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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040534/macrophages-escape-klotho-gene-silencing-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-promote-muscle-growth-and-increase-satellite-cell-numbers-through-a-klotho-mediated-pathway
#1
Michelle Wehling-Henricks, Steven S Welc, Guiseppina Samengo, Chiara Rinaldi, Catherine Lindsey, Ying Wang, Jeongyoon Lee, Makoto Kuro-O, James G Tidball
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle wasting disease in which inflammation influences the severity of pathology. We found that the onset of muscle inflammation in the mdx mouse model of DMD coincides with large increases in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα); interferon gamma (IFNγ)] and dramatic reductions of the pro-myogenic protein Klotho in muscle cells and large increases of Klotho in pro-regenerative, CD206+ macrophages. Furthermore, TNFα and IFNγ treatments reduced Klotho in muscle cells and increased Klotho in macrophages...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031719/macrophage-alternative-activation-confers-protection-against-lipotoxicity-induced-cell-death
#2
Lingling Dai, Prerna Bhargava, Kristopher J Stanya, Ryan K Alexander, Yae-Huei Liou, David Jacobi, Nelson H Knudsen, Alexander Hyde, Matthew R Gangl, Sihao Liu, Chih-Hao Lee
OBJECTIVE: Alternative activation (M2) of adipose tissue resident macrophage (ATM) inhibits obesity-induced metabolic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that dysregulated lipid homeostasis caused by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) in the obese state is a trigger of inflammatory responses. We investigated the role of M2 macrophages in lipotoxicity-induced inflammation. METHODS: We used microarray experiments to profile macrophage gene expression regulated by two M2 inducers, interleukin-4 (Il-4), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta/gamma (Pparδ/Pparγ) agonists...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031223/enhanced-antibacterial-activity-and-biocompatibility-of-zinc-incorporated-organic-inorganic-nanocomposite-coatings-via-electrophoretic-deposition
#3
Pin Huang, Kena Ma, Xinjie Cai, Dan Huang, Xu Yang, Jiabing Ran, Fushi Wang, Tao Jiang
Increased use of reconstruction procedures in orthopedics has improved the life of patients undergoing surgery. However, surgical site infection remains a major challenge. Efforts were made to fabricate antibacterial surfaces with good biocompatibility. This present study aimed to fabricate zinc-incorporated chitosan/gelatin (CS/G) nanocomposite coatings on the titanium substrates via electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Physicochemical characterization confirmed that zinc was successfully deposited in a metallic oxide/salt complex status...
October 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031126/artesunate-induces-apoptosis-via-inhibition-of-stat3-in-thp-1-cells
#4
Mei Tan, Ying Rong, Qiong Su, Yan Chen
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore STAT3 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), assess the anti-proliferative effects of artesunate (ART) on THP-1 cells in vivo and in vitro, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: In this study, we examined 30 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia diagnosed in our hospital from January 2015 to January 2016. The 20 control group patients had non-haematological diseases and were hospitalized for the same period...
October 5, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029793/high-extracellular-ca-2-enhances-the-adipocyte-accumulation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-through-a-decrease-in-camp
#5
Ryota Hashimoto, Youichi Katoh, Yuki Miyamoto, Kyoko Nakamura, Seigo Itoh, Hiroyuki Daida, Yuji Nakazato, Takao Okada
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are common progenitors of both adipocytes and osteoblasts. We recently suggested that increased [Ca(2+)]o caused by bone resorption might accelerate adipocyte accumulation in response to treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which high [Ca(2+)]o enhances adipocyte accumulation. We used primary mouse BMSCs and evaluated the levels of adipocyte accumulation by measuring Oil Red O staining. CaSR agonists (both Ca(2+) and Sr(2+)) enhanced the accumulation of adipocytes among BMSCs in response to treatment with both insulin and dexamethasone...
November 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027140/biosafety-and-antibacterial-ability-of-graphene-and-graphene-oxide-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Long Pang, Chunqiu Dai, Long Bi, Zhongshang Guo, Junjun Fan
In recent years, graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles have begun to be applied in surgical implant surface modification. However, biosafety and antibacterial ability of G and GO are still unclear. In this study, the biosafety of G and GO in vitro was evaluated by co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and biosafety in vivo was observed by implanting materials into mice muscle tissue. Biosafety results showed that 10 μg/ml was the safety critical concentration for G and GO...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025771/endothelial-activation-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-neurotoxicity-after-adoptive-immunotherapy-with-cd19-car-t-cells
#7
Juliane Gust, Kevin A Hay, Laïla-Aïcha Hanafi, Daniel Li, David Myerson, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar, Cecilia Yeung, W Conrad Liles, Mark Wurfel, Jose A Lopez, Junmei Chen, Dominic Chung, Susanna Harju-Baker, Tahsin Özpolat, Kathleen R Fink, Stanley R Riddell, David G Maloney, Cameron J Turtle
Lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by infusion of CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cells can be complicated by neurologic adverse events (AE) in patients with refractory B-cell malignancies. In 133 adults treated with CD19 CAR-T cells, we found that acute lymphoblastic leukemia, high CD19(+) cells in bone marrow, high CAR-T cell dose, cytokine release syndrome, and preexisting neurologic comorbidities were associated with increased risk of neurologic AEs. Patients with severe neurotoxicity demonstrated evidence of endothelial activation, including disseminated intravascular coagulation, capillary leak, and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability...
October 12, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023156/stem-cell-therapy-for-articular-cartilage-repair-review-of-the-entity-of-cell-populations-used-and-the-result-of-the-clinical-application-of-each-entity
#8
Yong-Beom Park, Chul-Won Ha, Ji Heon Rhim, Han-Jun Lee
BACKGROUND: Following successful preclinical studies, stem cell therapy is emerging as a candidate for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions. Because stem cell therapy for cartilage repair in humans is at an early phase, confusion and errors are found in the literature regarding use of the term stem cell therapy in this field. PURPOSE: To provide an overview of the outcomes of cartilage repair, elucidating the various cell populations used, and thus reduce confusion with regard to using the term stem cell therapy...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022575/gefitinib-inhibits-m2-like-polarization-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-lewis-lung-cancer-by-targeting-the-stat6-signaling-pathway
#9
Muhammad Tariq, Jie-Qiong Zhang, Gui-Kai Liang, Qiao-Jun He, Ling Ding, Bo Yang
M2-like polarized tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a pivotal role in promoting cancer cell growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. The identification of M2-like TAMs during tumor progression is an attractive approach for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the relevance of macrophage polarization and the antitumor effect of gefitinib in Lewis Lung cancer (LLC) in vitro and in vivo. Gefitinib at a concentration below 2.5 μmol/L did not cause significant growth inhibition on LLC and RAW 264...
October 12, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016185/clinical-outcomes-of-knee-osteoarthritis-treated-with-an-autologous-protein-solution-injection-a-1-year-pilot-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Elizaveta Kon, Lars Engebretsen, Peter Verdonk, Stefan Nehrer, Giuseppe Filardo
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease resulting in substantial pain and functional limitations. A novel blood derivative has been developed to concentrate both growth factors and antagonists of inflammatory cytokines, with promising preliminary findings in terms of safety profile and clinical improvement. PURPOSE: To investigate if one intra-articular injection of autologous protein solution (APS) can reduce pain and improve function in patients affected by knee OA in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, saline-controlled study...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993845/-new-experimental-strategies-in-cartilage-surgery
#11
REVIEW
L Rackwitz, J C Reichert, O Pullig, U Nöth
BACKGROUND: Cell and growth factor based strategies bear great potential to support the healing processes in cartilage repair and the therapy of osteoarthritic joints. OBJECTIVES: The following review provides an overview of novel experimental strategies for the therapy of focal cartilage defects and osteoarthritis, with emphasis on cell and growth factor based approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors summarize their own data regarding the intraarticular injection of stem cells to treat osteoarthritis of the knee and provide a synopsis of the available literature discussing the most significant publications...
October 9, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991252/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-mycophenolic-acid-using-the-prospective-data-in-patients-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#12
K Yoshimura, I Yano, T Yamamoto, M Kawanishi, Y Isomoto, A Yonezawa, T Kondo, A Takaori-Kondo, K Matsubara
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA), is used to suppress GvHD in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The purpose of this study was to construct a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model in HCT patients for individualized MPA therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 49 HCT patients after starting MMF therapy. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were obtained using the program NONMEM. MPA was described via a one-compartment model with a first-order elimination, and 30...
October 9, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990575/a-systematic-review-of-the-concept-and-clinical-applications-of-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-in-tendon-pathology
#13
Mohamed A Imam, James Holton, Saman Horriat, Ahmed S Negida, Florian Grubhofer, Rohit Gupta, Ali Narvani, Martyn Snow
Tendon pathologies are a group of musculoskeletal conditions frequently seen in clinical practice. They can be broadly classified into traumatic, degenerative and overuse-related tendinopathies. Rotator cuff tears, Achilles tendinopathy and tennis elbow are common examples of these conditions. Conventional treatments have shown inconsistent outcomes and might fail to provide satisfactory clinical improvement. With the growing trend towards the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in other branches of medicine, there is an increasing interest in treating tendon pathologies using the bone marrow MSC...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988340/inefficacy-of-autologous-bone-marrow-concentrate-in-stage-three-osteonecrosis-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial
#14
Jean-Philippe Hauzeur, Viviane De Maertelaer, Etienne Baudoux, Michel Malaise, Yves Beguin, Valérie Gangji
PURPOSE: The fracture stage of non-traumatic osteonecrosis (ON stage 3) of the femoral head (ONFH) has an unfavourable prognosis frequently requiring total hip replacement (THR). The percentage could be lowered after core decompression. In earlier non-fracture ON stages, implantation of autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) improved the effect of core decompression. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of BMAC in addition to core decompression in stage 3 ONFH. METHODS: A double blind RCT was conducted comparing two groups: core decompression plus saline injection or core decompression plus BMAC implantation...
October 7, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988113/effects-of-dexamethasone-on-purinergic-signaling-in-murine-mast-cells-selective-suppression-of-p2x7-receptor-expression
#15
Kazuki Yoshida, Masaaki Ito, Yui Hoshino, Isao Matsuoka
Mast cells express many different purinergic receptors, including ionotropic P2X4 and P2X7, which recognize the accumulation of extracellular ATP released from activated and/or damaged cells. This results in the stimulation of mast cell functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone (Dex), an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid widely used for the treatment of allergic disease, on purinergic receptor expression in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Treatment of BMMCs with Dex decreased P2X7 receptor mRNA levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner without affecting the expression of other purinergic receptor subtypes...
October 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986286/differential-responses-of-lineages-committed-hematopoietic-progenitors-and-altered-expression-of-self-renewal-and-differentiation-related-genes-in-1-4-benzoquinone-1-4-bq-exposure
#16
Paik Wah Chow, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Kien Hui Chua, Kok Meng Chan, Zariyantey Abd Hamid
Despite of reports on hematotoxic and leukemogenic evidences related to benzene exposure, the mechanism of benzene toxicity affecting the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) fate remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the benzene's effect on the lineages-committed progenitors and genes-regulating self-renewal and differentiation of HSPCs. Isolated mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) at 1.25, 2.5, and 5μM for 24h. The clonogenic potency of erythroid, myeloid, and Pre-B lymphoid progenitors was evaluated through colony-forming-cell assay...
October 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986174/cell-density-dimethylsulfoxide-concentration-and-needle-gauge-affect-hydrogel-induced-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-viability
#17
Xia Chen, Alexander G Foote, Susan L Thibeault
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown potential therapeutic benefits for a range of medical disorders and continue to be a focus of intense scientific investigation. Transplantation of MSCs into injured tissue can improve wound healing, tissue regeneration and functional recovery. However, implanted cells rapidly lose their viability or fail to integrate into host tissue. Hydrogel-seeded bone marrow (BM)-MSCs offer improved viability in response to mechanical forces caused by syringe needles, cell density and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) concentration, which in turn, will help to clarify which factors are important for enhancing biomaterial-induced cell transplantation efficiency and provide much needed guidance for clinical trials...
October 3, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983593/anti%C3%A2-osteoporotic-effects-of-tetramethylpyrazine-via-promoting-osteogenic-differentiation-and-inhibiting-osteoclast-formation
#18
Long Wang, Wei-Guang Lu, Jun Shi, Hong-Yang Zhang, Xiao-Long Xu, Bo Gao, Qiang Huang, Xiao-Jie Li, Ya-Qian Hu, Qiang Jie, Zhuo-Jing Luo, Liu Yang
Long‑term glucocorticoid therapy results in various side effects, including a high incidence of glucocorticoid‑induced osteoporosis (GIOP), which is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis. Excess glucocorticoids reduce the viability of bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and prolong osteoclast survival. These two types of cell are essential in the balance between bone formation and resorption. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), the pharmacologically active component extracted from Chuanxiong, has been reported to protect BMSCs from glucocorticoid‑induced apoptosis...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979628/determination-in-vivo-viability-of-a-transfused-platelet-product-by-corrected-count-increment-and-percentage-platelet-response
#19
Nancy Wanjiru Thuku, Kibet Shikuku, Amos Mbugua
INTRODUCTION: For many years, platelet concentrates have been used for the prevention as well as treatment of bleeding disorders, especially in those patients with haematological problems involving platelet disorders as well as refractoriness, In addition, platelet concentrates (PCs) have been widely used to support patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation or who are receiving myelotoxic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of platelet concentrates by assessing platelet counts, volume, pH changes, swirling, residue of the red blood cells and white blood cell counts...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978523/recombinant-sclerostin-antagonises-effects-of-ex-vivo-mechanical-loading-in-trabecular-bone-and-increases-osteocyte-lacunar-size
#20
Masakazu Kogawa, Kamarul A Khalid, Asiri R Wijenayaka, Renee T Ormsby, Andreas Evdokiou, Paul H Anderson, David M Findlay, Gerald J Atkins
Sclerostin (SCL) has emerged as an important regulator of bone mass. We have shown that SCL can act by targeting late osteoblasts/osteocytes to inhibit bone mineralisation and to upregulate osteocyte expression of catabolic factors, resulting in osteocytic osteolysis. Here we sought to examine the effect of exogenous sclerostin on osteocytes in trabecular bone mechanically loaded ex vivo. Bovine trabecular bone cores, with bone marrow removed, were inserted into individual chambers and subjected to daily episodes of dynamic loading...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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