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Army psychology

Rachel Sayko Adams, John D Corrigan, Beth A Mohr, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
This study examines whether the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-deployment binge drinking is independent of screening positive for mental health problems among male and female service members. Data are from the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study of Army members returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq in fiscal years 2008-2011. The sample consists of 240,694 male and 26,406 female active duty members who completed initial and follow-up questionnaires. The initial questionnaire, completed at the end of deployment, included screens for TBI and mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, harmful thoughts)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Gidugu Himashree, Latika Mohan, Yogesh Singh
UNLABELLED: Context • High altitude (HA) is a psychophysiological stressor for natives of lower altitudes. Reducing the morbidity and optimizing the performance of individuals deployed in an HA region has been attempted and reported with varied results. Objective • The present study intended to explore the effects of comprehensive yogic practices on the health and performance of Indian soldiers deployed at HAs. Design • The research team designed a prospective, randomized, case-control study...
September 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Ian D Coulter, Lara Hilton, Joan Walter, Kathleen S Brown
OBJECTIVES: Biomedicine and complementary and alternative medicine are forming new relationships, under the rubric of integrative medicine. Recently, the military has adopted integrative medicine as the model for pain management. An evaluation was conducted on an integrative model for pain management at a major Army medical center to determine the distinct challenges that were encountered during the early stages of this integrative program. METHODS: The design is a case study evaluation...
September 2016: Military Medicine
Jillian C Shipherd, Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, Joanne Fordiani
Objective: Although intrusive cognition (IC) is remarkably common in soldiers postdeployment and successful coping with ICs may predict better long-term psychological health, few elements of current programmatic postdeployment trainings have directly addressed adaptive strategies for managing intrusive deployment-related cognitions. The current study explored the efficacy of a brief acceptance-based skills training for coping with ICs relative to a change-based skills training, a psychoeducation-only training, or training as usual...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
J J Zhang, N Tao, J M Jia, X Qin, H Tian, E C Qiu, J W Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. METHODS: In October 2014, 625 young recruits enrolled in one troop of Xinjiang Military Command in 2014 were chosen as subjects by multi-stage stratified random sampling. The Chinese version of the job content questionnaire (JCQ)and the psychological stress self evaluation test (PEST)were used to investigate the subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups with scores higher and lower than the mean score of three subscales (job requirement, degree of autonomy, and social support)of JCQ to explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits...
April 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Pavlos Ntafoulis
Combat stress cases were traced in historical texts and military manuals on warfare from the Middle Byzantine period; they were mainly labelled as cowardice. Soldiers suffered from nostalgia or exhaustion; officers looked stunned, or could not speak during the battle. Cruel punishments were often enforced. Suicide and alcohol abuse were rarely mentioned. The Byzantines' evacuation system for battle casualties was well organized. Psychological operations were conducted and prisoners-of-war were usually part of them...
August 10, 2016: History of Psychiatry
Rachel Sayko Adams, Ruslan V Nikitin, Nikki R Wooten, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
An association between combat exposure and postdeployment behavioral health problems has been demonstrated among U.S. military service members returning from Afghanistan or Iraq in predominantly male samples, yet few studies have focused on the experiences of women. Using data from the longitudinal, observational Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat (SUPIC) Study, we explored the self-report of 4 combat exposure items and postdeployment behavioral health screening results for 42,397 Army enlisted women who had returned from Afghanistan or Iraq from fiscal years 2008 through 2011...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Joseph R Kardouni, Tracie L Shing, Daniel I Rhon
INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal low back pain (LBP) is commonly treated symptomatically, with practice guidelines advocating reserving surgery for cases that fail conservative care. This study examined medical comorbidities and demographic variables as risk factors for chronic/recurrent LBP, spinal surgery, and time to surgery. METHODS: A 2015 retrospective cohort study was conducted in U.S. Army soldiers (N=1,092,420) from 2002 to 2011. Soldiers with medical encounters for LBP were identified using ICD-9 codes...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Nicola T Fear, Daniel Meek, Paul Cawkill, Norman Jones, Neil Greenberg, Simon Wessely
BACKGROUND: Modern military operations have incorporated deployed civilians in a variety of roles (e.g. diplomats, private security staff). Many of these roles expose individuals to potentially dangerous or traumatic events. Evidence has shown that such exposures can cause psychological health problems in military personnel. It is likely that the same would be seen among civilians working in such environments. There is however limited research into the health of civilians deployed to war zones...
July 24, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Harris R Lieberman, Emily K Farina, John Caldwell, Kelly W Williams, Lauren A Thompson, Philip J Niro, Kyle A Grohmann, James P McClung
Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Jocelyn Td Kelly, Lindsay Branham, Michele R Decker
BACKGROUND: Globally, an estimated 300,000 children under the age of 18 participate in combat situations; those in armed groups in particular suffer prolonged exposure to psychological and physical abuse. The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) is a rebel movement known for its widespread conscription of children; yet little is known about this process once the group moved beyond northern Uganda. In this paper, we describe the processes related to abduction and indoctrination of youth by the LRA in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo ( DRC)...
2016: Conflict and Health
Carl H Gunderson, Robert B Daroff
Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Douglas J Lanska
During World War I, physical and occupational therapies became important adjuncts to surgical practice, particularly for orthopedic casualties, but there was little progress in the management of severe brain and spinal cord injuries (SCIs), largely because of the very high mortality of such injuries at that time. During World War II (WWII), rehabilitation was greatly expanded into an integrated, comprehensive multidisciplinary program in the U.S. military, largely because of the efforts of Howard Rusk (1901-1989), initially in the Army Air Corps and later across all of the services...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Laurent Tatu, Julien Bogousslavsky
Between 1914 and 1918, war strain appeared under a number of guises and affected, to varying extents, the majority of French soldiers. The most frequent form of war strain was war psychoneurosis, but war strain also induced more paroxystic disorders, such as acute episodes of terror, self-mutilation, induced illnesses and even suicide. Fear was the constant companion of soldiers of the Great War: soldiers were either able to tame it or overwhelmed by an uncontrollable fear. Nonetheless, over the course of the war, some aspects of fear were recognised as syndromes...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Daniela Schmitz Wortmeyer, Angela Uchoa Branco
In this article, our aim is to analyze institutional practices guided to promote the development of moral values within the context of military education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers. From a cultural psychological approach, we discuss how social guidance within military culture operates at different levels of the affective-semiotic regulation of individuals, structuring complex experiences that give rise to hypergeneralized meaning fields regarding morality and military values. For this goal, we first introduce some theoretical topics related to values development, emphasizing their affective roots and role in the emergence, maintenance, amplification and attenuation of all relations between the person and the environment...
September 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Laura Campbell-Sills, Lisa J Colpe, Carol S Fullerton, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Michael Schoenbaum, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, is prevalent in the military. The course of recovery can be highly variable. This study investigates whether deployment-acquired mTBI is associated with subsequent presence and severity of post-concussive symptoms (PCS) and identifies predictors of persistent PCS among US Army personnel who sustained mTBI while deployed to Afghanistan. We used data from a prospective longitudinal survey of soldiers assessed 1-2 months before a 10-month deployment to Afghanistan (T0), on redeployment to the United States (T1), approximately 3 months later (T2), and approximately 9 months later (T3)...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
E R Iskhakov
The article describes laws and regulations concerning the Russian army and navy, and accordingly its medical services accepted during the reign of Paul I. During this period different decrees aimed to improve medical personnel training in order to admit students to medical and surgical schools, reorganization of educational medical institutions, improving of professional skills of medical workers. Other decrees, aimed to improvement of recruitment of medical personnel of troops: the best students of <bonesetter's schools> had to be sent to troops instead physician assistant, medical staff increase and additional funding, countering the reduce of physicians' social welfare due to the inhumane attitude of the authorities, to regulate of the military medical service rotation order as well as assessment of their professional, moral, and psychological qualities...
August 2015: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Dinuk Jayasuriya, Rohan Jayasuriya, Alvin Kuowei Tay, Derrick Silove
BACKGROUND: The subject of post-conflict mental health lacks studies that are nationally representative or large enough to allow robust examination of levels of distress according to residency in geographical zones of conflict and ethnic minority status. We undertook a nationwide study in Sri Lanka to address these issues. METHODS: We used tablet devices to survey 20 632 people across 18 of 25 districts in Sri Lanka, of which nine were purposefully selected and nine randomly selected districts...
February 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Barbara L Pitts, Martin A Safer
A life-threatening traumatic experience can cause physical and psychological distress, but it can also be remembered with pride from having demonstrated one's courage and abilities under severe circumstances. Characteristics of the event, early response, as well as later personal reflection, together determine the individual's response to a traumatic event. We investigated how traumatic combat experiences and retrospective appraisals of those experiences affected reports of symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression in 324 U...
February 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Charles W Hoge, Christopher G Ivany, Edward A Brusher, Millard D Brown, John C Shero, Amy B Adler, Christopher H Warner, David T Orman
The cumulative strain of 14 years of war on service members, veterans, and their families, together with continuing global threats and the unique stresses of military service, are likely to be felt for years to come. Scientific as well as political factors have influenced how the military has addressed the mental health needs resulting from these wars. Two important differences between mental health care delivered during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars and previous wars are the degree to which research has directly informed care and the consolidated management of services...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
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