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Mingcui Ding, Yongli Yang, Xiaoran Duan, Sihua Wang, Xiaolei Feng, Tuanwei Wang, Pengpeng Wang, Suxiang Liu, Lei Li, Junling Liu, Lixia Tang, Xinhua Niu, Yuhong Zhang, Guoyu Li, Wu Yao, Liuxin Cui, Wei Wang
Omethoate, an organophosphorous pesticide, can cause a variety of health effects, especially the decrease of cholinesterase activity. The aim of this study is to explore the association of genetic polymorphisms of telomere binding proteins with cholinesterase activity in omethoate-exposed population. Cholinesterase activities in whole blood, red blood cell and plasma were detected using acetylthiocholine and dithio-bis-(nitrobenzoic acid) method; Genetic Genotyping of POT1 rs1034794, POT1 rs10250202, TERF1 rs3863242 and TERT rs2736098 were performed with PCR-RFLP...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Wenzheng Xia, Meng Hou
Doxorubicin (DOXO) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of various types of cancer. However, cardiotoxicity is a major side effect of DOXO therapy due to the ability of this compound to induce cardiac cellular senescence. It is well known that microRNA (miR)-34a serves a role in cardiac dysfunction and ageing, and that it is involved in several cellular processes associated with DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have been reported to modulate cellular senescence...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Andrew Blease, Thomas Nicol, Sara Falcone, Becky Starbuck, Simon Greenaway, Marie Hutchinson, Paul K Potter
Aging is inevitable, and our society must deal with the consequences: namely, an increased incidence of disease and ill health. Many mouse models of disease are acute or early onset or are induced in young mice, despite the fact that aging is a significant risk factor for a range of significant diseases. To improve modeling of such diseases, we should incorporate aging into our models. Many systems are affected by aging, with a decline in mitochondrial function, an increase in senescence, a loss of resilience, telomere shortening, and a decline in immune function being key factors in the increased susceptibility to disease that is associated with aging...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Ying-Ying Liu, Yao Shi, Ya Liu, Xing-Hua Pan, Ke-Xiong Zhang
Telomere shortening is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a high-morbidity and high-mortality lung disease of unknown etiology. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, wild-type (WT) mice with normal telomeres and generation 3 (G3) or G2 telomerase RNA component (TERC) knockout Terc- /- mice with short telomeres were treated with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bleomycin by intratracheal injection. We show that under LPS induction, G3 Terc- /- mice develop aggravated pulmonary fibrosis as indicated by significantly increased α-SMA, collagen I and hydroxyproline content...
June 20, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Christina Boeck, Juan Salinas-Manrique, Enrico Calzia, Peter Radermacher, Christine A F von Arnim, Detlef E Dietrich, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Alexander Karabatsiakis
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with telomere dysfunction and alterations in mitochondrial activity, which seem to be co-regulated in human cells. To investigate this co-regulation in MDD, we assessed telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and selected immune cell subsets by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and mitochondrial respiratory activity in PBMC by high-resolution respirometry in a study cohort of 18 MDD patients and 21 non-depressed controls...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anastasia A Proskuryakova, Anastasia I Kulemzina, Polina L Perelman, Natalia A Serdukova, Oliver A Ryder, Alexander S Graphodatsky
There are differences in number and localization of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in genomes. In mammalian genomes, NORs are located on autosomes, which are often situated on short arms of acrocentric chromosomes and more rarely in telomeric, pericentromeric, or interstitial regions. In this work, we report the unique case of active NORs located on gonоsomes of a eutherian mammal, the Javan mouse-deer ( Tragulus javanicus ). We have investigated the position of NORs by FISH experiments with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences (18S, 5...
June 20, 2018: Genes
Yu Liu, Samuel I Bloom, Anthony J Donato
In the United States and other westernized nations, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in adults over 65 years of age. Large artery stiffness and endothelial dysfunction are increased with age and age-associated arterial dysfunction is an important antecedent of CVDs. One age-associated change that may contribute to vascular dysfunction and CVD risk is an increase in the number of resident senescence cells in the vasculature. Senescent cells display a pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory phenotype known as the senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
June 20, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Quentin Helleu, Mia T Levine
The heterochromatic genome compartment mediates strictly conserved cellular processes such as chromosome segregation, telomere integrity, and genome stability. Paradoxically, heterochromatic DNA sequence is wildly unconserved. Recent reports that many hybrid incompatibility genes encode heterochromatin proteins, together with the observation that inter-species hybrids suffer aberrant heterochromatin-dependent processes, suggest that heterochromatic DNA packaging requires species-specific innovations. Testing this model of co-evolution between fast-evolving heterochromatic DNA and its packaging proteins begins with defining the latter...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Irene Pusceddu, Marcus Kleber, Graciela Delgado, Wolfgang Herrmann, Winfried März, Markus Herrmann
INTRODUCTION: Short telomeres have been associated with adverse lifestyle factors, cardiovascular risk factors and age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and also with mortality. However, previous studies report conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study has been to investigate the involvement of telomere length in all-cause and CVD mortality in subjects hospitalized for diagnostic coronary angiography of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study...
2018: PloS One
Hélène C F Côté, Anthony Y Y Hsieh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Rocio Montejano, Natalia Stella-Ascariz, Susana Monge, José I Bernardino, Ignacio Pérez-Valero, Mª Luisa Montes, Eulalia Valencia, Luz Martín-Carbonero, Victoria Moreno, Juan González-Garcia, Javier Rodriguez-Centeno, Berta Rodes, Andres Esteban Cantos, Belen Alejos, Rosa de Miguel, Francisco Arnalich, Rosario Perona, José R Arribas
Background: Tenofovir is a potent inhibitor of human telomerase. The clinical relevance of this inhibition is unknown. Methods: Prospective cohort of HIV-1 infected participants with suppressed virological replication, comparing whole blood telomere length (measured by quantitative multiplex PCR) of participants with current exposure versus never exposed to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Results: 172 participants included: 67 in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-group and 105 in the non-TDF group [75 receiving two nucleosides (69 abacavir), 25 receiving a completely nucleos(t)ide sparing regimen, and 5 receiving lamivudine as the only nucleoside]...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Cindy W Leung, Teresa T Fung, Claire T McEvoy, Jue Lin, Elissa S Epel
Aging is the biggest risk factor for the development of chronic diseases. Telomere length may represent one important mechanism by which dietary intake influences age-related diseases; however, it is unknown which diet pattern is most strongly related to telomere length. We compared the relations between four evidence-based diet quality indices and leukocyte telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults, and the extent to which these associations differ between men and women. Data came from 4,758 adults, aged 20-65 years, with no prior diagnosis of major chronic disease, from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES)...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Qidong Liu, Guiying Wang, Yao Lyu, Mingliang Bai, Zeyidan Jiapaer, Wenwen Jia, Tong Han, Rong Weng, Yiwei Yang, Yangyang Yu, Jiuhong Kang
During reprogramming, telomere re-elongation is important for pluripotency acquisition and ensures the high quality of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), but the regulatory mechanism remains largely unknown. Our study showed that fully reprogrammed mature iPSCs or mouse embryonic stem cells expressed higher levels of miR-590-3p and miR-590-5p than pre-iPSCs. Ectopic expression of either miR-590-3p or miR-590-5p in pre-iPSCs improved telomere elongation and pluripotency. Activin receptor II A (Acvr2a) is the downstream target and mediates the function of miR-590...
June 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Han Wang, Juan Ni, Xihan Guo, Tao Zhou, Xiaoling Ma, Jinglun Xue, Xu Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) have raised serious attention for their widely use and potential adverse effects on human mainly due to producing ROS. However, the influence of TiO2 -NPs on telomere maintaining has not been studied clearly. Shelterin plays core roles in telomere length (TL) regulation. Abnormal TL are associated with chromosome instability (CIN) and high risk of diseases. This study investigated whether TiO2 -NPs affect TL to induce CIN through ROS generation and the possible mechanisms...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Adriana Lopez-Doriga, Rebeca Sanz-Pamplona, Laura Valle, M Henar Alonso, Susanna Aussó, Adrià Closa, Xavier Sanjuan, David Barquero, Francisco Rodríguez-Moranta, Victor Moreno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mehmet U Bikkul, Craig S Clements, Lauren S Godwin, Martin W Goldberg, Ian R Kill, Joanna M Bridger
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal premature ageing disease in children. HGPS is one of several progeroid syndromes caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear structural proteins lamins A and C. In classic HGPS the mutation G608G leads to the formation of a toxic lamin A protein called progerin. During post-translational processing progerin remains farnesylated owing to the mutation interfering with a step whereby the farnesyl moiety is removed by the enzyme ZMPSTE24...
June 15, 2018: Biogerontology
Erin E Higgins, Wayne E Clarke, Elaine C Howell, Susan J Armstrong, Isobel A P Parkin
The heavy selection pressure due to intensive breeding of Brassica napus has created a narrow gene pool, limiting the ability to produce improved varieties through crosses between B. napus cultivars. One mechanism that has contributed to the adaptation of important agronomic traits in the allotetraploid B. napus has been chromosomal rearrangements resulting from homoeologous recombination between the constituent A and C diploid genomes. Determining the rate and distribution of such events in natural B. napus will assist efforts to understand and potentially manipulate this phenomenon...
June 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ahmed El-Badawy, Nehal I Ghoneim, Mohamed A Nasr, Hoda Elkhenany, Toka A Ahmed, Sara M Ahmed, Nagwa El-Badri
Telomerase and its core component, telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), are critical for stem cell compartment integrity. Normal adult stem cells have the longest telomeres in a given tissue, a property mediated by high hTERT expression and high telomerase enzymatic activity. In contrast, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have short telomeres despite high expression of hTERT, indicating that the role of hTERT in CSCs is not limited to telomere elongation and/or maintenance. The function of hTERT in CSCs remains poorly understood...
June 15, 2018: Biology Open
Ewan K S McRae, David E Davidson, Steven J Dupas, Sean A McKenna
Guanine quadruplexes can form in both DNA and RNA and influence many biological processes through various protein interactions. The DEAD-box RNA helicase protein DDX21 has been shown to bind and remodel RNA quadruplexes but little is known about its specificity for different quadruplex species. Previous reports have suggested DDX21 may interact with telomeric repeat containing RNA quadruplex (TERRA), an integral component of the telomere that contributes to telomeric heterochromatin formation and telomere length regulation...
June 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ashley E Mason, Frederick M Hecht, Jennifer J Daubenmier, David A Sbarra, Jue Lin, Patricia J Moran, Samantha G Schleicher, Michael Acree, Aric A Prather, Elissa S Epel
OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a weight-loss clinical trial for obesity, the impact of intervention arm, weight change, and weight-loss maintenance on telomere length (TL). METHODS: Adults (N=194) with a BMI between 30 and 45 were randomized to a 5.5-month weight-loss program with (n=100) or without (n=94) mindfulness training and identical diet-exercise guidelines. We assessed TL at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline in immune cell populations (primarily in peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs], but also in granulocytes and T and B lymphocytes)...
June 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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