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Hari Bhupathi Krishnan, Alaa Alaswad, Nathan Wayne Oehrle, Jason Gillman
Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase- isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen fixing nodules...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jennifer M Willingham-Lane, Londa J Berghaus, Steeve Giguère, Mary K Hondalus
The soil-dwelling, saprophytic actinomycete Rhodococcus equi is a multihost, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages. When inhaled by susceptible foals, it causes severe bronchopneumonia. It is also a pathogen of pigs, which may develop submaxillary lymphadenitis upon exposure. R. equi isolates obtained from foals and pigs possess conjugative plasmids housing a pathogenicity island (PAI) containing a novel family of genes of unknown function called the virulence-associated protein or vap family. The PAI regions of the equine and swine plasmids differ in vap gene composition, with equine isolates possessing six vap genes, including the major virulence determinant vapA, while the PAIs of swine isolates house vapB and five other unique vap genes...
September 2016: MSphere
Francesco Cenni, Davide Monari, Kaat Desloovere, Erwin Aertbeliën, Simon-Henri Schless, Herman Bruyninckx
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acquiring large anatomical volumes in a feasible manner is useful for clinical decision-making. A relatively new technique called 3D freehand ultrasonography is capable of this by combining a conventional 2D ultrasonography system. Currently, a thorough analysis of this technique is lacking, as the analyses are dependent on the software implementation details and the choice of measurement systems. Therefore this study starts by making this implementation available under the form of an open-source software library to perform 3D freehand ultrasonography...
November 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Santosh Anand, Eleonora Mangano, Nadia Barizzone, Roberta Bordoni, Melissa Sorosina, Ferdinando Clarelli, Lucia Corrado, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi, Sandra D'Alfonso, Gianluca De Bellis
Sequencing large number of individuals, which is often needed for population genetics studies, is still economically challenging despite falling costs of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Pool-seq is an alternative cost- and time-effective option in which DNA from several individuals is pooled for sequencing. However, pooling of DNA creates new problems and challenges for accurate variant call and allele frequency (AF) estimation. In particular, sequencing errors confound with the alleles present at low frequency in the pools possibly giving rise to false positive variants...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ingo Muegge, Andreas Bergner, Jan M Kriegl
Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) is an integral part of the drug discovery endeavor at Boehringer Ingelheim (BI). CADD contributes to the evaluation of new therapeutic concepts, identifies small molecule starting points for drug discovery, and develops strategies for optimizing hit and lead compounds. The CADD scientists at BI benefit from the global use and development of both software platforms and computational services. A number of computational techniques developed in-house have significantly changed the way early drug discovery is carried out at BI...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
James Davies
This paper examines how Task Force votes were central to the development of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III and DSM-III-R). Data were obtained through a literature review, investigation of DSM archival material housed at the American Psychiatric Association (APA), and interviews with key Task Force members of DSM-III and DSM-III-R. Such data indicate that Task Force votes played a central role in the making of DSM-III, from establishing diagnostic criteria and diagnostic definitions to settling questions about the inclusion or removal of diagnostic categories...
September 21, 2016: Anthropology & Medicine
Hoehun Ha, Peter A Rogerson, James R Olson, Daikwon Han, Ling Bian, Wanyun Shao
Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential soil. The purpose of this spatial epidemiology research is to describe the effects of physical factors on the concentration of lead (Pb) in soil in Anniston AL, and to determine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those residing in areas with higher soil contamination...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ian Njeru, Yusuf Ajack, Charles Muitherero, Dickens Onyango, Johnny Musyoka, Iheoma Onuekusi, Jackson Kioko, Nicholas Muraguri, Robert Davis
INTRODUCTION: Polio eradication is now feasible after removal of Nigeria from the list of endemic countries and global reduction of cases of wild polio virus in 2015 by more than 80%. However, all countries must remain focused to achieve eradication. In August 2015, the Catholic bishops in Kenya called for boycott of a polio vaccination campaign citing safety concerns with the polio vaccine. We conducted a survey to establish if the coverage was affected by the boycott. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted in all the 32 counties that participated in the campaign...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
James R Rodrigue, Matthew J Paek, Jesse D Schold, Martha Pavlakis, Didier A Mandelbrot
Our aim was to identify predictors and moderators of the effects of a house calls (HC) educational intervention, relative to a group-based (GB) intervention and to individual counseling (IC), in a randomized controlled trial to increase the likelihood of having living donor (LD) evaluations initiated and live donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Black adults wait listed for kidney transplantation (N = 152) were randomized into one of the three educational conditions. We examined demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and socio-contextual baseline characteristics as predictors and moderators of having a potential LD initiate evaluation...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Bettina Harr, Emre Karakoc, Rafik Neme, Meike Teschke, Christine Pfeifle, Željka Pezer, Hiba Babiker, Miriam Linnenbrink, Inka Montero, Rick Scavetta, Mohammad Reza Abai, Marta Puente Molins, Mathias Schlegel, Rainer G Ulrich, Janine Altmüller, Marek Franitza, Anna Büntge, Sven Künzel, Diethard Tautz
Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M...
2016: Scientific Data
Connie Duer, Tom Tomasi, Charles I Abramson
Even in the best situations, the artificial social constructs of captivity alter natural elephant behavior and unfortunately create distress. Asian elephants are powerful and intelligent animals that require consideration for their well-being and prudent management. The males present particular difficulties due to a temporary state of heightened aggressive behavior unique to male elephants called "musth." When he is in this state, the danger the elephant poses to other animals and the people around him is considerable...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Reports
Zhuoyi Huang, Navin Rustagi, Narayanan Veeraraghavan, Andrew Carroll, Richard Gibbs, Eric Boerwinkle, Manjunath Gorentla Venkata, Fuli Yu
BACKGROUND: The decreasing costs of sequencing are driving the need for cost effective and real time variant calling of whole genome sequencing data. The scale of these projects are far beyond the capacity of typical computing resources available with most research labs. Other infrastructures like the cloud AWS environment and supercomputers also have limitations due to which large scale joint variant calling becomes infeasible, and infrastructure specific variant calling strategies either fail to scale up to large datasets or abandon joint calling strategies...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Haifa Rashed
This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention...
September 9, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Mary Lou Manning, Jeanne Pfeiffer, Elaine L Larson
Antibiotic resistance is one of the top infectious disease threats facing the world today. The escalating resistance to antibiotics has been named by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of the top 5 threats to health in the United States and has led to the development of the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. The plan, released by the White House in March 2015, calls for the establishment of antibiotic stewardship programs in all acute care hospitals by 2020...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Ahmadreza Dorosty, Godana Arero, Maryam Chamar, Sogand Tavakoli
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It imposes significant costs on health care systems. Socioeconomic status is also the root cause of healthy challenges among the elderly. Therefore, investigating the association between sarcopenia and socioeconomic status is very important to improve healthy ageing of the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with socioeconomic status among the elderly in Tehran...
July 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Chris O Ifediora, Gary D Rogers
BACKGROUND: The Australian after-hours house-call (AHHC) services has grown rapidly in the past few years. Even though recent studies have looked at aspects of the service as it concerns the medical personnel involved, no national study has explored patient satisfaction with the service. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess patient satisfaction with Australian AHHC services and its predictors, with the hope of improving quality and patient outcomes. The findings might also have international relevance, given the developing nature of the AHHC in most countries...
September 1, 2016: Family Practice
Peijun Zhang, Jiaojiao Lu, Songhai Li, Jiabo Han, Qinguo Wang, Liangliang Yang
Spotted seals (Phoca largha) are thought to be less vocal than other phocids. However, acoustic communication behaviors of spotted seals have been reported several times. In this study, the vocal repertoires of spotted seals housed in Dalian Sun Aquarium, China were recorded and analyzed. The frequencies of the sounds made by the seals ranged from 139.3 to 2323.1 Hz, and the time durations lasted from 92.8 to 1208 ms, depending on age and gender (P < 0.01). The peak-to-peak sound source levels were 109-124 dB re 20μPa...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Abraham R Mwesigye, Scott D Young, Elizabeth H Bailey, Susan B Tumwebaze
The mining and processing of copper in Kilembe, Western Uganda, from 1956 to 1982 left over 15 Mt. of tailings containing cupriferous and cobaltiferous pyrite dumped within a mountain river valley. This pilot study was conducted to assess the nature and extent of risk to local populations from metal contamination arising from those mining activities. We determined trace element concentrations in mine tailings, soils, locally cultivated foods, house dust, drinking water and human biomarkers (toenails) using ICP-MS analysis of acid digested samples...
August 26, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
David B Douglas, Emanuel F Petricoin, Lance Liotta, Eugene Wilson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called "depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality". MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
H Friedmann, A Baumgartner, V Gruber, H Kaineder, F J Maringer, W Ringer, C Seidel
The administration in many countries demands a classification of areas concerning their radon risk taking into account the requirements of the EU Basic Safety Standards. The wide variation of indoor radon concentrations in an area which is caused by different house construction, different living style and different geological situations introduces large uncertainties for any classification scheme. Therefore, it is of importance to estimate the size of the experimental coefficient of variation (relative standard deviation) of the parameter which is used to classify an area...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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