Karimi, Satar Rezaei, Abraha Woldemichael, Sairan Nili, Bijan Nouri, Nader Esmail Nasab
Background: Road traffic accidents are commonly encountered incidents that can cause high-intensity injuries to the victims and have direct impacts on the members of the society. Iran has one of the highest incident rates of road traffic accidents. The objective of this study was to model the patterns of road traffic accidents leading to injury in Kurdistan province, Iran. Methods: A time-series analysis was conducted to characterize and predict the frequency of road traffic accidents that lead to injury in Kurdistan province...
2018: Burns and Trauma
Steve M Heald, Chiara Tarantini, Peter J Lee, Michael D Brown, ZuHawn Sung, Arup K Ghosh, David C Larbalestier
To meet critical current density, Jc , targets for the Future Circular Collider (FCC), the planned replacement for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high field performance of Nb3 Sn must be improved, but champion Jc values have remained static for the last 10 years. Making the A15 phase stoichiometric and enhancing the upper critical field Hc2 by Ti or Ta dopants are the standard strategies for enhancing high field performance but detailed recent studies show that even the best modern wires have broad composition ranges...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rebecca Lewthwaite, Carolee J Winstein, Christianne J Lane, Sarah Blanton, Burl R Wagenheim, Monica A Nelsen, Alexander W Dromerick, Steven L Wolf
BACKGROUND: Task-oriented therapies have been developed to address significant upper extremity disability that persists after stroke. Yet, the extent of and approach to rehabilitation and recovery remains unsatisfactory to many. OBJECTIVE: To compare a skill-directed investigational intervention with usual care treatment for body functions and structures, activities, participation, and quality of life outcomes. METHODS: On average, 46 days poststroke, 361 patients were randomized to 1 of 3 outpatient therapy groups: a patient-centered Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP), dose-equivalent usual occupational therapy (DEUCC), or usual therapy (UCC)...
February 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Amal Mohamed Kamal El Safty, Aisha Mohamed Samir, Mona Kamal Mekkawy, Marwa Mohamed Fouad
Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
James G Dahlgren, Patrick J Talbott
We report two cases of formaldehyde-containing hair straighteners causing new onset asthma. Formaldehyde has been reported to cause asthma in other settings. The purpose of this article is to examine two cases of asthma in hairdressers exposed to hair smoothing products and to review the relevant literature on formaldehyde exposure and asthma. The results indicated that both subjects developed asthma from repeated occupational exposure to formaldehyde during hair treatments. Both subjects became unable to tolerate hair straightening activity in their vicinity...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Saddaf Rashid, Muhammad Arshad, Maryam Siddiqa, Rafiq Ahmad
Air quality in urban areas is generally poor especially at traffic intersections and roadsides due to continuous vehicular emissions comprising poly aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, benzene, diesel soot etc. The objective of this study was to compare the primary DNA damage in traffic police wardens occupationally exposed to airborne Cd and Zn (exposed group) and educational institution with negligible exposure to airborne Cd and Zn (control group). Blood levels of Cd and Zn in traffic police wardens and control group were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) and DNA damage was assessed by using Comet assay...
March 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Antti Joonas Koivisto, Kirsten Inga Kling, Ana Sofia Fonseca, Anders Brostrøm Bluhme, Marcel Moreman, Mingzhou Yu, Anna Luisa Costa, Baldi Giovanni, Simona Ortelli, Wouter Fransman, Ulla Vogel, Keld Alstrup Jensen
Nanoscale TiO2 (nTiO2 ) is manufactured in high volumes and is of potential concern in occupational health. Here, we measured workers exposure levels while ceramic honeycombs were dip coated with liquid photoactive nanoparticle suspension and dried with an air blade. The measured nTiO2 concentration levels were used to assess process specific emission rates using a convolution theorem and to calculate inhalation dose rates of deposited nTiO2 particles. Dip coating did not result in detectable release of particles but air blade drying released fine-sized TiO2 and nTiO2 particles...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chinonso N Igwesi-Chidobe, Andre P Kengne, Isaac O Sorinola, Emma L Godfrey
Background: Physical activity improves physiological, cognitive and psychosocial functioning in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study reviewed papers on the effects and patients' experiences of physical activity interventions for chronic NCDs in Africa. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of clinical and qualitative studies by searching eight bibliographic databases and grey literature until 19 April 2017. The mixed-methods appraisal and Cochrane Collaboration's tools were used for quality and risk of bias assessments...
March 15, 2018: International Health
Nathan T Kearns, Warren T Jackson, Timothy R Elliott, Tiffany Ryan, Trey W Armstrong
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The present study examines associations between levels of limb loss (partial hand vs. higher levels of limb loss) and eight clinically relevant measures of functional impairment, psychological well-being, and substance use. Research Method/Design: A cross-sectional, multisite study conducted at seven prosthetic rehabilitation centers across the United States. A total of 305 participants with upper limb loss (Mage = 44.28, SD = 15.45; 68.5% male; 70.5% white) completed orally administered self-assessments of pain interference, perceived activity restrictions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, emotional reaction to their physical condition, problematic alcohol use, prescription medication overuse, and illicit drug use...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
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