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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936414/-am-i-too-emotional-for-this-job-an-exploration-of-student-midwives-experiences-of-coping-with-traumatic-events-in-the-labour-ward
#1
Liz Coldridge, Sarah Davies
BACKGROUND: midwifery is emotionally challenging work, and learning to be a midwife brings its own particular challenges. For the student midwife, clinical placement in a hospital labour ward is especially demanding. In the context of organisational tensions and pressures the experience of supporting women through the unpredictable intensity of the labour process can be a significant source of stress for student midwives. Although increasing attention is now being paid to midwives' traumatic experiences and wellbeing few researchers have examined the traumatic experiences of student midwives...
November 28, 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936411/a-network-analysis-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-correlates-in-u-s-military-veterans
#2
Cherie Armour, Eiko I Fried, Marie K Deserno, Jack Tsai, Robert H Pietrzak
OBJECTIVE: Recent developments in psychometrics enable the application of network models to analyze psychological disorders, such as PTSD. Instead of understanding symptoms as indicators of an underlying common cause, this approach suggests symptoms co-occur in syndromes due to causal interactions. The current study has two goals: (1) examine the network structure among the 20 DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, and (2) incorporate clinically relevant variables to the network to investigate whether PTSD symptoms exhibit differential relationships with suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, physical functioning/quality of life (QoL), mental functioning/QoL, age, and sex...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936186/maternal-separation-impairs-cocaine-induced-behavioural-sensitization-in-adolescent-mice
#3
Irene Gracia-Rubio, Olga Valverde, Elena Martinez-Laorden, Maria Moscoso-Castro, M Victoria Milanés, M Luisa Laorden
Adverse early-life conditions induce persistent disturbances that give rise to negative emotional states. Therefore, early life stress confers increased vulnerability to substance use disorders, mainly during adolescence as the brain is still developing. In this study, we investigated the consequences of maternal separation, a model of maternal neglect, on the psychotropic effects of cocaine and the neuroplasticity of the dopaminergic system. Our results show that mice exposed to maternal separation displayed attenuated behavioural sensitization, while no changes were found in the rewarding effects of cocaine in the conditioned place preference paradigm and in the reinforcing effects of cocaine in the self-administration paradigm...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936175/effects-of-neonatal-dexamethasone-exposure-on-adult-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-rats
#4
Nathanael J Yates, Donald Robertson, Jennifer Rodger, Mathew T Martin-Iverson
The effects of early life stress in utero or in neonates has long-term consequences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis function and neurodevelopment. These effects extend into adulthood and may underpin a variety of mental illnesses and be related to various developmental and cognitive changes. We examined the potential role of neonatal HPA axis activation on adult psychopathology and dopamine sensitivity in the mature rat using neonatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist and stress hormone, dexamethasone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935781/the-neurotoxicity-of-general-anesthetic-drugs-emphasis-on-the-extremes-of-age
#5
Chuck Biddle, Vincent Ford
A substantial body of research suggests that anesthetic exposure to patients who are very young or very old may impair cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development or recovery. In lower animal models of pre- and postnatal age, anesthetic exposure may impact inflammation, synaptogenesis, neuronal apoptosis, and glial cell development. To date, research in humans is inconclusive regarding the long-term cognitive and behavioral sequelae of general anesthesia in the young child. In older adults, postoperative cognitive dysfunction and cognitive delirium are identified as markers of anesthetic neurotoxicity...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935019/family-caregiver-factors-associated-with-unmet-needs-for-care-of-older-adults
#6
Scott R Beach, Richard Schulz
OBJECTIVES: To examine caregiver factors associated with unmet needs for care of older adults. DESIGN: Population-based surveys of caregivers and older adult care recipients in the United States in 2011. SETTING: 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving. PARTICIPANTS: Family caregivers (n = 1,996) of community-dwelling older adults with disabilities (n = 1,366). MEASUREMENTS: Disabled care recipient reports of unmet needs for care in the past month with activities of daily living (ADLs; e...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932968/neurobiology-of-anorexia-nervosa-serotonin-dysfunctions-link-self-starvation-with-body-image-disturbances-through-an-impaired-body-memory
#7
REVIEW
Giuseppe Riva
The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is still unclear, despite that it is a critical and potentially mortal illness. A recent neurobiological model considers AN as the outcome of dysfunctions in the neuronal processes related to appetite and emotionality (Kaye et al., 2009, 2013). However, this model still is not able to answer a critical question: What is behind body image disturbances (BIDs) in AN? The article starts its analysis from reviewing some of the studies exploring the effects of the serotonin systems in memory (episodic, working, and spatial) and its dysfunctions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932956/hypothalamic-vasopressinergic-projections-innervate-central-amygdala-gabaergic-neurons-implications-for-anxiety-and-stress-coping
#8
Vito S Hernández, Oscar R Hernández, Miguel Perez de la Mora, María J Gómora, Kjell Fuxe, Lee E Eiden, Limei Zhang
The arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-containing hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory neurons (VPMNNs) are known for their role in hydro-electrolytic balance control via their projections to the neurohypophysis. Recently, projections from these same neurons to hippocampus, habenula and other brain regions in which vasopressin infusion modulates contingent social and emotionally-affected behaviors, have been reported. Here, we present evidence that VPMNN collaterals also project to the amygdaloid complex, and establish synaptic connections with neurons in central amygdala (CeA)...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932080/vitamin-c-impacts-anxiety-like-behavior-and-stress-induced-anorexia-relative-to-social-environment-in-smp30-gnl-knockout-mice
#9
Miwako Koizumi, Yoshitaka Kondo, Ayumi Isaka, Akihito Ishigami, Emiko Suzuki
The role of endogenous vitamin C (VC) in emotion and psychiatric measures has long been uncertain. We aimed to investigate how an individual's VC status impacts his or her mental health. Our hypothesis is that body VC levels modulate anxiety, anorexia, and depressive phenotypes under the influence of psychosocial rearing environments and sex. The VC status of senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice, which lack the ability to synthesize VC, were continuously shifted from adequate (VC+) to depleted (VC-) by providing a water with or without VC...
November 17, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930614/development-of-a-national-campaign-addressing-south-african-men-s-fears-about-hiv-counseling-and-testing-and-antiretroviral-treatment
#10
Neil Orr, Helen Hajiyiannis, Laura Myers, Mzamani Benjamin Makhubele, Tselisehang Matekane, Richard Delate, Lusanda Mahlasela, Brenda Goldblatt
INTRODUCTION: South African men are less likely to get tested for HIV than women and are more likely to commence antiretroviral treatment (ART) at later stages of disease, default on treatment, and to die from AIDS compared with women. The purpose of this study was to conduct formative research into the ideational and behavioral factors that enable or create obstacles to mens' uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and ART. The study consulted men with a goal of developing a communication campaign aimed at improving the uptake of HIV testing and ART initiation among men...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929700/the-mediating-effects-of-coping-strategies-on-the-relationship-between-secondary-traumatic-stress-and-burnout-in-professional-caregivers-in-the-uae
#11
Abdalla A R M Hamid, Saif A Musa
BACKGROUND: Professional caregivers dealing with traumatized victims or mental health clients are at increased risk for developing the same symptoms as persons who are exposed directly to the trauma. AIMS: This research was aimed at examining the relationship between secondary traumatic stress, burnout and coping strategies in 502 professional caregivers who work in schools, hospitals, charity institutes and welfare centers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A further aim was to test the mediating effect of coping on the relationship between burnout and secondary traumatic stress...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929329/parents-posttraumatic-stress-after-burns-in-their-school-aged-child-a-prospective-study
#12
Marthe R Egberts, Rens van de Schoot, Rinie Geenen, Nancy E E Van Loey
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study examined the course and potential predictors of parents' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after burn injury in their child (Age 8 to 18 years). METHOD: One hundred eleven mothers and 91 fathers, representing 118 children, participated in the study. Within the first month after the burn event and subsequently at 3, 12, and 18 months postburn, both parents completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Parental emotions related to the burn event and appraisal of threat to the child's life were assessed, which were investigated in a multilevel regression model...
December 8, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929314/unique-contributions-of-emotion-regulation-and-executive-functions-in-predicting-the-quality-of-parent-child-interaction-behaviors
#13
Anne Shaffer, Jelena Obradović
Parenting is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral endeavor, yet limited research investigates parents' executive functions and emotion regulation as predictors of how parents interact with their children. The current study is a multimethod investigation of parental self-regulation in relation to the quality of parenting behavior and parent-child interactions in a diverse sample of parents and kindergarten-age children. Using path analyses, we tested how parent executive functions (inhibitory control) and lack of emotion regulation strategies uniquely relate to both sensitive/responsive behaviors and positive/collaborative behaviors during observed interaction tasks...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929307/when-traumatic-event-exposure-characteristics-matter-impact-of-traumatic-event-exposure-characteristics-on-posttraumatic-and-dissociative-symptoms
#14
Abdel H Boudoukha, Ornella Ouagazzal, Nelly Goutaudier
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic events can lead to posttraumatic (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] specific symptoms) and dissociative symptoms (PTSD nonspecific symptoms). However, the trauma exposure characteristics (type of exposure, categorical form, number of exposures and the age of the exposure) are rarely studied. We hypothesized that the characteristics of a traumatic event are the only predictors of specific posttraumatic symptoms (intrusion, avoidance, negative cognitive impairment) and nonspecific symptoms (dissociation)...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928461/relationship-between-type-a-behavior-patterns-and-risk-of-temporomandibular-disorder-in-japanese-undergraduate-students
#15
Hiroki Ohmi, Mariko Kato, Martin Meadows
Objective: Several studies have demonstrated the relationship between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and emotional stress. Nonetheless, few surveys have examined the relationship between type A behavior patterns and TMD. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships among TMD, type A behavior patterns, bruxism, and emotional stress in Japanese undergraduate students. Methods: This study was undertaken in Nayoro City, Japan, in 2015, among students of Nayoro City University. The survey was conducted through an anonymous, self-administered, multiple-choice questionnaire...
2016: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927575/novel-mutation-in-a-patient-with-late-onset-glut1-deficiency-syndrome
#16
Sandra Juozapaite, Ruta Praninskiene, Birute Burnyte, Laima Ambrozaityte, Birute Skerliene
Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by impaired glucose transport through blood brain barrier due to mutation in SLC2A1 gene, encoding transporter protein. Clinical spectrum includes various signs and symptoms, ranging from severe epileptic encephalopathy to movement disorders. The diagnosis of GLUT1-DS requires hypoglycorrhachia in the presence of normoglycaemia with a reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF):plasma glucose ratio. The absence of pathogenic mutation in SLC2A1 gene does not exclude the diagnosis...
December 5, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925794/endocrine-and-emotional-response-to-exclusion-among-women-and-men-cortisol-salivary-alpha-amylase-and-mood
#17
Liat Helpman, Julia Penso, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social exclusion is ubiquitous and painful. Evolutionary models indicate sex differences in coping with social stress. Recent empirical data suggests different sex patterns in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) reactivity. The present study sought to test this hypothesis. DESIGN: We examined differences in endocrine and emotional response to exclusion by using a virtual ball tossing paradigm (Cyberball)...
December 7, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#18
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923267/sleep-and-processing-of-trauma-memories
#19
Ihori Kobayashi, Thomas A Mellman, Duaa Altaee, Mary Katherine Howell, Joseph Lavela
Sleep has been implicated in learning processes that appear to underlie recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The importance of quality and timing of sleep following exposure-based therapies has been suggested. The present study evaluated relationships between sleep and adaptive emotional processing following written narrative exposure (WNE) to memories of traumatic events experienced by participants with clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Participants included 21 urban-residing nontreatment-seeking adults with full or subthreshold symptoms of PTSD who completed 4 sessions of 30-min WNE with the first session either in the evening or the morning...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923240/-a-screening-tool-for-three-dimensions-of-work-related-behavior-and-experience-patterns-in-the-psychosomatic-rehabilitation-a-proposal-for-a-short-form-of-the-occupational-stress-and-coping-inventory-avem-3d
#20
V Beierlein, V Köllner, R Neu, H Schulz
Objectives: The assessment of work pressures is of particular importance in psychosomatic rehabilitation. An established questionnaire is the Occupational Stress and Coping Inventory (German abbr. AVEM), but it is quite long and with regard to scoring time-consuming in routine clinical care. It should therefore be tested, whether a shortened version of the AVEM can be developed, which is able to assess the formerly described three second-order factors of the AVEM, namely Working Commitment, Resilience, and Emotions, sufficiently reliable and valid, and which also may be used for screening of patients with prominent work-related behavior and experience patterns...
December 2016: Die Rehabilitation
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