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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636785/sperm-competition-suppresses-gene-drive-among-experimentally-evolving-populations-of-house-mice
#1
Andri Manser, Anna K Lindholm, Leigh W Simmons, Renée C Firman
Drive genes are genetic elements that manipulate the 50% ratio of Mendelian inheritance in their own favour, allowing them to rapidly propagate through populations. The action of drive genes is often hidden, making detection and identification inherently difficult. Yet drive genes can have profound evolutionary consequences for the populations that harbour them: most known drivers are detrimental to organismal gamete development, reproduction and survival. In this study, we identified the presence of a well-known drive gene called t haplotype post-hoc in eight replicate selection lines of house mice that had been evolving under enforced monandry or polyandry for 20 generations...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634729/analysis-of-gender-based-differences-among-surgeons-in-japan-results-of-a-survey-conducted-by-the-japan-surgical-society-part-1-working-style
#2
Kazumi Kawase, Kyoko Nomura, Ryuji Tominaga, Hirotaka Iwase, Tomoko Ogawa, Ikuko Shibasaki, Mitsuo Shimada, Tomoaki Taguchi, Emiko Takeshita, Yasuko Tomizawa, Sachiyo Nomura, Kazuhiro Hanazaki, Tomoko Hanashi, Hiroko Yamashita, Norihiro Kokudo, Kotaro Maeda
PURPOSE: To assess the working styles of men and women working as surgeons in Japan. METHODS: In July, 2014, the Japan Surgical Society invited all their members (n = 29,861), through an internet campaign, to participate in a nationwide survey of surgeons. The items investigated in this descriptive study included demographic information and working styles, based on a questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 6211 surgeons participated (response rate 20...
June 20, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630945/the-icr96-exon-cnv-validation-series-a-resource-for-orthogonal-assessment-of-exon-cnv-calling-in-ngs-data
#3
Shazia Mahamdallie, Elise Ruark, Shawn Yost, Emma Ramsay, Imran Uddin, Harriett Wylie, Anna Elliott, Ann Strydom, Anthony Renwick, Sheila Seal, Nazneen Rahman
Detection of deletions and duplications of whole exons (exon CNVs) is a key requirement of genetic testing. Accurate detection of this variant type has proved very challenging in targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, particularly if only a single exon is involved. Many different NGS exon CNV calling methods have been developed over the last five years. Such methods are usually evaluated using simulated and/or in-house data due to a lack of publicly-available datasets with orthogonally generated results...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614488/social-inequalities-in-maternal-mortality-among-the-provinces-of-ecuador
#4
Antonio Sanhueza, Jakeline Calle Roldán, Paulina Ríos-Quituizaca, Maria Cecilia Acuña, Isabel Espinosa
Objective: This study set out to describe the association between the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) estimates and a set of socioeconomic indicators and compute the MMR inequalities among the provinces of Ecuador. Methods: A cross-sectional ecological study was conducted, using data for 2014 from the country's 24 provinces. The MMR estimate was calculated for each province, as well as the association and its strength between MMR and specific socioeconomic indicators...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604289/a-suitable-soil-plague-s-urban-breeding-grounds-at-the-dawn-of-the-third-pandemic
#5
Christos Lynteris
A pressing question during the first half-decade of the third plague pandemic (1894-9) was what was a 'suitable soil' for the disease. The question related to plague's perceived ability to disappear from a given city only to reappear at some future point; a phenomenon that became central to scientific investigations of the disease. However, rather than this simply having a metaphorical meaning, the debate around plague's 'suitable soil' actually concerned the material reality of the soil itself. The prevalence of plague in the working-class neighbourhood of Taipingshan during the first major outbreak of the pandemic, in 1894 in Hong Kong, led to an extensive debate regarding the ability of the soil to harbour and even spread the disease...
July 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602953/patterning-and-morphogenesis-of-the-intricate-but-stereotyped-oikoplastic-epidermis-of-the-appendicularian-oikopleura-dioica
#6
Kanae Kishi, Momoko Hayashi, Takeshi A Onuma, Hiroki Nishida
Mechanisms for morphogenetic processes that generate complex patterns in a reproducible manner remain elusive. Live imaging provides a powerful tool to record cell behaviors. The appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, is a planktonic tunicate that has a rapid developmental speed, small number of cells (less than 3500 cells in a juvenile), and a transparent body. The trunk epidermis, called the oikoplastic epithelium (OE), has elaborate cellular arrangements showing a complex pattern to secrete so-called "house" made of extracellular components...
June 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593123/socio-demographic-predictors-of-residential-fire-and-unwillingness-to-call-the-fire-service-in-new-south-wales
#7
W Kathy Tannous, Kingsley Agho
In most industrialised countries, the majority of fire-related deaths and injuries occur in the home. Australia has implemented fire prevention programs and strategies, including the use of smoke alarms, to minimise this burden. The number of reported house fires has declined over the past decade. However, there is a growing recognition that unreported fires are important in the estimation of total fire hazards and their associated injuries. This current study used data from the 2014 New South Wales (NSW) Population Health Survey, a yearly telephone survey, consisting of 14,732 survey respondents...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592645/inbred-strain-variant-database-isvdb-a-repository-for-probabilistically-informed-sequence-differences-among-the-collaborative-cross-strains-and-their-founders
#8
Daniel Oreper, Yanwei Cai, Lisa M Tarantino, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, William Valdar
The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a panel of recently established multiparental recombinant inbred mouse strains. For the CC, as for any multiparental population (MPP), effective experimental design and analysis benefit from detailed knowledge of the genetic differences between strains. Such differences can be directly determined by sequencing, but until now whole-genome sequencing was not publicly available for individual CC strains. An alternative and complementary approach is to infer genetic differences by combining two pieces of information: probabilistic estimates of the CC haplotype mosaic from a custom genotyping array, and probabilistic variant calls from sequencing of the CC founders...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591975/an-overview-of-home-based-primary-care-learning-from-the-field
#9
Sarah Klein, Martha Hostetter, Douglas McCarthy
ISSUE: Homebound and functionally limited individuals are often unable to access office-based primary care, leading to unmet needs and increased health care spending. GOAL: Show how home-based primary care affects outcomes and costs for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries with complex care needs. METHODS: Qualitative synthesis of expert perspectives and the experiences of six case-study sites. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Successful home-based primary care practices optimize care by: fielding interdisciplinary teams, incorporating behavioral care and social supports into primary care, responding rapidly to urgent and acute care needs, offering palliative care, and supporting family members and caregivers...
June 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582739/floor-dust-bacteria-and-fungi-and-their-coexistence-with-pahs-in-jordanian-indoor-environments
#10
Afnan Al-Hunaiti, Sharif Arar, Martin Täubel, Darren Wraith, Androniki Maragkidou, Anne Hyvärinen, Tareq Hussein
Floor dust samples were collected from Jordanian indoor environments (eight dwellings and an educational building) in Amman. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses of selected fungal and bacterial groups were performed. The bacterial and fungal concentrations were also correlated with PAHs concentrations, which were previously measured in the same samples by using GC-MS. The bacterial and fungal concentrations varied significantly among and within the tested indoor environments. Based on the collected samples in the entrance area of the dwellings, the largest variation was found in Gram-negative bacteria and total fungi concentration...
June 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579629/prevalence-and-pattern-of-prescription-errors-in-a-nigerian-kidney-hospital
#11
Kehinde M Babatunde, Akinwumi A Akinbodewa, Ayodele O Akinboye, Ademola O Adejumo
OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) the prevalence and pattern of prescription errors in our Centre and, (ii) appraise pharmacists' intervention and correction of identified prescription errors. DESIGN: A descriptive, single blinded cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kidney Care Centre is a public Specialist hospital. The monthly patient load averages 60 General Out-patient cases and 17.4 in-patients. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 31 medical doctors (comprising of 2 Consultant Nephrologists, 15 Medical Officers, 14 House Officers), 40 nurses and 24 ward assistants participated in the study...
December 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579300/correcting-a-fundamental-flaw-in-the-paradigm-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#12
Selvi C Ersoy, Douglas M Heithoff, Lucien Barnes, Geneva K Tripp, John K House, Jamey D Marth, Jeffrey W Smith, Michael J Mahan
The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing cause of death worldwide, resulting in a global 'call to action' to avoid receding into an era lacking effective antibiotics. Despite the urgency, the healthcare industry still relies on a single in vitro bioassay to determine antibiotic efficacy. This assay fails to incorporate environmental factors normally present during host-pathogen interactions in vivo that significantly impact antibiotic efficacy. Here we report that standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) failed to detect antibiotics that are in fact effective in vivo; and frequently identified antibiotics that were instead ineffective as further confirmed in mouse models of infection and sepsis...
May 29, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575204/analysis-of-copy-number-variation-in-the-abp-gene-regions-of-two-house-mouse-subspecies-suggests-divergence-during-the-gene-family-expansions
#13
Željka Pezer, Amanda G Chung, Robert C Karn, Christina M Laukaitis
The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene region of the mouse genome contains 64 genes, some encoding pheromones that influence assortative mating between mice from different subspecies. Using CNVnator and quantitative PCR, we explored copy number variation in this gene family in natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm), two subspecies of house mice that form a narrow hybrid zone in Central Europe. We found that copy number variation in the center of the Abp gene region is very common in wild Mmd, primarily representing the presence/absence of the final duplications described for the mouse genome...
May 29, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566494/zinc-binding-structure-of-a-catalytic-amyloid-from-solid-state-nmr
#14
Myungwoon Lee, Tuo Wang, Olga V Makhlynets, Yibing Wu, Nicholas F Polizzi, Haifan Wu, Pallavi M Gosavi, Jan Stöhr, Ivan V Korendovych, William F DeGrado, Mei Hong
Throughout biology, amyloids are key structures in both functional proteins and the end product of pathologic protein misfolding. Amyloids might also represent an early precursor in the evolution of life because of their small molecular size and their ability to self-purify and catalyze chemical reactions. They also provide attractive backbones for advanced materials. When β-strands of an amyloid are arranged parallel and in register, side chains from the same position of each chain align, facilitating metal chelation when the residues are good ligands such as histidine...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562453/continuing-professional-development-for-faculty-an-elephant-in-the-house-of-academic-medicine-or-the-key-to-future-success
#15
David A Davis, William F Rayburn, Gary A Smith
The scope of change required by academic medical centers (AMCs) to maintain their viability and achieve their tripartite mission in the future is large; such reform is affected by numerous global, national, and local forces. Most AMCs focus their transformational efforts on organizational infrastructure (e.g., undertaking payment reform, developing new organizational structures, investing in information technology) and educational programs (with subsequent changes in undergraduate and graduate medical education curricula)...
May 30, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546210/release-of-mineral-bound-water-prior-to-subduction-tied-to-shallow-seismogenic-slip-off-sumatra
#16
Andre Hüpers, Marta E Torres, Satoko Owari, Lisa C McNeill, Brandon Dugan, Timothy J Henstock, Kitty L Milliken, Katerina E Petronotis, Jan Backman, Sylvain Bourlange, Farid Chemale, Wenhuang Chen, Tobias A Colson, Marina C G Frederik, Gilles Guèrin, Mari Hamahashi, Brian M House, Tamara N Jeppson, Sarah Kachovich, Abby R Kenigsberg, Mebae Kuranaga, Steffen Kutterolf, Freya L Mitchison, Hideki Mukoyoshi, Nisha Nair, Kevin T Pickering, Hugo F A Pouderoux, Yehua Shan, Insun Song, Paola Vannucchi, Peter J Vrolijk, Tao Yang, Xixi Zhao
Plate-boundary fault rupture during the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction earthquake extended closer to the trench than expected, increasing earthquake and tsunami size. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 362 sampled incoming sediments offshore northern Sumatra, revealing recent release of fresh water within the deep sediments. Thermal modeling links this freshening to amorphous silica dehydration driven by rapid burial-induced temperature increases in the past 9 million years. Complete dehydration of silicates is expected before plate subduction, contrasting with prevailing models for subduction seismogenesis calling for fluid production during subduction...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543653/ripples-what-to-expect-when-you-serve-on-a-bioethics-commission
#17
Thomas H Murray
Cloning was the issue that put the National Bioethics Advisory Commission on the map, but the first clue that NBAC would address cloning was a terse fax from the White House to each of us who served on the Commission. The fax noted that with the birth of the sheep named Dolly, mammalian cloning was now a reality, and it tasked NBAC with providing advice on the ethics of human cloning and how the nation should respond to it. We were given ninety days to report our findings. That's a very tight deadline for a report written by a committee, but we met it, and along the way, I learned important lessons...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531301/a-political-case-of-penetrating-cranial-trauma-the-injury-of-james-scott-brady
#18
Richard Menger, Piyush Kalakoti, Rimal Hanif, Osama Ahmed, Anil Nanda, Bharat Guthikonda
James Brady, the White House press secretary during President Ronald Reagan's first term in office, was 1 of 4 people (including the President) wounded during an attempted assassination attempt on President Reagan's life on March 30, 1981. John Hinckley, Jr. was found not guilty of this attempt by reason of insanity. The assassination attempt was a ploy by Hinckley, Jr. to impress the actress Jodie Foster. Brady was the most seriously injured of the 4 who were wounded. He suffered a gunshot wound to the left forehead that traveled through the left frontal lobe, corpus callosum, and then into the right frontal and temporal lobes...
May 22, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526047/the-paradigm-of-eave-tubes-scaling-up-house-improvement-and-optimizing-insecticide-delivery-against-disease-transmitting-mosquitoes
#19
Fredros Okumu
Control of mosquito-borne diseases is greatly compromised by spread of insecticide resistance, high implementation costs and sub-optimal compliance among users. Improved housing has potential to reduce malaria transmission nearly as much as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), while also preventing other arthropod-borne diseases and improving overall well-being. Yet, it is hardly promoted as mainstream intervention, partly because of high costs, minimal communal benefits to people in non-improved houses, and low scalability...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525991/correcting-for-day-of-the-week-and-public-holiday-effects-improving-a-national-daily-syndromic-surveillance-service-for-detecting-public-health-threats
#20
Elizabeth Buckingham-Jeffery, Roger Morbey, Thomas House, Alex J Elliot, Sally Harcourt, Gillian E Smith
BACKGROUND: As service provision and patient behaviour varies by day, healthcare data used for public health surveillance can exhibit large day of the week effects. These regular effects are further complicated by the impact of public holidays. Real-time syndromic surveillance requires the daily analysis of a range of healthcare data sources, including family doctor consultations (called general practitioners, or GPs, in the UK). Failure to adjust for such reporting biases during analysis of syndromic GP surveillance data could lead to misinterpretations including false alarms or delays in the detection of outbreaks...
May 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
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