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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913464/new-challenges-in-evaluating-anemia-in-older-persons-in-the-era-of-molecular-testing
#1
David P Steensma
Anemia is common in older persons, and often remains unexplained despite a thorough clinical history, physical examination, and focused laboratory testing, including marrow aspiration, biopsy, and karyotyping. The advent of molecular genetic testing panels in hematology clinical practice has complicated the evaluation of older patients with unexplained anemia. While the presence of a somatic mutation provides evidence of clonal hematopoiesis and may support a diagnosis of a hematologic neoplasm such as one of the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), with rare exceptions, individual mutations are not strongly associated with one specific diagnosis, nor are they by themselves diagnostic of neoplasia...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913051/erg-expression-in-multiple-myeloma-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall
#2
Juliana Knief, Katharina Reddemann, Jan Gliemroth, Swantje Brede, Tobias Bartscht, Christoph Thorns
INTRODUCTION: ERG expression has been described as a frequent event in prostate cancer indicating poor prognosis and promoting oncogenesis. It has also been demonstrated in Ewing's sarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia and acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia but could not be found in other epithelial tumors, Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We aimed to analyze ERG expression in multiple myeloma, following an index case of a patient with metastases of unknown origin in the spine strongly expressing ERG, which were thought to be of prostatic origin but turned out to be plasmacytic lesions...
November 3, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908931/filling-the-tank-keeping-antitumor-t-cells-metabolically-fit-for-the-long-haul
#3
REVIEW
Greg M Delgoffe
Discoveries in tumor immunology and subsequent clinical advances in cancer immunotherapy have revealed that the immune system is not oblivious to tumor progression but heavily interacts with developing neoplasia and malignancy. A major factor preventing immune destruction is the establishment of a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which provides architecture to the tumor, supports indirect means of immunosuppression such as the recruitment of tolerogenic cells like regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and represents a zone of metabolically dearth conditions...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822101/the-danish-national-chronic-myeloid-neoplasia-registry
#4
REVIEW
Marie Bak, Else Helene Ibfelt, Thomas Stauffer Larsen, Dorthe Rønnov-Jessen, Niels Pallisgaard, Ann Madelung, Lene Udby, Hans Carl Hasselbalch, Ole Weis Bjerrum, Christen Lykkegaard Andersen
AIM: The Danish National Chronic Myeloid Neoplasia Registry (DCMR) is a population-based clinical quality database, introduced to evaluate diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic myeloid malignancies. The aim is to monitor the clinical quality at the national, regional, and hospital departmental levels and serve as a platform for research. STUDY POPULATION: The DCMR has nationwide coverage and contains information on patients diagnosed at hematology departments from January 2010 onward, including patients with essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785447/insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-the-development-of-targeted-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Caroline Hutter, Milen Minkov
More than a century after its first description, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) still remains an intriguing disease. Considerable progress in understanding its biology has been achieved recently. Description of the V600E BRAF mutation in samples of LCH tissue in 2010 was followed by description of additional mutations, all leading to constitutive ERK activation. Current experimental data suggest that LCH is a myeloid neoplasia with inflammatory properties, yet the exact pathophysiology remains poorly understood...
2016: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776290/good-riddance-to-the-term-refractory-anemia-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#6
David P Steensma
The term "refractory anemia" was used in 1937 by Cornelius Parker Rhoads to describe patients whose anemia did not improve after treatment with liver extract or iron salts, and this term has been used to denote patients with certain subtypes of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) since the 1976 and 1982 French-American-British (FAB) classifications of acute leukemias and MDS. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed elimination of "refractory anemia" in a more general proposal for reclassification of myeloid neoplasia...
October 17, 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738314/loss-of-uhrf2-expression-is-associated-with-human-neoplasia-promoter-hypermethylation-decreased-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-and-high-proliferative-activity
#7
Huarui Lu, Sweta Bhoopatiraju, Hongbo Wang, Nolan P Schmitz, Xiaohong Wang, Matthew J Freeman, Colleen L Forster, Michael R Verneris, Michael A Linden, Timothy C Hallstrom
Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 2 (UHRF2) binds to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a DNA base involved in tissue development, but it is unknown how their distribution compares with each other in normal and malignant human tissues. We used IHC on human tumor specimens (160 from 19 tumor types) or normal tissue to determine the expression and distribution of UHRF2, Ki-67, and 5hmC. We also examined UHRF2 expression in cord blood progenitors and compared its expression to methylation status in 6 leukemia cell lines and 15 primary human leukemias...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642531/cardiac-relapse-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
María Facenda-Lorenzo, Ana Sánchez-Quintana, Alejandro Quijada-Fumero, Ana Laynez-Carnicero, Joaquín Breña-Atienza, Francisco J Poncela-Mireles, Juan M Llanos-Gómez, Ana I Cabello-Rodríguez, María Ramos-López
Secondary or metastatic cardiac tumors are much more common than primary benign or malignant cardiac tumors. Any tumor can cause myocardial or pericardial metastasis, although isolated or combined tumor invasion of the pericardium is more common. Types of neoplasia with the highest rates of cardiac or pericardial involvement are melanoma, lung cancer, and breast and mediastinal carcinomas. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. Initial treatment involves chemotherapy followed by consolidation treatment to reduce the risk of relapse...
2016: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639703/biomarkers-of-angiogenesis-as-prognostic-factors-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome-patients-treated-with-hypomethylating-agents
#9
Chan Kyu Kim, Dong Hoon Han, Young Seok Ji, Min Sung Lee, Chang Wook Min, Seong Kyu Park, Se Hyung Kim, Jina Yun, Hyun Jeung Kim, Kyoung Ha Kim, Kyu Taek Lee, Jong Ho Won, Dae Sik Hong, Hee Kyung Kim
Angiogenesis occurs in response to tissue ischemia and wound healing, and contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, such as benign and malignant neoplasia. Several studies have measured bone marrow microvessel density (MVD) in MDS patients and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients transformed from MDS, and MVD was higher in MDS patients than controls, but was lower than in AML patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is expressed in bone marrow blast cells, and an autocrine VEGF signaling mechanism has been established in MDS...
September 5, 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467943/high-risk-oncogenic-hpv-genotype-infection-associates-with-increased-immune-activation-and-t-cell-exhaustion-in-art-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-women
#10
Emmanouil Papasavvas, Lea F Surrey, Deborah K Glencross, Livio Azzoni, Jocelin Joseph, Tanvier Omar, Michael D Feldman, Anna-Lise Williamson, Maureen Siminya, Avril Swarts, Xiangfan Yin, Qin Liu, Cynthia Firnhaber, Luis J Montaner
Persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical disease in the context of HIV co-infection can be influenced by introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and sustained immune activation despite ART. We conducted a cross-sectional study in order to evaluate immune activation/exhaustion in ART-suppressed HIV(+) women with or without high-risk (HR) HPV-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). 55 South African women were recruited in three groups: HR (-) (n = 16) and HR (+) (n = 15) HPV with negative cervical histopathology, and HR (+) HPV with CIN grade 1/2/3 (n = 24)...
May 2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459623/-transformation-of-secondary-myelodysplastic-syndrome-to-atypical-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-in-a-female-patient-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#11
S V Gritsaev, I I Kostroma, I M Zapreeva, A V Shmidt, S A Tiranova, V A Balashova, I S Martynkevich, Zh V Chubukina, N Yu Semenova, A V Chechetkin
Secondary myeloid neoplasia may be a complication of intensive cytostatic therapy. The most common types of secondary neoplasias are acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. The development of secondary atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) is an extremely rare phenomenon. The paper describes transformation of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome to aCML 6 months after its diagnosis. The development of aCML was accompanied by additional chromosomal aberration as monosomy of chromosome 17. No mutations in the JAK2, MPL, and CalR genes were detected...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454293/rela-a-tale-of-a-stitch-in-time
#12
Murray Korc
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly cancer in which NF-κB pathways promote biological aggressiveness. In this issue of the JCI, Lesina et al. investigated the role of RelA, the p65 partner of p50 that together form the most common NF-κB complex, in the early stages of pancreatic malignant transformation and in established PDAC. By deleting Rela in the context of an oncogenic Kras-driven autochthonous model of PDAC, the authors demonstrated that RelA is a mediator of oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that attenuates acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) formation, and PanIN progression to PDAC...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382093/braf-mutation-correlates-with-high-risk-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-and-increased-resistance-to-first-line-therapy
#13
Sébastien Héritier, Jean-François Emile, Mohamed-Aziz Barkaoui, Caroline Thomas, Sylvie Fraitag, Sabah Boudjemaa, Florence Renaud, Anne Moreau, Michel Peuchmaur, Catherine Chassagne-Clément, Frédérique Dijoud, Valérie Rigau, Despina Moshous, Anne Lambilliotte, Françoise Mazingue, Kamila Kebaili, Jean Miron, Eric Jeziorski, Geneviève Plat, Nathalie Aladjidi, Alina Ferster, Hélène Pacquement, Claire Galambrun, Laurence Brugières, Guy Leverger, Ludovic Mansuy, Catherine Paillard, Anne Deville, Corinne Armari-Alla, Anne Lutun, Marion Gillibert-Yvert, Jean-Louis Stephan, Fleur Cohen-Aubart, Julien Haroche, Isabelle Pellier, Frédéric Millot, Brigitte Lescoeur, Virginie Gandemer, Christine Bodemer, Roger Lacave, Zofia Hélias-Rodzewicz, Valérie Taly, Frédéric Geissmann, Jean Donadieu
PURPOSE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasia with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes in children. The somatic BRAF(V600E) mutation occurs frequently, but clinical significance remains to be determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BRAF(V600E) mutation was investigated in a French LCH cohort. We analyzed associations between mutation status and clinical presentation, extent of disease, reactivation rate, response to therapy, and long-term permanent sequelae...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379866/relevance-of-interferon-regulatory-factor-8-expression-in-myeloid-tumor-interactions
#14
Scott I Abrams, Colleen S Netherby, Danielle Y F Twum, Michelle N Messmer
Perturbations in myelopoiesis are a common feature in solid tumor biology, reflecting the central premise that cancer is not only a localized affliction but also a systemic disease. Because the myeloid compartment is essential for the induction of adaptive immunity, these alterations in myeloid development contribute to the failure of the host to effectively manage tumor progression. These "dysfunctional" myeloid cells have been coined myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Interestingly, such cells not only arise in neoplasia but also are associated with many other inflammatory or pathologic conditions...
July 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371534/hemidesmosome-integrity-protects-the-colon-against-colitis-and-colorectal-cancer
#15
Adèle De Arcangelis, Hussein Hamade, Fabien Alpy, Sylvain Normand, Emilie Bruyère, Olivier Lefebvre, Agnès Méchine-Neuville, Stéphanie Siebert, Véronique Pfister, Patricia Lepage, Patrice Laquerriere, Doulaye Dembele, Anne Delanoye-Crespin, Sophie Rodius, Sylvie Robine, Michèle Kedinger, Isabelle Van Seuningen, Patricia Simon-Assmann, Mathias Chamaillard, Michel Labouesse, Elisabeth Georges-Labouesse
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological and clinical data indicate that patients suffering from IBD with long-standing colitis display a higher risk to develop colorectal high-grade dysplasia. Whereas carcinoma invasion and metastasis rely on basement membrane (BM) disruption, experimental evidence is lacking regarding the potential contribution of epithelial cell/BM anchorage on inflammation onset and subsequent neoplastic transformation of inflammatory lesions. Herein, we analyse the role of the α6β4 integrin receptor found in hemidesmosomes that attach intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to the laminin-containing BM...
July 1, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278818/the-antineoplastic-agent-%C3%AE-bisabolol-promotes-cell-death-by-inducing-pores-in-mitochondria-and-lysosomes
#16
Antonella Rigo, Fabrizio Vinante
The sesquiterpene α-bisabolol (α-BSB) has been shown to be an effective cytotoxic agent for a variety of human cancer cells in culture and animal models. However, much of its intracellular action remains elusive. We evaluated the cytotoxic action of α-BSB against CML-T1, Jurkat and HeLa cell lines, as preclinical models for myeloid, lymphoid and epithelial neoplasias. The approach included single cell analysis (flow cytometry, immunocytology) combined with cytotoxicity and proliferation assays to characterize organelle damage, autophagy, cytostatic effect, and apoptosis...
August 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234902/-erdheim-chester-disease-ecd-an-inflammatory-myeloid-neoplasia
#17
Julien Haroche, Matthias Papo, Fleur Cohen-Aubart, Frédéric Charlotte, Philippe Maksud, Philippe A Grenier, Philippe Cluzel, Alexis Mathian, Jean-François Emile, Zahir Amoura
In a compatible clinico-radiological setting, the diagnosis of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) involves the analysis of histiocytes in tissue biopsies: they are typically foamy and CD68+ CD1a, whereas in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) they are CD68+ CD1a+. Overlap forms of histiocytoses are frequent. Technetium bone scintigraphy showing nearly constant tracer uptake by the long bones is highly suggestive of ECD and a 'hairy kidney' appearance on abdominal CT scan is observed in more than half ECD cases. CNS involvement is a strong prognostic factor and an independent predictor of death in cases of ECD...
May 24, 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225803/generation-of-a-c57bl-6-myc-driven-mouse-model-and-cell-line-of-prostate-cancer
#18
Leigh Ellis, ShengYu Ku, Qiuhui Li, Gissou Azabdaftari, Joseph Seliski, Brian Olson, Colleen S Netherby, Dean G Tang, Scott I Abrams, David W Goodrich, Roberto Pili
INTRODUCTION: Transgenic mouse modeling is a favorable tool to reflect human prostate tumorigenesis and interactions between prostate cancer and the microenvironment. The use of GEMMs and derived cell lines represent powerful tools to study prostate cancer initiation and progression with an associated tumor microenvironment. Notably, such models provide the capacity for rapid preclinical therapy studies including immune therapies for prostate cancer treatment. METHODS: Backcrossing FVB Hi-MYC mice with C57BL/6N mice, we established a Hi-MYC transgenic mouse model on a C57BL/6 background (B6MYC)...
September 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215596/clonal-hematopoiesis-of-indeterminate-potential
#19
Michael Heuser, Felicitas Thol, Arnold Ganser
BACKGROUND: Patients with cytopenia are increasingly undergoing molecular genetic tests of periperal blood or bone marrow for diagnostic purposes. These tests can detect genetic mutations that do not have any morphological correlate in hematologic neoplasia such as myelo - dysplastic syndrome (MDS). A new entity was recently defined to lessen the risk of incorrect diagnoses of MDS. This new entity is a potential precursor of myeloid diseases, analogously to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance as a potential precursor of multiple myeloma...
May 6, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141365/myeloid-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-role-of-adenosine
#20
REVIEW
Silvana Morello, Aldo Pinto, Corrado Blandizzi, Luca Antonioli
Adenosine, deriving from ATP released by dying cancer cells and then degradated in the tumor environment by CD39/CD73 enzyme axis, is linked to the generation of an immunosuppressed niche favoring the onset of neoplasia. The effects of adenosine are mediated by four adenosine receptors, named A1, A2A, A2B and A3 that are widely expressed on several immune cell populations. A critical role of this nucleoside is emerging in the modulation of myeloid cell subsets accumulation and functions into tumor microenvironment, providing new insights that might be useful for the development of novel therapeutic approaches aimed to undermine the immune privileged sites where cancer cells grow and proliferate...
March 2016: Oncoimmunology
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