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Bone marrow concentrate

Xiao-Bing Cui, Jun-Na Luan, Kun Dong, Sisi Chen, Yongyi Wang, Wendy T Watford, Shi-You Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the role and underlying mechanisms of RGC-32 (response gene to complement 32 protein) in atherogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: RGC-32 was mainly expressed in endothelial cells of atherosclerotic lesions in both ApoE -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice and human patients. RGC-32 deficiency (Rgc32 -/- ) attenuated the high-fat diet-induced and spontaneously developed atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE -/- mice without affecting serum cholesterol concentration...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Nanshan Song, Yinquan Fang, Xiyang Sun, Qingling Jiang, Chenghuan Song, Miaomiao Chen, Jianhua Ding, Ming Lu, Gang Hu
β2-aderenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist, Salmeterol exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. However, the inhibitory effects of Salmeterol on inflammasome activation are elusive and the underlying mechanisms need to be explored. In this study, we established inflammatory model in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57BL/6J mice and β-arrestin2 knockout (β-arrestin2 -/- ) mice in vitro. In vivo study by LPS intraperitoneally (i.p.) in C57BL/6J mice was carried out to ascertain its roles in systemic inflammation...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Shichao Tong, Jimin Yin, Ji Liu
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is autologous and multifunctional. Platelet concentrate from blood contains highly concentrated platelets and various types of cells, including growth factors. PRP promotes the recovery of cell proliferation and differentiation. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a disease caused by femoral head damage or an insufficient blood supply, which leads to the death of bone cells and abnormal bone marrow composition. The subsequent repair of bone cells may result in changes to the structure of femoral head, femoral head collapse and joint dysfunction...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yuta Baba, Bungo Saito, Shotaro Shimada, Yohei Sasaki, So Murai, Maasa Abe, Shun Fujiwara, Nana Arai, Yukiko Kawaguchi, Nobuyuki Kabasawa, Hiroyuki Tsukamoto, Yui Uto, Hirotsugu Ariizumi, Kouji Yanagisawa, Norimichi Hattori, Hiroshi Harada, Tsuyoshi Nakamaki
Studies showed red cell distribution width (RDW) can improve the detection of morphological changes in red blood cells and the understanding of their contribution to dyserythropoiesis in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate dyserythropoiesis in MDS by RDW analysis and to explore the utility of RDW in clinical practice. We retrospectively analyzed laboratory and clinical data of 101 patients (59 patients was refractory anemia (RA) according to the French-American-British (FAB) classification)...
February 7, 2018: Leukemia Research
Xiang Li, Yue Gao, Qiang Zhang, Nan Hu, Dong Han, Shangwei Ning, Zhuo Ao
Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) is characterized by increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow, and accumulation of these cells in blood. We investigated the effects of an anti-malarial drug, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), on K562 CML cells. We identified 34 mRNAs and eight lncRNAs dysregulated following DHA treatment in pure and hemin-induced K562 cells. Up- or downregulation of these potential DHA targets increased with increasing DHA concentration. We also constructed and analyzed a DHA-related mRNA-lncRNA regulation network in K562 cells, and found that four DHA-modulated mRNAs regulated by four lncRNAs participated in the steroid biosynthesis pathway...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Gaofeng Su, Liyun Liu, Lingjie Yang, Yuming Mu, Lina Guan
Stem cells can promote myocardial regeneration and accelerate the formation of new blood vessels. As such, transplanted stem cells represent a promising treatment modality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Stem cells spontaneously home to the infarcted myocardium using chemotaxis, in which the stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1α) has been shown to be one of the most important chemokines. However, spontaneously secreted SDF-1α is short-lived, and therefore does not meet the needs of tissue repair. In this study, adenoviruses carrying SDF-1α genes were loaded on microbubble carriers and the adenoviruses were released into AMI rats by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Mona A M Abo-Zeid, Negm S Abdel-Samie, Ayman A Farghaly, Emad M Hassan
Cajanus cajan (L.) is a Pigeon pea cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. It contains many bioactive components. The present study aimed to assess the antimutagenic efficacy of a flavonoid fraction of Cajanus cajan (FFCC) to reduce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). We assessed genotoxic and cytotoxic effects using chromosome aberration, in mouse bone-marrow cells and spermatocytes, cell viability and DNA damage, in mouse bone-marrow cells. Animals received FFCC at concentrations 50,100 and 200 mg/kg b wt by oral gavage, and injected simultaneously with CP (20 mg/kg b wt) for 24 h...
February 2018: Mutation Research
Apeksha Damania, Deepika Jaiman, Arun Kumar Teotia, Ashok Kumar
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive therapeutic agent in regenerative medicine. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift from differentiation of MSCs to their paracrine effects at the injury site. Several reports elucidate the role of trophic factors secreted by MSCs toward the repair of injured tissues. We hypothesize that fractionating the MSC secretome will enrich exosomes containing soluble bioactive molecules, improving its therapeutic potential for liver failure...
February 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Akira Otabe, Fumio Ohta, Asuka Takumi, Barry Lynch
Two studies were conducted to further assess its mutagenic and genotoxic potential. In a bacterial reverse mutation pre-incubation study, Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA were treated with aspartame at concentrations of up to 5000 μg/plate with or without metabolic activation and showed no mutagenic potential. Similarly, in vivo micronucleus testing of aspartame following gavage administration (500-2000 mg/kg body weight) to Crlj:CD1(ICR) strain SPF male mice showed no increase in the proportion of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells collected and evaluated 24 or 48 h post administration...
February 2, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Yongxiang Xu, Jianmin Han, Yuan Chai, Shenpo Yuan, Hong Lin, Xuehui Zhang
The primary amine along the chitosan backbone plays a key role in biomedical applications. Although chitosan-based porous scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering, it remains very challenging to regulate uncross-linking primary amine content (CN) in scaffolds in order to realize particular mechanical and biological properties. In the present study, chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) scaffolds with controlled CN (i.e., degree of cross-linking) were prepared based on the ionic-dependent solubility of chitosan together with the freezing process...
April 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Valerio Sansone, Manuel Brañes, Pietro Romeo
We propose a novel approach for the treatment of atrophic bone non-unions via parallel applications of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and an autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplant. The hypothesis resides on the potentiality of shock waves (SWs) to act as a tool for manipulating the patient's mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition to the conventional physical stimulus achieved by delivering SWs at the site of non-union to stimulate the well-known trophic effects on bone tissue, a series of concomitant ESWT would be administered in tandem at a bone marrow donor site, such as the iliac crest, to precondition resident bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vivo, priming resident MSCs by enlarging and conditioning their population prior to bone marrow aspiration...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Bret H Clough, Suzanne Zeitouni, Ulf Krause, Christopher D Chaput, Lauren M Cross, Akhilesh K Gaharwar, Carl A Gregory
Non-union defects of bone are a major problem in orthopedics, especially for patients with a low healing capacity. Fixation devices and osteoconductive materials are used to provide a stable environment for osteogenesis and an osteogenic component such as autologous human bone marrow (hBM) is then used, but robust bone formation is contingent on the healing capacity of the patients. A safe and rapid procedure for improvement of the osteoanabolic properties of hBM is, therefore, sought after in the field of orthopedics, especially if it can be performed within the temporal limitations of the surgical procedure, with minimal manipulation, and at point-of-care...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Jun Yin, Mengling Yan, Yancheng Wang, Jianzhong Fu, Hairui Suo
Methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) has been widely used as the tissue engineered scaffold material, but only low concentration GelMA hydrogels were found to be promising cell-laden bioinks with excellent cell viability. In this work, we reported a strategy for precisely deposition of 5% (w/v) cell-laden GelMA bioinks into controlled micro-architectures with high cell viability using extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. By adding gelatin into GelMA bioinks, a two-step crosslinking combining the rapid and reversible thermo-crosslinking of gelatin with irreversible photo-crosslinking of GelMA was achieved...
February 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chun Liu, Deshuai Liu, Yingying Wang, Yun Li, Tao Li, Zhiyou Zhou, Zhijian Yang, Jianhua Wang, Qiqing Zhang
In this article, we fabricated a bioactive hydrogel composed of glycol chitosan (G-CS) and oxidized hyaluronic acid (OHA) via Schiff base reaction. Cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) particles with different concentrations were used to functionalize G-CS/OHA (S1) hydrogel. The results demonstrated that S3 (G-CS/OHA/ECM 2% w/v) hydrogel exhibited the most suitable compression strength and provided the optimal environment for proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To assess the chondroinductivity of ECM in vitro, we compared the chondrogenesis of BMSCs in S1 (G-CS/OHA) and S3 (G-CS/OHA/ECM 2% w/v) hydrogels...
February 5, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Sijie Hao, Laura Ha, Gong Cheng, Yuan Wan, Yiqiu Xia, Donna M Sosnoski, Andrea M Mastro, Si-Yang Zheng
Bone metastasis occurs at ≈70% frequency in metastatic breast cancer. The mechanisms used by tumors to hijack the skeleton, promote bone metastases, and confer therapeutic resistance are poorly understood. This has led to the development of various bone models to investigate the interactions between cancer cells and host bone marrow cells and related physiological changes. However, it is challenging to perform bone studies due to the difficulty in periodic sampling. Herein, a bone-on-a-chip (BC) is reported for spontaneous growth of a 3D, mineralized, collagenous bone tissue...
February 5, 2018: Small
Takeshi Kuroshima, Mayumi Wada, Takehiko Sato, Masashi Takano, Shujiroh Makino
A 78-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Oral Surgery, Hokuto Hospital (Obihiro, Japan) for painless swelling on the left neck and tongue. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen resulted in a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Imaging examinations revealed cervical lymph node metastases on both sides, along with diffuse uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the bone marrow of the spine and pelvis. Hematologic tests revealed an increased white blood cell (WBC) count and serum concentrations of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Wanshan Zhou, Qian Liu, Bo Xu
The effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from three different sources in the treatment of bone defect with stem cells, and the differences of curative effects were studied. The umbilical cord, adipose and bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells (BMSCs) of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were isolated and extracted, and the phenotype was identified for the 4th generation. The SD rat model of bone defect was established. The rats were randomly divided into: Normal saline group, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UMSC) group, adipose mesenchymal stem cell (AMSC) group and BMSC group...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Sungjin Ahn, Moonyoung Lee, Seungchan An, Sooyeol Hyun, Jiho Hwang, Jongkook Lee, Minsoo Noh
Adiponectin is a major adipocytokine secreted from mammalian adipocytes. Relatively low expression of adiponectin is associated with various human metabolic diseases and some cancers. Adiponectin-secreting compounds have therapeutic potential for these diseases. Adipogenesis of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) has been used as a phenotypic assay to find adiponectin secreting compounds. In a phytochemical library screen, 2-formyl-komarovicine, 1-(quinolin-8-yl)-1,3,4,9-tetrahydro-2H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-2-carbaldehyde, isolated from Nitraria komarovii was identified as a potential adiponectin-secreting compound...
February 1, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Chiara Ricci, Massimiliano Ruscica, Marina Camera, Laura Rossetti, Chiara Macchi, Alessandra Colciago, Ilaria Zanotti, Maria Giovanna Lupo, Maria Pia Adorni, Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Alberto Corsini, Nicola Ferri
Intraplaque release of inflammatory cytokines from macrophages is implicated in atherogenesis by inducing the proliferation and migration of media smooth muscle cells (SMCs). PCSK9 is present and released by SMCs within the atherosclerotic plaque but its function is still unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that PCSK9 could elicit a pro-inflammatory effect on macrophages. THP-1-derived macrophages and human primary macrophages were exposed to different concentrations (0.250 ÷ 2.5 µg/ml) of human recombinant PCSK9 (hPCSK9)...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maha A Qadan, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Cynthia Boehm, Wesley Bova, Malcolm Moos, Ronald J Midura, Vincent C Hascall, Christopher Malcuit, George F Muschler
BACKGROUND AIMS: Connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) embody the heterogeneous stem and progenitor cell populations present in native tissue. CTPs are essential to the formation and remodeling of connective tissue and represent key targets for tissue-engineering and cell-based therapies. To better understand and characterize CTPs, we aimed to compare the (i) concentration and prevalence, (ii) early in vitro biological behavior and (iii) expression of surface-markers and transcription factors among cells derived from marrow space (MS), trabecular surface (TS), and adipose tissues (AT)...
January 29, 2018: Cytotherapy
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