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Fayez A Almabhouh, Khairul Osman, Siti Fatimah Ibrahim, Sergey Gupalo, Justin Gnanou, Effendi Ibrahim, Harbindar Jeet Singh
This study examined the effects of melatonin on leptin-induced changes in sperm parameters in adult rats. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either leptin or leptin and melatonin or melatonin for 6 weeks. Leptin was given daily via the intraperitoneal route (60 μg kg-1 body weight) and melatonin was given in drinking water (10 mg kg-1 or 20 mg kg-1 body weight per day). Upon completion, sperm count, sperm morphology, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, Comet assay, TUNEL assay, gene expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes, respiratory chain reaction enzymes, DNA damage, and apoptosis genes were estimated...
October 14, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Fengchao Yu, Ning Li, Weichuan Yu
In computational proteomics, identification of peptides with an unlimited number of post-translational modification (PTM) types is a challenging task. The computational cost associated with database search increases exponentially with respect to the number of modified amino acids and linearly with respect to the number of potential PTM types at each amino acid. The problem becomes intractable very quickly if we want to enumerate all possible PTM patterns. To address this issue, one group of methods named restricted tools (including Mascot, Comet, and MS-GF+) only allow a small number of PTM types in database search process...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Pooja Ghosh, Indu Shekhar Thakur
The study investigates the ability of fungus Phanerochaete sp. ISTL01 for biosorption of color from landfill leachate. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, temperature, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial leachate concentration on biosorption. Maximum biosorption capacity was determined as 17.73 mg g(-1) of biomass. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were further studied. The biosorption data were found to fit well to the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Ana Marques, Andreia Rego, Sofia Guilherme, Isabel Gaivão, Maria Ana Santos, Mário Pacheco
The formulation Mancozan(®), containing mancozeb as active ingredient, is among the most widely used fungicides. Although mancozeb has been detected in surface waters, studies addressing the genotoxic risk to fish arising from the use of this formulation, testing environmentally realistic concentrations, are absent from the literature. Hence, this work aimed to investigate the DNA and chromosome damaging potential of Mancozan(®) (0.29 and 2.9μgL(-1)) in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), after a short-term exposure (3days), through the adoption of the comet and the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assays...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Stephen O Evans, Michael B Jameson, Ray T M Cursons, Linda M Peters, Steve Bird, Gregory M Jacobson
DNA damage quantitation assays such as the comet assay have focused on the measurement of total nuclear damage per cell. The adoption of PCR-based techniques to quantify DNA damage has enabled sequence- and organelle-specific assessment of DNA lesions. Here we report on an adaptation of a qPCR technique to assess DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial targets relative to control. Novel aspects of this assay include application of the assay to the Rotor-Gene platform with optimized DNA polymerase/fluorophore/primer set combination in a touchdown PCR protocol...
October 8, 2016: Biology
Jana Ambrozic, Gabrijela Brzan Simenc, Katja Prokselj, Natasa Tul, Marta Cvijic, Miha Lucovnik
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung and cardiac ultrasound for assessment of fluid tolerance and fluid responsiveness in severe preeclamptic patients before and after delivery. METHODS: Severe preeclampsia patients and healthy term controls were included in the study. Lung ultrasound Echo Comet Score (ECS) was obtained using the 28-rib interspaces technique. Echocardiographic E/e' ratio, measured by pulsed wave and tissue Doppler, respectively, was used as a marker of diastolic left ventricular function...
October 13, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
I M Madaeva, O N Berdina, N V Semenova, L A Grebenkina, V V Madaev, L I Kolesnikova
AIM: To reveal gender characteristics of the sleep structure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) during polysomnographic monitoring (PSGM). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: According to the results of a pre-survey using an apnea screening questionnaire, the investigation included 58 women (body mass index (BMI), 38.2±2.1 kg/m2) and 75 men (BMI, 34.2±1.8 kg/m2), aged 50-55 years, who complained about snoring, sleep apnea, and daytime hypersomnia. Copy-pair groups were formed and compared after objectively confirming the diagnosis by PSGM made at a specialized sleep laboratory, by applying the GRASS-TELEFACTOR Twin PSG system (Comet) with an integrated SPM-1 sleep module (USA) in accordance with the standard procedure...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Emerson J Speyerer, Reinhold Z Povilaitis, Mark S Robinson, Peter C Thomas, Robert V Wagner
Random bombardment by comets, asteroids and associated fragments form and alter the lunar regolith and other rocky surfaces. The accumulation of impact craters over time is of fundamental use in evaluating the relative ages of geologic units. Crater counts and radiometric ages from returned samples provide constraints with which to derive absolute model ages for unsampled units on the Moon and other Solar System objects. However, although studies of existing craters and returned samples offer insight into the process of crater formation and the past cratering rate, questions still remain about the present rate of crater production, the effect of early-stage jetting during impacts and the influence that distal ejecta have on the regolith...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Mojgan Najafzadeh, Charmaine Normington, Badie K Jacob, Mohammad Isreb, Rajendran C Gopalan, Diana Anderson
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumor effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n = 17) and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n = 36). White blood cells (WBC) were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e., bulk (B) or nano-suspension (N) of aspirin (ASP) or ibuprofen (IBU) up to 500 μg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 μg/ml in the micronucleus assay...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Zuzana Sestakova, Katarina Kalavska, Lenka Hurbanova, Dana Jurkovicova, Jan Gursky, Michal Chovanec, Daniela Svetlovska, Vera Miskovska, Jana Obertova, Patrik Palacka, Katarina Rejlekova, Zuzana Sycova-Mila, Silvia Cingelova, Stanislav Spanik, Jozef Mardiak, Miroslav Chovanec, Michal Mego
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are extraordinarily sensitive to cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy. DNA damage represents one of the most important factors contributing to toxic effects of CDDP-based chemotherapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of DNA damage level in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from chemo-naïve GCT patients. PBLs isolated from 59 chemotherapy-naïve GCT patients were included into this prospective study. DNA damage levels in PBLs were evaluated by the Comet assay and scored as percentage tail DNA by the Metafer-MetaCyte analyzing software...
October 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Rui Zhang, Cui Liu, Xuejun Liu, Yunliang Guo
Cerebral ischemia is the major causes the neuronal damages throughout the world. Present investigation evaluates the neuroprotective effect of (SS) in cerebral ischemic rat. All the rats were separated in to four group such as control group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group and Spatholobus suberectus (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) treated group which receives extract for 15 days prior to I/R. At the end of protocol all the rats were sacrificed and brain was isolated for the biochemical estimation. Further, oxidative stress was estimated by measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the brain tissue...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Ran Tao, Cheng-Zhang Wang, Jian-Zhong Ye, Hao Zhou, Hong-Xia Chen, Chang-Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Polyprenol is an important lipid with many bioactive effects. The study on differences in bioactive effects of polyprenol derivatives having different isoprene units are seldom reported and it is helpful to find out which type of polyprenol derivatives are effective for treating A549/HepG2 cells and E. coli /S. aureus. METHODS: All tested polyprenol derivatives were measured with inhibition halos by Oxford cup assays. MIC values were assessed by the broth dilution method...
October 10, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Kavitha Ramadass, Thavamani Palanisami, Euan Smith, Srinithi Mayilswami, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Ravi Naidu
Earthworm toxicity assays contribute to ecological risk assessment and consequently standard toxicological endpoints, such as mortality and reproduction, are regularly estimated. These endpoints are not enough to better understand the mechanism of toxic pollutants. We employed an additional endpoint in the earthworm Eisenia andrei to estimate the pollutant-induced stress. In this study, comet assay was used as an additional endpoint to evaluate the genotoxicity of weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils containing 520 to 1450 mg hydrocarbons kg(-1) soil...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Youssef Paolo Mendoza-Zenil, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Ninfa Ramírez-Durán, Rosa Del Carmen Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Nuria Rodríguez-Fariñas, Hariz Islas-Flores, Armando Elizalde-Velázquez, Sandra García-Medina, Ricardo Pérez-Pastén Borja
Metals such as Al, Fe and Hg are used in diverse anthropogenic activities. Their presence in water bodies is due mainly to domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater discharges and constitutes a hazard for the organisms inhabiting these environments. The present study aimed to evaluate geno- and cytotoxicity induced by Al, Fe, Hg and the mixture of these metals on blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Specimens were exposed to the permissible limits in water for human use and consumption according to the pertinent official Mexican norm [official Mexican norm NOM-127-SSA1-1994] Al (0...
October 6, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Vipaporn Cheewinthamrongrod, Hakuto Kageyama, Tanapat Palaga, Teruhiro Takabe, Rungaroon Waditee-Sirisattha
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a group of natural sunscreen compounds that possess highly photoprotective properties. The most commonly found MAAs in marine organisms is shinorine, porphyra-334, and mycosporine-glycine. However, the halophilic species accumulate mycosporine-2-glycine (M2G) as the major MAA. In this study, we have investigated the protective effect of M2G against oxidative stress. In vitro radical scavenging activity revealed that M2G exhibited a significant inhibition with scavenging concentration (SC) 50 value of 22±1...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Anelise Barth, Natália Brucker, Angela M Moro, Sabrina Nascimento, Gabriela Goethel, Caroline Souto, Rafael Fracasso, Elisa Sauer, Louise Altknecht, Bárbara da Costa, Marta Duarte, Camila B Menezes, Tiana Tasca, Marcelo D Arbo, Solange Cristina Garcia
Environmental exposure to pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), could lead to carcinogenesis development. However, there is a gap on the mechanisms involved in this effect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between exposure to environmental air pollution and inflammation process in DNA damage in taxi drivers. This study included 45 taxi drivers and 40 controls; non-smokers composed both groups. Biological monitoring was performed through quantification of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)...
October 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Debasis Nayak, Manisha Kumari, Sripathi Rajachandar, Sarbani Ashe, Neethi Chandra Thathapudi, Bismita Nayak
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are double edged sword that possesses both beneficial and harmful effects. Although basic research on skin cancer prevention has undergone a huge transformation, cases of recurrence with higher rates of drug resistance are some of its drawbacks. Therefore, targeting mitochondria by ROS overproduction provides an alternate approach for anticancer therapy. In the present study green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were explored for triggering the ROS production in A431 skin carcinoma cells...
October 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Carmen Steinborn, Christoph Diegel, Manuel Garcia-Käufer, Carsten Gründemann, Roman Huber
Because different metals are used in complementary medicine for the treatment of diseases related to a dysfunction of the immune system, this study aimed at determining the immunomodulatory potential of Pb(NO3 )2 , AuCl3 , Cu(NO3 )2 , HgCl2 , AgNO3 , SnCl2 , AsCl3 and SbCl3 at sub-toxic concentrations and at assessing possible toxic side effects of low-concentrated metal preparations. The influence of the metal salts on primary human mononuclear cells was analyzed by measuring cell viability using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay, apoptosis and necrosis induction by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and proliferation by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining and flow cytometry...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
S I Zaichkina, A R Dyukina, O M Rozanova, S P Romanchenko, N P Sirota, E A Kuznetsova, N B Simonova, S S Sorokina, D T Zakrzhevskaya, V I Yusupov, V N Bagratishvili
We studied the effect of exposure to helium-neon laser (dose range 0.16-50 mJ/cm(2)) on activation of natural protection reserve in mice using the adaptive response test. DNA comets method revealed a protective response manifested in DNA damage level in whole blood leukocytes of mice and in lymphoid organs by the thymus and spleen weight index; preexposure to laser did not induce the adaptive response. ROS level in the whole blood was assessed by the level of zymosan-induced luminol chemiluminescence. In mice subjected to adaptive laser irradiation in doses of 0...
September 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Elizabeth Gibney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Nature
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