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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783987/an-updated-review-of-the-genotoxicity-of-respirable-crystalline-silica
#1
REVIEW
Paul J A Borm, Paul Fowler, David Kirkland
Human exposure to (certain forms of) crystalline silica (CS) potentially results in adverse effects on human health. Since 1997 IARC has classified CS as a Group 1 carcinogen [1], which was confirmed in a later review in 2012 [2]. The genotoxic potential and mode of genotoxic action of CS was not conclusive in either of the IARC reviews, although a proposal for mode of actions was made in an extensive review of the genotoxicity of CS by Borm, Tran and Donaldson in 2011 [3]. The present study identified 141 new papers from search strings related to genotoxicity of respirable CS (RCS) since 2011 and, of these, 17 relevant publications with genotoxicity data were included in this detailed review...
May 21, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781145/core-outcome-set-for-gene-therapy-in-haemophilia-results-of-the-corehem-multistakeholder-project
#2
A Iorio, M W Skinner, E Clearfield, D Messner, G F Pierce, M Witkop, S Tunis
BACKGROUND: Gene therapy trial results show potential to cure haemophilia A and haemophilia B. Securing broad access to a cure for a lifelong chronic disease is anticipated to face barriers at the individual and healthcare system levels, which can be partly mitigated by harmonized planning of clinical research studies. The aim of the coreHEM project was to determine the set of outcome measures required to evaluate efficacy, safety, comparative effectiveness and value of gene therapy for haemophilia...
May 20, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778753/sm22-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-actin-rich-structures-generated-during-bacterial-infections
#3
Michael Dominic Chua, Kevin Jay Hipolito, Onisukomen Benny Singerr, Julian Solway, Julian Andrew Guttman
The host actin cytoskeleton is utilized by an assortment of pathogenic bacteria to colonize and cause disease in their hosts. Two prominently studied actin-hijacking bacteria are enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. EPEC form actin-rich pedestals atop its host cells to move across the intestinal epithelia, while Listeria monocytogenes generate branched actin networks arranged as actin clouds around the bacteria and as comet tails for propulsion within and amongst their host cells...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777724/novel-mirna-biomarkers-for-genotoxicity-screening-in-mouse
#4
Hiroyuki Oka, Koichi Masuno, Takeki Uehara, Toru Okamoto, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Toru Nakano, Shinpei Yamaguchi
The genotoxic potential of drugs is a serious problem, and its evaluation is one of the most critical processes of drug development. Although the comet assay of compound-exposed tissue is a frequently used genotoxicity test, its high false-positive rate is a major complication, and we consistently obtained false-positive results using the comet assay of mouse liver for nine hepatotoxic non-genotoxins (NGTXs). To identify novel genotoxin (GTX)-specific biomarkers, we screened the expression of 750 microRNAs (miRNAs) in the livers of mice treated with GTXs or NGTXs...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773007/cell-proliferation-and-dna-repair-ability-of-ganoderma-neo-japonicum-agaricomycetes-an-indigenous-medicinal-mushroom-from-malaysia
#5
Wee Cheat Tan, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chia Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is an annual polypore that grows on decaying bamboo in the forests of Malaysia. The indigenous Temuan tribe uses this species as a medicinal mushroom to cure fever and epilepsy and to improve body strength. The potential use of G. neo-japonicum in genoprotection and DNA repair was established using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The effects of the ethanol and hot aqueous extracts from wild and cultivated basidiocarps, solid substrate-fermented (SSF) wheat grains, and mycelia via submerged culture on H2O2-damaged murine RAW264...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768882/grape-seed-extract-alone-or-combined-with-atropine-in-treatment-of-malathion-induced-neuro-and-genotoxicity
#6
Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Asmaa F Galal, Mahrousa M Hassanane, Lamiaa M Salem, Somaia A Nada, Fatma A Morsy
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with grape seed extract (GSE) on the neurotoxic and genotoxic effects of acute malathion exposure. Rats received malathion (150 mg/kg by i.p. injection) for two successive days alone or combined with GSE at doses of 150 or 300 mg/kg, orally or with GSE at 300 mg/kg and atropine at a dose of 2 mg/kg, i.p. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, paraoxonase (PON1) were determined in cortex, striatum, and rest of brain tissue (subcortex)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768880/tio%C3%A2-nps-induce-dna-damage-in-lymphocytes-from-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-respiratory-diseases-an-ex-vivo-in-vitro-study
#7
Ilham F Osman, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Vyom Sharma, Ritesh K Shukla, B K Jacob, Alok Dhawan, D Anderson
Little is known of the effects of nanoparticles in human systems, let alone in diseased individuals and nanotechnology has preceded nanotoxicology. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with respiratory diseases [lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma] were compared with those in healthy Individuals, to determine differences in sensitivity to nanochemical insult. The Comet assay was performed according to recommended guidelines...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768467/alpha-7-nicotinic-receptors-attenuate-neurite-development-through-calcium-activation-of-calpain-at-the-growth-cone
#8
Justin R King, Nadine Kabbani
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel that plays an important role in cellular calcium signaling contributing to synaptic development and plasticity, and is a key drug target for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that α7 nAChR mediated calcium signals in differentiating PC12 cells activate the proteolytic enzyme calpain leading to spectrin breakdown, microtubule retraction, and attenuation in neurite growth. Imaging in growth cones confirms that α7 activation decreases EB3 comet motility in a calcium dependent manner as demonstrated by the ability of α7 nAChR, ryanodine, or IP3 receptor antagonists to block the effect of α7 nAChR on growth...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767296/evaluating-the-antimicrobial-apoptotic-and-cancer-cell-gene-delivery-properties-of-protein-capped-gold-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-the-edible-mycorrhizal-fungus-tricholoma-crassum
#9
Arpita Basu, Sarmishtha Ray, Supriyo Chowdhury, Arnab Sarkar, Deba Prasad Mandal, Shamee Bhattacharjee, Surekha Kundu
Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles of distinct geometric shapes with highly functional protein coats without additional capping steps is rarely reported. This study describes green synthesis of protein-coated gold nanoparticles for the first time from the edible, mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma crassum (Berk.) Sacc. The nanoparticles were of the size range 5-25 nm and of different shapes. Spectroscopic analysis showed red shift of the absorption maxima with longer reaction period during production and blue shift with increase in pH...
May 16, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763681/manuka-honey-attenuates-oxidative-damage-induced-by-h-2-o-2-in-human-whole-blood-in-vitro
#10
Lada Živković, Vladan Bajić, Dragana Dekanski, Andrea Čabarkapa-Pirković, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Luca Mazzoni, Biljana Spremo Potparević
Manuka honey has been widely researched regarding its biological properties, in particular its antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. We tested the genotoxic and genoprotective properties of Manuka honey, ranging from 25-1000 μg/mL, by performing an in vitro comet assay after exposure to human whole blood. No genotoxic effect on whole blood cells was observed within the tested concentration range (p = 0.154). Then, the antigenotoxic potency of Manuka honey against oxidative DNA damage to whole blood cells was assessed...
May 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755547/lipocalin2-protects-human-embryonic-kidney-cells-against-cisplatin-induced-genotoxicity
#11
Fatemeh Sadeghi, Mahmoud Etebari, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi
Cisplatin is one of the most useful chemotherapeutics which performs its cytotoxic effect via accumulation of platinum resulting in oxidative stress, and destruction of cell DNA. This could probably cause secondary cancers in healthy tissues. Lipocalin2 (Lcn2) is a protein which its expression is increased in oxidative stresses. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of Lcn2 up-regulation on cisplatin genotoxicity. In order to up-regulate Lcn2 expression, HEK293 cells were transfected with pcDNA3...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755294/inhibition-of-the-pi3k-but-not-the-mek-erk-pathway-sensitizes-human-glioma-cells-to-alkylating-drugs
#12
Bodo Haas, Veronika Klinger, Christina Keksel, Verena Bonigut, Daniela Kiefer, Julia Caspers, Julia Walther, Maria Wos-Maganga, Sandra Weickhardt, Gabriele Röhn, Marco Timmer, Roland Frötschl, Niels Eckstein
Background: Intrinsic chemoresistance of glioblastoma (GBM) is frequently owed to activation of the PI3K and MEK/ERK pathways. These signaling cascades are tightly interconnected however the quantitative contribution of both to intrinsic resistance is still not clear. Here, we aimed at determining the activation status of these pathways in human GBM biopsies and cells and investigating the quantitative impact of both pathways to chemoresistance. Methods: Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways in temozolomide (TMZ) treatment naive or TMZ resistant human GBM biopsies and GBM cells were investigated by proteome profiling and immunoblotting of a subset of proteins...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755143/likely-transiting-exocomets-detected-by-kepler
#13
S Rappaport, A Vanderburg, T Jacobs, D LaCourse, J Jenkins, A Kraus, A Rizzuto, D W Latham, A Bieryla, M Lazarevic, A Schmitt
We present the first good evidence for exocomet transits of a host star in continuum light in data from the Kepler mission. The Kepler star in question, KIC 3542116, is of spectral type F2V and is quite bright at Kp = 10. The transits have a distinct asymmetric shape with a steeper ingress and slower egress that can be ascribed to objects with a trailing dust tail passing over the stellar disk. There are three deeper transits with depths of ≃ 0.1% that last for about a day, and three that are several times more shallow and of shorter duration...
February 21, 2018: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754083/genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-properties-of-pm2-5-collected-over-the-year-in-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#14
M K Bełcik, A Trusz-Zdybek, E Zaczyńska, A Czarny, K Piekarska
In the ambient is >2000 chemical substances, some of them are absorbed on the surface of the particulate matter and may causes many health problems. Air pollution is responsible for >3.2 million premature deaths which classifies it as a second place environmental risk factor. Especially dangerous for health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives which shows mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Air pollutions were also classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer to group which carcinogenic properties on human were proved by available knowledge...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752667/comparative-study-on-toxicity-of-methylmercury-chloride-and-methylmercury-hydroxide-to-the-human-neuroblastoma-cell-line-sh-sy5y
#15
Rajashree Patnaik, Rabindra N Padhy
Toxicities of methylmercury chloride (CH3 HgCl) and methylmercury hydroxide (CH3 HgOH) to cultured neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y in vitro are evaluated. This is the comparative study between two methylmercury compounds to find out the extent of toxicity of these compounds are toxic to SH-SY5Y cell line. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity experiments were carried out to find out the more toxic compound. For cytotoxicity study, four staining assay methods independently with trypan blue (TB), acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and neutral red (NR) were used and the comet assay method was done for genotoxicity study...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752666/lung-water-assessment-from-gravimetry-to-wearables
#16
Frederic Michard
Several techniques are now available to detect and quantify pulmonary edema, from the laboratory postmortem method (gravimetry) to non-invasive wearable sensors. In critically ill patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), computed tomography scans are often performed to visualize lung lesions and quantify lung aeration, but their value seems somewhat limited to quantify pulmonary edema on a routine basis and of course to track changes with therapy. In this context, transpulmonary thermodilution is a convenient technique...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751737/correction-to-hicomet-a-high-throughput-comet-analysis-tool-for-large-scale-dna-damage-assessment
#17
Taehoon Lee, Sungmin Lee, Woo Young Sim, Yu Mi Jung, Sunmi Han, Joong-Ho Won, Hyeyoung Min, Sungroh Yoon
After publication of the original article [1], it has been found that the author affiliations have been accidentally left out in the PDF. The full affiliations can be found in this correction.
May 11, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751593/comet-pond-ii-synergistic-intersection-of-concentrated-extraterrestrial-materials-and-planetary-environments-to-form-procreative-darwinian-ponds
#18
Benton C Clark, Vera M Kolb
In the “comet pond” model, a rare combination of circumstances enables the entry and landing of pristine organic material onto a planetary surface with the creation of a pond by a soft impact and melting of entrained ices. Formation of the constituents of the comet in the cold interstellar medium and our circumstellar disk results in multiple constituents at disequilibrium which undergo rapid chemical reactions in the warmer, liquid environment. The planetary surface also provides minerals and atmospheric gases which chemically interact with the pond’s organic- and trace-element-rich constituents...
May 11, 2018: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747151/role-of-pon1-sod2-ogg1-xrcc1-and-xrcc4-polymorphisms-on-modulation-of-dna-damage-in-workers-occupationally-exposed-to-pesticides
#19
Vivian F Silva Kahl, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva, Jodel da Silva Alves, Gabrieli Flesch da Silva, Juliana Picinini, Varinderpal Singh Dhillon, Michael Fenech, Melissa Rosa de Souza, Johnny F Dias, Claudia Telles de Souza, Mirian Salvador, Cátia Dos Santos Branco, Flávia Valadão Thiesen, Daniel Simon, Juliana da Silva
Tobacco farming has been proving to induce poor health outcomes in agricultural workers, genomic instability being the triggering one. This study evaluated influence of PON1 (paraoxonase 1), SOD2 (superoxide dismutase), OGG1 (8-oxoguanine glycosylase), XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1), and XRCC4 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4) genes polymorphisms on DNA damage in 121 subjects occupationally exposed to pesticides mixtures and nicotine at tobacco fields and 121 non-exposed individuals...
May 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745168/-damage-of-deltamethrin-on-tissue-and-cell-dna-in-hepatopancreas-of-pagrosomus-major
#20
Hui Dong Zheng
In order to study the toxic effect of deltamethrin on the hepatopancreas of Pagrosomus major with sub-acute exposure, Pagrosomus major were divided into 5 groups with different doses of semi-static exposure. The damage of the hepatopancreas tissue of Pagrosomus major was analyzed by microscopy observation and the DNA damage of the cells was analyzed by comet assay technique after 25 days exposure. The results showed that different degrees of congestion, nuclear enrichment and cell necrosis appeared in hepatopancreas of 0...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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