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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735519/expression-of-the-hpv18-e6-oncoprotein-induces-dna-damage
#1
Elva I Cortés Gutiérrez, Catalina García-Vielma, Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy, Veronica Vallejo-Ruíz, Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Pablo Zapata-Benavides, Jaime Gosalvez
This study investigated possible variations in DNA damage in HeLa cells with silenced expression of the HPV/E6 oncogene compared with HeLa cells with normal expression of the E6 oncogene using the DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) technique and a whole human genome DNA probe. The variable levels of DNA breaks present were measured quantitatively using image analysis after whole-genome DNA hybridization. HeLa cells with silenced expression of the HPV18/E6 oncogene showed a significant decrease in DNA damage compared with parental cells with normal expression of the E6 oncogene...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735238/the-influence-of-heavy-metals-on-toxicogenetic-damage-in-a-brazilian-tropical-river
#2
Leomá A Matos, Ana C S Cunha, Aline A Sousa, Jéssica P R Maranhão, Nathanyel R S Santos, Matheus de M C Gonçalves, Sandra M M de M Dantas, João M de C E Sousa, Ana P Peron, Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva, Marcus V O B de Alencar, Md Torequl Islam, Raí Pablo Sousa de Aguiar, Ana A de C Melo-Cavalcante, Claúdia C Bonecker, Horácio F J Junior
Anthropogenic activities in tropical rivers favor the eutrophication process, which causes increased concentration of heavy metals. The presence and bioaccumulation of metals are directly related to the presence of genotoxic damage in aquatic organisms. Thus, we evaluated the presence of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Al) and performed toxicogenetic tests in surface (S) and bottom (B) of water samples of the Poti river (Piaui/Brazil). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests were performed in Allium cepa, and micronucleus (MN) and comet assay were performed in Oreochromis niloticus...
July 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734527/a-novel-method-to-identify-and-grade-dna-damage-on-comet-images
#3
Muhammed Kamil Turan, Eftal Sehirli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In recent years, development of software programs in medicine field has proceeded in a rapid manner. Comet assay is one of the research methods in medicine field that displays whether DNA has damage. In this study, it is aimed to share experience of dynamic time warping method and decision tree to decide whether DNA has damage and grade DNA damage by means of the software program. METHODS: The application analyzes manually extracted RGB single comet images whose centers are manually marked...
August 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734215/dna-damage-and-cytotoxicity-induced-on-common-carp-by-pollutants-in-water-from-an-urban-reservoir-mad%C3%A3-n-reservoir-a-case-study
#4
I Pérez-Coyotl, C Martínez-Vieyra, M Galar-Martínez, L M Gómez-Oliván, S García-Medina, H Islas-Flores, R Pérez-Pasten Borja, E Gasca-Pérez, K A Novoa-Luna, O Dublán-García
Madín Reservoir provides a substantial amount of drinking water to two municipalities close to Mexico City metropolitan area. However, it receives untreated wastewater discharges from domestic sources in the towns of Nuevo Madín and others, as well as diverse pollutants which are hauled by the Río Tlalnepantla from its upper reaches, so that the xenobiotics in the reservoir are highly diverse in terms of type and quantity. Previous studies showed that MR is contaminated with xenobiotics such as Al, Hg and Fe, as well as NSAIDs, at concentrations exceeding the limits established for aquatic life protection...
July 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732331/an-evaluation-of-dna-damage-in-human-lymphocytes-and-sperm-exposed-to-methyl-methanesulfonate-involving-the-regulation-pathways-associated-with-apoptosis
#5
Khaled Habas, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Adolf Baumgartner, Martin H Brinkworth, Diana Anderson
Exposure to DNA-damaging agents produces a range of stress-related responses. These change the expression of genes leading to mutations that cause cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and cancer. We have examined the contribution of haploid and diploid DNA damage and genes involved in the regulation of the apoptotic process associated with exposure, The Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage and quantitative RT-PCR analysis (qPCR) to detect gene expression changes in lymphocytes and sperm in response to methyl methanesulfonate...
June 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730515/selective-induction-of-dna-damage-g2-abrogation-and-mitochondrial-apoptosis-by-leaf-extract-of-traditional-medicinal-plant-wrightia-arborea-in-k562-cells
#6
T Lakshmipriya, T Soumya, P R Jayasree, P R Manish Kumar
Plants have proved to be an important source of anti-cancer drugs. Wrightia arborea, an Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant, is used traditionally to treat a variety of ailments. This study evaluates the antiproliferative/apoptotic potential of Wrightia arborea leaf extracts, prepared in different organic solvents, on cancer cell lines. MTT assay, light and fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, DNA laddering, alkaline comet assay, and western blotting were some of the techniques used for evaluation. Combinations of camptothecin, either with CHK1 inhibitor-PD407824 or with W...
July 20, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729873/ageratum-enation-virus-infection-induces-programmed-cell-death-and-alters-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-papaver-somniferum
#7
Ashish Srivastava, Lalit Agrawal, Rashmi Raj, Meraj Jaidi, Shri K Raj, Swati Gupta, Ritu Dixit, Poonam C Singh, Tusha Tripathi, Om P Sidhu, Brahma N Singh, Sudhir Shukla, Puneet S Chauhan, Susheel Kumar
A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB), respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch's postulates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727932/laboratory-studies-of-methane-and-its-relationship-to-prebiotic-chemistry
#8
Kensei Kobayashi, Wolf D Geppert, Nathalie Carrasco, Nils G Holm, Olivier Mousis, Maria Elisabetta Palumbo, J Hunter Waite, Naoki Watanabe, Lucy M Ziurys
To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role...
July 20, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725873/genetic-characterization-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-transmission-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#9
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Mikael Ingman, Anders Widell, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Patrik Medstrand
BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 spread in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has not been previously characterised using the phylogenetic approach. The aim of the current study was to investigate the genetic diversity and domestic transmission of HIV-1 in the MENA. METHODS: A total of 2036 HIV-1 sequences available in Genbank and collected in the MENA during 1988-2016 were used together with 715 HIV-1 reference sequences that were retrieved from Genbank based on genetic similarity with the MENA sequences...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724172/favorable-effects-of-myo-inositol-selenomethionine-or-their-combination-on-the-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-of-peripheral-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-preliminary-in-vitro-studies
#10
S Benvenga, T Vicchio, F Di Bari, R Vita, P Fallahi, S M Ferrari, S Catania, C Costa, A Antonelli
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and control women, were protected from in vitro H2O2-induced oxidative stress after addition of antioxidants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PBMC, from 8 HT women and 3 healthy women (controls), were cultured in the presence of 200 µM H2O2 alone, with subsequent addition of myo-inositol (Myo) (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 µM), selenomethionine (SelMet) (0.25, 0.5, 1...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721745/pesticide-genotoxicity-in-cotton-picking-women-in-pakistan-evaluated-using-comet-assay
#11
Tayyaba Ali, Muhammad Ismail, Farkhanda Asad, Asma Ashraf, Usman Waheed, Qaiser M Khan
To control agricultural pests and meet the increasing food demands, pesticides use has been increased substantially over time. Although pesticides are relatively specific to their targets, they can affect non-target organisms and are hazardous for the population around the application areas particularly to the individuals engaged in different types of agricultural activities. This situation is worse in developing and under-developed countries where personal protective equipment is merely used and regulatory guidelines are hardly practiced...
July 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718668/olea-europaea-leaf-extract-improves-the-efficacy-of-temozolomide-therapy-by-inducing-mgmt-methylation-and-reducing-p53-expression-un-glioblastoma
#12
Gulcin Tezcan, Berrin Tunca, Hilal Demirci, Ahmet Bekar, Mevlut Ozgur Taskapilioglu, Hasan Kocaeli, Unal Egeli, Gulsah Cecener, Sahsine Tolunay, Ozgur Vatan
Unmethylated O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter leads to Temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in most of the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. We previously investigated the synergistic effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on TMZ cytotoxicity through modulating microRNA expression. To date, knowledge about the effect of OLE on MGMT methylation is insufficient. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential modulating effect of OLE on the TMZ response of GBM tumors through MGMT methylation...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715867/therapeutic-impact-of-grape-leaves-polyphenols-on-certain-biochemical-and-neurological-markers-in-alcl3-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Ibrahim H Borai, Magda K Ezz, Maha Z Rizk, Hanan F Aly, Mahmoud El-Sherbiny, Azza A Matloub, Ghadha I Fouad
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a grave and prevailing neurodegenerative disease, characterized by slow and progressive neurodegeneration in different brain regions. Aluminum (Al) is a potent and widely distributed neurotoxic metal, implicated in the neuropathogenesis of AD. This study aimed to evaluate the possible neurorestorative potential of Vitis vinifera Leaves Polyphenolic (VLP) extract in alleviating aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity in male rats. AlCl3 neurotoxicity induced a significant decrease in brain/serum acetylcholine (ACh) contents and serum dopamine (DA) levels, along with a significant increment of brain/serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714748/no-adverse-lung-effects-of-7-and-28-day-inhalation-exposure-of-rats-to-emissions-from-petrodiesel-fuel-containing-20-rapeseed-methyl-esters-b20-with-and-without-particulate-filter-the-fuelhealth-project
#14
Pål Magnusson, Michał Oczkowski, Johan Øvrevik, Malgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Jacek Biedrzycki, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Dariusz Kamola, Tomasz Królikowski, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff, Remigiusz Mruk, Gunnar Brunborg, Christine Instanes, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Oddvar Myhre
Increased use of biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative lung health effects, on Fisher 344 rats, of diesel engine exhausts emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). One group of animals was exposed to DEE for 7 days (6 h/day), and another group for 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without DPF. The animals (n = 7/treatment) were exposed in whole body exposure chambers...
July 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714172/a-study-of-dna-damage-in-buccal-cells-of-consumers-of-well-and-or-tap-water-using-the-comet-assay-assessment-of-occupational-exposure-to-genotoxicants
#15
Celia Vazquez Boucard, Larisa Lee-Cruz, Laurence Mercier, Martín Ramírez Orozco, Vania Serrano Pinto, Gerardo Anguiano, Linette Cazares, Daniel Díaz
Because of concerns that natural aquifers in the region of Todos Santos (Baja California Sur, Mexico) might be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, a case-control study was conducted among consumers and non-consumers of well- and/or tap-water to determine risks to human health. This study was based on a genotoxic evaluation of buccal cells using the Comet assay technique. Levels of DNA damage in the consumers group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, occupational exposure to genotoxicants showed to be the critical factor rather than water consumption...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712879/comet-assay-on-thawed-embryos-an-optimized-technique-to-evaluate-dna-damage-in-mouse-embryos
#16
L Rolland, B Courbiere, V Tassistro, A Sansoni, T Orsière, W Liu, C Di Giorgio, J Perrin
Our objective was to optimize the CA technique on mammal embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1000 frozen 2-cell embryos from B6CBA mice were used. Based on a literature review, and after checking post-thaw embryo viability, the main outcome measures included: 1) comparison of the embryo recovery rate between 2 CA protocols (2 agarose layers and 3 agarose layers); 2) comparison of DNA damage by the CA on embryos with (ZP+) and without (ZP-) zona pellucida; and 3) comparison of DNA damage in embryos exposed to 2 genotoxic agents (H2O2 and simulated sunlight irradiation (SSI))...
July 13, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712878/antidepressants-are-cytotoxic-to-rat-primary-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells-at-high-therapeutic-concentrations
#17
Ekramy Elmorsy, Ayat Al-Ghafari, Fahd M Almutairi, Amal Misbah Aggour, Wayne G Carter
Antidepressants are commonly employed for the treatment of major depressive disorders and other psychiatric conditions. We investigated the relatively acute cytotoxic effects of three commonly prescribed antidepressants: fluoxetine, sertraline, and clomipramine on rat primary blood brain barrier endothelial cells over a concentration range of 0.1-100μM. At therapeutic concentrations (0.1μM) no significant cytotoxicity was observed after 4, 24, or 48h. At high therapeutic to overdose concentrations (1-100μM), antidepressants reduced cell viability in proportion to their concentration and exposure duration...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712131/a-novel-antibacterial-peptide-derived-from-crocodylus-siamensis-hemoglobin-hydrolysate-induces-membrane-permeabilisation-causing-iron-dysregulation-oxidative-stress-and-bacterial-death
#18
J Lueangsakulthai, N Jangpromma, T Temsiripong, J E McKendrick, W Khunkitti, S E Maddocks, S Klaynongsruang
AIMS: A novel antibacterial peptide from Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin hydrolysate (CHHs) was characterised for antimicrobial activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: CHHs was hydrolysed for 2 h (2h-CHH), 4 h (4h-CHH), 6 h (6h-CHH) and 8 h (8h-CHH). 8h-CHH showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations of 20, 20, 20 and 10 mg ml(-1) (w/v), respectively. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that 8h-CHH had bactericidal activity against E...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710764/twelve-gel-comet-assay-format-for-quick-examination-of-dna-damage-and-repair
#19
Sergey Shaposhnikov, Andrew Collins
The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive, versatile method for detecting DNA damage in eukaryotic cells. The traditional comet assay format has 1 or 2 gels on a microscope slide, 1 sample per slide, and there is a limit of 40 gels per experiment given the size of a typical electrophoresis tank. To increase throughput, we have designed and tested a system with 12 minigels on one slide, allowing analysis of up to 12 times more samples in one electrophoresis run. The novel comet assay format compares well with the traditional technology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710754/the-fast-halo-assay-for-the-detection-of-dna-damage
#20
Piero Sestili, Cinzia Calcabrini, Anna Rita Diaz, Carmela Fimognari, Vilberto Stocchi
The need for express screening of the DNA damaging potential of chemicals has progressively increased over the past 20 years due to the wide number of new synthetic molecules to be evaluated, as well as the adoption of more stringent chemical regulations such as the EU REACH and risk reduction politics. In this regard, DNA diffusion assays such as the microelectrophoretic comet assay paved the way for rapid genotoxicity testing. A more significant simplification and speeding up of the experimental processes was achieved with the fast halo assay (FHA) described in the present chapter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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