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T-cell and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781568/diastolic-dysfunction-is-associated-with-exercise-impairment-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#1
Tarek Alsaied, Omar Niss, Adam W Powell, Robert J Fleck, James F Cnota, Clifford Chin, Punam Malik, Charles T Quinn, Michael D Taylor
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) is an independent risk factor for mortality in sickle cell anemia (SCA) and is associated with increased extracellular volume (ECV) on cardiac MRI (CMR). Exercise impairment is common in SCA, but its causes and prognostic value are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of DD and ECV on cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with SCA. METHODS AND RESULTS: As part of a prospective study to characterize the cardiomyopathy of SCA (NCT02410811), 20 children and adults with SCA underwent CMR, echocardiography, and cycle ergometer CPET (age range 8-43 years)...
May 21, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771602/irisin-promotes-proliferation-but-inhibits-differentiation-in-osteoclast-precursor-cells
#2
Yaxian Ma, Xiaoyong Qiao, Rujun Zeng, Ran Cheng, Jun Zhang, Yunyao Luo, Ying Nie, Ying Hu, Zhilan Yang, Jing Zhang, Lin Liu, Wenming Xu, Charles C Xu, Liangzhi Xu
The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation has a critical role in the process of bone metabolism. Overactivation of osteoclastogenesis may result in a series of diseases. Irisin, a novel myokine, which was first reported in 2012, has been proposed to mediate the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise. Studies have demonstrated that irisin targets osteoblasts by promoting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation; however, the underlying mechanism regarding the effect of irisin on osteoclasts remains elusive...
May 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769428/myokine-irisin-induced-protection-against-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-involvement-of-heme-oxygenase-1-and-antioxidazing-enzymes-superoxide-dismutase-2-and-glutathione-peroxidase
#3
A I Mazur-Bialy, K Kozlowska, E Pochec, J Bilski, T Brzozowski
Irisin is a recently discovered myokine reported as protective protein released from exercising skeletal muscles. Although myokines were recently reported to possess the antioxidizing properties, the impact of irisin on the functions of macrophages with respect to its anti-inflammatory potential has not been fully elucidated. Here, we determined the ability of irisin to interact with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The macrophages were pre-incubated with irisin (0 - 50 nM), some of which had undergone additional co-incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/ml)...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763678/acute-aerobic-exercise-induces-a-preferential-mobilisation-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-into-the-peripheral-blood-in-man
#4
Frankie F Brown, John P Campbell, Alex J Wadley, James P Fisher, Sarah Aldred, James E Turner
Dendritic cells (DCs) are important sentinel cells of the immune system responsible for presenting antigen to T cells. Exercise is known to cause an acute and transient increase in the frequency of DCs in the bloodstream in humans, yet there are contradictory findings in the literature regarding the phenotypic composition of DCs mobilised during exercise, which may have implications for immune regulation and health. Accordingly, we sought to investigate the composition of DC sub-populations mobilised in response to acute aerobic exercise...
May 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740398/neurosteroids-in-adult-hippocampus-of-male-and-female-rodents-biosynthesis-and-actions-of-sex-steroids
#5
REVIEW
Yasushi Hojo, Suguru Kawato
The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo . Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice), a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1-CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG)] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726656/-aerobic-exercise-improves-spermatogenesis-of-male-rats-results-of-itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-the-testis-tissue
#6
Yu-Ping Guo, En-Zhong Li, You-Jing Zhang, An-Li Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on the spermatogenic function of male rats and screen out differentially expressed proteins related to spermatonesis-regulation by proteomic analysis. METHODS: We randomly divided 24 SD male rats into groups A (non-exercise control), B (exercise), and C (weight-bearing exercise), those in the latter two groups made to swim for 60 minutes a day and those in group C bearing a load 3% of the body weight, both 6 times a week for 9 weeks...
September 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723594/a-single-exercise-bout-augments-adenovirus-specific-t-cell-mobilization-and-function
#7
Hawley E Kunz, Guillaume Spielmann, Nadia H Agha, Daniel P O'Connor, Catherine M Bollard, Richard J Simpson
Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T-cells (VSTs) effectively treats viral infections following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), but logistical difficulties have limited widespread availability of VSTs as a post-transplant therapeutic. A single exercise bout mobilizes VSTs specific for latent herpesviruses (i.e. CMV and EBV) to peripheral blood and augments their ex vivo expansion. We investigated whether exercise exerts similar effects on T-cells specific for a NON-latent virus such as adenovirus, which is a major contributor to infection-related morbidity and mortality after alloHSCT...
April 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657400/the-effect-of-moderate-exercise-on-the-elevation-of-bax-bcl-2-ratio-in-oral-squamous-epithelial-cells-induced-by-benzopyrene
#8
Anis Irmawati, Nadira Jasmin, Sidarningsih
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of moderate exercise on the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Materials and Methods: Eighteen Mus musculus strain Swiss Webster (Balb/c) were divided into three groups (n=6). K1 and K2 had contact with water 3 times/week for 12 weeks, while the members of the K3 group swam 3 times/week for 12 weeks while carrying load weighed 3% of their body weight. After 5 weeks, they were induced with 0.04 ml oleum olivarum (K1), 0...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656427/exercise-training-abrogates-age-dependent-loss-of-hypothalamic-oxytocinergic-circuitry-and-maintains-high-parasympathetic-activity
#9
Carla R Santos, Adriana Ruggeri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C Michelini
Neuroanatomical studies associating neuronal tract tracing and immunohistochemistry identified reciprocal (ascending noradrenergic/descending oxytocinergic, OTergic) connections between brainstem cardiovascular nuclei and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Previous functional studies indicated that exercise training (T) augmented the expression/activity of OTergic pathway and improve the autonomic control of the heart. Knowing that ageing is associated with autonomic dysfunction and sinoaortic denervation blocked T-induced beneficial effects, we hypothesized that T was able to reduce age-dependent impairment by improving the afferent signaling to PVN and augmenting OTergic modulation of cardiovascular control...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648517/preliminary-evidence-of-reductive-stress-in-human-cytotoxic-t-cells-following-exercise
#10
Alex James Wadley, Adrian Holliday, Rhys G Morgan, Kate J Heesom, Sarah Aldred, Derek M Peters, Allain A Bueno, Steven J Coles
This study investigated immunophenotypic differences in intracellular thiol redox state of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from trained (TR, n=9, mean {plus minus} SD: age 28 {plus minus} 5 years; BMI 23.2 {plus minus} 2.6 kg·m2 ; VO2max 56.9 {plus minus} 6.1 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ) and recreationally active (RA, n=11, mean {plus minus} SD: age 27 {plus minus} 6 years; BMI 24.2 {plus minus} 3.7 kg·m2 ; VO2max 45.1 {plus minus} 6.4 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ) participants before and after a maximal aerobic exercise tolerance test...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643762/persistent-adult-neuroimmune-activation-and-loss-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-adolescent-ethanol-exposure-blockade-by-exercise-and-the-anti-inflammatory-drug-indomethacin
#11
Ryan P Vetreno, Colleen J Lawrimore, Pamela J Rowsey, Fulton T Crews
Alcohol abuse and binge drinking are common during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by heightened neuroplasticity. Animal studies reveal that adolescent ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal neurogenesis that persists into adulthood, but the mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-days on/2-days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we tested the hypothesis that AIE-induced upregulation of neuroimmune signaling contributes to the loss of hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620948/impact-of-vancomycin-treatment-on-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-during-osteogenic-differentiation
#12
Jason T Bariteau, Rishin J Kadakia, Brian C Traub, Manjula Viggeswarapu, Nick J Willett
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is frequently applied locally to the operative site during foot and ankle procedures to help prevent infection. Although the efficacy of locally applied vancomycin has been demonstrated in spine surgery, there is no consensus on dosing and indication within foot and ankle surgery. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) is key to healing of both fractures and arthrodesis. The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of vancomycin on human hMSCs during the process of osteogenic differentiation...
April 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592806/%C3%AE-aminoisobutyric-acid-attenuates-lps-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-adipocytes-through-ampk-mediated-pathway
#13
Tae Woo Jung, Hyung Sub Park, Geum Hee Choi, Daehwan Kim, Taeseung Lee
BACKGROUND: β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise and has beneficial effects on obesity-related metabolic disorders such as diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, it is supposed to prevent high fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue though anti-inflammatory effects in obesity. Previous reports have also demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory effects of BAIBA. METHODS: We used BAIBA treated fully differentiated 3T3T-L1 mouse adipocytes to investigate the effects of exogenous BAIBA on inflammation and insulin signaling in adipocytes...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558694/identification-of-ccl5-rantes-as-a-novel-contraction-reducible-myokine-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#14
Yuri Ishiuchi, Hitoshi Sato, Narumi Komatsu, Hideo Kawaguchi, Takashi Matsuwaki, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara, Taku Nedachi
Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes several proteins, which are collectively termed myokines. Although many studies suggest that exercise regulates myokine secretion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and all the exercise-dependent myokines have not yet been identified. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify novel exercise-dependent myokines by using our recently developed in vitro contractile model. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for 24 h to induce cell contraction, and the myokines secreted in conditioned medium were analyzed using a cytokine array...
March 17, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547561/targeting-mitochondria-to-counteract-age-related-cellular-dysfunction
#15
REVIEW
Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Armin A Sokolowski, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 16, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541032/the-influence-of-co-2-and-exercise-on-hypobaric-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-edema-in-rats
#16
Ryan L Sheppard, Joshua M Swift, Aaron Hall, Richard T Mahon
Introduction: Individuals with a known susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) demonstrate a reduced ventilation response and increased pulmonary vasoconstriction when exposed to hypoxia. It is unknown whether reduced sensitivity to hypercapnia is correlated with increased incidence and/or severity of HAPE, and while acute exercise at altitude is known to exacerbate symptoms the effect of exercise training on HAPE susceptibility is unclear. Purpose: To determine if chronic intermittent hypercapnia and exercise increases the incidence of HAPE in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540357/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-pathogenesis-and-clinical-management
#17
REVIEW
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525851/effect-of-an-exercise-program-on-lymphocyte-proliferative-responses-of-copd-patients
#18
Juliana Ruiz Fernandes, Cibele Cristine Berto Marques da Silva, Aline Grandi da Silva, Regina Maria de Carvalho Pinto, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Celso Ricardo Carvalho, Gil Benard
Exercise training has been shown to reduce symptoms and exacerbations in COPD patients; however, the exercise effect on patients' immune response is poorly known. We thus verified if an exercise program (EP) impacted on proliferative T cell response of COPD patients. Fourteen non-O2 dependent COPD patients on standard treatment were studied. EP consisted in 24 sessions of aerobic and muscular training. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin and antigens from Haemophilus influenzae and cytomegalovirus, and the lymphocyte proliferative response (LPR) was assessed through the expression of Ki67 before and after the EP...
June 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517845/major-features-of-immunesenescence-including-reduced-thymic-output-are-ameliorated-by-high-levels-of-physical-activity-in-adulthood
#19
Niharika Arora Duggal, Ross D Pollock, Norman R Lazarus, Stephen Harridge, Janet M Lord
It is widely accepted that aging is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system including thymic atrophy and increased frequency of senescent T cells, leading to immune compromise. However, physical activity, which influences immunity but declines dramatically with age, is not considered in this literature. We assessed immune profiles in 125 adults (55-79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise...
April 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481975/neuroprotective-strategies-for-retinal-disease
#20
REVIEW
Machelle T Pardue, Rachael S Allen
Diseases that affect the eye, including photoreceptor degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, affect 11.8 million people in the US, resulting in vision loss and blindness. Loss of sight affects patient quality of life and puts an economic burden both on individuals and the greater healthcare system. Despite the urgent need for treatments, few effective options currently exist in the clinic. Here, we review research on promising neuroprotective strategies that promote neuronal survival with the potential to protect against vision loss and retinal cell death...
February 23, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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