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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905421/exercise-to-preserve-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-recent-onset-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-extod-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#1
P Narendran, N Jackson, A Daley, D Thompson, K Stokes, S Greenfield, M Charlton, M Curran, T P J Solomon, A Nouwen, S I Lee, A R Cooper, M Mostazir, R S Taylor, A Kennedy, R C Andrews
AIM: Residual β-cell function is present at the time of diagnosis with Type 1 diabetes. Preserving this β-cell function reduces complications. We hypothesized that exercise preserves β-cell function in Type 1 diabetes and undertook a pilot trial to address the key uncertainties in designing a definitive trial to test this hypothesis. METHODS: A randomized controlled pilot trial in adults aged 16-60 years diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes within the previous 3 months was undertaken...
September 14, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891202/mechanical-signals-protect-stem-cell-lineage-selection-preserving-the-bone-and-muscle-phenotypes-in-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Danielle M Frechette, Divya Krishnamoorthy, Tee Pamon, M Ete Chan, Vihitaben Patel, Clinton T Rubin
The incidence of obesity is rapidly rising, increasing morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Associated comorbidities include type 2 diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver disease, and cancer. The impact of excess fat on musculoskeletal health is still unclear, although it is associated with increased fracture risk and a decline in muscular function. The complexity of obesity makes understanding the etiology of bone and muscle abnormalities difficult. Exercise is an effective and commonly prescribed nonpharmacological treatment option, but it can be difficult or unsafe for the frail, elderly, and morbidly obese...
September 11, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883658/running-reorganizes-the-circuitry-of-one-week-old-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons
#3
Nirnath Sah, Benjamin D Peterson, Susan T Lubejko, Carmen Vivar, Henriette van Praag
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is an important form of structural and functional plasticity in the mature mammalian brain. The existing consensus is that GABA regulates the initial integration of adult-born neurons, similar to neuronal development during embryogenesis. Surprisingly, virus-based anatomical tracing revealed that very young, one-week-old, new granule cells in male C57Bl/6 mice receive input not only from GABAergic interneurons, but also from multiple glutamatergic cell types, including mature dentate granule cells, area CA1-3 pyramidal cells and mossy cells...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878468/the-effect-of-changing-condition-of-walking-speed-on-the-knee-angle-of-rats-with-osteoarthritis
#4
Chan-Woo Nam, Kyoung Kim, Sang-Su Na
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the positive effect of exercise on knee osteoarthritis in rats with osteoarthritis induced by applying effective walking speed when changing speed conditions during walking. [Subjects and Methods] The rats used in this study were male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300 g and 7 weeks old, and 20 rats were used. The Osteoarthritis (OA) rats model was induced by MIA (monoiodoacetate). The rats was randomly divided into experimental group (MIA injection group) and control group (normal cell line injection group)...
August 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864849/maximal-exercise-increases-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cell-frequency-and-number-in-healthy-young-men
#5
Erik D Hanson, Eli Danson, Catriona V Nguyen-Robertson, Jackson J Fyfe, Nigel K Stepto, David B Bartlett, Samy Sakkal
PURPOSE: Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. METHODS: Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862046/glucose-metabolism-and-metabolic-flexibility-in-cultured-skeletal-muscle-cells-is-related-to-exercise-status-in-young-male-subjects
#6
Jenny Lund, Daniel S Tangen, Håvard Wiig, Hans K Stadheim, Siw A Helle, Jesper B Birk, Thorsten Ingemann-Hansen, Arild C Rustan, G Hege Thoresen, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Eili T Kase, Jørgen Jensen
We hypothesised that skeletal muscles of healthy young people have a large variation in oxidative capacity and fibre-type composition, and aimed therefore to investigate glucose metabolism in biopsies and myotubes isolated from musculus vastus lateralis from healthy males with varying degrees of maximal oxygen uptake. Trained and intermediary trained subjects showed higher carbohydrate oxidation in vivo. Fibre-type distribution in biopsies and myotubes did not differ between groups. There was no correlation between fibre-type I expression in biopsies and myotubes...
September 1, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839146/piezo1-channels-sense-whole-body-physical-activity-to-reset-cardiovascular-homeostasis-and-enhance-performance
#7
Baptiste Rode, Jian Shi, Naima Endesh, Mark J Drinkhill, Peter J Webster, Sabine J Lotteau, Marc A Bailey, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Melanie J Ludlow, Richard M Cubbon, Jing Li, T Simon Futers, Lara Morley, Hannah J Gaunt, Katarzyna Marszalek, Hema Viswambharan, Kevin Cuthbertson, Paul D Baxter, Richard Foster, Piruthivi Sukumar, Andrew Weightman, Sarah C Calaghan, Stephen B Wheatcroft, Mark T Kearney, David J Beech
Mammalian biology adapts to physical activity but the molecular mechanisms sensing the activity remain enigmatic. Recent studies have revealed how Piezo1 protein senses mechanical force to enable vascular development. Here, we address Piezo1 in adult endothelium, the major control site in physical activity. Mice without endothelial Piezo1 lack obvious phenotype but close inspection reveals a specific effect on endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance artery. Strikingly, the Piezo1 is required for elevated blood pressure during whole body physical activity but not blood pressure during inactivity...
August 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822763/activating-transcription-factor-3-regulates-chemokine-expression-in-contracting-c2c12-myotubes-and-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle-after-eccentric-exercise
#8
R Fernández-Verdejo, A M Vanwynsberghe, T Hai, L Deldicque, M Francaux
Activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 regulates chemokine expression in various cell types and tissues. Herein, we studied this regulation in contracting muscle cells in vitro, and in skeletal muscle after muscle-damaging exercise in vivo. C2C12 myotubes with normal or low ATF3 levels (atf3_siRNA) were electrically stimulated (EPS). Also, ATF3-knockout (ATF3-KO) and control mice ran downhill until exhaustion, and muscles were analyzed post-exercise. EPS increased ATF3 levels in myotubes (P < 0.01)...
October 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817660/cited4-is-related-to-cardiogenic-induction-and-maintenance-of-proliferation-capacity-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-during-in-vitro-cardiogenesis
#9
Junichiro Miake, Tomomi Notsu, Katsumi Higaki, Kyoko Hidaka, Takayuki Morisaki, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Ichiro Hisatome
Cardiac progenitor cells have a limited proliferative capacity. The CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator, with the Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain (Cited) gene family, regulates gene transcription. Increased expression of the Cited4 gene in an adult mouse is associated with exercise-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and proliferation. However, the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during cardiogenesis are largely unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during in vitro cardiogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767980/bone-marrow-cell-migration-to-the-heart-in-a-chimeric-mouse-model-of-acute-chagasic-disease
#10
Camila Iansen Irion, Bruno Diaz Paredes, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Sandro Torrentes da Cunha, Luis Felipe Paula, Alysson Roncally Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Adriana Bastos Carvalho, Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a public health problem caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. There is currently no effective therapy for Chagas disease. Although there is some evidence for the beneficial effect of bone marrow-derived cells in chagasic disease, the mechanisms underlying their effects in the heart are unknown. Reports have suggested that bone marrow cells are recruited to the chagasic heart; however, studies using chimeric mouse models of chagasic cardiomyopathy are rare...
August 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760151/pureair-protocol-randomized-controlled-trial-of-intensive-pulmonary-rehabilitation-versus-standard-care-in-patients-undergoing-surgical-resection-for-lung-cancer
#11
Stefania Fugazzaro, Stefania Costi, Carlotta Mainini, Besa Kopliku, Cristian Rapicetta, Roberto Piro, Roberta Bardelli, Patricia Filipa Sobral Rebelo, Carla Galeone, Giorgio Sgarbi, Filippo Lococo, Massimiliano Paci, Tommaso Ricchetti, Silvio Cavuto, Domenico Franco Merlo, Sara Tenconi
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Surgery is proven to be the most effective treatment in early stages, despite its potential impact on quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation, either before or after surgery, is associated with reduced morbidity related symptoms and improved exercise capacity, lung function and quality of life. METHODS: We describe the study protocol for the open-label randomized controlled trial we are conducting on patients affected by primary lung cancer (stages I-II) eligible for surgical treatment...
July 31, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755471/mechanical-loading-disrupts-osteocyte-plasma-membranes-which-initiates-mechanosensation-events-in-bone
#12
Kanglun Yu, David P Sellman, Anoosh Bahraini, Mackenzie L Hagan, Ahmed Elsherbini, Kayce T Vanpelt, Peyton L Marshall, Mark W Hamrick, Anna McNeil, Paul L McNeil, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence
Osteocytes sense loading in bone, but their mechanosensation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Plasma membrane disruptions (PMD) develop with loading under physiological conditions in many cell types (e.g., myocytes, endothelial cells). These PMD foster molecular flux across cell membranes that promotes tissue adaptation, but this mechanosensation mechanism had not been explored in osteocytes. Our goal was to investigate whether PMD occur and initiate consequent mechanotransduction in osteocytes during physiological loading...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751932/does-regular-exercise-counter-t-cell-immunosenescence-reducing-the-risk-of-developing-cancer-and-promoting-successful-treatment-of-malignancies
#13
REVIEW
James E Turner, Patricia C Brum
Moderate intensity aerobic exercise training or regular physical activity is beneficial for immune function. For example, some evidence shows that individuals with an active lifestyle exhibit stronger immune responses to vaccination compared to those who are inactive. Encouragingly, poor vaccine responses, which are characteristic of an ageing immune system, can be improved by single or repeated bouts of exercise. In addition, exercise-induced lymphocytosis, and the subsequent lymphocytopenia, is thought to facilitate immune surveillance, whereby lymphocytes search tissues for antigens derived from viruses, bacteria, or malignant transformation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746573/quality-of-life-socioeconomic-and-clinical-factors-and-physical-exercise-in-persons-living-with-hiv-aids
#14
Rafaela Catherine da Silva Cunha de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo de Medeiros, Tatiane Andreza Lima da Silva, Ricardo Dias de Andrade, Danielle Coutinho de Medeiros, Juliany de Souza Araújo, Antônio Manuel Gouveia de Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio de Albuquerque Costa, Paulo Moreira Silva Dantas
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether socioeconomic and clinical aspects and the aspects of healthy life habits are associated with the quality of life of persons living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional exploratory quantitative research, with 227 persons living with HIV/AIDS, treated at two hospitals of reference between April 2012 and June 2014. We used structured questionnaires to assess socioeconomic aspects (gender, age, education level, marital status, race, socioeconomic status, dependents on family income, employment relationship), clinical parameters (time of disease diagnosis, use and time of medication, CD4 T-cell count, and viral load), and practice of physical exercise...
July 20, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739540/the-women-in-steady-exercise-research-wiser-survivor-trial-the-innovative-transdisciplinary-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-exercise-and-weight-loss-interventions-among-breast-cancer-survivors-with-lymphedema
#15
Renate M Winkels, Kathleen M Sturgeon, Michael J Kallan, Lorraine T Dean, Zi Zhang, Margaret Evangelisti, Justin C Brown, David B Sarwer, Andrea B Troxel, Crystal Denlinger, Monica Laudermilk, Anna Fornash, Angela DeMichele, Lewis A Chodosh, Kathryn H Schmitz
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer survivors face dual challenges: long term sequelae of treatment, and risk of recurrent disease. Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle complicate both challenges. The WISER Survivor trial assessed the effects of exercise and/or weight-loss on lymphedema, biomarkers of breast cancer recurrence, and quality of life. We report on the innovative transdisciplinary design of this trial and report attrition rates. METHODS: This one year trial randomized breast cancer survivors who had a BMI of ≥25kg/m(2), were sedentary and had breast-cancer-related-lymphedema to 1) exercise (weight training and aerobic exercise) 2) weight-loss 3) exercise and weight-loss 4) or control group...
July 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712726/sengers-syndrome-associated-mitochondrial-acylglycerol-kinase-is-a-subunit-of-the-human-tim22-protein-import-complex
#16
Yilin Kang, David A Stroud, Michael J Baker, David P De Souza, Ann E Frazier, Michael Liem, Dedreia Tull, Suresh Mathivanan, Malcolm J McConville, David R Thorburn, Michael T Ryan, Diana Stojanovski
Acylglycerol kinase (AGK) is a mitochondrial lipid kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol to lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid, respectively. Mutations in AGK cause Sengers syndrome, which is characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis. Here we identified AGK as a subunit of the mitochondrial TIM22 protein import complex. We show that AGK functions in a kinase-independent manner to maintain the integrity of the TIM22 complex, where it facilitates the import and assembly of mitochondrial carrier proteins...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705613/aging-related-effects-of-bed-rest-followed-by-eccentric-exercise-rehabilitation-on-skeletal-muscle-macrophages-and-insulin-sensitivity
#17
Paul T Reidy, Catherine C Lindsay, Alec I McKenzie, Christopher S Fry, Mark A Supiano, Robin L Marcus, Paul C LaStayo, Micah J Drummond
The pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages are associated with insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle regeneration. Infiltrating macrophages in skeletal muscle during a period of physical inactivity and subsequent reloading/rehabilitation in older adults is unknown, but may provide insight into mechanisms related to the development of metabolic disease and changes in muscle cell size. The purpose of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle macrophage infiltration is modulated differently between young and older adults after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation and if these responses are related to muscle and insulin sensitivity changes...
July 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678054/exercise-training-prevents-dexamethasone-induced-rarefaction
#18
Naiara A Herrera, Isley Jesus, Evandro J Dionísio, Thiago J Dionísio, Carlos F Santos, Sandra L Amaral
Dexamethasone (DEX) causes rarefaction. In contrast, training (T) prevents rarefaction and stimulates angiogenesis. This study investigated the mechanisms responsible for the preventive role of T in DEX-induced rarefaction. Rats underwent T or were kept sedentary (8 weeks) and were treated with DEX or saline during the following 14 days. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was used for measurements of capillary density (CD), capillary-to-fiber ratio (C:F ratio), superoxide dismutase CuZn (SOD-1), superoxide dismutase MnSOD (SOD-2), catalase (CAT) mRNA as well as SOD-1, SOD-2, CAT, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax), p-Bax and caspase-3 cleaved protein levels...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677946/effects-of-probiotics-supplementation-and-circuit-training-on-immune-responses-among-sedentary-young-males
#19
Nur S Ibrahim, Foong K Ooi, Chee K Chen, Ayu S Muhamad
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that probiotics may have positive benefits on immune responses following endurance exercise. However, little attention has been given to its possible beneficial effects on immune responses following resistance exercise. METHODS: Forty-one healthy sedentary males were recruited and randomised into four groups: sedentary control with placebo (C), probiotics (P), circuit training with placebo (Ex), and circuit training with probiotics (PEx) groups...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664954/soft-skin-mounted-microfluidic-systems-for-measuring-secretory-fluidic-pressures-generated-at-the-surface-of-the-skin-by-eccrine-sweat-glands
#20
Jungil Choi, Yeguang Xue, Wei Xia, Tyler R Ray, Jonathan T Reeder, Amay J Bandodkar, Daeshik Kang, Shuai Xu, Yonggang Huang, John A Rogers
During periods of activity, sweat glands produce pressures associated with osmotic effects to drive liquid to the surface of the skin. The magnitudes of these pressures may provide insights into physiological health, the intensity of physical exertion, psychological stress factors and/other information of interest, yet they are currently unknown due to absence of means for non-invasive measurement. This paper introduces a thin, soft wearable microfluidic system that mounts onto the surface of the skin to enable precise and routine measurements of secretory fluidic pressures generated at the surface of the skin by eccrine sweat glands (surface SPSG, or s-SPSG) at nearly any location on the body...
July 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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