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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923642/development-of-ifn-%C3%AE-secretory-elispot-based-assay-for-screening-of-adcc-responses
#1
Ashwini Shete, Poonam Suryawanshi, Chetan Chavan, Archana Kulkarni, Sheela Godbole, Manisha Ghate, Madhuri Thakar
Antibody Dependent Cell mediated Cytotoxicity has been established as one of the important protective immune mechanisms against HIV making it essential to evaluate it while testing immunogenicity of emerging vaccine candidates. IFN-γ secretory ELISPOT assay, widely used for evaluation of CTL response in HIV vaccine trials, was adapted for measuring ADCC responses and the results were compared with the standard ICS based assays. IFN-γ responses by both the methods were compared in plasma samples of 23 HIV infected individuals against Env and Gag peptides using granulocytes as antigen presenting cells...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922196/hiv-prevalence-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-among-entry-travelers-in-xishuangbanna-prefecture-yunnan-province-between-2003-and-2012
#2
Binghui Wang, Yaobo Liang, Yajuan Wang, Yue Feng, Yaping Li, Li Zhang, Qicai Xuan, Jing Miao, Weihong Qin, Xueshan Xia
Xishuangbanna is a popular tourist destination in southern Yunnan Province, bordering with Vietnam and Laos and Myanmar. There are more than 2 million cross-border travelers annually entering China at two land ports, Daluo and Mohan. To clarify the characteristics of HIV-1 prevalence among entry travelers, a retrospective epidemic investigation was conducted. Between 2003 and 2012, 196 among 91,432 entry travelers were detected to be HIV-1-positive, accounting for infection rate of 0.21%. Eighty-one gag-pol gene sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analyses and subsequent recombination analysis...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919832/differential-hnrnp-d-isoform-incorporation-may-confer-plasticity-to-the-essv-mediated-repressive-state-across-hiv-1-exon-3
#3
Frank Hillebrand, Jan Otto Peter, Anna-Lena Brillen, Marianne Otte, Heiner Schaal, Steffen Erkelenz
Even though splicing repression by hnRNP complexes bound to exonic sequences is well-documented, the responsible effector domains of hnRNP proteins have been described for only a select number of hnRNP constituents. Thus, there is only limited information available for possible varying silencer activities amongst different hnRNP proteins and composition changes within possible hnRNP complex assemblies. In this study, we identified the glycine-rich domain (GRD) of hnRNP proteins as a unifying feature in splice site repression...
December 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917627/enhanced-immune-responses-against-hiv-1-with-adenovector-gag-and-tat-prime-protein-boost-regimen-and-gm-csf-injection
#4
Negin Hosseini Rouzbahani, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Mohammad Gholami, Ali Esmaeilzadeh, Zahra Bayat Jozani, Minoo Mohraz, Ali Akbar Pourfathollah
Vaccines against the HIV-1 virus offers the best hope for eliminating HIV-associated mortality. Recombinant adenovector type 5 (rAd5) vaccine is a potential candidate for preventive vaccine strategies. In this study, we evaluated the rAd5 prime/protein boost strategy in a murine model. We used rAd5 harboring single HIV-1 genes. These genes, including gag (p24) and exon1 of tat, were amplified from HIV-1 (clade A) RNA using nested PCR. Recombinant vectors were constructed, purified and then injected at 1012 viral particles into four groups, each comprising five mice...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914932/detection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-rnas-in-living-cells-using-spinach-rna-aptamers
#5
Brandon D Burch, Carolina Garrido, David M Margolis
Many techniques currently used to measure HIV RNA production in cells suffer from limitations that include high background signal or the potential to destroy cellular context. Fluorophore-binding RNA aptamers offer the potential for visualizing RNAs directly in living cells with minimal cellular perturbation. We inserted a sequence encoding a fluorophore-binding RNA aptamer, known as Spinach, into the HIV genome such that predicted RNA secondary structures in both Spinach and HIV were preserved. Chimeric HIV-Spinach RNAs were functionally validated in vitro by testing their ability to enhance the fluorescence of a conditional fluorophore (DFHBI), which specifically binds Spinach...
November 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906002/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-and-its-distribution-characteristics-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-1-individuals-in-hebei-province-china
#6
Xinli Lu, Cuiying Zhao, Wei Wang, Chenxi Nie, Yuqi Zhang, Hongru Zhao, Suliang Chen, Ze Cui
BACKGROUND: Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. METHODS: Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905556/cellular-aspartyl-proteases-promote-the-unconventional-secretion-of-biologically-active-hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17
#7
Francesca Caccuri, Maria Luisa Iaria, Federica Campilongo, Kristen Varney, Alessandro Rossi, Stefania Mitola, Silvia Schiarea, Antonella Bugatti, Pietro Mazzuca, Cinzia Giagulli, Simona Fiorentini, Wuyuan Lu, Mario Salmona, Arnaldo Caruso
The human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein p17 (p17), although devoid of a signal sequence, is released by infected cells and detected in blood and in different organs and tissues even in HIV-1-infected patients undergoing successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Extracellularly, p17 deregulates the function of different cells involved in AIDS pathogenesis. The mechanism of p17 secretion, particularly during HIV-1 latency, still remains to be elucidated. A recent study showed that HIV-1-infected cells can produce Gag without spreading infection in a model of viral latency...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901085/wide-variation-in-susceptibility-of-transmitted-founder-hiv-1-subtype-c-isolates-to-protease-inhibitors-and-association-with-in-vitro-replication-efficiency
#8
Katherine A Sutherland, Dami A Collier, Daniel T Claiborne, Jessica L Prince, Martin J Deymier, Richard A Goldstein, Eric Hunter, Ravindra K Gupta
The gag gene is highly polymorphic across HIV-1 subtypes and contributes to susceptibility to protease inhibitors (PI), a critical class of antiretrovirals that will be used in up to 2 million individuals as second-line therapy in sub Saharan Africa by 2020. Given subtype C represents around half of all HIV-1 infections globally, we examined PI susceptibility in subtype C viruses from treatment-naïve individuals. PI susceptibility was measured in a single round infection assay of full-length, replication competent MJ4/gag chimeric viruses, encoding the gag gene and 142 nucleotides of pro derived from viruses in 20 patients in the Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project acute infection cohort...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899035/delayed-seroconversion-to-htlv-ii-is-associated-with-a-stop-codon-mutation-in-the-pol-gene
#9
Syamalima Dube, Dipak K Dube, Lynn Abbott, Jordan Glaser, Bernard Poiesz
A known HIV-1 positive intravenous drug user was found to be HTLV-II DNA positive by PCR but seronegative in a screening ELISA assay. He was consistently DNA positive but took two years to fully seroconvert. Sequencing of the HTLV-II strain in his cultured T-lymphocytes indicated that it is a prototypical type A strain with no major differences in the LTR DNA sequence, nor major amino acid differences in the Gag, Env, Tax and Rex proteins. However, a mutation in its pol gene created a stop codon at amino acid 543 of the Pol protein, a region which encodes for the RNase function...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893830/mechanistic-studies-and-modeling-reveal-the-origin-of-differential-inhibition-of-gag-polymorphic-viruses-by-hiv-1-maturation-inhibitors
#10
Zeyu Lin, Joseph Cantone, Hao Lu, Beata Nowicka-Sans, Tricia Protack, Tian Yuan, Hong Yang, Zheng Liu, Dieter Drexler, Alicia Regueiro-Ren, Nicholas A Meanwell, Mark Cockett, Mark Krystal, Max Lataillade, Ira B Dicker
HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) disrupt the final step in the HIV-1 protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag polyprotein between capsid p24 capsid (CA) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1), leading to the production of infectious virus. BMS-955176 is a second generation MI with improved antiviral activity toward polymorphic Gag variants compared to a first generation MI bevirimat (BVM). The underlying mechanistic reasons for the differences in polymorphic coverage were studied using antiviral assays, an LC/MS assay that quantitatively characterizes CA/SP1 cleavage kinetics of virus like particles (VLPs) and a radiolabel binding assay to determine VLP/MI affinities and dissociation kinetics...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879338/functional-interplay-between-murine-leukemia-virus-glycogag-serinc5-and-surface-glycoprotein-governs-virus-entry-with-opposite-effects-on-gammaretroviral-and-ebolavirus-glycoproteins
#11
Yadvinder S Ahi, Shu Zhang, Yashna Thappeta, Audrey Denman, Amin Feizpour, Suryaram Gummuluru, Bjoern Reinhard, Delphine Muriaux, Matthew J Fivash, Alan Rein
: Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called "glycogag" (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875663/cross-reactive-potential-of-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-indian-individuals-against-multiple-hiv-1-potential-t-cell-epitope-gag-variants
#12
Neema Negi, Madhu Vajpayee, Ravinder Singh, Ashutosh Sharma, Kailapuri G Murugavel, Udaykumar Ranga, Madhuri Thakar, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Bimal Kumar Das
Vaccine immunogen with expanded T cell coverage for protection against HIV-1 diversity is the need of the hour. This study was undertaken to examine the ability of T cells to respond to a broad spectrum of potential T cell epitope (PTE) peptides containing variable as well as conserved sequences that would most accurately reflect immune responses to different circulating strains. Set of 320 PTE peptides were pooled in a matrix format that included 40 pools of 32 peptides per pool. These pools were used in interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay for screening and confirmation of HIV-1 PTE Gag-specific T cell immune responses in 34 HIV-1 seropositive Indian individuals...
December 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853256/mucosal-vaccination-with-a-live-recombinant-rhinovirus-followed-by-intradermal-dna-administration-elicits-potent-and-protective-hiv-specific-immune-responses
#13
Khamis Tomusange, Danushka Wijesundara, Jason Gummow, Steve Wesselingh, Andreas Suhrbier, Eric J Gowans, Branka Grubor-Bauk
Mucosal immunity is deemed crucial to control sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Herein we report the efficacy of a mucosal HIV vaccine strategy comprising intranasal (IN) vaccination with a cocktail of live recombinant human rhinoviruses (HRVs) encoding overlapping fragments of HIV Gag and full length Tat (rHRV-Gag/Tat) followed by intradermal (ID) vaccination with DNA vaccines encoding HIV Gag and Tat (pVAX-Gag-Tat). This heterologous prime-boost strategy will be referred to hereafter as rHRV-DNA...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847357/visualization-of-hiv-t-cell-virological-synapses-and-virus-containing-compartments-by-3d-correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy
#14
Lili Wang, Edward T Eng, Kenneth Law, Ronald E Gordon, William J Rice, Benjamin K Chen
: Virological synapses (VS) are adhesive structures that form between infected and uninfected cells that can enhance the spread of HIV-1. During T cell VS formation, viral proteins are actively recruited to the site of cell-cell contact where the viral material is efficiently translocated to target cells into heterogeneous, protease-resistant, antibody-inaccessible compartments. Using correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) we define the membrane topography of the virus-containing compartments (VCC) where HIV is found following VS-mediated transfer...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835615/modulation-of-innate-and-adaptive-cellular-immunity-relevant-to-hiv-1-vaccine-design-by-seminal-plasma
#15
Kevin J Selva, Stephen J Kent, Matthew S Parsons
OBJECTIVES: Mucosal exposure to HIV-1 infection generally occurs in the presence of semen. Immunomodulation by seminal plasma (SP) is well described in the reproductive biology literature. Little is known, however, about the impact of SP on innate and adaptive anti-HIV-1 cellular immunity. DESIGN: This study investigated the effects of SP on immune responses considered important for prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine development, namely innate and adaptive cellular immunity mediated by NK cells and T-cells, respectively...
November 9, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830536/virus-like-particles-derived-from-hiv-1-for-delivery-of-nuclear-proteins-improvement-of-production-and-activity-by-protein-engineering
#16
Marc-André Robert, Viktoria Lytvyn, Francis Deforet, Rénald Gilbert, Bruno Gaillet
Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from retroviruses and lentiviruses can be used to deliver recombinant proteins without the fear of causing insertional mutagenesis to the host cell genome. In this study we evaluate the potential of an inducible lentiviral vector packaging cell line for VLP production. The Gag gene from HIV-1 was fused to a gene encoding a selected protein and it was transfected into the packaging cells. Three proteins served as model: the green fluorescent protein and two transcription factors-the cumate transactivator (cTA) of the inducible CR5 promoter and the human Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4)...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829019/subset-and-antigen-specific-effects-of-treg-on-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-chronic-hiv-infection
#17
Maria Nikolova, Aurélie Wiedemann, Maria Muhtarova, Daniela Achkova, Christine Lacabaratz, Yves Lévy
We, and others, have reported that in the HIV-negative settings, regulatory CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ T cells (Treg) exert differential effects on CD8 subsets, and maintain the memory / effector CD8+ T cells balance, at least in part through the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. Here we investigated Treg-mediated effects on CD8 responses in chronic HIV infection. As compared to Treg from HIV negative controls (Treg/HIV-), we show that Treg from HIV infected patients (Treg/HIV+) did not significantly inhibit polyclonal autologous CD8+ T cell function indicating either a defect in the suppressive capacity of Treg/HIV+ or a lack of sensitivity of effector T cells in HIV infection...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813592/sequencing-of-gag-env-association-with-hiv-genotyping-resolution-and-hiv-related-epidemiologic-studies-of-hiv-in-china
#18
L Ren, H W Wang, Y Xu, Y Feng, H F Zhang, K H Wang
HIV genotyping has led to conflicting results between laboratories. Therefore, identifying the most accurate gene combinations to sequence remains a priority. Datasets of Chinese HIV subtypes based on several markers and deposited in PubMed, Metstr, CNKI, and VIP databases between 2000 and 2015 were studied. In total, 9177 cases of amplification-positive samples from 26 provinces of China were collected and used to classify HIV subtypes based on eight individual genes or a combination thereof. CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and B were the prevalent HIV subtypes in China, accounting for 84...
October 24, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799525/expression-of-hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17-and-association-with-b-cell-lymphoma-in-hiv-1-transgenic-mice
#19
Virginia A Carroll, Mark K Lafferty, Luigi Marchionni, Joseph L Bryant, Robert C Gallo, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
HIV-1 infection is associated with increased risk for B-cell lymphomas. How HIV infection promotes the development of lymphoma is unclear, but it may involve chronic B-cell activation, inflammation, and/or impaired immunity, possibly leading to a loss of control of oncogenic viruses and reduced tumor immunosurveillance. We hypothesized that HIV structural proteins may contribute to lymphomagenesis directly, because they can persist long term in lymph nodes in the absence of viral replication. The HIV-1 transgenic mouse Tg26 carries a noninfectious HIV-1 provirus lacking part of the gag-pol region, thus constituting a model for studying the effects of viral products in pathogenesis...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795436/naf1-regulates-hiv-1-latency-by-suppressing-viral-promoter-driven-gene-expression-in-primary-cd4-t-cells
#20
Chuan Li, Hai-Bo Wang, Wen-Dong Kuang, Xiao-Xin Ren, Shu-Ting Song, Huan-Zhang Zhu, Qiang Li, Li-Ran Xu, Hui-Jun Guo, Li Wu, Jian-Hua Wang
: HIV-1 latency is characterized by reversible silencing of viral transcription driven by the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter of HIV-1. Cellular and viral factors regulating the LTR activity contribute to HIV-1 latency and certain repressive cellular factors modulate viral transcription silencing. Nef-associated factor 1 (Naf1) is a host nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and regulates multiple cellular signal pathways and HIV-1 production. We have recently reported that the nucleus-located Naf1 promoted nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA, leading to the accumulated Gag production...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
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