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Army psychology

Diane M Flynn, Linda H Eaton, Honor McQuinn, Ashley Alden, Alexa R Meins, Tessa Rue, David J Tauben, Ardith Z Doorenbos
Chronic pain is a significant problem among military personnel and a priority of the military health system. The U.S. Army Surgeon General's Pain Management Task Force recommends using telehealth capabilities to enhance pain management. This article describes the development and evaluation of a telehealth intervention (TelePain) designed to improve access to pain specialist consultation in the military health system. The study uses a wait-list controlled clinical trial to test: 1) effectiveness of the intervention, and 2) interviews to assess barriers and facilitators of the intervention implementation...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Kenneth Maes, Svea Closser, Yihenew Tesfaye, Yasmine Gilbert, Roza Abesha
BACKGROUND: Many Community Health Workers (CHWs) experience the same socioeconomic and health needs as their neighbors, given that they are by definition part of their communities. Yet very few studies aim to measure and characterize experiences of deprivation, poverty, and wellbeing among community health workers. This study quantitatively examines deprivation and wellbeing in Ethiopia's Women's Development Army (WDA), a massive unpaid community health workforce intended to improve population health and modernize the country...
February 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Claudio Nieto Jimenez, Jorge Cajigal Vargas, Vjera Sofia Triantafilo Vladilo, Jose Naranjo Orellana
Introduction: The Chilean Army considers processes that can optimize physical capacities for responding to the impact of situations and given stressors. The study of the effect of hypothermia as a stressor agent (HSA) and its relationship with cardiovascular, hematological, anthropometric, endocrine, and immunological parameters has not been fully addressed experimentally in military populations. Objective: To identify the endocrine, hematological, cardiovascular, and immunological changes caused by HSA and to associate these variables with body composition and physical fitness in the military special operation courses of the Chilean Army...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Vanessa M Meyer
Background: Competitive athletes train body and mind in preparation for competition with mental fortitude often providing the "winning edge." Similarly, the current-day warfighter faces significant physical and psychological challenges and must be prepared to respond to life-threatening danger with mental and physical agility. Sport Psychology for the Soldier Athlete recognizes the soldier as an elite athlete and provides training required to perform at the highest caliber. Through this curriculum, mental skills coaching in goal setting, imagery, positive self-talk, and heart rate control is integrated into routine physical fitness training...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Harvey Whitehouse
Whether upheld as heroic or reviled as terrorism, throughout history people have been willing to lay down their lives for the sake of their groups. Why? Previous theories of extreme self-sacrifice have highlighted a range of seemingly disparate factors such as collective identity, outgroup hostility, and kin psychology. This paper attempts to integrate many of these factors into a single overarching theory based on several decades of collaborative research with a range of special populations, from tribes in Papua New Guinea to Libyan insurgents, and from Muslim fundamentalists in Indonesia to Brazilian football hooligans...
February 7, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Antonio L Manzanero, María Crespo, Susana Barón, Teresa Scott, Sofián El-Astal, Fairouz Hemaid
The present article studies war-related trauma and its effects on children living in the Gaza Strip, 6 months after the attack launched by the Israeli army on July 8, 2014, which lasted for 51 days. The objective was twofold: (a) to identify the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events and (b) to examine the symptoms of traumatic stress in children as described by their parents or tutors using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Data from 1,850 male and female children aged between 6 and 15 years living in the Gaza Strip were collected throughout the months of February and April 2015, that is 6 months after the attack...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Ying Zhang, Dongfeng Liang, Ronghuan Jiang, Xiaojian Ji, Yiwen Wang, Jian Zhu, Jianglin Zhang, Feng Huang
This study aimed to determine the clinical, psychological features, and quality of life in Chinese fibromyalgia (FM) patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 FM classification criteria at initial diagnosis. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital. A hundred and seven Chinese FM patients (86 females, 21 males) were included. Eighty-six patients completed the questionnaires. Descriptive, differences, and correlation analyses were performed...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
Candice Presseau, Ateka A Contractor, Madhavi K Reddy, M Tracie Shea
Childhood maltreatment is an increasingly established predictor of psychological problems. However, limited research addresses pathways though which childhood maltreatment influences the mental health of military personnel following deployment. The current study investigated the direct, and indirect through emotional numbing, relations between childhood maltreatment and psychological distress of recently deployed veterans. For a sample of 131 predominantly White, male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom members of U...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Yu-Chu Shen, Jeremy Arkes, Paul B Lester
BACKGROUND: Psychological health is vital for effective employees, especially in stressful occupations like military and public safety sectors. Yet, until recently little empirical work has made the link between requisite psychological resources and important mental health outcomes across time in those sectors. In this study we explore the association between 14 baseline psychological health attributes (such as adaptability, coping ability, optimism) and mental health outcomes following exposure to combat deployment...
October 5, 2017: BMC Psychology
Jamal Rahmani, A Milajerdi, A Dorosty-Motlagh
INTRODUCTION: Psychological disorders have a major role in the incidence of chronic diseases and may result in reductions in the cost-effectiveness of the Armed Forces. Previous civilian studies have shown a protective association between healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders, but evidence to support this for a military population is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association of Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) with depression, stress and anxiety among Iranian military personnel...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Sarah O Meadows, Terri Tanielian, Benjamin Karney, Terry Schell, Beth Ann Griffin, Lisa H Jaycox, Esther M Friedman, Thomas E Trail, Robin Beckman, Rajeev Ramchand, Natalie Hengstebeck, Wendy M Troxel, Lynsay Ayer, Christine Anne Vaughan
In 2009, RAND launched the Deployment Life Study, a longitudinal study of military families across a deployment cycle in order to assess family readiness. Family readiness refers to the state of being prepared to effectively navigate the challenges of daily living experienced in the unique context of military service. The study surveyed families at frequent intervals throughout a complete deployment cycle---before a service member deploys (sometimes months before), during the actual deployment, and after the service member returns (possibly a year or more after she or he redeployed)...
January 2017: Rand Health Quarterly
Stacey Young-McCaughan, Mona O Bingham, Catherine A Vriend, Alice W Inman, Kathryn M Gaylord, Christine Miaskowski
BACKGROUND: Service members injured in combat undergo repeated surgeries and long recoveries following a traumatic injury that produce a myriad of physical and psychological symptoms. PURPOSE: To describe the severity of pain, sleep disturbance, depression, and anxiety in service members with extremity trauma sustained during combat operations at the time of discharge from the hospital and to evaluate for differences in health status between those with and without symptom burden...
September 2017: Nursing Outlook
Rita F D'Aoust, Alicia Gill Rossiter, Amanda Elliott, Ming Ji, Cecile Lengacher, Maureen Groer
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Federal Health Care recently published an executive summary from a round table discussion indicating that active duty and retired female military personnel are at high risk for adverse health outcomes unique to military service including complications related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), unreported sexual trauma, and musculoskeletal problems. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine began to review, evaluate, and summarize the literature on health outcomes in Gulf War-deployed and found sufficient evidence of a causal relationship with PTSD and suggestive evidence of an association with fibromyalgia (FM)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
Bethany Ranes, Chris P Long, Stephanie Traynham, Amanda Hayes
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain...
July 2017: Military Medicine
Jason L Judkins, Devvon L Bradley
BACKGROUND: The management of Combat and Operational Stress Reactions (COSR) within an operational environment is a multidimensional process. The aim is to help prevent behavioral health problems, preserve combat power, and increase return to duty rates for combat stress related casualties. In some COSR cases, enhanced services are required and the Combat and Operational Stress Control (COSC) Clinic refers Service Members (SMs) to the Freedom Restoration Clinic (FRC). The purpose was to describe a deployed restoration center in Afghanistan and examine the long-term effectiveness of those services...
July 2017: Military Medicine
M K Nock, C L Dempsey, P A Aliaga, D A Brent, S G Heeringa, R C Kessler, M B Stein, R J Ursano, D Benedek
BACKGROUND: The suicide rate has increased significantly among US Army soldiers over the past decade. Here we report the first results from a large psychological autopsy study using two control groups designed to reveal risk factors for suicide death among soldiers beyond known sociodemographic factors and the presence of suicide ideation. METHODS: Informants were next-of-kin and Army supervisors for: 135 suicide cases, 137 control soldiers propensity-score-matched on known sociodemographic risk factors for suicide and Army history variables, and 118 control soldiers who reported suicide ideation in the past year...
November 2017: Psychological Medicine
Joaquín Sánchez-Molina, José J Robles-Pérez, Vicente J Clemente-Suárez
The study of organic and psychological response during combat situations has been poorly reported despite its importance for soldiers training and specific instruction, so it was proposed as aim of the present investigation to analyze the effect of a tactical parachute simulated jump in psycho-physiological response of paratroopers' warfighters during an urban combat simulation. 19 male paratroopers (31.9 ± 6.2 year old; 173.6 ± 5.3 cm; 73.8 ± 8.3 Kg) of the Spanish Army were divided in two groups: parachute jump group (n:11) that conducted a simulated parachute jump and a urban combat maneuver and a non-parachute jump group (n:8) that only conducted an urban combat maneuver...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
Eliza C Tassone, Bradley A Baker
Dismounted military personnel operate in physically and psychologically demanding environments, with energy intake from combat rations often falling short of their requirements, leading to reductions in body weight and changes in body composition, which can impact both their health and performance. This review systematically investigated the effects of the continual use of combat rations for periods of 3-40 d on body weight and/or body composition in military personnel engaged in training or deployment. In all, ten databases were searched from their inception until October 2016...
March 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Craig J Bryan, David S Wood, Alexis May, Alan L Peterson, Evelyn Wertenberger, M David Rudd
Brief cognitive behavioral therapy (BCBT) is associated with significant reductions in suicide attempts among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of action contributing to reductions in suicide attempts in effective psychological treatments remain largely unknown. The present study conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of BCBT versus treatment as usual (TAU) to examine the mechanisms of action hypothesized by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPT): perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and fearlessness about death...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Kirti Nath Jha
Combat-related eye injuries entail enormous financial, social and psychological cost. Military Combat Eye Protection (MCEP) decreases both the incidence and severity of eye injuries. Experts have recognised the need for MCEP for Indian soldiers. We aim to review the combat-related eye injuries and combat eye protection among the Indian soldiers. Global practices of MCEP are also reviewed. We also aim to offer our recommendations for Indian soldiers. We carried out Medline search for combat-related eye injuries and MCEP and separately searched for eye injuries among Indian soldiers during war and other operations...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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