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T-cell and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087817/t-cell-redeployment-and-intracellular-cytokine-expression-following-exercise-effects-of-exercise-intensity-and-cytomegalovirus-infection
#1
Emily C LaVoy, Maryam Hussain, Justin Reed, Hawley Kunz, Mira Pistillo, Austin B Bigley, Richard J Simpson
The magnitude of lymphocytosis following exercise is directly related to exercise intensity. Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) also augments lymphocytosis after exercise. It is not known if the enhanced T-cell response to exercise due to CMV depends on exercise intensity. Furthermore, exercise-induced changes in T-cell expression of type I and type II cytokines are thought to be intensity dependent, but direct comparisons are lacking. The aim of this experiment was to determine if CMV affects the exercise-induced redistribution of T-cell subsets at varying intensities, and determine the effect of exercise intensity on CD8(+) T-cell cytokine expression...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077069/a-pilot-study-of-brisk-walking-in-sedentary-combination-antiretroviral-treatement-cart-treated-patients-benefit-on-soluble-and-cell-inflammatory-markers
#2
Matteo Bonato, Laura Galli, Laura Passeri, Valeria Longo, Gaspare Pavei, Simona Bossolasco, Cecilia Bertocchi, Massimo Cernuschi, Giuseppe Balconi, Giampiero Merati, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonio La Torre, Paola Cinque
BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV infection is associated with low-level inflammation and increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. The objective was to assess the effects of moderate intensity exercise on metabolic and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected treated persons. METHODS: This was a pilot study enrolling cART-treated, sedentary persons with metabolic complications in a 12-week protocol, consisting of three sessions per week of 60 min brisk walking with (strength-walk group) or without (walk group) 30 min circuit-training...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060359/targeting-retinal-ganglion-cell-recovery
#3
J G Crowston, E T Fahy, L Fry, I A Trounce, P van Wijngaarden, S Petrou, V Chrysostomou
Accumulating evidence from experimental and clinical studies suggest that retinal ganglion cells at least in the earlier stages of glaucoma have the capacity to recover function following periods of functional loss. The capacity for recovery may be negatively impacted by advancing age but can be boosted by interventions such as diet restriction and exercise.Eye advance online publication, 6 January 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2016.281.
January 6, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051833/cognitive-benefits-of-exercise-intervention
#4
T Archer, S Ricci, F Massoni, L Ricci, M Rapp-Ricciardi
Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035017/muscle-damage-and-inflammation-during-recovery-from-exercise
#5
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Paul A Della Gatta, Kazunori Nosaka
Unaccustomed exercise consisting of eccentric (i.e., lengthening) muscle contractions often results in muscle damage characterized by ultrastructural alterations in muscle tissue, clinical signs and symptoms (e.g., reduced muscle strength and range of motion, increased muscle soreness and swelling, efflux of myocellular proteins). The time course of recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage depends on the extent of initial muscle damage, which in turn is influenced by the intensity and duration of exercise, joint angle/muscle length and muscle groups used during exercise...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030847/swimming-attenuates-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-chronic-colitis
#6
Ling Qin, Zhi-Qiang Yao, Qi Chang, Ya-Li Zhao, Ning-Ning Liu, Xiao-Shan Zhu, Qin-Qin Liu, Li-Feng Wang, An-Gang Yang, Chun-Fang Gao, Jun-Tang Li
Increasing evidence suggests that regular physical exercise suppresses chronic inflammation. However, the potential inhibitory effects of swimming on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis, and its underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, rats were orally administered DSS to induce chronic colitis, and subsequently treated with or without swimming exercise. A 7-week swimming program (1 or 1.5 hours per day, 5 days per week) ameliorated DSS-caused colon shortening, colon barrier disruption, spleen enlargement, serum LDH release, and reduction of body weight gain...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012941/age-related-arterial-immune-cell-infiltration-in-mice-is-attenuated-by-caloric-restriction-or-voluntary-exercise
#7
Daniel W Trott, Grant D Henson, Mi H T Ho, Sheilah A Allison, Lisa A Lesniewski, Anthony J Donato
Age-related arterial inflammation is associated with dysfunction of the arteries and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine if aging increases arterial immune cell infiltration as well as the populations of immune cells principally involved, we tested the hypothesis that large elastic and resistance arteries in old mice would exhibit increased immune cell infiltration compared to young controls. Additionally, we hypothesized that vasoprotective lifestyle interventions such as lifelong caloric restriction or 8weeks of voluntary wheel running would attenuate age-related arterial immune cell infiltration...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007575/the-mechanism-of-formation-structure-and-physiological-relevance-of-covalent-hemoglobin-attachment-to-the-erythrocyte-membrane
#8
Elizabeth M Welbourn, Michael T Wilson, Ashril Yusof, Metodi V Metodiev, Chris E Cooper
Covalent hemoglobin binding to membranes leads to band 3 (AE1) clustering and the removal of erythrocytes from the circulation; it is also implicated in blood storage lesions. Damaged hemoglobin, with the heme being in a redox and oxygen-binding inactive hemichrome form, has been implicated as the binding species. However, previous studies used strong non-physiological oxidants. In vivo hemoglobin is constantly being oxidised to methemoglobin (ferric), with around 1% of hemoglobin being in this form at any one time...
December 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998938/agent-based-re-engineering-of-erbb-signaling-a-modeling-pipeline-for-integrative-systems-biology
#9
Arya A Das, T A Darsana, Elizabeth Jacob
MOTIVATION: Experiments in systems biology are generally supported by a computational model which quantitatively estimates the parameters of the system by finding the best fit to the experiment. Mathematical models have proved to be successful in reverse engineering the system. The data generated is interpreted to understand the dynamics of the underlying phenomena. The question we have sought to answer is that - is it possible to use an agent-based approach to re-engineer a biological process, making use of the available knowledge from experimental and modelling efforts? Can the bottom-up approach benefit from the top-down exercise so as to create an integrated modelling formalism for systems biology? We propose a modelling pipeline that learns from the data given by reverse engineering, and uses it for re-engineering the system, to carry out in-silico experiments...
December 20, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966783/the-role-of-exercise-and-tfam-in-preventing-skeletal-muscle-atrophy
#10
REVIEW
Nicholas T Theilen, George H Kunkel, Suresh C Tyagi
Skeletal muscle atrophy is the consequence of protein degradation exceeding protein synthesis. This arises for a multitude of reasons including the unloading of muscle during microgravity, post-surgery bedrest, immobilization of a limb after injury, and overall disuse of the musculature. The development of therapies prior to skeletal muscle atrophy settings to diminish protein degradation is scarce. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and contributes to the induction of protein degradation and cell apoptosis through increased levels of ROS observed with the loss of organelle function...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931275/serum-tryptase-level-and-inflammatory-markers-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-of-children-with-exercise-induced-symptoms
#11
Iwona Stelmach, Magdalena Zaczeniuk, Anna Sztafiska, Pawe Majak, Joanna Jerzyska, Anna Kuklinska-Pijanka, Wlodzimierz Stelmach
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biomarkers concentration in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in schoolchildren with postexercise symptoms. We also evaluated changes in fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) value and the serum tryptase level after exercise. METHODS: One hundred children with postexercise symptoms were included. Methacholine challenge testing (MCT) was performed at visit 2, and exercise challenge testing (ECT) was performed at visit 3...
September 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927626/the-impact-of-tgf-%C3%AE-inhibition-during-acute-exercise-on-achilles-tendon-extracellular-matrix
#12
Ross M Potter, Richard T Huynh, Brent D Volper, Kathryn A Arthur, Andrew C D'Lugos, Mikkel A Sørensen, S Peter Magnusson, Jared M Dickinson, Taben M Hale, Chad C Carroll
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of TGF-β1 in regulating tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) after acute exercise. Wistar rats exercised (n=15) on a treadmill for four consecutive days (60 min/day) or maintained normal cage activity. After each exercise bout, the peritendinous space of each Achilles tendon was injected with a TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor or sham. Independent of group, tendons injected with inhibitor exhibited ~50% lower Smad 3 (Ser423/425) (p<0.05) and 2.5-fold greater ERK1/2 phosphorylation (p<0...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922332/effect-of-moderate-and-high-intensity-chronic-exercise-on-the-pancreatic-islet-morphometry-in-healthy-rats-bdnf-receptor-participation
#13
Alberto Jiménez-Maldonado, Adolfo Virgen-Ortiz, Valery Melnikov, Alejandrina Rodríguez-Hernández, Armando Gamboa-Domínguez, Sergio Montero, Jesús Muñiz-Murguía, Mónica Lemus, Elena Roces de Álvarez-Buylla
A B S T R A C T The function and morphology of β-cells is largely dependent on insulin demand. As β-cells cover a bigger cell proportion in pancreas islets, changes of insulin producer cells affect the whole pancreatic islet morphology. Growth factors as the neurotrophins regulate the pancreas physiology, besides; physical exercise increases insulin sensitivity, and further modifies brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration in plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise (running in a treadmill for eight weeks) intensity on pancreatic islet morphometry in healthy state...
December 6, 2016: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913051/erg-expression-in-multiple-myeloma-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall
#14
Juliana Knief, Katharina Reddemann, Jan Gliemroth, Swantje Brede, Tobias Bartscht, Christoph Thorns
INTRODUCTION: ERG expression has been described as a frequent event in prostate cancer indicating poor prognosis and promoting oncogenesis. It has also been demonstrated in Ewing's sarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia and acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia but could not be found in other epithelial tumors, Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We aimed to analyze ERG expression in multiple myeloma, following an index case of a patient with metastases of unknown origin in the spine strongly expressing ERG, which were thought to be of prostatic origin but turned out to be plasmacytic lesions...
November 3, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#15
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891564/a-homozygous-pign-missense-mutation-in-soft-coated-wheaten-terriers-with-a-canine-paroxysmal-dyskinesia
#16
Ana L Kolicheski, Gary S Johnson, Tendai Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Jeremy F Taylor, Robert D Schnabel, Taroh Kinoshita, Yoshiko Murakami, Dennis P O'Brien
Hereditary paroxysmal dyskinesias (PxD) are a heterogeneous group of movement disorders classified by frequency, duration, and triggers of the episodes. A young-adult onset canine PxD has segregated as an autosomal recessive trait in Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers. The medical records and videos of episodes from 25 affected dogs were reviewed. The episodes of hyperkinesia and dystonia lasted from several minutes to several hours and could occur as often as >10/day. They were not associated with strenuous exercise or fasting but were sometimes triggered by excitement...
November 28, 2016: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889934/vascular-cell-transcriptomic-changes-to-exercise-training-differ-directionally-along-and-between-skeletal-muscle-arteriolar-trees
#17
M Harold Laughlin, Hsiao T Yang, Darla L Tharp, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Douglas K Bowles
EXT-induced arteriolar adaptations in skeletal muscle are heterogeneous because of spatial variations in muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns during exercise. The purpose of this report is to summarize a series of experiments conducted to test the hypothesis that changes in vascular gene expression are signaled by alterations in shear stress resulting from increases in blood flow, muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns. We also report results from a follow-up study of Ankrd23, one gene whose expression was changed by EXT...
November 27, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872759/impact-of-moderate-intensity-aerobic-exercise-on-chemotherapy-induced-anemia-in-elderly-women-with-breast-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#18
Heba M Mohamady, Hany F Elsisi, Yasser M Aneis
Exercises are often recommended for patients suffering from anemia to improve physical conditioning and hematologic parameters. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on chemotherapy-induced anemia. Thirty elderly women with breast cancer underwent chemotherapy and were randomly assigned into two equal groups; Group A received aerobic exercise for 25-40 min at 50-70% of the maximum heart rate, 3 times/week for 12 weeks in addition to usual daily living activities, medication and nutritional support...
January 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866236/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-markers-of-cellular-immunosenescence-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
H Cao Dinh, I Beyer, T Mets, O O Onyema, R Njemini, W Renmans, M De Waele, K Jochmans, S Vander Meeren, I Bautmans
Aging affects negatively the immune system, defined as immunosenescence, which increases the susceptibility of elderly persons to infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. There are strong indications that physical exercise in elderly persons may prevent the age-related decline in immune response without significant side effects. Consequently, exercise is being considered as a safe mode of intervention to reduce immunosenescence. The aim of this review was to appraise the existing evidence regarding the impact of exercise on surface markers of cellular immunosenescence in either young and old humans or animals...
November 19, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856464/longitudinal-association-among-sickle-cell-trait-fitness-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-african-americans-in-cardia
#20
Robert I Liem, Cheeling Chan, Thanh-Huyen T Vu, Myriam Fornage, Alexis A Thompson, Kiang Liu, Mercedes R Carnethon
The contribution of sickle cell trait (SCT) to racial disparities in cardiopulmonary fitness is not known despite concerns that SCT is associated with exertion-related sudden death. We evaluated the association of SCT status with cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in fitness and risk of hypertension, diabetes and metabolic syndrome over 25 years among 1,995 African Americans (56% women, 18 to 30 years old) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Overall, the prevalence of SCT was 6...
November 16, 2016: Blood
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