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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244163/regulation-of-chromosome-segregation-in-oocytes-and-the-cellular-basis-for-female-meiotic-errors
#1
Jessica Greaney, Zhe Wei, Hayden Homer
BACKGROUND: Meiotic chromosome segregation in human oocytes is notoriously error-prone, especially with ageing. Such errors markedly reduce the reproductive chances of increasing numbers of women embarking on pregnancy later in life. However, understanding the basis for these errors is hampered by limited access to human oocytes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Important new discoveries have arisen from molecular analyses of human female recombination and aneuploidy along with high-resolution analyses of human oocyte maturation and mouse models...
December 13, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243174/prion-propagation-and-inositol-polyphosphates
#2
REVIEW
Reed B Wickner, Herman K Edskes, Evgeny E Bezsonov, Moonil Son, Mathieu Ducatez
The [PSI+] prion is a folded in-register parallel β-sheet amyloid (filamentous polymer) of Sup35p, a subunit of the translation termination factor. Our searches for anti-prion systems led to our finding that certain soluble inositol polyphosphates (IPs) are important for the propagation of the [PSI+] prion. The IPs affect a wide range of processes, including mRNA export, telomere length, phosphate and polyphosphate metabolism, energy regulation, transcription and translation. We found that 5-diphosphoinositol tetra(or penta)kisphosphate or inositol hexakisphosphate could support [PSI+] prion propagation, and 1-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate appears to inhibit the process...
December 14, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242291/the-x-linked-1-688-satellite-in-drosophilamelanogaster-promotes-specific-targeting-by-painting-of-fourth
#3
Maria Kim, Samaneh Ekhteraei-Tousi, Jacob Lewerentz, Jan Larsson
Repetitive DNA, represented by transposons and satellite DNA, constitutes a large portion of eukaryotic genomes, being the major component of constitutive heterochromatin. There is a growing body of evidence that it regulates several nuclear functions including chromatin state and the proper functioning of centromeres and telomeres. The 1.688 satellite is one of the most abundant repetitive sequences in Drosophilamelanogaster, with the longest array being located in the pericentromeric region of the X-chromosome...
December 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242289/mild-telomere-dysfunction-as-a-force-for-altering-the-adaptive-potential-of-subtelomeric-genes
#4
Jennifer M O Mason, Michael J McEachern
Subtelomeric regions have several unusual characteristics including complex repetitive structures, increased rates of evolution, and enrichment for genes involved in niche adaptation. The adaptive telomere failure hypothesis suggests that certain environmental stresses can induce a low level of telomere failure, potentially leading to elevated subtelomeric recombination that could result in adaptive mutational changes within subtelomeric genes. Here, we tested a key prediction of the adaptive telomere failure hypothesis; that telomere dysfunction mild enough to have little or no overall effect on cell fitness could still lead to substantial increases in the mutation rates of subtelomeric genes...
December 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242238/short-leukocyte-telomere-length-precedes-clinical-expression-of-atherosclerosis-blood-and-muscle-model
#5
Athanase Benetos, Simon Toupance, Sylvie Gautier, Carlos Labat, Masayuki Kimura, Pascal M Rossi, Nicla Settembre, Jacques Hubert, Luc Frimat, Baptiste Bertrand, Mourad Boufi, Xavier Flecher, Nicolas Sadoul, Pascal Eschwege, Michà le Kessler, Irene P Tzanetakou, Ilias P Doulamis, Panagiotis S Konstantopoulos, Aspasia I Tzani, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Anastasios Gkogkos, Konstantinos G Perreas, Evangelos Menenakos, George Samanidis, Michail Vasiloglou-Gkanis, Jeremy D Kark, Sergueï Malikov, Simon Verhulst, Abraham Aviv
Rationale:  Short telomere length (TL) in leukocytes is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). It is unknown whether this relationship stems from having inherently short leukocyte TL (LTL) at birth and/or a faster LTL attrition thereafter. LTL represents TL in the highly proliferative hematopoietic system, while TL in skeletal muscle (M) represents a minimally replicative tissue. Objective: We measured LTL and MTL in the same individuals with a view to obtain comparative metrics for lifelong LTL attrition and learn about the temporal association of LTL with ASCVD...
December 14, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241838/telomerase-level-increase-is-related-to-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-efficacy-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-secondary-outcome-analysis-of-the-offer-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Tomasz Pawełczyk, Marta Grancow-Grabka, Elżbieta Trafalska, Janusz Szemraj, Natalia Żurner, Agnieszka Pawełczyk
Schizophrenia is associated with shortening of the lifespan mainly due to cardiovascular events, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Both telomere attrition and decrease of telomerase levels were observed in schizophrenia. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence multiple biochemical mechanisms which are postulated to accelerate telomere shortening and limit the longevity of patients with schizophrenia. Intervention studies based on add-on therapy with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in patients with schizophrenia did not assess the changes in telomerase levels...
December 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240300/genomic-origin-and-nuclear-localization-of-terra-telomeric-repeat-containing-rna-from-darkness-to-dawn
#7
REVIEW
Aurélie Diman, Anabelle Decottignies
Long non-coding RNAs, produced from distinct regions of the chromosomes, are emerging as new key players in several important biological processes. The long non-coding RNAs add a new layer of complexity to cellular regulatory pathways, from transcription to cellular trafficking or chromatin remodeling. More than 25 years ago, the discovery of a transcriptional activity at telomeres of protozoa ended the long-lasting belief that telomeres were transcriptionally silent. Since then, progressively accumulating evidences established that production of TElomeric Repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) was a general feature of eukaryotic cells...
December 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240275/metabolic-stress-induces-modifications-in-the-epigenetic-program-of-preimplantation-bovine-embryos
#8
R Tremblay, I Dufort, M A Sirard
The mammalian embryo is sensitive to and adapts to its metabolic environment. The mother's metabolic health and nutrient availability, for example, can modulate the oviductal fluid composition and thus embryo development. In this project, we induced energetic stress in bovine embryos during early culture to observe the epigenetic responses associated with metabolic stress, using a treatment paradigm known to decrease blastocyst rates. Embryos were generated using oocytes from slaughtered cows, and then exposed to an elevated glucose concentration (5 mM versus 0...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240257/altered-expression-of-telomere-associated-genes-in-leukocytes-among-brca1-and-brca2-carriers
#9
Hiromi Tanaka, Elizabeth A Phipps, Ting Wei, Xi Wu, Chirayu Goswami, Yunlong Liu, George W Sledge, Lida Mina, Brittney-Shea Herbert
Telomere dysfunction resulting from telomere shortening and deregulation of shelterin components has been linked to the pathogenesis of age-related disorders, including cancer. Recent evidence suggests that BRCA1/2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2) tumor suppressor gene products play an important role in telomere maintenance. Although telomere shortening has been reported in BRCA1/2 carriers, the direct effects of BRCA1/2 haploinsufficiency on telomere maintenance and predisposition to cancer development are not completely understood...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238750/biomarkers-of-aging-associated-with-past-treatments-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#10
Zorica Scuric, Judith E Carroll, Julienne E Bower, Sam Ramos-Perlberg, Laura Petersen, Stephanie Esquivel, Matt Hogan, Aaron M Chapman, Michael R Irwin, Elizabeth C Breen, Patricia A Ganz, Robert Schiestl
Radiation and chemotherapy are effective treatments for cancer, but are also toxic to healthy cells. Little is known about whether prior exposure to these treatments is related to markers of cellular aging years later in breast cancer survivors. We examined whether past exposure to chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment was associated with DNA damage, telomerase activity, and telomere length 3-6 years after completion of primary treatments in breast cancer survivors (stage 0-IIIA breast cancer at diagnosis)...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238037/the-association-of-sarcopenia-telomere-length-and-mortality-data-from-the-nhanes-1999-2002
#11
Peter L Rippberger, Rebecca T Emeny, Todd A Mackenzie, Stephen J Bartels, John A Batsis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass or function with aging and is associated with adverse outcomes. Telomere shortening is associated with mortality, yet its relationship with sarcopenia is unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Adults ≥60 years from the 1999-2002 NHANES with body composition measures were identified. Sarcopenia was defined using the two Foundation for the National Institute of Health definitions: appendicular lean mass (ALM) (men <19...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237161/effects-of-intentional-weight-loss-on-markers-of-oxidative-stress-dna-repair-and-telomere-length-a-systematic-review
#12
Caroline Himbert, Henry Thompson, Cornelia M Ulrich
BACKGROUND: Altered levels of markers of oxidative stress, DNA repair, and telomere integrity have been detected in obese individuals and may underlie the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. However, whether or not such effects are reversed by intentional weight loss has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed/Medline identified 2,388 articles of which 21 studies (randomized controlled trial (RCT) (n = 10) and non-randomized intervention studies (n = 11)) were classified as testing the effects of intentional weight loss on i) oxidative stress (n = 15), ii) DNA repair (n = 2), and iii) telomere length (n = 4)...
December 14, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236867/karyotype-analysis-in-bignonieae-bignoniaceae-chromosome-numbers-and-heterochromatin
#13
Joel M P Cordeiro, Miriam Kaehler, Gustavo Souza, Leonardo P Felix
Chromosome numbers and heterochromatin banding pattern variability have been shown to be useful for taxonomic and evolutionary studies of different plant taxa. Bignonieae is the largest tribe of Bignoniaceae, composed mostly by woody climber species whose taxonomies are quite complicated. We reviewed and added new data concerning chromosome numbers in Bignonieae and performed the first analyses of heterochromatin banding patterns in that tribe based on the fluorochromes chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)...
December 11, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235471/ctcf-driven-terra-transcription-facilitates-completion-of-telomere-dna-replication
#14
Kate Beishline, Olga Vladimirova, Stephen Tutton, Zhuo Wang, Zhong Deng, Paul M Lieberman
Telomere repeat DNA forms a nucleo-protein structure that can obstruct chromosomal DNA replication, especially under conditions of replication stress. Transcription of telomere repeats can initiate at subtelomeric CTCF-binding sites to generate telomere repeat-encoding RNA (TERRA), but the role of transcription, CTCF, and TERRA in telomere replication is not known. Here, we have used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to mutate CTCF-binding sites at the putative start site of TERRA transcripts for a class of subtelomeres...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234880/reorganization-of-wheat-and-rye-genomes-in-octoploid-triticale-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-triticosecale
#15
Anna Kalinka, Magdalena Achrem
The analysis of early generations of triticale showed numerous rearrangements of the genome. Complexed transformation included loss of chromosomes, t-heterochromatin content changes and the emergence of retrotransposons in new locations. This study investigated certain aspects of genomic transformations in the early generations (F5 and F8) of the primary octoploid triticale derived from the cross of hexaploid wheat with the diploid rye. Most of the plants tested were hypoploid; among eliminated chromosomes were rye chromosomes 4R and 5R and variable number of wheat chromosomes...
December 12, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233913/reference-quality-genome-assemblies-of-three-parastagonospora-nodorum%C3%A2-isolates-differing-in-virulence-on-wheat
#16
Jonathan K Richards, Nathan A Wyatt, Zhaohui Liu, Justin D Faris, Timothy L Friesen
Parastagonospora nodorum, the causal agent of Septoria nodorum blotch of wheat, has emerged as a model necrotrophic fungal organism for the study of host-microbe interactions. To date, three necrotrophic effectors have been identified and characterized from this pathogen, including SnToxA, SnTox1, and SnTox3. Necrotrophic effector identification was greatly aided by the development of a draft genome of Australian isolate SN15 via Sanger sequencing, yet remained largely fragmented. This research presents the development of near-finished genomes of P...
December 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231849/evolution-of-karyotypes-in-chameleons
#17
Michail Rovatsos, Marie Altmanová, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Petr Velenský, Antonio Sánchez Baca, Lukáš Kratochvíl
The reconstruction of the evolutionary dynamics of karyotypes and sex determining systems in squamate reptiles is precluded by the lack of data in many groups including most chameleons (Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae). We performed cytogenetic analysis in 16 species of chameleons from 8 genera covering the phylogenetic diversity of the family and also phylogenetic reconstruction of karyotype evolution in this group. In comparison to other squamates, chameleons demonstrate rather variable karyotypes, differing in chromosome number, morphology and presence of interstitial telomeric signal (ITS)...
December 12, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230450/charge-evolution-during-the-unfolding-of-a-single-dna-i-motif
#18
Weibin Ren, Kaikai Zheng, Charan Liao, Jingfa Yang, Jiang Zhao
The effective charge and evolution of single chains of a DNA i-motif during its unfolding process are investigated at the single molecule level. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and photon counting histograms, the single chain dimensions and electrical potential of cytosine-rich human telomeric oligonucleotides are monitored, during their unfolding from the i-motif to the random coil state. It is discovered that the effective charge density of the DNA chain is very sensitive to conformation changes and the results remarkably expose the existence of an intermediate state of the unfolding process...
December 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230034/telomere-length-and-bipolar-disorder
#19
Timothy R Powell, Danai Dima, Sophia Frangou, Gerome Breen
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/npp.2017.125.
January 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230030/silica-inhalation-altered-telomere-length-and-gene-expression-of-telomere-regulatory-proteins-in-lung-tissue-of-rats
#20
Mohammad Shoeb, Pius Joseph, Vamsi Kodali, Gul Mustafa, Breanne Y Farris, Christina Umbright, Jenny R Roberts, Aaron Erdely, James M Antonini
Exposure to silica can cause lung fibrosis and cancer. Identification of molecular targets is important for the intervention and/or prevention of silica-induced lung diseases. Telomeres consist of tandem repeats of DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes, preventing chromosomal fusion and degradation. Regulator of telomere length-1 (RTEL1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), genes involved in telomere regulation and function, play important roles in maintaining telomere integrity and length. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of silica inhalation on telomere length and the regulation of RTEL1 and TERT...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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