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NMDAR Microglia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024713/a-lack-of-glun2a-containing-nmda-receptors-confers-a-vulnerability-to-redox-dysregulation-consequences-on-parvalbumin-interneurons-and-their-perineuronal-nets
#1
Romain Cardis, Jan-Harry Cabungcal, Daniella Dwir, Kim Q Do, Pascal Steullet
The GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays a critical role during postnatal brain development as its expression increases while Glun2B expression decreases. Mutations and polymorphisms in GRIN2A gene, coding for GluN2A, are linked to developmental brain disorders such as mental retardation, epilepsy, schizophrenia. Published data suggest that GluN2A is involved in maturation and phenotypic maintenance of parvalbumin interneurons (PVIs), and these interneurons suffer from a deficient glutamatergic neurotransmission via GluN2A-containing NMDARs in schizophrenia...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821276/inflammatory-demyelination-alters-subcortical-visual-circuits
#2
Sheila Espírito Santo Araújo, Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Natalie A Wheeler, Paula Campello-Costa, Kimberle M Jacobs, Flávia C A Gomes, Michael A Fox, Babette Fuss
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease classically associated with axonal damage and loss; more recently, however, synaptic changes have been recognized as additional contributing factors. An anatomical area commonly affected in MS is the visual pathway; yet, changes other than those associated with inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, i.e., optic neuritis, have not been described in detail. METHODS: Adult mice were subjected to a diet containing cuprizone to mimic certain aspects of inflammatory demyelination as seen in MS...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777260/persistence-of-parenchymal-and-perivascular-t-cells-in-treatment-refractory-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#3
Alexander Filatenkov, Timothy E Richardson, Elena Daoud, Sarah F Johnson-Welch, Denise M Ramirez, Jose Torrealba, Benjamin Greenberg, Nancy L Monson, Veena Rajaram
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease mediated by IgG1 or IgG3 antibodies to the GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR, resulting in downregulation of NMDARs. Early diagnosis, prompt reduction of anti-NMDAR antibodies, and removal of associated ovarian tumors when identified are important drivers of prognosis. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out to evaluate B cell, plasma cell, and T-cell infiltrates in the brain of a 3-year-old patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who failed to show improvement after plasma exchange and Rituximab treatment...
September 27, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760987/toll-like-receptor-4-deficiency-alters-nucleus-accumbens-synaptic-physiology-and-drug-reward-behavior
#4
Daniel T Kashima, Brad A Grueter
Behavioral manifestations of drug-seeking behavior are causally linked to alterations of synaptic strength onto nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons (MSN). Although neuron-driven changes in physiology and behavior are well characterized, there is a lack of knowledge of the role of the immune system in mediating such effects. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system, and evidence suggests that it modulates drug-related behavior. Using TLR4 knockout (TLR4...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614301/microglia-dependent-synapse-loss-in-type-i-interferon-mediated-lupus
#5
Allison R Bialas, Jessy Presumey, Abhishek Das, Cees E van der Poel, Peter H Lapchak, Luka Mesin, Gabriel Victora, George C Tsokos, Christian Mawrin, Ronald Herbst, Michael C Carroll
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an incurable autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody deposition in tissues such as kidney, skin and lungs. Notably, up to 75% of patients with SLE experience neuropsychiatric symptoms that range from anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment to seizures and, in rare cases, psychosis-collectively this is referred to as central nervous system (CNS) lupus. In some cases, certain autoantibodies, such as anti-NMDAR or anti-phospholipid antibodies, promote CNS lupus...
June 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495142/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-mediated-calcium-overload-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-are-involved-in-interleukin-1beta-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-rat-hippocampus
#6
Yilong Dong, Allan V Kalueff, Cai Song
Increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and its gene expression are implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IL-1β activates microglia and stimulates glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NMDA receptor expression, thereby disturbing intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Ca(2+) disequilibrium, in turn, may trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, contributing to overall excitotoxicity and neuronal death that evoke AD. However, it is unclear whether IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis is mediated by the glutamatergic system, ER stress and/or Ca(2+) dysfunction...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270169/molecules-in-pain-and-sex-a-developing-story
#7
REVIEW
Josiane C S Mapplebeck, Simon Beggs, Michael W Salter
Microglia are dynamic immune cells with diverse roles in maintaining homeostasis of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of microglia has been critically implicated in the genesis of neuropathic pain. Peripheral nerve injury, a common cause of neuropathic pain, engages microglia-neuronal signalling which causes disinhibition and facilitated excitation of spinal nociceptive pathways. However, recent literature indicates that the role of microglia in neuropathic pain is sexually dimorphic, and that female pain processing appears to be independent of microglia, depending rather on T cells...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261115/il1r2-ccr2-and-cxcr4-may-form-heteroreceptor-complexes-with-nmdar-and-d2r-relevance-for-schizophrenia
#8
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Alexander O Tarakanov, Karl Bechter, Kjell Fuxe
The mild neuroinflammation hypothesis of schizophrenia was introduced by Bechter in 2001. It has been hypothesized that a hypofunction of glutamatergic signaling via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and hyperactivation of dopamine D2 receptors play a role in schizophrenia. The triplet puzzle theory states that sets of triplet amino acid homologies guide two different receptors toward each other and contributes to the formation of a receptor heteromer. It is, therefore, proposed that putative NMDAR-C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), NMDAR-C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), and NMDAR- interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL1R2) heteromers can be formed in the neuronal networks in mild neuroinflammation due to demonstration of Gly-Leu-Leu (GLL), Val-Ser-Thr (VST), and/or Ser-Val-Ser (SVS) amino acid homologies between these receptor protomers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794462/long-term-depression-associated-signaling-is-required-for-an-in-vitro-model-of-nmda-receptor-dependent-synapse-pruning
#9
Maile A Henson, Charles J Tucker, Meilan Zhao, Serena M Dudek
Activity-dependent pruning of synaptic contacts plays a critical role in shaping neuronal circuitry in response to the environment during postnatal brain development. Although there is compelling evidence that shrinkage of dendritic spines coincides with synaptic long-term depression (LTD), and that LTD is accompanied by synapse loss, whether NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTD is a required step in the progression toward synapse pruning is still unknown. Using repeated applications of NMDA to induce LTD in dissociated rat neuronal cultures, we found that synapse density, as measured by colocalization of fluorescent markers for pre- and postsynaptic structures, was decreased irrespective of the presynaptic marker used, post-treatment recovery time, and the dendritic location of synapses...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744376/ampk-activation-by-peri-sciatic-nerve-administration-of-ozone-attenuates-cci-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#10
Lijuan Lu, Cailong Pan, Lu Chen, Liang Hu, Chaoyu Wang, Yuan Han, Yanjing Yang, Zhixiang Cheng, Wen-Tao Liu
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating clinical condition with few efficacious treatments, warranting development of novel therapeutics. Ozone is widely used as an alternative therapy for many different pain conditions, with exact mechanisms still elusive. In this study, we found that a single peri-sciatic nerve injection of ozone decreased mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and normalized the phosphorylation of protein kinase C γ, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rat sciatic nerve...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352782/microglia-activation-and-schizophrenia-lessons-from-the-effects-of-minocycline-on-postnatal-neurogenesis-neuronal-survival-and-synaptic-pruning
#11
REVIEW
Dragos Inta, Undine E Lang, Stefan Borgwardt, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Peter Gass
The implication of neuroinflammation in schizophrenia, sustained by recent genetic evidence, represents one of the most exciting topics in schizophrenia research. Drugs which inhibit microglia activation, especially the classical tetracycline antibiotic minocycline are currently under investigation as alternative antipsychotics. However, recent studies demonstrated that microglia activation is not only a hallmark of neuroinflammation, but plays important roles during brain development. Inhibition of microglia activation by minocycline was shown to induce extensive neuronal cell death and to impair subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis and synaptic pruning in the early postnatal and adolescent rodent brain, respectively...
May 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326668/maternal-inflammation-leads-to-impaired-glutamate-homeostasis-and-up-regulation-of-glutamate-carboxypeptidase-ii-in-activated-microglia-in-the-fetal-newborn-rabbit-brain
#12
Zhi Zhang, Bassam Bassam, Ajit G Thomas, Monica Williams, Jinhuan Liu, Elizabeth Nance, Camilo Rojas, Barbara S Slusher, Sujatha Kannan
Astrocyte dysfunction and excessive activation of glutamatergic systems have been implicated in a number of neurologic disorders, including periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy (CP). However, the role of chorioamnionitis on glutamate homeostasis in the fetal and neonatal brains is not clearly understood. We have previously shown that intrauterine endotoxin administration results in intense microglial 'activation' and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in the periventricular region (PVR) of the neonatal rabbit brain...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046518/role-of-glutamate-receptors-and-glial-cells-in-the-pathophysiology-of-treatment-resistant-depression
#13
REVIEW
Yong-Ku Kim, Kyoung-Sae Na
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) causes substantial socioeconomic burden. Although a consensus on the definition of TRD has not yet been reached, it is certain that classic monoaminergic antidepressants are ineffective for TRD. One decade ago, many researchers found ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, to be an alternative to classic monoaminergic antidepressants. The major mechanisms of action of ketamine rapidly induce synaptogenesis in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway...
October 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969530/anti-nmda-receptor-autoantibodies-and-associated-neurobehavioral-pathology-in-mice-are-dependent-on-age-of-first-exposure-to-toxoplasma-gondii
#14
Geetha Kannan, Joshua A Crawford, ChunXia Yang, Kristin L Gressitt, Chinezimuzo Ihenatu, Irina N Krasnova, Jean Lud Cadet, Robert H Yolken, Emily G Severance, Mikhail V Pletnikov
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a pathogen implicated in psychiatric disorders. As elevated antibodies to T. gondii are also present in non-symptomatic individuals, we hypothesized that the age during first exposure to the pathogen may affect symptom manifestation. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating neurobehavioral abnormalities and the immune response in mice following adolescent or adult T. gondii infection. METHODS: Mice were infected with T. gondii at postnatal day 33 (adolescent/juvenile) or 61 (adult)...
July 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961959/age-related-changes-in-d-aspartate-oxidase-promoter-methylation-control-extracellular-d-aspartate-levels-and-prevent-precocious-cell-death-during-brain-aging
#15
Daniela Punzo, Francesco Errico, Luigia Cristino, Silvia Sacchi, Simona Keller, Carmela Belardo, Livio Luongo, Tommaso Nuzzo, Roberta Imperatore, Ermanno Florio, Vito De Novellis, Ornella Affinito, Sara Migliarini, Giacomo Maddaloni, Maria Josè Sisalli, Massimo Pasqualetti, Loredano Pollegioni, Sabatino Maione, Lorenzo Chiariotti, Alessandro Usiello
The endogenous NMDA receptor (NMDAR) agonist D-aspartate occurs transiently in the mammalian brain because it is abundant during embryonic and perinatal phases before drastically decreasing during adulthood. It is well established that postnatal reduction of cerebral D-aspartate levels is due to the concomitant onset of D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity, a flavoenzyme that selectively degrades bicarboxylic D-amino acids. In the present work, we show that d-aspartate content in the mouse brain drastically decreases after birth, whereas Ddo mRNA levels concomitantly increase...
March 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920629/memantine-mediates-neuroprotection-via-regulating-neurovascular-unit-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Zheng-Zhen Chen, Dan-Dan Yang, Zhan Zhao, Hui Yan, Juan Ji, Xiu-Lan Sun
AIMS: Memantine is a low-moderate affinity and uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, which is also a potential neuroprotectant in acute ischemic stroke for its particular action profiles. The present study was to reveal the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotection of memantine. MAIN METHODS: We used a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia via middle cerebral artery occlusion to verify our hypothesis. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to compare infarct size...
April 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26211949/interactions-of-pannexin-1-with-nmda-and-p2x7-receptors-in-central-nervous-system-pathologies-possible-role-on-chronic-pain
#17
REVIEW
D Bravo, C J Maturana, T Pelissier, A Hernández, L Constandil
Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a glycoprotein that acts as a membrane channel in a wide variety of tissues in mammals. In the central nervous system (CNS) Panx1 is expressed in neurons, astrocytes and microglia, participating in the pathophysiology of some CNS diseases, such as epilepsy, anoxic depolarization after stroke and neuroinflammation. In these conditions Panx1 acts as an important modulator of the neuroinflammatory response, by secreting ATP, by interacting with the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), and as an amplifier of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) currents, particularly in conditions of pathological neuronal hyperexcitability...
November 2015: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26203861/sigma-1-receptor-deficiency-reduces-mptp-induced-parkinsonism-and-death-of-dopaminergic-neurons
#18
J Hong, S Sha, L Zhou, C Wang, J Yin, L Chen
Sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) has been reported to be decreased in nigrostriatal motor system of Parkinson's disease patients. Using heterozygous and homozygous σ1R knockout (σ1R+/- and σ1R-/-) mice, we investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-impaired nigrostriatal motor system. The injection of MPTP for 5 weeks in wild-type mice (MPTP-WT mice), but not in σ1R+/- or σ1R-/- mice (MPTP-σ1R+/- or MPTP-σ1R-/- mice), caused motor deficits and ~40% death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta with an elevation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) NR2B phosphorylation...
2015: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26093361/magnesium-lithospermate-b-implicates-3-5-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-protein-kinase-a-pathway-and-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-an-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Chih-Zen Chang, Shu-Chuan Wu, Aij-Lie Kwan, Chih-Lung Lin
OBJECTIVE: Decreased 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), and increased N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) related apoptosis were observed in traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is of interest to examine the effect of magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) on cAMP/PKA pathway and NMDAR in TBI. METHODS: A rodent weight-drop TBI model was used. Administration of MLB was initiated 1 week before (precondition) and 24 hours later (reversal). Cortical homogenates were harvested to measure cAMP (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), soluble guanylyl cyclases, PKA and NMDA receptor-2β (Western blot)...
October 2015: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25771393/d-aspartate-oxidase-influences-glutamatergic-system-homeostasis-in-mammalian-brain
#20
Luigia Cristino, Livio Luongo, Marta Squillace, Giovanna Paolone, Dalila Mango, Sonia Piccinin, Elisa Zianni, Roberta Imperatore, Monica Iannotta, Francesco Longo, Francesco Errico, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Michele Morari, Sabatino Maione, Fabrizio Gardoni, Robert Nisticò, Alessandro Usiello
We have investigated the relevance of d-aspartate oxidase, the only enzyme known to selectively degrade d-aspartate (d-Asp), in modulating glutamatergic system homeostasis. Interestingly, the lack of the Ddo gene, by raising d-Asp content, induces a substantial increase in extracellular glutamate (Glu) levels in Ddo-mutant brains. Consistent with an exaggerated and persistent N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) stimulation, we documented in Ddo knockouts severe age-dependent structural and functional alterations mirrored by expression of active caspases 3 and 7 along with appearance of dystrophic microglia and reactive astrocytes...
May 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
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