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Pregnancy immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729288/urinary-extracellular-vesicles-of-podocyte-origin-and-renal-injury-in-preeclampsia
#1
Sarwat I Gilani, Ulrik Dolberg Anderson, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Tracey L Weissgerber, Ladan Zand, Wendy M White, Natasa Milic, Maria Lourdes Gonzalez Suarez, Rangit Reddy Vallapureddy, Åsa Nääv, Lena Erlandsson, John C Lieske, Joseph P Grande, Karl A Nath, Stefan R Hansson, Vesna D Garovic
Renal histologic expression of the podocyte-specific protein, nephrin, but not podocin, is reduced in preeclamptic compared with normotensive pregnancies. We hypothesized that renal expression of podocyte-specific proteins would be reflected in urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) of podocyte origin and accompanied by increased urinary soluble nephrin levels (nephrinuria) in preeclampsia. We further postulated that podocyte injury and attendant formation of EVs are related mechanistically to cellfree fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in maternal plasma...
July 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727206/the-mother-offspring-dyad-microbial-transmission-immune-interactions-and-allergy-development
#2
REVIEW
Maria C Jenmalm
The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726182/autoimmune-hypothyroidism-is-three-times-more-frequent-in-female-prolactinoma-patients-compared-to-healthy-women-data-from-a-cross-sectional-case-control-study
#3
Atanaska Elenkova, Iliana Аtanasova, Georgi Кirilov, Еmil Natchev, Ralitza Ivanova, Roussanka Кovatcheva, Silvia Vandeva, Dimitar Tcharaktchiev, Sabina Zacharieva
BACKGROUND: The potent immunomodulatory action of prolactin has been demonstrated in many experimental in vitro studies. In accordance with these data, our retrospective analyses revealed higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases in prolactinoma patients compared to general population. PURPOSE: A cross-sectional case-control study was carried out in a single tertiary referral centre. The main aim was to assess the frequency of newly diagnosed autoimmune thyroid diseases in female patients with prolactinomas...
July 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723925/immunologic-response-to-vaccine-challenge-in-pregnant-ptpn22-r620w-carriers-and-non-carriers
#4
Shelly H Tien, Juliet N Crabtree, Heather L Gray, Erik J Peterson
OBJECTIVES: Influenza infection is a significant cause of respiratory morbidity among pregnant women. Seasonal influenza vaccination engages innate immune receptors to promote protective immunity. A coding polymorphism (R620W) in PTPN22 imparts elevated risk for human infection and autoimmune disease, predisposes to diminished innate immune responses, and associates with reduced immunization responses. We sought to quantify the effects of PTPN22-R620W on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the inactivated influenza vaccine among healthy pregnant women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714605/epigenetic-alterations-and-prenatal-maternal-depression
#5
REVIEW
Zsofia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf
Major depressive disorder of the mother affects 6 to 17% of pregnancies worldwide and can lead to negative outcomes, such as preterm delivery and later mental health problems of the child. It has been proposed that developmental programming has long-lasting effects in the offspring that might be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. Altered stress regulation or impaired immunological function of the mother can potentially affect DNA methylation processes of the fetus, changing gene expression levels in utero...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713331/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-receptor-antibodies-in-pregnancy-clinical-relevance
#6
REVIEW
Ines Bucci, Cesidio Giuliani, Giorgio Napolitano
Graves' disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves' disease. TRAbs are heterogeneous for molecular and functional properties and are subdivided into activating (TSAbs), blocking (TBAbs), or neutral (N-TRAbs) depending on their effect on TSHR...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707000/inducing-maternal-inflammation-promotes-leptin-production-in-offspring-but-does-not-improve-allergic-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-rhinitis
#7
Atsuko Imai, Keiko Satoi, Eka Fujimoto, Kazuto Sato
AIMS: The intrauterine environment is considered to affect immunological development in fetus, leading to an increased risk of developing allergy. In particular, maternal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration might regulate the development of allergic disease in offspring. Several studies have shown that being obese relates to a higher prevalence of allergic diseases compared to normal weight. The present study explored the effects of inducing maternal inflammation with LPS before pregnancy on body weight, physical composition including body fat, adipokine production, and pathology of allergic rhinitis in offspring...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695287/the-role-of-kir-and-hla-interactions-in-pregnancy-complications
#8
REVIEW
Francesco Colucci
Combinations of KIR and HLA genes associate with pregnancy complications as well as with many other clinical scenarios. Understanding how certain KIR and HLA genes influence the biology of a disease is, however, a formidable challenge. These are the two most variable gene families in the human genome. Moreover, the biology of a disease is best understood by studying the cells of the affected tissue. Natural Killer (NK) cells express KIR and are the most abundant leukocytes in the uterus. Most of our knowledge of NK cells is based on what we have learned from cells isolated from blood, but these are different from their tissue resident counterparts, including uterine NK (uNK) cells...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686909/unraveling-the-role-of-maternal-anti-hla-class-i-antibodies-in-fetal-and-neonatal-thrombocytopenia-antibody-specificity-analysis-using-epitope-data
#9
Jesper Dahl, Erle Refsum, Maria Therese Ahlen, Torstein Egeland, Tore Jensen, Marte K Viken, Tor Brynjar Stuge, Ganesh Acharya, Anne Husebekk, Bjørn Skogen, Heidi Tiller
Anti-HLA class I antibodies have been suggested as a possible cause of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). The aim of this study was to characterize maternal anti-HLA class I alloantibodies in suspected cases of FNAIT. The study population consisted of all nationwide referrals of neonates with suspected FNAIT to the National Unit for Platelet Immunology in Tromsø, Norway, during 1998-2009 (cases), and 250 unselected pregnancies originally included in a prospective study (controls). Inclusion criterion was a positive screening for maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681830/isolation-of-salmonella-typhi-from-high-vaginal-swab-in-a-case-of-septic-abortion
#10
Pragnya Paramita Jena, Shalini Dewan Duggal, Avinash Kumar, Tanisha Bharara, Abha Sharma, Renu Gur
Salmonella Typhi can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnant females with adverse outcomes. Risk of infections increases manifold during pregnancy due to hormonal changes and immunological phenomena. S. Typhi has the ability to cross placenta (vertical transmission) resulting in miscarriage, stillbirth or premature labour. We report a case of a pregnant female who was admitted to emergency department with fever, missed abortion and hypovolaemic shock. Subsequently, S. Typhi was isolated from her high vaginal swab and blood cultures...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680463/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-herpes-simplex-1-virus-infection-in-pregnancy
#11
REVIEW
Rachel Lee, Manju Nair
A nulliparous woman presented at 21 weeks' gestation with a 72-h history of a rash on her left arm. Initially isolated to the forearm, it had quickly spread, becoming multiple itchy fluid-filled blisters. Blood tests showed mild neutrophilia and raised CRP. Skin swabs demonstrated the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) DNA. There was no history of previous HSV1 exposure. There is scant literature on uncomplicated cutaneous HSV1 since the majority is oral/genital. The incidence of transmission varies and is dependent on site of infection and immunological status...
June 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673078/nutritional-and-metabolic-programming-during-the-first-thousand-days-of-life
#12
Massimo Agosti, Francesco Tandoi, Laura Morlacchi, Angela Bossi
The latest scientific acquisitions are demonstrating what has already been hypothesized for more than twenty years about the development of the state of health/illness of individuals. Indeed, certain stimuli, if applied to a sensible phase of development, are able to modify, through epigenetic mechanisms, gene expression of DNA, resulting in adaptive modifications of phenotype to the environment, which may reflect negatively on the health of every individual. This concept, applied to nutrition, has opened up important prospects for research in this area...
June 28, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662050/cord-blood-t-cell-subpopulations-and-associations-with-maternal-cadmium-and-arsenic-exposures
#13
Unni C Nygaard, Zhigang Li, Thomas Palys, Brian Jackson, Melanie Subbiah, Meena Malipatlolla, Vanitha Sampath, Holden Maecker, Margaret R Karagas, Kari C Nadeau
BACKGROUND: Arsenic and cadmium are environmental pollutants, and although the evidence for adverse immune effects after prenatal arsenic and cadmium exposures is increasing, little is known about the underlying immunological mechanisms. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between prenatal arsenic and cadmium exposures and a variety of T cell subpopulations measured in cord blood for 63 participants in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Post-partum toenail concentrations of arsenic and cadmium were used as an estimate of maternal exposure during pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661314/effect-of-single-sensitization-event-on-human-leukocyte-antigen-alloimmunization-in-kidney-transplant-candidates-a-single-center-experience
#14
Marianna Resse, Rossella Paolillo, Biagio Pellegrino Minucci, Dario Costa, Carmela Fiorito, Michele Santangelo, Paride De Rosa, Claudio Napoli
OBJECTIVES: Human leukocyte antigen alloimmunization is caused by exposure to HLA antigens through transfusion, pregnancy, or transplant. Our study objective was to present the rate of positivity of anti-HLA antibody considering the effects of a single sensitization event in kidney transplant candidates at our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study reviewed 606 kidney transplant candidates. Patient sera were analyzed using Luminex xMAP technology. Panel reactive antibody positivity rates and antibody strengths in patients were analyzed according to a single sensitization event...
June 28, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654900/specific-microrna-library-of-ifn-%C3%AF-on-bovine-endometrial-epithelial-cells
#15
Haichong Wu, Tao Zhang, Xiaofei Ma, Kangfeng Jiang, Gan Zhao, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng
IFN-τ is specifically secreted by the conceptus in ruminants during early pregnancy, and it plays a vital role in the immunological function of pregnancy. However, its mechanism involving microRNA (miRNA) is still not well understood. Deep sequencing was used to explore the specific miRNA library of IFN-τ on bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEECs). The results showed that 574 known bovine miRNAs and 109 novel miRNAs were identified. We found 74 differentially expressed miRNAs, including 30 commonly expressed miRNAs in the experiment...
June 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653669/dnk-cells-facilitate-the-interaction-between-trophoblastic-and-endothelial-cells-via-vegf-c-and-hgf
#16
Liyang Ma, Guanlin Li, Guangming Cao, Yuchun Zhu, Mei-Rong Du, Yangyu Zhao, Hao Wang, Yanlei Liu, Yanyan Yang, Yu-Xia Li, Da-Jin Li, Huixia Yang, Yan-Ling Wang
Decidual NK (dNK) cells, identified as CD56(bright)CD16(-)CD3(-), account for ~70% of lymphocytes within the uterine wall during early pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that tight interactions between placental trophoblasts and dNK cells are critical for trophoblast cell differentiation. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be explored in detail. In the present study, conditioned medium (CM) was collected from cultured primary human dNK cells. Primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) or the human trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo was treated with dNK-CM and co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a three-dimensional Matrigel scaffold, and the formation of tube structures was dynamically monitored with live cell imaging...
June 9, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653441/prior-pregnancy-and-antenatal-rubella-sero-negativity-evidence-of-persistent-maternal-immunologic-alteration
#17
Terence T Lao, Annie S Y Hui, Daljit S Sahota
PROBLEM: It is unclear if the immunologic alterations induced by pregnancy could persist. METHOD OF STUDY: Antenatal rubella sero-negativity was correlated with gravidity, abortions and parity in 112 083 gravidae managed during 1997-2015, with further analysis stratified for factors known to influence rubella serology. RESULTS: The 10.2% sero-negative gravidae had different characteristics, and the incidence showed significant difference and positive trend (P<...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647398/immune-modulatory-effects-of-syncytiotrophoblast-extracellular-vesicles-in-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#18
Claudia Göhner, Torsten Plösch, Marijke M Faas
Unique immunologic adaptations exist to successfully establish and maintain pregnancy and to avoid an immune attack against the semi allogenic fetus. These adaptations occur both locally at the maternofetal interface and in the peripheral circulation and affect the innate as well as the adaptive immune system. Pregnancy is characterized by a general inflammatory state with activation of monocytes and granulocytes, but also with suppressive lymphocytes (regulatory T cells), and skewing towards T helper 2 immunity...
June 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642294/mhc-class-ii-invariant-chain-peptide-or-gamma-delta-t-cell-depletion-ameliorates-experimental-preeclampsia
#19
Piyali Chatterjee, Valorie L Chiasson, Geetha Seerangan, Eugene De Guzman, Moheb Milad, Kelsey R Bounds, Olga Gasheva, Richard P Tobin, Mohamad Hatahet, Shelley Kopriva, Kathleen A Jones, M Karen Newell-Rogers, Brett Mitchell
Excessive innate immune system activation and inflammation during pregnancy can lead to organ injury and dysfunction and preeclampsia; however, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown.  We tested the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor activation induces MHC class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression on immune cells, makes them pro-inflammatory, and are necessary to cause preeclampsia-like features in mice.  Treatment with VG1177, a competitive antagonist peptide for CLIP in the groove of MHC class II, was able to both prevent and treat preeclampsia-like features in mice...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636882/foxn1-italian-founder-mutation-in-indian-family-implications-in-prenatal-diagnosis
#20
Akella Radha Rama Devi, Nagesh Narayan Panday, Shaik Mohammad Naushad
The Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) is a transcriptional factor regulating the development, differentiation and function of thymic epithelial cells; maintaining T-lineage progenitors in bone marrow; promoting terminal differentiation of epithelial cells of hair follicles. Mutation in FOXN1 was reported to cause a rare disorder characterized by rudimentary thymus gland, T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia and nail dystrophy within an Italian community. This is the first report of FOXN1 p.R255X mutation from India, outside this endogamous Italian community...
June 18, 2017: Gene
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