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Pulmonary comets

Fernando Freitas de Lima, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei Menegati, Giseli Karenina Traesel, Flávio Henrique Souza de Araújo, Caroline Honaiser Lescano, Sara Moraes Peixoto, Felipe Ariel Mao Silva, Silvia Cristina Heredia Vieira, Maria do Carmo Vieira, Silvia Aparecida Oesterreich
Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as "bacuri", is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart...
2016: PloS One
J Ambrozic, K Prokselj, M Lucovnik
INTRODUCTION: The ability to judge intravascular volume is fundamental in the management of patients with severe preeclampsia. Insufficient intravascular volume can result in decreased oxygen delivery to tissues and exacerbates organ dysfunction. On the other hand, fluid excesses can lead to fluid extravasation and pulmonary edema. Outside of pregnancy, transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasonography have become important diagnostic and monitoring tools in critically ill patients...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Richard A Sherman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Håkan Wallin, Zdenka O Kyjovska, Sarah S Poulsen, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Anne T Saber, Stefan Bengtson, Petra Jackson, Ulla Vogel
The influence of surface charge of nanomaterials on toxicological effects is not yet fully understood. We investigated the inflammatory response, the acute phase response and the genotoxic effect of two different titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) following a single intratracheal instillation. NRCWE-001 was unmodified rutile TiO2 with endogenous negative surface charge, whereas NRCWE-002 was surface modified to be positively charged. C57BL/6J BomTac mice received 18, 54 and 162 µg/mouse and were humanely killed 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure...
September 22, 2016: Mutagenesis
Rachel Z Behar, Wentai Luo, Sabrina C Lin, Yuhuan Wang, Jackelyn Valle, James F Pankow, Prue Talbot
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution, concentration and toxicity of cinnamaldehyde in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) refill fluids and aerosols. METHODS: The distribution and concentration of cinnamaldehyde were determined in 39 e-cigarette refill fluids plus 6 duplicates using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A cinnamaldehyde toxicity profile was established for embryonic and adult cells using a live cell imaging assay, immunocytochemistry, the comet assay and a recovery assay...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
E S Ershova, V A Sergeeva, A I Chausheva, D G Zheglo, V A Nikitina, T D Smirnova, L V Kameneva, L N Porokhovnik, S I Kutsev, P A Troshin, I I Voronov, E A Khakina, N N Veiko, S V Kostyuk
Water-soluble fullerenes have been studied as potential nanovectors and therapeutic agents, but their possible toxicity is of concern. We have studied the effects of F-828, a soluble fullerene [C60] derivative, on diploid human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs) in vitro. F-828 causes complex time-dependent changes in ROS levels. Inhibition of Nox4 activity by plumbagin blocks F-828-dependent ROS elevation. F-828 induces DNA breaks, as measured by the comet assay and γH2AX expression, and the activities of the transcription factors NF-kB and p53 increase...
July 2016: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Søren T Larsen, Petra Jackson, Steen S Poulsen, Marcus Levin, Keld A Jensen, Håkan Wallin, Gunnar D Nielsen, Ismo K Koponen
Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model...
November 2016: Nanotoxicology
Eugenio Picano, Patricia A Pellikka
Extravascular lung water (EVLW) is a key variable in heart failure management and prognosis, but its objective assessment remains elusive. Lung imaging has been traditionally considered off-limits for ultrasound techniques due to the acoustic barrier of high-impedance air wall. In pulmonary congestion however, the presence of both air and water creates a peculiar echo fingerprint. Lung ultrasound shows B-lines, comet-like signals arising from a hyper-echoic pleural line with a to-and-fro movement synchronized with respiration...
July 14, 2016: European Heart Journal
Ernesto Trallero-Araguás, Josep María Grau-Junyent, Anne Labirua-Iturburu, Francisco José García-Hernández, Manuel Monteagudo-Jiménez, Guadalupe Fraile-Rodriguez, Iñigo Les-Bujanda, Mónica Rodriguez-Carballeira, Luis Sáez-Comet, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical manifestations, long-term clinical outcome and longitudinal pulmonary function in a large cohort of Spanish patients with anti-Jo1 antibodies. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and lung function parameters of 148 anti-Jo1 patients recruited from a multicentre registry including 18 Spanish hospitals. A composite endpoint was defined, comprising death due to respiratory failure directly related to antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), the need for long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation...
October 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Douglas L Miller, Zhihong Dong, Chunyan Dou, Krishnan Raghavendran
Diagnostic ultrasound can induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in rats and display this as "comet tail" artifacts (CTAs) after a time delay. To test the hypothesis that no PCH occurs for brief scans, anesthetized rats were scanned using a 6-MHz linear array for different durations. PCH was characterized by ultrasound CTAs, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and measurements of fixed lung tissue. The μCT images revealed regions of PCH, sometimes penetrating the entire depth of a lobe, which were reflected in the fixed tissue measurements...
August 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
S Kumar, F Khaliq, S Singh, R Ahmed, R Kumar, P S Deshmukh, B D Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to excessive level of copper results in many adverse health effects. OBJECTIVE: To measure pulmonary function, oxidative stress, and extent of DNA damage in workers of a copper processing industry. METHODS: 30 men working in a copper processing industry and 30 men matched for age and socioeconomic status (comparison group) were included in this study. Pulmonary function test parameters were measured for all participants...
April 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
C Dussault, E Gontier, C Verret, M Soret, A Boussuges, G Hedenstierna, S Montmerle-Borgdorff
Aeroatelectasis has developed in aircrew flying routine peacetime flights on the latest generation high-performance aircraft, when undergoing excessive oxygen supply. To single out the effects of hyperoxia and hypergravity on lung tissue compression, and on ventilation and perfusion, eight subjects were studied before and after 1 h 15 min exposure to +1 to +3.5 Gz in a human centrifuge. They performed the protocol three times, breathing air, 44.5% O2, or 100% O2 and underwent functional and topographical imaging of the whole lung by ultrasound and single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Abderrahim Nemmar, Priya Yuvaraju, Sumaya Beegam, Javed Yasin, Elsadig E Kazzam, Badreldin H Ali
The use of amorphous silica (SiO2) in biopharmaceutical and industrial fields can lead to human exposure by injection, skin penetration, ingestion, or inhalation. However, the in vivo acute toxicity of amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles (SiNPs) on multiple organs and the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 hours) effects of intraperitoneally administered 50 nm SiNPs (0.25 mg/kg) on systemic toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and brain of mice...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
L Hunter, S Bélard, S Janssen, D J van Hoving, T Heller
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is characterized by a multitude of small nodular opacities on chest radiography. Despite ultrasound of the chest gaining wider acceptance as a diagnostic tool of lung infections, sonographic changes of pulmonary miliary TB have not yet been reported. Here, we describe B-lines and comet-tail artifacts disseminated throughout multiple lung areas and a pattern of sub-pleural granularity as consistent changes seen in lung ultrasound of ten patients with pulmonary miliary TB diagnosed by chest radiography...
April 2016: Infection
Elena Maser, Markus Schulz, Ursula G Sauer, Martin Wiemann, Lan Ma-Hock, Wendel Wohlleben, Andrea Hartwig, Robert Landsiedel
In vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of differently sized amorphous SiO2 nanomaterials were investigated. In the alkaline Comet assay (with V79 cells), non-cytotoxic concentrations of 300 and 100-300μg/mL 15nm-SiO2 and 55nm-SiO2, respectively, relevant (at least 2-fold relative to the negative control) DNA damage. In the Alkaline unwinding assay (with V79 cells), only 15nm-SiO2 significantly increased DNA strand breaks (and only at 100μg/mL), whereas neither nanomaterial (up to 300μg/mL) increased Fpg (Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase)-sensitive sites reflecting oxidative DNA base modifications...
December 2015: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Mainul Husain, Zdenka O Kyjovska, Julie Bourdon-Lacombe, Anne T Saber, Keld A Jensen, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Andrew Williams, Håkan Wallin, Sabina Halappanavar, Ulla Vogel, Carole L Yauk
Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) causes pulmonary inflammation; however, time course data to evaluate the detailed evolution of lung inflammatory responses are lacking. Here we establish a time-series of lung inflammatory response to CBNPs. Female C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally instilled with 162 μg CBNPs alongside vehicle controls. Lung tissues were examined 3h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, and 42 days (d) post-exposure. Global gene expression and pulmonary inflammation were assessed. DNA damage was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and lung tissue using the comet assay...
December 15, 2015: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
C P Simeón-Aznar, V Fonollosa-Plá, Carles Tolosa-Vilella, G Espinosa-Garriga, M Campillo-Grau, M Ramos-Casals, F J García-Hernández, M J Castillo-Palma, J Sánchez-Román, J L Callejas-Rubio, N Ortego-Centeno, M V Egurbide-Arberas, L Trapiellla-Martínez, L Caminal-Montero, L Sáez-Comet, J Velilla-Marco, M T Camps-García, E de Ramón-Garrido, E M Esteban-Marcos, L Pallarés-Ferreres, N Navarrete-Navarrete, J A Vargas-Hitos, R Gómez de la Torre, G Salvador-Cervello, J J Rios-Blanco, M Vilardell-Tarrés
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare, multisystem disease showing a large individual variability in disease progression and prognosis. In the present study, we assess survival, causes of death, and risk factors of mortality in a large series of Spanish SSc patients. Consecutive SSc patients fulfilling criteria of the classification by LeRoy were recruited in the survey. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to analyze survival and to identify predictors of mortality. Among 879 consecutive patients, 138 (15...
October 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
P Guidi, M Nigro, M Bernardeschi, P Lucchesi, V Scarcelli, G Frenzilli
Crystalline silica inhaled from occupational sources has been classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans; in contrast, for amorphous silica, epidemiological and experimental evidence remains insufficient. The genotoxicity of crystalline silica is still debated because of the inconsistency of experimental results ("variability of silica hazard"), often related to the features of the particle surfaces. We have assessed the role of crystal habit in the genotoxicity of silica powders. Pure quartz (crystalline) and vitreous silica (amorphous), sharing the same surface features, were used in an in vitro study with human pulmonary epithelial (A549) and murine macrophage (RAW264...
October 2015: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Stefano Coiro, Patrick Rossignol, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Erberto Carluccio, Gianfranco Alunni, Adriano Murrone, Isabella Tritto, Faiez Zannad, Nicolas Girerd
AIMS: Residual pulmonary congestion at discharge is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF), but its quantification through physical examination is challenging. Ultrasound imaging of lung comets (B-lines) could improve congestion evaluation. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term prognostic value of B-lines after discharge from HF hospitalisation compared with other indices of haemodynamic congestion (BNP, E/e', and inferior vena cava diameter) or clinical status (NYHA class)...
November 2015: European Journal of Heart Failure
Xiao-Zhi Zheng, Quan Zheng, Jing Zhou, Bin Yang
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the value of sonographic B-lines (previously called "comet tail artifacts") in assessment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung diseases. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four patients with clinically diagnosed interstitial lung diseases complicated by pulmonary hypertension underwent transthoracic lung sonography and Doppler echocardiography for assessment of the presence of B-lines, the distance between them, and the pulmonary artery (PA) systolic pressure...
September 2015: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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