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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804928/the-comet-assay-for-detection-of-dna-damage-in-canine-sperm
#1
A F Pereira, P Borges, A Fontbonne, L Cardoso, I Gaivão, A Martins-Bessa
Sperm DNA integrity is a fundamental prerequisite in fertilization and embryo development. Among DNA integrity tests, the Comet assay is an accurate and sensitive test for the detection of sperm oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate sperm oxidative damage using the Comet assay and to study the correlation between Comet and routine assays for the evaluation of semen quality. Dogs were divided in two groups: group A (n = 6), comprising dogs with abnormal spermiogram, that is astheno-, terato- or oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT); and group B (n = 8), comprising normospermic dogs...
August 13, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800752/a-type-i-combi-targeting-approach-for-the-design-of-molecules-with-enhanced-potency-against-brca1-2-mutant-and-o6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase-mgmt-expressing-tumour-cells
#2
Zhor Senhaji Mouhri, Elliot Goodfellow, Bertrand Jean-Claude
BACKGROUND: Mutations of the DNA repair proteins BRCA1/2 are synthetically lethal with the DNA repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which when inhibited, leads to cell death due to the absence of compensatory DNA repair mechanism. The potency of PARP inhibitors has now been clinically proven. However, disappointingly, acquired resistance mediated by the reactivation of wild type BRCA1/2 has been reported. In order to improve their efficacy, trials are ongoing to explore their combinations with temozolomide (TMZ)...
August 11, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800456/synthesis-and-anticancer-properties-of-ruthenium-ii-complexes-as-potent-apoptosis-inducers-through-mitochondrial-disruption
#3
Dan Wan, Bing Tang, Yang-Jie Wang, Bo-Hong Guo, Hui Yin, Qiao-Yan Yi, Yun-Jun Liu
A new ligand MHPIP (MHPIP = 2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) and its three ruthenium (II) complexes [Ru(N-N)2(MHPIP)](ClO4)2 (N-N = phen: 1,10-phenanthroline 1; dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline 2; ttbpy = 4,4'-ditertiarybutyl-2,2'-bipyridine 3) were synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxic activity in vitro was studied by MTT method. The complexes 1-3 show moderate cytotoxic effects on the cell growth in HepG2 cells with an IC50 value of 25.5 ± 3.5, 35...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799093/an-appraisal-of-critical-effect-sizes-for-the-benchmark-dose-approach-to-assess-dose-response-relationships-in-genetic-toxicology
#4
Andreas Zeller, Gonzalo Duran-Pacheco, Melanie Guérard
The benchmark dose (BMD) concept is increasingly utilized to analyze quantitative dose-response relationships in genetic toxicology. This methodology requires the user (i.e. the toxicologist) to a priori define a small increase over controls that is "acceptable" to be induced by a genotoxic test substance. The increase is called benchmark response (BMR) or critical effect size (CES), depending on the software used. To render the metrics calculated from the data of animals treated with the test substance applicable for risk assessment, the BMR or CES must represent biologically relevant changes of parameters measured in in vivo genotoxicity assays such as the Micronucleus, Comet, Transgenic rodent or Pig-a assay...
August 10, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796511/unveiling-the-ionization-energy-of-the-cn-radical
#5
Bérenger Gans, Séverine Boyé-Péronne, Gustavo A Garcia, Anja Röder, Domenik Schleier, Philippe Halvick, Jean-Christophe Loison
The cyano radical is an ubiquitous molecule, and was for instance one of the first species detected in astrophysical media such as comets or diffuse clouds. In photodis- sociation regions the reaction rate of CN(+) + CO → CN + CO(+) is one of the critical parameters defining nitrile chemistry. The enthalpy of this charge transfer reaction is defined as the difference of ionization energies (EI) between CN and CO. Although EI(CO) is known accurately, the EI(CN) values are more dispersed and deduced indirectly from thermodynamic thresholds only, all above EI(CO), leading to the assumption that the reaction was fast even at low temperature...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796341/silver-nano-materials-cause-genotoxicity-in-enchytraeus-crypticus-as-determined-by-the-comet-assay
#6
Vera L Maria, Maria João Ribeiro, Sofia Guilherme, Amadeu M V M Soares, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Enchytraeids have been used in standard ecotoxicity testing for about 20 years now. Since adopting the standard test for survival and reproduction, a number of additional tools have been developed, including transcriptomics and enzymatic biomarkers. So far, a genotoxicity tool and endpoint have not been used; hence, the goals of the current study included the optimization of the in vivo alkaline comet assay in Enchytraeus crypticus. Further, the effect of silver nanomaterial (Ag NM300K, dispersed, 15 nm) was tested and compared with AgNO3 ...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795370/surgical-upstaging-rates-for-vacuum-assisted-biopsy-proven-dcis-implications-for-active-surveillance-trials
#7
Lars J Grimm, Marc D Ryser, Ann H Partridge, Alastair M Thompson, Jeremy S Thomas, Jelle Wesseling, E Shelley Hwang
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine invasive cancer upstaging rates at surgical excision following vacuum-assisted biopsy of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) among women meeting eligibility for active surveillance trials. METHODS: Patients with vacuum-assisted, biopsy-proven DCIS at a single center from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging and pathology reports were interrogated for the imaging appearance, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, and presence of comedonecrosis...
August 9, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791552/mechanism-for-the-coupled-photochemistry-of-ammonia-and-acetylene-implications-for-giant-planets-comets-and-interstellar-organic-synthesis
#8
Thomas C Keane
Laboratory studies provide a fundamental understanding of photochemical processes in planetary atmospheres. Photochemical reactions taking place on giant planets like Jupiter and possibly comets and the interstellar medium are the subject of this research. Reaction pathways are proposed for the coupled photochemistry of NH3 (ammonia) and C2H2 (acetylene) within the context Jupiter's atmosphere. We then extend the discussion to the Great Red Spot, Extra-Solar Giant Planets, Comets and Interstellar Organic Synthesis...
August 9, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780454/nicotinamide-antioxidative-and-dna-hypomethylation-effects-in-plant-cells
#9
Torkel Berglund, Anders Wallström, Tuong-Van Nguyen, Cecilia Laurell, Anna B Ohlsson
The effects of nicotinamide (NIC) and its natural plant metabolites nicotinic acid (NIA) and trigonelline (TRIG) were studied with respect to defense in plant cell cultures. NIC and NIA could protect against oxidative stress damage caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), which generates free radicals. Damage was analyzed as DNA strand breaks in cell cultures of Pisum sativum (garden pea), Daucus carota (carrot), Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides (hybrid aspen) and Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), monitored by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), and assays of cell leakage in C...
July 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771787/population-pharmacokinetics-of-oxcarbazepine-and-its-monohydroxy-derivative-in-epileptic-children
#10
Christelle Rodrigues, Catherine Chiron, Elisabeth Rey, Olivier Dulac, Emmanuelle Comets, Gérard Pons, Vincent Jullien
AIMS: Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic drug with an activity mostly due to its monohydroxy derivative metabolite (MHD). A parent-metabolite population pharmacokinetic model in children was developed in order to evaluate the consistency between the recommended pediatric doses and the reference range for trough concentration (Ctrough ) of MHD (3-35 mg/L). METHODS: A total of 279 plasma samples were obtained from 31 epileptic children (2-12y) after a single dose of oxcarbazepine...
August 3, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768826/mechanical-signals-activate-p38-mapk-pathway-dependent-reinforcement-of-actin-via-mechanosensitive-hspb1
#11
Laura Hoffman, Christopher C Jensen, Masaaki Yoshigi, Mary Beckerle
Despite the importance of a cell's ability to sense and respond to mechanical force, the molecular mechanisms by which physical cues are converted to cell-instructive chemical information to influence cell behaviors remain to be elucidated. Exposure of cultured fibroblasts to uniaxial cyclic stretch results in an actin stress fiber reinforcement response that stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. p38 MAPK signaling is activated in response to stretch, and inhibition of p38 MAPK abrogates stretch-induced cytoskeletal reorganization...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766757/sesamol-ameliorates-radiation-induced-dna-damage-in-hematopoietic-system-of-whole-body-%C3%AE-irradiated-mice
#12
Arun Kumar, Sandeep Choudhary, Jawahar S Adhikari, Nabo K Chaudhury
Ionizing radiation exposure is harmful and at high doses can lead to acute hematopoietic radiation syndrome. Therefore, agents that can protect hematopoietic system are important for development of radioprotector. Sesamol is a potential molecule for development of radioprotector due to its strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. In the present study, sesamol was evaluated for its role in DNA damage and repair in hematopoietic system of γ-irradiated CB57BL/6 mice and compared with amifostine...
August 2, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764734/development-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-clinical-trials-in-facial-aging-study-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-identification-of-a-core-outcome-set-using-a-delphi-survey
#13
Daniel I Schlessinger, Sanjana Iyengar, Arianna F Yanes, Jill K Henley, Hovik J Ashchyan, Anastasia O Kurta, Payal M Patel, Umar A Sheikh, Matthew J Franklin, Courtney C Hanna, Brian R Chen, Sarah G Chiren, Jochen Schmitt, Stefanie Deckert, Karina C Furlan, Emily Poon, Ian A Maher, Todd V Cartee, Joseph F Sobanko, Murad Alam
BACKGROUND: Facial aging is a concern for many patients. Wrinkles, loss of volume, and discoloration are common physical manifestations of aging skin. Genetic heritage, prior ultraviolet light exposure, and Fitzpatrick skin type may be associated with the rate and type of facial aging. Although many clinical trials assess the correlates of skin aging, there is heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed, which limits the quality of evaluation and comparison of treatment modalities. To address the inconsistency in outcomes, in this project we will develop a core set of outcomes that are to be evaluated in all clinical trials relevant to facial aging...
August 1, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763637/sodium-fluoride-adversely-affects-ovarian-development-and-reproduction-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Salma Khatun, Prem Rajak, Moumita Dutta, Sumedha Roy
The study demonstrates the effects of chronic sub-lethal exposure of sodium fluoride (NaF) on reproductive structure and function of female Drosophila melanogaster. As a part of treatment, flies were maintained in food supplemented with sub-lethal concentrations of NaF (10-100 μg/mL). Fecundity, ovarian morphology, presence and profusion of viable cells from ovary and fat body were taken into consideration for evaluating changes in reproductive homeostasis. Wing length (a factor demonstrating body size and reproductive fitness) was also monitored after NaF exposure...
July 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763045/mzstudio-a-dynamic-digital-canvas-for-user-driven-interrogation-of-mass-spectrometry-data
#15
Scott B Ficarro, William M Alexander, Jarrod A Marto
Although not yet truly 'comprehensive', modern mass spectrometry-based experiments can generate quantitative data for a meaningful fraction of the human proteome. Importantly for large-scale protein expression analysis, robust data pipelines are in place for identification of un-modified peptide sequences and aggregation of these data to protein-level quantification. However, interoperable software tools that enable scientists to computationally explore and document novel hypotheses for peptide sequence, modification status, or fragmentation behavior are not well-developed...
August 1, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759753/inhibition-of-rad51-sensitizes-breast-cancer-cells-with-wild-type-pten-to-olaparib
#16
Qian Zhao, Jiawei Guan, Zhiwei Zhang, Jian Lv, Yulu Wang, Likun Liu, Qi Zhou, Weifeng Mao
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene well characterized as a phosphatase. However, more evidences demonstrate PTEN functions in DNA repair independent of its phosphatase activity, which affects the efficacy of DNA damage anti-tumoral drugs in treating cancer cells with PTEN variations. Using BT549 breast cancer cells, we studied the roles of PTEN in DNA repair and in sensitization of breast cancer cells to olaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. Comet assay showed PTEN promoted DNA repair. PTEN-deficient BT549 cells are sensitive to olaparib, which shows the synthetic lethality between PTEN and PARP1...
July 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759748/dna-damage-levels-in-electronics-workers-in-southern-china-a-micro-whole-blood-comet-assay
#17
Zhiqiang Zhao, Xiumei Xing, Xiaoyan Ou, Xinxia Liu, Ridong Zhou, Huimin Zhang, Linqing Yang, Zhixiong Zhuang, Xiaolin Su, Yao Lu, Jun Jiang, Yarui Yang, Dong Cui, Yun He
We evaluated DNA damage levels of different categories of workers exposed to hazards inside electronics factories in Southern China. To find out the most dangerous risk factor, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 584 exposed subjects and 138 controls in an electronics factory in Southern China, where the electronics industry is prevalent. The exposed hazards included isopropanol (IPO), lead, noise, video display terminals (VDT), lead in a high-temperature (high-temp) environment, and IPO in a high-temp environment...
July 22, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757137/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-pharmacokinetics-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-curcumin-incorporated-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-for-biomedical-applications
#18
Sainulabdeen Sherin, Sathyabhama Sheeja, Rukhmini Sudha Devi, Sreedharan Balachandran, Rema Sreenivasan Soumya, Annie Abraham
The present study deals with the preparation of stable Curcumin incorporated Titaniumdioxide Nanoparticles (CTNPs) by coprecipitation method for improving the bioavailability of curcumin and site specific drug delivery. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, DLS, SEM and EDX. The characterization studies showed the interaction of curcumin to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The average size of the prepared CTNPs was found to be ∼29 nm with zetapotential of-53...
July 28, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755435/the-development-and-validation-of-epicomet-chip-a-modified-high-throughput-comet-assay-for-the-assessment-of-dna-methylation-status
#19
Todd A Townsend, Marcus C Parrish, Bevin P Engelward, Mugimane G Manjanatha
DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation status are associated with multiple human diseases and are frequently correlated with clinically relevant information. Therefore, assessing DNA damage and epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, is critical for predicting human exposure risk of pharmacological and biological agents. We previously developed a higher-throughput platform for the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, CometChip, to assess DNA damage and genotoxic potential...
July 29, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755287/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-bioaccumulation-of-pah-from-the-marine-environment-on-dna-integrity-and-oxidative-stress-in-marine-rock-oyster-saccostrea-cucullata-along-the-arabian-sea-coast
#20
A Sarkar, Jacky Bhagat, Munmun Saha Sarker, Dipak C S Gaitonde, Subhodeep Sarker
Marine pollution due to oil spills is of great concern globally for their impact on the health of marine ecosystems. We assessed the genotoxic effects and oxidative stress due to genotoxic pollutants accumulated from the ambient marine environment in the tissues of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata along the Arabian Sea coast around Goa, India. The extent of DNA damage in S. cucullata was determined by comet assay as variation of comet parameter: mean % tail DNA along the coast with respect to that at the reference site (Tiracol, Goa, India)...
July 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology
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