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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914026/limbal-stem-cell-and-oral-mucosal-epithelial-transplantation-from-ex-vivo-cultivation-in-lscd-induced-rabbits-histology-and-immunologic-study-of-the-transplant-epithelial-sheet
#1
Napaporn Tananuvat, Kanokkan Bumroongkit, Chainarong Tocharusa, Umnat Mevatee, Aphisek Kongkaew, Somsanguan Ausayakhun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of cultivated limbal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (CLET and COMET) in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD)-induced rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of three rabbits each. Limbal tissue was harvested from the first group, and oral mucosal biopsy was obtained from the second group. The tissues were cultured using an explant technique with amniotic membrane as a substrate and co-culture with the 3T3 fibroblast and air-lifting method...
December 2, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913897/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-pro-oxidant-and-genotoxic-responses-following-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-the-antibiotic-oxytetracycline
#2
Sara Rodrigues, Sara C Antunes, Alberto T Correia, Bruno Nunes
Oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibacterial agent, is extensively used in aquaculture practices all over the world, but also in human and veterinary medicines. Because of its intensive use, low rates of absorption by treated animals, inadequate disposal, and low efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants, the potential harmful effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern. This work aimed to assess the effects of this antibiotic in rainbow trout, following both acute and chronic exposures. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers, in gills and liver...
December 2, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912880/combination-of-baicalein-and-10-hydroxy-camptothecin-exerts-remarkable-synergetic-anti-cancer-effects
#3
Qin Tang, Fangling Ji, Wenhui Sun, Jingyun Wang, Jianli Guo, Lianying Guo, Yachen Li, Yongming Bao
BACKGROUND: 10-Hydroxy camptothecin (HCPT), a naturally occurring alkaloid, is a clinical drug for cancer chemotherapy. Baicalein (BA) is a flavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis. The synergistic anti-cancer effect of BA and HCPT has not been reported. PURPOSE: To explore whether and how BA enhances the anti-cancer effect of HCPT in BGC823 cells. METHODS: Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed through flow cytometry and western blotting analysis...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908629/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-mucus-permeation-capacity-of-several-surface-modified-poly-anhydride-nanoparticles-designed-for-oral-drug-delivery
#4
T Iglesias, A López de Cerain, Juan Manuel Irache, N Martín-Arbella, M Wilcox, J Pearson, A Azqueta
The main concerns with drugs designed for oral administration are their inactivation or degradation in the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, their poor solubility through the gastrointestinal mucus gel layer, the poor intestinal epithelium permeability that limits their absorption, and their toxicity. In this context, poly(anhydride) nanoparticles are capable of protecting the drug from the harsh environment, reduce the drug's toxicity and, by virtue of surface modification, to enhance or reduce their mucus permeability and the bioadhesion to specific target cells...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908386/genetic-polymorphisms-in-19q13-3-genes-associated-with-alteration-of-repair-capacity-to-bpde-dna-adducts-in-primary-cultured-lymphocytes
#5
Mingyang Xiao, Sha Xiao, Tahar van der Straaten, Ping Xue, Guopei Zhang, Xiao Zheng, Qianye Zhang, Yuan Cai, Cuihong Jin, Jinghua Yang, Shengwen Wu, Guolian Zhu, Xiaobo Lu
Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P), and its ultimate metabolite Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), are classic DNA damaging carcinogens. DNA damage in cells caused by BPDE is normally repaired by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) and Base Excision Repair (BER). Genetic variations in NER and BER can change individual DNA repair capacity to DNA damage induced by BPDE. In the present study we determined the number of in vitro induced BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocytes, to reflect individual susceptibility to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-induced carcinogenesis...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908383/the-insecticide-spinosad-induces-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-hek293-and-hepg2-cells
#6
Mingjun Yang, Guanggang Xiang, Diqiu Li, Yang Zhang, Wenping Xu, Liming Tao
Spinosad, a pesticide acting on the central nervous system of insects, is classified as a pesticide with reduced risk. However, spinosad-induced toxicological effects on non-target organisms must not be ignored. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and potential genotoxicity of spinosad in HEK293 and HepG2 cell lines. The results showed that spinosad caused a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability of HEK293 and HepG2 cells. Spinosad-induced p53 accumulation thereby upregulates the expression of Bax and downregulates the expression of Bcl-2...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908303/dna-damage-increase-in-peripheral-neutrophils-from-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-associated-with-the-disease-activity-and-the-presence-of-shared-epitope
#7
Gustavo Martelli-Palomino, Adriana B Paoliello-Paschoalato, Janaina C O Crispim, Diane M Rassi, Rene D Oliveira, Paulo Louzada, Yara Maria Lucisano-Valim, Eduardo A Donadi
OBJECTIVES: Neutrophils play a major role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. We aimed to evaluate if neutrophil DNA damage in RA patients is associated with the disease activity, autoantibodies status, carriage of the RA shared epitope (SE) and treatment. METHODS: DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood (77 patients and 55 healthy controls) and in 10 RA synovial fluid neutrophils. Evaluation of the respiratory burst of 30 patients with RA and 30 healthy controls was done...
November 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907095/phenotypic-plasticity-epigenetic-or-genetic-modifications-in-relation-to-the-duration-of-cd-exposure-within-a-microevolution-time-range-in-the-beet-armyworm
#8
Maria Augustyniak, Anna Płachetka-Bożek, Alina Kafel, Agnieszka Babczyńska, Monika Tarnawska, Agnieszka Janiak, Anna Loba, Marta Dziewięcka, Julia Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Agnieszka Zawisza-Raszka
In the case of the pests inhabiting metal polluted or fields where the use of pesticides is common, a natural selection of resistant individuals can occur. This may pose serious problems for humans, agriculture, as well as the economies of many countries. In this study, the hypothesis that multigenerational (120 generations) exposure to cadmium of a beet armyworm population could be a selecting factor toward a more efficient DNA protection was verified. The hemocytes of individuals from two culture strains (control and Cd-exposed) were treated with H2O2 (a DNA-damaging agent) or PBS (reference)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905024/potential-anti-genotoxic-effect-of-sodium-butyrate-to-modulate-induction-of-dna-damage-by-tamoxifen-citrate-in-rat-bone-marrow-cells
#9
Haidan M El-Shorbagy
Sodium butyrate (SB) is one of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) that is recently evidenced to have a prooxidant activity and an ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage. Since the majority of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients are treated with tamoxifen citrate (TC), which exerts well established oxidative and genotoxic effects, thus the basic objective of this study is to determine whether SB could ameliorate or curate tamoxifen citrate-induced oxidative DNA damage and genotoxic effect in vivo through up-regulation of some antioxidant enzymes...
November 30, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904394/dose-dependent-protective-and-inductive-effects%C3%A2-of-xanthohumol-on-oxidative-dna-damage-in%C3%A2-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Daniel O Carvalho, Rui Oliveira, Björn Johansson, Luís F Guido
The effect of xanthohumol, a prenylflavonoid isolated from the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), on Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA oxidative damage and viability was evaluated. Yeast cultures under oxidative stress, induced by H2O2, displayed stronger growth in the presence of 5 mg/L of xanthohumol than cultures with only H2O2. Likewise, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay was significantly lower in cells co-incubated with xanthohumol and H2O2. Accordingly, fluorescence of dichlorofluorescein in cells treated with H2O2 and xanthohumol was considerably lower than in cells exclusively treated with H2O2, indicative of a reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism and consequent formation of oxidation products, as detected by mass spectrometry...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903423/cytotoxicity-of-trans-chalcone-and-licochalcone-a-against-breast-cancer-cells-is-due-to-apoptosis-induction-and-cell-cycle-arrest
#11
Luis Felipe Buso Bortolotto, Flávia Regina Barbosa, Gabriel Silva, Tamires Aparecida Bitencourt, Rene Oliveira Beleboni, Seung Joon Baek, Mozart Marins, Ana Lúcia Fachin
Chalcones are precursors of flavonoids that exhibit structural heterogeneity and potential antitumor activity. The objective of this study was to characterize the cytotoxicity of trans-chalcone and licochalcone A (LicoA(1)) against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and normal murine fibroblasts (3T3). Also the mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of these two compounds were studied. The alkaline comet assay revealed dose-dependent genotoxicity, which was more responsive against the tumor cell line, compared to the 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line...
November 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895503/methotrexate-induces-dna-damage-and-inhibits-homologous-recombination-repair-in-choriocarcinoma-cells
#12
Lisha Xie, Tiancen Zhao, Jing Cai, You Su, Zehua Wang, Weihong Dong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of sensitivity to methotrexate (MTX) in human choriocarcinoma cells regarding DNA damage response. METHODS: Two choriocarcinoma cancer cell lines, JAR and JEG-3, were utilized in this study. An MTX-sensitive osteosarcoma cell line MG63, an MTX-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and an MTX-resistant cervical adenocarcinoma cell line Hela served as controls. Cell viability assay was carried out to assess MTX sensitivity of cell lines...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895137/successful-response-to-pegylated-interferon-alpha-in-a-recurrent-paraganglioma
#13
Thibault Bahougne, Alessio Imperiale, Gerlinde Averous, Gerard Chabrier, Nelly Burnichon, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, Nassim Dali-Youcef, Rossella Libé, Eric Baudin, Catherine Roy, Herve Lang, Laurence Kessler
INTRODUCTION: Early and accurate identification of recurrences in patients with aggressive paraganglioma (PGL) poses significant challenges. Moreover, the most appropriate therapeutic strategy for recurrent PGL remains to be established. RESULTS: We report the case of 52-year-old man with a history of recurrent, sporadic, left retroperitoneal PGL that relapsed twice (at eight and nine years after the first surgical intervention). At the time of the second recurrence, 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated a pathologically increased tracer uptake in multiple nodular lesions (10-15 mm in size) located close to the remnant of the left renal pedicle and in the left lombar paravertebral region...
November 28, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894755/dna-damage-induced-by-coal-dust-fly-and-bottom-ash-from-coal-combustion-evaluated-using-the-micronucleus-test-and-comet-assay-in-vitro
#14
Cristina Araujo Matzenbacher, Ana Letícia Hilario Garcia, Marcela Silva Dos Santos, Caroline Cardoso Nicolau, Suziane Premoli, Dione Silva Corrêa, Claudia Telles de Souza, Liana Niekraszewicz, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Tânia Valéria Delgado, Wolfgang Kalkreuth, Ivana Grivicich, Juliana da Silva
Coal mining and combustion generating huge amounts of bottom and fly ash are major causes of environmental pollution and health hazards due to the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. The Candiota coalfield in Rio Grande do Sul, is one of the largest open-cast coal mines in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic and mutagenic effects of coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples from Candiota with the comet assay (alkaline and modified version) and micronucleus test using the lung fibroblast cell line (V79)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894689/occupational-exposure-to-cytostatic-antineoplastic-drugs-and-cytogenetic-damage-measured-using-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
M Villarini, V Gianfredi, S Levorato, S Vannini, T Salvatori, M Moretti
Many studies have reported the occurrence of work-environment contamination by antineoplastic drugs (ANPD), with significant incorporation of trace amounts of these hazardous drugs in hospital personnel. Given the ability of most ANPD to actively bind DNA, thus inducing genotoxic effects, it is of pivotal importance to assess the degree of genotoxic damage (i.e., residual genotoxic risk) in occupationally exposed subjects. The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (L-CBMN) assay is largely used for biological effect monitoring in subjects occupationally exposed to ANPD...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894685/dna-damage-induced-by-occupational-and-environmental-exposure-to-miscellaneous-chemicals
#16
REVIEW
Juliana da Silva
Epidemiological studies for hazardous situations resulting from the risk of environmental and/or occupational exposure to miscellaneous chemicals present several difficulties. Biomonitoring of human populations can provide an early detection system for the initiation of cell dysregulation in the development of cancer, which would help develop an efficient prevention program. Recently, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in lymphocyte cells has become an important tool for assessing DNA damage in exposed populations...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894681/results-of-micronucleus-assays-with-individuals-who-are-occupationally-and-environmentally-exposed-to-mercury-lead-and-cadmium
#17
REVIEW
Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Monika Waldherr, Tahereh Setayesh, Miroslav Mišík, Georg Wultsch, Metka Filipic, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Siegfried Knasmueller
Millions of humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally to lead, mercury and cadmium compounds. Mercury compounds are less abundant but some of them belong to the most toxic chemicals which are known. We evaluated the literature to find out if these metals act in humans as genotoxic carcinogens and if their health effects can be predicted by use of micronucleus (MN) assays with lymphocytes and/or with other genotoxicity tests. Numerous studies showed that lead and mercury induce cancer in humans and also in animals, in vitro experiments with cultured cells indicate that they cause DNA damage via different molecular mechanisms including release of reactive oxygen species and interactions with DNA repair processes...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894680/frequency-of-micronuclei-and-other-biomarkers-of-dna-damage-in-populations-exposed-to-dusts-asbestos-and-other-fibers-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Stefano Bonassi, Mirta Milić, Monica Neri
Airborne particles are small, solid particles projected into the air either by natural forces, or by mechanical or man-made processes, and include fibers and dusts. Their toxicity is usually subsequent to inhalation and can lead to pulmonary dysfunctions and diseases, including cancer. Cytochalasin B blocked micronucleus assay in lymphocytes (L-CBMN) has been shown as a sensitive and reliable technique in assessing genotoxic exposure, An extensive search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases allowed retrieval of 18 articles on occupational or environmental exposure evaluating L-CBMN in subjects exposed to fibers or dusts (asbestos, silica, rockwool, beryllium, tobacco, and wood)...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894679/use-of-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-in-occupational-biomonitoring-of-genome-damage-caused-by-in-vivo-exposure-to-chemical-genotoxins-past-present-and-future
#19
REVIEW
Armen Nersesyan, Michael Fenech, Claudia Bolognesi, Miroslav Mišík, Tahereh Setayesh, Georg Wultsch, Stefano Bonassi, Philip Thomas, Siegfried Knasmüller
This article concerns the use of the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in biomonitoring of occupational and environmental exposures to genotoxic agents. Furthermore, we evaluated the use of this method in different exposure scenarios, in comparison to other DNA damage biomarkers and its regional distribution. So far ca. 400 studies have been published and the number increased substantially in the last years. The most frequently investigated groups are hospital personnel, followed by workers in the chemical industry and agricultural workers...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894350/gant61-a-gli-inhibitor-sensitizes-glioma-cells-to-the-temozolomide-treatment
#20
Jianlong Li, Jinquan Cai, Shihong Zhao, Kun Yao, Ying Sun, Yongli Li, Lingchao Chen, Ruiyan Li, Xiuwei Zhai, Junhe Zhang, Chuanlu Jiang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of downregulating Hedgehog pathway by GANT61 on human glioma cells, examine the consequent changes of temozolomide (TMZ)-induced effects and explore the molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of a Gli1/2 inhibitor, GANT61 was examined both alone and in combination with TMZ in human glioma cell lines. The mRNA and protein expression alterations were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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